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Sample records for affecting cct development

  1. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  2. Summary of panel session 3 -- Environmental issues affecting CCT deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausker, K. [Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The panelists discussed a variety of environmental issues that affect CCT deployment, and more broadly speaking, power development in general. The issues were both international and domestic in nature. The author summarizes the issues discussed. A summary is also presented which highlights ideas from the panelists that could be characterized as solutions to the demand for improved environmental performance and the surrounding uncertainties. The author offers some personal comments and observations.

  3. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainman, B. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3McuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). In this way TTT and CCT diagrams could be developed for the matrix of samples chosen. As this study consisted of basic research into the development of TTT and CCT diagrams as an aid to the US steel casting industry, there is no formal commercialization plan associated with this task other than presentations and publications via the Steel Founders Society of America to their members. The author is confident that the data contained in this report can be used by steel foundries to refine their casting procedures in such a way as to reduce the amount of waste produced and energy wasted by significantly reducing or eliminating the need for remelting or recasting of material due to unwanted, premature intermetallic formation. This development of high alloy steel CCT diagrams was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 0.05 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period (with full funding). With 65% of the proposed funding, current (2011) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2011and market penetration of 97% by 2020, is 0.14 trillion BTU's/year. The reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will also result in a reduction of environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the steel. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.003 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE)

  5. Digital Badges for Teacher Mastery: An Exploratory Study of a Competency-Based Professional Development Badge System. CCT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James; Gonzalez, Pilar Carmina

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes knowledge about how a digital badge system integrated into an online, subject-matter-specific, and competency-based professional development (PD) program affected teachers' experiences with and perceptions of the program activities. The report presents findings from a one-year exploratory study of an online PD program, and…

  6. Completing the CCT mission: The challenge of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, J.R. [Illinois Energy Association, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In order to complete the clean coal technology mission it will be necessary to determine CCT`s role in the restructured electricity industry and develop a strategy to promote that role. First, one must understand where the industry is headed and how clean coal technology fits into that future. Then, one needs to develop a strategy for getting from here to there, from where CCT is today to where it must be in five, ten or twenty years to be a viable option for decision-makers. Coal makes sense for the United States for several important reasons, not the least of which is its abundance here. It also makes sense in terms of its economic impact on large areas of the nation. And if coal makes sense, especially economically, then clean coal technology makes even more sense because of its potential to capitalize on this abundant resource in an environmentally friendly manner. But after nearly thirty years of involvement in the political world at all levels from Washington, D.C. to Washington, Indiana, the author has learned the hard way that ``common sense`` does not always, or even often, carry the day in the policymaking process. He believes that the future of clean coal technology hinges on the ability in the next few months and years to mobilize all those who favor that technology to move forward in a cohesive and coordinated effort to affect the policymaking and political process and thereby promote and accelerate CCT development. If this can be done, then the nation will be well on the way to completing the clean coal technology mission and meeting the challenge of change.

  7. CONSOL`s perspective on CCT deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.; Statnick, R.M. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The principal focus of government investment in Clean Coal Technology must be to serve the interests of the US energy consumer. Because of its security of supply and low cost, coal will continue to be the fuel of choice in the existing domestic electricity generating market. The ability of coal to compete for new generating capacity will depend largely on natural gas prices and the efficiency of coal and gas-fired generating options. Furthermore, potential environmental regulations, coupled with utility deregulation, create a climate of economic uncertainty that may limit future investment decisions favorable to coal. Therefore, the federal government, through programs such as CCT, should promote the development of greenfield and retrofit coal use technology that improves generating efficiency and meets environmental requirements for the domestic electric market.

  8. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  9. CCT2 Mutations Evoke Leber Congenital Amaurosis due to Chaperone Complex Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Yuriko; Sheng, XunLun; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Sergeev, Yuri; Iejima, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Monma, Norikazu; Ikeo, Kazuho; Furuno, Masaaki; Zhuang, Wenjun; Liu, Yani; Rong, Weining; Hattori, Seisuke; Iwata, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a hereditary early-onset retinal dystrophy that is accompanied by severe macular degeneration. In this study, novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified as LCA-causative in chaperonin-containing TCP-1, subunit 2 (CCT2), a gene that encodes the molecular chaperone protein, CCTβ. The zebrafish mutants of CCTβ are known to exhibit the eye phenotype while its mutation and association with human disease have been unknown. The CCT proteins (CCT α-θ) forms ring complex for its chaperon function. The LCA mutants of CCTβ, T400P and R516H, are biochemically instable and the affinity for the adjacent subunit, CCTγ, was affected distinctly in both mutants. The patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), carrying these CCTβ mutants, were less proliferative than the control iPSCs. Decreased proliferation under Cct2 knockdown in 661W cells was significantly rescued by wild-type CCTβ expression. However, the expression of T400P and R516H didn’t exhibit the significant effect. In mouse retina, both CCTβ and CCTγ are expressed in the retinal ganglion cells and connecting cilium of photoreceptor cells. The Cct2 knockdown decreased its major client protein, transducing β1 (Gβ1). Here we report the novel LCA mutations in CCTβ and the impact of chaperon disability by these mutations in cellular biology. PMID:27645772

  10. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies.

  11. Essential Role of the Chaperonin CCT in Rod Outer Segment Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Satyabrata; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Datta, Poppy; Seo, Seongjin; Sokolov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. While some evidence suggests an essential role for the chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1 (CCT) in ciliogenesis, this function remains poorly understood mechanistically. We used transgenic mice, previously generated in our lab, and characterized by a genetically-induced suppression of CCT in rod photoreceptors as well as a malformation of the rod sensory cilia, the outer segments, to gain new insights into this underlying molecular mechanism. Methods. The CCT activity in rod photoreceptors of mice was suppressed by overexpressing the chaperonin inhibitor, phosducin-like protein short, and the ensuing changes of cellular morphology were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Protein expression levels were studied by fluorescent microscopy and Western blotting. Results. Suppressing the chaperonin made the photoreceptors incompetent to build their outer segments. Specifically, the CCT-deficient rods appeared unable to expand the outer segment plasma membrane, and accommodate growth of this compartment. Seeking the molecular mechanisms underlying such a shortcoming, we found that the affected rods could not express normal levels of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) proteins 2, 5, and 7 and, owing to that deficiency, were unable to assemble the BBSome, a multisubunit complex responsible for ciliary trafficking. A similar effect in response to the chaperonin suppression was also observed in cultured ciliated cells. Conclusions. Our data provide new evidence indicating the essential role of the chaperonin CCT in the biogenesis of vertebrate photoreceptor sensory cilia, and suggest that it may be due to the direct participation of the chaperonin in the posttranslational processing of selected BBS proteins and assembly of the BBSome. PMID:24854858

  12. Metodologia de baixo custo para levantamento de diagramas CCT em soldagem Low-cost methodology for obtaining CCT welding diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louriel Oliveira Vilarinho

    2010-09-01

    metallurgical problems, which is specific for each material and, therefore, demands dedicated and time-consuming study. Specifically, metallurgical transformations in the HAZ (Heat Affected Zone can occur and lead to microestructural changes such as grain growth, fragile structures presence, cracking, among others. The HAZ is a difficult region for studying due to its small dimensions, where its properties are defined basically by the base metal characteristics and the factors that affect the thermal cycle of the process. Thus, in order to overcome this limitation of the HAZ study, there are in the literature different proposes of HAZ-simulator machines, which uses the Joule effect for heating specific coupons that cool down by conduction and convection. This approach intends to simulate the thermal cycle in a "real" HAZ obtained in a "real" welding. Comercial simulators are available at very high costs. Therefore, the development of a low-cost machine is welcome. In a previous study, the proposition and construction of this machine, based on the modification of resistance spot welding equipment, was carried out and the first coupons were fabricated in a cylindrical geometry. Although the machine provides sufficient energy, the use of traditional coupons with cylindrical geometry presents restrictions of portraying the "real" case, i.e., the welding. In the cylindrical geometry option, the obtained thermal cycles do not present temperature gradients closer to the ones in "real" weldments. Hence, to overcome this limitation, finite elements modelling was carried out and different coupon geometries were simulated. The objective is to reach thermal cycles as close as possible to the ones obtained in a "real" situation. A database of different geometrical features was achieved by using the finite element analyses. This database was used as the input of model regression analyses by using statistical ANOVA. The empirical resulting model was employed as the input of an optimization

  13. A human CCT5 gene mutation causing distal neuropathy impairs hexadecamer assembly in an archaeal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wonki; Angileri, Francesca; Luo, Haibin; Lauria, Antonino; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Almerico, Anna Maria; Cappello, Francesco; de Macario, Everly Conway; Lednev, Igor K; Macario, Alberto J L; Robb, Frank T

    2014-10-27

    Chaperonins mediate protein folding in a cavity formed by multisubunit rings. The human CCT has eight non-identical subunits and the His147Arg mutation in one subunit, CCT5, causes neuropathy. Knowledge is scarce on the impact of this and other mutations upon the chaperone's structure and functions. To make progress, experimental models must be developed. We used an archaeal mutant homolog and demonstrated that the His147Arg mutant has impaired oligomeric assembly, ATPase activity, and defective protein homeostasis functions. These results establish for the first time that a human chaperonin gene defect can be reproduced and studied at the molecular level with an archaeal homolog. The major advantage of the system, consisting of rings with eight identical subunits, is that it amplifies the effects of a mutation as compared with the human counterpart, in which just one subunit per ring is defective. Therefore, the slight deficit of a non-lethal mutation can be detected and characterized.

  14. Serum antibody response to group II chaperonin from Methanobrevibacter oralis and human chaperonin CCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kimito; Maeda, Hiroshi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Takashiba, Shogo

    2013-06-01

    Both group I (HSP60) and group II (CCT) chaperonins are targets of autoantibodies. Autoimmune reactions to HSP60 have been well characterized, while immune reactions to group II chaperonin have not been clarified. Methanobrevibacter oralis is a suspected periodontal pathogen with group II chaperonin. In this study, serum responses to M. oralis chaperonin, human HSP60, and CCT subunits were examined using sera from patients with periodontitis and autoimmune diseases. In comparison with healthy controls, periodontitis patients showed significantly higher responses to CCT4 and CCT8 on dot blot analysis. Signals for CCT3 and CCT8 in autoimmune disease patients were significantly higher than in controls. Significant differences were also demonstrated by Western blotting in anti-CCT4 response in both patient groups. All subjects showed strong reactivity to M. oralis chaperonin and faint signals to human HSP60. Autoantibodies were raised against CCT rather than HSP60; and CCT3, CCT4, and CCT8 were shown to be the main targets. Host immune systems may be frequently exposed to chaperonins of Archaea in various habitats. Although further studies of the cross-reactivity between M. oralis chaperonin and human CCT are required, anti-CCT autoantibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and autoimmune diseases.

  15. Molecular chaperone CCT3 supports proper mitotic progression and cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuqi; Wei, Youheng; Wu, Jiaxue; Zhang, Pingzhao; Shen, Suqin; Saiyin, Hexige; Wumaier, Reziya; Yang, Xianmei; Wang, Chenji; Yu, Long

    2016-03-01

    CCT3 was one of the subunits of molecular chaperone CCT/TRiC complex, which plays a central role in maintaining cellular proteostasis. We demonstrated that expressions of CCT3 mRNA and protein are highly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, and high level of CCT3 is correlated with poor survival in cancer patients. In HCC cell lines, CCT3 depletion suppresses cell proliferation by inducing mitotic arrest at prometaphase and apoptosis eventually. We also identified CCT3 as a novel regulator of spindle integrity and as a requirement for proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment during mitosis. Moreover, we found that CCT3 depletion sensitizes HCC cells to microtubule destabilizing drug Vincristine. Collectively, our study suggests that CCT3 is indispensible for HCC cell proliferation, and provides a potential drug target for treatment of HCC.

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  17. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  18. Functional Subunits of Eukaryotic Chaperonin CCT/TRiC in Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anaul Kabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are a class of proteins responsible for proper folding of a large number of polypeptides in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Newly synthesized polypeptides are prone to nonspecific interactions, and many of them make toxic aggregates in absence of chaperones. The eukaryotic chaperonin CCT is a large, multisubunit, cylindrical structure having two identical rings stacked back to back. Each ring is composed of eight different but similar subunits and each subunit has three distinct domains. CCT assists folding of actin, tubulin, and numerous other cellular proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The catalytic cooperativity of ATP binding/hydrolysis in CCT occurs in a sequential manner different from concerted cooperativity as shown for GroEL. Unlike GroEL, CCT does not have GroES-like cofactor, rather it has a built-in lid structure responsible for closing the central cavity. The CCT complex recognizes its substrates through diverse mechanisms involving hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions. Upstream factors like Hsp70 and Hsp90 also work in a concerted manner to transfer the substrate to CCT. Moreover, prefoldin, phosducin-like proteins, and Bag3 protein interact with CCT and modulate its function for the fine-tuning of protein folding process. Any misregulation of protein folding process leads to the formation of misfolded proteins or toxic aggregates which are linked to multiple pathological disorders.

  19. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  20. Climate change and European cleaner coal technology (CCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Cabal, V.

    2003-07-01

    The debate on the Green Paper 'Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply' concluded that the deployment of clean coal-technologies (CCTs) contributes very positively to the security of energy supply. This paper reports some of the contributions to the debate. It goes on to summarise 6 successful projects demonstrating advanced CCTs that have been financed through the EU programmes THERMIE or ENERGIE or by the European Investment Bank. These include the demonstration projects at the CHP plant in Cottbus and the supercritical plant at Schwarze Pumpe. A table lists the efficiency and the technologies used at recent European coal-fired power plants. The challenge of mitigating climatic change and increasing the use of clean energy are two of the fundamental objectives of the European Union. The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) Working Groups have identified measures to enable Kyoto Protocol targets to be achieved. These include, in the period 2001-2010, increasing the thermal efficiency of coal-fired power plants and beyond the Kyoto horizon, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The final section of the paper considers the potential market for CCT in Europe today and stresses the importance of CCTs in achieving environmental objectives which the European Union is ready to launch in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The paper was presented by the Deputy Head of the European Commission's Coal and Oil Unit. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  2. A round-robin test with thermal simulation of the welding HAZ to draw CCT diagrams: a need for harmonized procedures and microconstituent terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Scotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal simulations of heat affected zone (HAZ have been widely used. This is an economic expedite process for phase transformation evaluations in steels when subjected to weld thermal cycles as well as to draw continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams. Different approaches for the simulation and parameter settings have been used by several researchers, yet leading to not always even results. Thus, it was proposed a round-robin test trial performed by different laboratories, aiming to evidence potential sources of error or inadequacy of the approaches. A High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel was used as a case study. Despite the limited number of tests, the results show low robustness when comparing the outcomes from the different laboratories and point out for the need to take three actions. The first one is to implement a cooperative and multi-institutional program to assess the effect of relevant simulation parameters, such as the heating rate and holding time at peak temperature, on the final microstructure and transformation temperatures as well as on the hardness for a given cooling rate. The second is to propose calibration procedures for the simulation and measurement systems. The third action is to stimulate experts in this area to develop a guideline of terminology for constituents in the heat affected zone of ferritic steels.

  3. The Role of Affect in Language Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G. SHANKER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Functional/Emotional approach to language development, which explains the process leading up to the core capacities necessary for language; shows how this process leads to the formation of internal symbols; and how it shapes and is shaped by the child’s development of language.

  4. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland...... – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public......Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...

  5. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  6. Fetal jaw movement affects condylar cartilage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H

    2005-05-01

    Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.

  7. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  8. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay- Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the "corona" effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  9. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect th

  10. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  11. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  12. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence.

  13. TRUE COLORS: LEDS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CCT, CRI, OPTICAL SAFETY, MATERIAL DEGRADATION, AND PHOTOBIOLOGICAL STIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-08-30

    This document analyzes the optical, material, and photobiological hazards of LED light sources compared to conventional light sources. It documents that LEDs generally produce the same amount of blue light, which is the primary contributor to the risks, as other sources at the same CCT. Duv may have some effect on the amount of blue light, but CRI does not.

  14. CCT and TTT Diagrams to Characterize Crystallization Behavior of Mold Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Guang-hua; LIU Hui; TANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal and non-isothermal experiments were performed to construct the continuous cooling trans formation (CCT) and temperature time transformation (TTT) diagrams of four industrial mold fluxes through visual observations in an experimental apparatus based on the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT).The results of the CCT diagrams indicate that ① the crystallization temperature of mold fluxes lowers as the cooling rate increases,② the mold fluxes have larger critical cooling rate,higher crystallization temperature,and less onset time of crystallization when the basicity increases or the viscosity decreases,③ the influences of the melting points of the mold fluxes on their crystallization tendency are not significant.Isothermal tests show that the onset time of crystallization decreases at first,and then increases,and finally represents a"C"shape with increasing isothermal temperature.The TTT diagrams of four industrial mold fluxes were divided into two separate"C"shape regions.The crystal phase of C20A selected was analyzed by X-ray diffraction,which is cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2 ) over 1 100℃ and calcium silicon oxide fluoride (Ca2SiO2F2) below 1 100 ℃.When compared with the TTT diagram,the CCT diagram can provide a more realistic estimate of the critical cooling rate of the mold fluxes.Thus,both the CCT and TTT diagrams can unambiguously describe the crystallization phenomena of the mold fluxes.

  15. Methods for sequencing GC-rich and CCT repeat DNA templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donna L.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a PCR-based method of cycle sequencing DNA and other polynucleotide sequences having high CG content and regions of high GC content, and includes for example DNA strands with a high Cytosine and/or Guanosine content and repeated motifs such as CCT repeats.

  16. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  17. Chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide subunit eta (CCT-eta is a specific regulator of fibroblast motility and contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Satish

    Full Text Available Integumentary wounds in mammalian fetuses heal without scar; this scarless wound healing is intrinsic to fetal tissues and is notable for absence of the contraction seen in postnatal (adult wounds. The precise molecular signals determining the scarless phenotype remain unclear. We have previously reported that the eta subunit of the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide (CCT-eta is specifically reduced in healing fetal wounds in a rabbit model. In this study, we examine the role of CCT-eta in fibroblast motility and contractility, properties essential to wound healing and scar formation. We demonstrate that CCT-eta (but not CCT-beta is underexpressed in fetal fibroblasts compared to adult fibroblasts. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that adult fibroblasts showed increased cell migration in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF stimulation, whereas fetal fibroblasts were unresponsive. Downregulation of CCT-eta in adult fibroblasts with short inhibitory RNA (siRNA reduced cellular motility, both basal and growth factor-induced; in contrast, siRNA against CCT-beta had no such effect. Adult fibroblasts were more inherently contractile than fetal fibroblasts by cellular traction force microscopy; this contractility was increased by treatment with EGF and PDGF. CCT-eta siRNA inhibited the PDGF-induction of adult fibroblast contractility, whereas CCT-beta siRNA had no such effect. In each of these instances, the effect of downregulating CCT-eta was to modulate the behavior of adult fibroblasts so as to more closely approximate the characteristics of fetal fibroblasts. We next examined the effect of CCT-eta modulation on alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA expression, a gene product well known to play a critical role in adult wound healing. Fetal fibroblasts were found to constitutively express less alpha-SMA than adult cells. Reduction of CCT-eta with siRNA had minimal effect on cellular

  18. The chaperonin CCT inhibits assembly of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils by a specific, conformation-dependent interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sot, Begoña; Rubio-Muñoz, Alejandra; Leal-Quintero, Ahudrey; Martínez-Sabando, Javier; Marcilla, Miguel; Roodveldt, Cintia; Valpuesta, José M.

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic chaperonin CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1) uses cavities built into its double-ring structure to encapsulate and to assist folding of a large subset of proteins. CCT can inhibit amyloid fibre assembly and toxicity of the polyQ extended mutant of huntingtin, the protein responsible for Huntington’s disease. This raises the possibility that CCT modulates other amyloidopathies, a still-unaddressed question. We show here that CCT inhibits amyloid fibre assembly of α-synuclein A53T, one of the mutants responsible for Parkinson’s disease. We evaluated fibrillation blockade in α-synuclein A53T deletion mutants and CCT interactions of full-length A53T in distinct oligomeric states to define an inhibition mechanism specific for α-synuclein. CCT interferes with fibre assembly by interaction of its CCTζ and CCTγ subunits with the A53T central hydrophobic region (NAC). This interaction is specific to NAC conformation, as it is produced once soluble α-synuclein A53T oligomers form and blocks the reaction before fibres begin to grow. Finally, we show that this association inhibits α-synuclein A53T oligomer toxicity in neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our results and those for huntingtin suggest that CCT is a general modulator of amyloidogenesis via a specific mechanism. PMID:28102321

  19. Function if Cooperative Learning in Developing Positive Affect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟玉平

    2008-01-01

    This paper focus on the function of cooperative learning in developing positive affect, Including reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, facilitating the development of positive attitudes toward learning and language learning, promoting serf- esteem, as well as supporting different learning styles and encouraging perseverance in the difficult and confusing process of learning a foreign language.

  20. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non......-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable....... Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...

  1. Affect development as a need to preserve homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Aslıhan; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Ünsalver, Barış Önen

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we aim to present our hypothesis about the neural development of affect. According to this view, affect develops at a multi-layered process, and as a mediator between drives, emotion and cognition. This development is parallel to the evolution of the brain from reptiles to mammals. There are five steps in this process: (1) Because of the various environmental challenges, changes in the autonomic nervous system occur and homeostasis becomes destabilized; (2) Drives arise from the destabilized homeostasis; (3) Drives trigger the neural basis of the basic emotional systems; (4) These basic emotions evolve into affect to find the particular object to invest the emotional energy; and (5) In the final stage, cognition is added to increase the possibility of identifying a particular object. In this paper, we will summarize the rationale behind this view, which is based on neuroscientific proofs, such as evolution of autonomic nervous system, neural basis the raw affective states, the interaction between affect and cognition, related brain areas, related neurotransmitters, as well as some clinical examples.

  2. STS-34 crewmembers review IFM procedures on JSC's CCT mockup middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers review inflight maintenance (IFM) procedures on the middeck of JSC's crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. IFM trainer, holding cable, discusses procedures with Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker (center) and Pilot Michael J. McCulley. An open stowage locker appears in front of the group. Visible on the mockup's middeck are forward and aft stowage lockers, the airlock hatch, and the starboard wall mounted sleep restraints.

  3. STS-38 MS Springer climbs through CCT side hatch prior to egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), climbs through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Springer will practice emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole (at Springer's left). The inflated safety cushion under Springer will break his fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  4. Genome dynamics explain the evolution of flowering time CCT domain gene families in the Poaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cockram

    Full Text Available Numerous CCT domain genes are known to control flowering in plants. They belong to the CONSTANS-like (COL and PREUDORESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR gene families, which in addition to a CCT domain possess B-box or response-regulator domains, respectively. Ghd7 is the most recently identified COL gene to have a proven role in the control of flowering time in the Poaceae. However, as it lacks B-box domains, its inclusion within the COL gene family, technically, is incorrect. Here, we show Ghd7 belongs to a larger family of previously uncharacterized Poaceae genes which possess just a single CCT domain, termed here CCT MOTIF FAMILY (CMF genes. We molecularly describe the CMF (and related COL and PRR gene families in four sequenced Poaceae species, as well as in the draft genome assembly of barley (Hordeum vulgare. Genetic mapping of the ten barley CMF genes identified, as well as twelve previously unmapped HvCOL and HvPRR genes, finds the majority map to colinear positions relative to their Poaceae orthologues. Combined inter-/intra-species comparative and phylogenetic analysis of CMF, COL and PRR gene families indicates they evolved prior to the monocot/dicot divergence ∼200 mya, with Poaceae CMF evolution described as the interplay between whole genome duplication in the ancestral cereal, and subsequent clade-specific mutation, deletion and duplication events. Given the proven role of CMF genes in the modulation of cereals flowering, the molecular, phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the Poaceae CMF, COL and PRR gene families presented here provides the foundation from which functional investigation can be undertaken.

  5. Characterization of seven genes affecting Caenorhabditis elegans hindgut development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, H M; Brown, K B; Sternberg, P W; Thomas, J H

    1999-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 12 mutations in seven genes that affect the development of the Caenorhabditis elegans hindgut. We find that the mutations can disrupt the postembryonic development of the male-specific blast cells within the hindgut, the hindgut morphology in both males and hermaphrodites, and in some cases, the expression of a hindgut marker in hermaphrodite animals. Mutations in several of the genes also affect viability. On the basis of their mutant phenotypes, we propose that the genes fall into four distinct classes: (1) egl-5 is required for regional identity of the tail; (2) sem-4 is required for a variety of ectodermal and mesodermal cell types, including cells in the hindgut; (3) two genes, lin-49 and lin-59, affect development of many cells, including hindgut; and (4) three genes, mab-9, egl-38, and lin-48, are required for patterning fates within the hindgut, making certain hindgut cells different from others. We also describe a new allele of the Pax gene egl-38 that is temperature sensitive and affects the conserved beta-hairpin of the EGL-38 paired domain. Our results suggest that a combination of different factors contribute to normal C. elegans hindgut development. PMID:10511553

  6. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  7. Purification, characterization and antiproliferative activity of l-asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae CCT 3940 with no glutaminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Furlan Gonçalves Dias

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The sensitivity of the cells lines to purified l-asparaginase from A. oryzae CCT 3940 appeared to be concentration dependent affording a more significant decrease in cell growth than that observed for the commercial l-asparaginase from Escherichia coli. The l-asparaginase from A. oryzae CCT 3940 has a high potential for pharmaceutical exploitation in the treatment of leukemia.

  8. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  9. [Mentalisation and affect regulation--how the infantile self develops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The text comprises the different elements of the psychoanalytic mentalization theory of Peter Fonagy et al. and tries to explain them. Part of this theory are above all the affect mirroring as well as the affect reciprocity theory and the two modes of the "as if" character and the psychic equivalence (playing with reality). You can find clear examples for each of these theoretical components. Moreover there are many correlations to other authors and their respective development theories: that is to Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. The text is based above all on Martin Dornes' approaches on this topic (2004, 2006).

  10. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American

  11. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  12. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  13. 大珠母贝CCT-eta基因cDNA克隆及其冷应激表达%cDNA cloning ofCCT-etagene fromPinctada maximaand expression analysis under cold stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艾涛; 唐啸尘; 刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    The cDNA sequence ofPinctada maxima CCT-eta (PmCCT-eta) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE) and bioinformatics analysis ofPmCCT-eta was conducted. The distribution ofPmCCT-eta in various tissues and the induced expression ofPmCCT-eta under cold stress inPinctada maxima were studied by real-time PCR. The results showed that the full length ofPmCCT-eta cDNA was 1895 bp, which contained a 1632 bp ORF encoding 543 aa. Three CCT-eta signature sequences (37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49,58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74,86QDAEVGDGT94) and three functional structure domains (Equatorial domain, Apical domain, Intermediate domain) were found in the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta. Homology analysis indicated that the deduced protein of PmCCT-eta had 83.2%, 80.1% and 79.3% similarity with CCT-eta of Crassostrea gigas, Danio rerio andHomo sapiens,respectively.PmCCT-eta mRNA expression in all tissues was observed, with highest expression in adductor muscle and lower expression in heart and hepatopancreas. ThePmCCT-eta mRNA expression was up-regulated in adductor muscle, heart and hepatopancreas ofPinctada maxima under cold stress condition. However, different tissues had distinct response patterns; heart and hepatopancreas responded faster than adductor muscle, suggesting that CCT-eta plays an important role in resisting cold stress in internal organs such as heart and hepatopancreas.%利用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification of cDNA ends, RACE)克隆了大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长。利用多种生物信息学软件对大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA和预测的氨基酸序列进行了分析,并采用实时荧光定量PCR对其组织表达谱和冷应激下的表达模式进行了分析。结果显示,大珠母贝CCT-eta cDNA全长为1895bp,其中开放阅读框(ORF)为1632bp,编码543个氨基酸残基,含有CCT家族的3个签名序列:37RTTLGPRGMDKLI49、58ISNDGATILKTLDIVHP74、86QDAEVGDGT94,具有3个保守的功能结构域:赤道结构域、顶端结构域和中

  14. Optimiranje podloge za proizvodnju β-galaktozidaze iz soja kvasca Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Ispitana je aktivnost β-galaktozidaze u sedam sojeva vrste Kluyveromyces u sintetskoj podlozi. Za optimiranje podloge odabran je soj Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 koji je proizveo najviše enzima. Pri određivanju najznačajnijih varijabla sastava podloge za proizvodnju enzima primijenjen je reducirani faktorski plan 2^(4-1). Istraženi su sljedeći parametri: koncentracija laktoze, kvaščeva ekstrakta i (NH4)2SO4 te pH-vrijednost, pa je utvrđeno da svi parametri značajno utječu na proizvodnju e...

  15. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  16. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  17. Structural Mechanisms of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation Suppression by the Synthetic Chaperonin-like CCT5 Complex Explained by Cryoelectron Tomography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Michele C.; Sergeeva, Oksana A.; Isas, Jose M.; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G.; King, Jonathan A.; Langen, Ralf; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by functional deficits and loss of striatal neurons, is linked to an expanded and unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). This DNA sequence translates to a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product, leading to mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation. The aggregation of mHTT is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin. Recently, a novel complex comprised of a single type of TRiC subunit has been reported to inhibit mHTT aggregation. Specifically, the purified CCT5 homo-oligomer complex, when compared with TRiC, has a similar structure, ATP use, and substrate refolding activity, and, importantly, it also inhibits mHTT aggregation. Using an aggregation suppression assay and cryoelectron tomography coupled with a novel computational classification method, we uncover the interactions between the synthetic CCT5 complex (∼1 MDa) and aggregates of mutant huntingtin exon 1 containing 46 glutamines (mHTTQ46-Ex1). We find that, in a similar fashion to TRiC, synthetic CCT5 complex caps mHTT fibrils at their tips and encapsulates mHTT oligomers, providing a structural description of the inhibition of mHTTQ46-Ex1 by CCT5 complex and a shared mechanism of mHTT inhibition between TRiC chaperonin and the CCT5 complex: cap and contain. PMID:25995452

  18. Structural Mechanisms of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation Suppression by the Synthetic Chaperonin-like CCT5 Complex Explained by Cryoelectron Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Michele C; Sergeeva, Oksana A; Isas, Jose M; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; King, Jonathan A; Langen, Ralf; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2015-07-10

    Huntington disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by functional deficits and loss of striatal neurons, is linked to an expanded and unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). This DNA sequence translates to a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product, leading to mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation. The aggregation of mHTT is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin. Recently, a novel complex comprised of a single type of TRiC subunit has been reported to inhibit mHTT aggregation. Specifically, the purified CCT5 homo-oligomer complex, when compared with TRiC, has a similar structure, ATP use, and substrate refolding activity, and, importantly, it also inhibits mHTT aggregation. Using an aggregation suppression assay and cryoelectron tomography coupled with a novel computational classification method, we uncover the interactions between the synthetic CCT5 complex (∼ 1 MDa) and aggregates of mutant huntingtin exon 1 containing 46 glutamines (mHTTQ46-Ex1). We find that, in a similar fashion to TRiC, synthetic CCT5 complex caps mHTT fibrils at their tips and encapsulates mHTT oligomers, providing a structural description of the inhibition of mHTTQ46-Ex1 by CCT5 complex and a shared mechanism of mHTT inhibition between TRiC chaperonin and the CCT5 complex: cap and contain.

  19. Bone development in black ducks as affected by dietary toxaphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.

  20. Modulation of STAT3 folding and function by TRiC/CCT chaperonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kasembeli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 transduces signals of many peptide hormones from the cell surface to the nucleus and functions as an oncoprotein in many types of cancers, yet little is known about how it achieves its native folded state within the cell. Here we show that Stat3 is a novel substrate of the ring-shaped hetero-oligomeric eukaryotic chaperonin, TRiC/CCT, which contributes to its biosynthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo. TRiC binding to Stat3 was mediated, at least in part, by TRiC subunit CCT3. Stat3 binding to TRiC mapped predominantly to the β-strand rich, DNA-binding domain of Stat3. Notably, enhancing Stat3 binding to TRiC by engineering an additional TRiC-binding domain from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (vTBD, at the N-terminus of Stat3, further increased its affinity for TRiC as well as its function, as determined by Stat3's ability to bind to its phosphotyrosyl-peptide ligand, an interaction critical for Stat3 activation. Thus, Stat3 levels and function are regulated by TRiC and can be modulated by manipulating its interaction with TRiC.

  1. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  2. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  3. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  4. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  5. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  6. Evaluation of emulsifier stability of biosurfactant produced by Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Silva Lima

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds of biological origin are widely used for many industries (cosmetic, food, petrochemical. The Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant on 5% (v/v diesel-oil at pH 5.0 and 32ºC. The cell-free broth emulsified and stabilized the oil-in-water emulsion through a first order kinetics. The results showed that the initial pH value and temperature influenced the emulsifier stability (ES, which was the time when oil was separated. The biosurfactant presented different stabilization properties for vegetable and mineral oil in water solution, despite the highest values of the ES occurring with vegetable oil. The biosurfactant presented smallest ES when compared to commercial surfactants; however, this biosurfactant was not purified.Os tensoativos de origem biológica são amplamente utilizados em diversas aplicações. O microrganismo Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 possui a habilidade de crescer em 5% (v/v óleo diesel a pH 5,0 e 32ºC e produzir biosurfactante. O caldo fermentado livre de células e produzido por S. lipolytica emulsiona e estabiliza emulsões óleo em água de acordo com uma cinética de primeira ordem. Os resultados mostram que o valor do pH inicial e a temperatura influenciam a estabilidade emulsificante (ES, que é medido pelo tempo que a quantidade de óleo. O biosurfactante apresenta diferentes valores de estabilidade emulsificante para óleos vegetais e minerais em emulsões óleo-água, os maiores valores de ES ocorrem nas emulsões utilizando óleo vegetal. O biosurfactante apresenta valores baixos de ES quando comparado com emulsificantes comerciais, entretanto sem sofrer nenhum processo de purificação.

  7. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhauss Stephan C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations.

  8. Neonatal handling affects durably bonding and social development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Henry

    Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for

  9. Effect of Chromium on CCT Diagrams of Novel Air-Cooled Bainite Steels Analyzed by Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Wei; XU Wei-hong; LIU Ya-xiu; BAI Bing-zhe; FANG Hong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative effects of chromium content on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of novel air-cooled bainite steels were analyzed using artificial neural network models. The results showed that the chromium may retard the high and medium-temperature martensite transformation.

  10. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  11. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles i...

  12. Socio–affective development in primary teachers’ initial training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Teruel Melero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by analysing the importance of socio-affective education at school, considering that it should be framed within ethics. It then analyses why it is important to train primary teachers in emotional education, advocating that it should be articulated around two basic standpoints: theoretical training and personal, experienced training, highlighting that the second one is crucial in order for primary teachers to emotionally educate their pupils. The article further focuses on the main socio-affective competences the primary teacher should have to face the challenges of education in such an unsettled and complex world as ours, positioning ourselves in favour of a socio-affective, experienced and active methodology. Finally, we provide an overview of emotional education in the Spanish school system and in primary teacher initial training curricula.

  13. Development and Validation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity.

  14. Affect regulation training (ART) for alcohol use disorders: development of a novel intervention for negative affect drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R; Bradizza, Clara M; Schlauch, Robert C; Coffey, Scott F; Gulliver, Suzy B; Gudleski, Gregory D; Bole, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called affect regulation training (ART), which could be added to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N=77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT+ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT+HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT+ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT+ART when compared to CBT+HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers.

  15. Walnut development affects chemical composition and codling moth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Mills, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated for early and late blooming walnut cultivars in California whether variation in nut phenology resulted in differences in nutritional quality and whether this, in turn, affected the performance of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the extent of nut damage. 2. Mid-season, dur

  16. βCCT, an antagonist selective for α(1)GABA(A) receptors, reverses diazepam withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divljaković, Jovana; Milić, Marija; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Timić, Tamara; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2013-02-01

    The abrupt discontinuation of prolonged benzodiazepine treatment elicits a withdrawal syndrome with increased anxiety as a major symptom. The neural mechanisms underlying benzodiazepine physical dependence are still insufficiently understood. Flumazenil, the non-selective antagonist of the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA(A) receptors was capable of preventing and reversing the increased anxiety during benzodiazepine withdrawal in animals and humans in some, but not all studies. On the other hand, a number of data suggest that GABA(A) receptors containing α(1) subunits are critically involved in processes developing during prolonged use of benzodiazepines, such are tolerance to sedative effects, liability to physical dependence and addiction. Hence, we investigated in the elevated plus maze the level of anxiety 24 h following 21 days of diazepam treatment and the influence of flumazenil or a preferential α(1)-subunit selective antagonist βCCt on diazepam withdrawal syndrome in rats. Abrupt cessation of protracted once-daily intraperitoneal administration of 2 mg/kg diazepam induced a withdrawal syndrome, measured by increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze 24 h after treatment cessation. Acute challenge with either flumazenil (10mg/kg) or βCCt (1.25, 5 and 20 mg/kg) alleviated the diazepam withdrawal-induced anxiety. Moreover, both antagonists induced an anxiolytic-like response close, though not identical, to that seen with acute administration of diazepam. These findings imply that the mechanism by which antagonism at GABA(A) receptors may reverse the withdrawal-induced anxiety involves the α(1) subunit and prompt further studies aimed at linking the changes in behavior with possible adaptive changes in subunit expression and function of GABA(A) receptors.

  17. Characterization of an exoinulinase produced by Aspergillus terreus CCT 4083 grown on sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Guimarães, Valéria M; de Almeida, Maíra N; Falkoski, Daniel L; de Queiróz, José H; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2010-07-28

    Exoinulinase (beta-d-fructan fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.80) secreted by Aspergillus terreus CCT4083 was obtained using sugar cane bagasse, an agroindustrial residue, as a carbon source. It was further purified from the supernatant culture in a rapid procedure. The enzyme presented 57 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 56 kDa on gel filtration chromatography. Inulin was hydrolyzed by the purified enzyme, yielding d-fructose as the main product. This enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 degrees C and maintained more than 90 and 75% of its original activity at 40 and 50 degrees C, respectively, after 3.5 h of preincubation. The K(M) values for inulin, sucrose, and raffinose were 11, 4.20, and 27.89 mM, respectively, and d-fructose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i) = 47.55 mM). The activation energies for sucrose, raffinose, and inulin were 10.4, 5.61, and 4.44 kcal/mol, respectively. The characteristics of A. terreus exoinulinase were compared to those of inulinases isolated from other organisms. The exoinulinase traits presented especially good thermostability and the ability to produce pure d-fructose, suggesting its application to the production of high-fructose syrup.

  18. Regression of nodules on cranial computerized tomography (CCT) scans in 4 focal epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Huh, Choon Woong [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Epilepsy can be defined as a paroxysmal, excessive, neuronal discharge within the brain originating from either cortical or sugcortical regions. The incidence of epilepsy is increasing possibly due to the survival of persons who should have died of brain injuries or other cerebral abnormalities acquired in early life. The use of antibiotics and improvement in the medical care have saved many children who might have died of meningitis, brain abscess, encephalitis, severe head injuries, etc. CCT scan is new radiologic procedure for defining cranial and intracranial structures and also an useful procedure for evaluation and follow-up (FU) of patient with focal seizure disorder. Recently we experienced nodules which were isodense or hypodense on initial non contrasted CT (NECT) and scans became hyperdense of the enhancement in 4 cases of focal epileptic seizure. Nearly complete disappearance or regression of the epileptic foci occurred on the FU CT scans in 2 cases. Operation was performed in 2 cases. The tissue specimen obtained from the CT nodule revealed cerebral edema in one case and localized gliosis and congestion in the other. All the patients showed marked clinical improvement when the CT nodule improved. Review of literature failed to disclose any previous report on such observation.

  19. Production and characterization of tyrosinase activity in Pycnoporus sanguineus CCT-4518 crude extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Teixeira Duarte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is an enzyme of industrial interest. The production and characterization of tyrosinase from P. sanguineus CCT-4518 were investigated. The selection of inductors, luminosity influence, inoculum size and type of culture medium on the production of tyrosinase and the effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity were performed. Optimum conditions for intracellular tyrosinase production was observed after 2 days using 0.15% L-tyrosine as inducer, in the presence of light, with inoculum size of 10 mycelium discs, using 2% malt extract broth medium, incubated at 30°C, and constant agitation of 150 rpm. Tyrosinase activity was completely inhibited by the addition of 6 mM salicylhydroxamic acid or phenylthiourea, however an inhibition of 4.15% was recorded by the addition of 0.1 mM sodium azide. No inhibition could be detected in case of 0.1 mM phenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride addition. Optimal conditions for intracellular tyrosinase activity using L-dopa as substrate were observed at pH 6.6 and 45°C. Thermal stability studies indicated that the enzyme is stable at 45°C for 15 minutes. Higher temperatures decreased tyrosinase activity. Enzyme production was confirmed by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the protein profile was investigated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  20. Production and characterization of tyrosinase activity in Pycnoporus sanguineus CCT-4518 Crude extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lívia Teixeira; Tiba, Joyce Batista; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes; Garcia, Telma Alves; Freitas Bara, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosinase is an enzyme of industrial interest. The production and characterization of tyrosinase from P. sanguineus CCT-4518 were investigated. The selection of inductors, luminosity influence, inoculum size and type of culture medium on the production of tyrosinase and the effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity were performed. Optimum conditions for intracellular tyrosinase production was observed after 2 days using 0.15% L-tyrosine as inducer, in the presence of light, with inoculum size of 10 mycelium discs, using 2% malt extract broth medium, incubated at 30°C, and constant agitation of 150 rpm. Tyrosinase activity was completely inhibited by the addition of 6 mM salicylhydroxamic acid or phenylthiourea, however an inhibition of 4.15% was recorded by the addition of 0.1 mM sodium azide. No inhibition could be detected in case of 0.1 mM phenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride addition. Optimal conditions for intracellular tyrosinase activity using L-dopa as substrate were observed at pH 6.6 and 45°C. Thermal stability studies indicated that the enzyme is stable at 45°C for 15 minutes. Higher temperatures decreased tyrosinase activity. Enzyme production was confirmed by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the protein profile was investigated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:24031800

  1. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  2. UX concepts, how they affected our development flow.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The talk aims at showing the development of Locations before and after this moment, and how the way of thinking at the application changed for taking in account the improvements in the user experience of the application.

  3. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of us...

  4. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  5. Factors affecting the success of development projects : A behavioral perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aga, Deribe Assefa

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation sought to examine behavioral-related critical success factors in the context of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector development projects in Ethiopia. The dissertation applied both a cross-sectional survey design and an experimental design in separate settings, and it is orga

  6. Factors Affecting the Professional Development of Elementary English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    The poor classroom practices of English teachers at elementary level in Indonesia have been attributed to the inadequacy of pre-service education. Yet, whether in-service professional development (PD) also plays a role is unknown. This study investigated the perspectives of 23 teachers, 14 teacher educators and 3 school principals regarding the…

  7. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  8. Dietary-induced hyperthyroidism marginally affects neonatal testicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.; Wientjes, A.T.; Swarts, H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Teerds, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary-induced mild fetal/neonatal hyperthyroidism influenced the initiation of spermatogenesis and the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. Previously, the effects of neonatally induced hyperthyroidism have been investigated in

  9. Growth and flower development in roses as affected by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of

  10. Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Umbers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall to investigate whether soluble factors released into maternal blood in malaria infection might impair placental development. Because trophoblast invasion is enhanced by a number of hormones and chemokines, and is inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines, many of which are dysregulated in malaria in pregnancy, we further compared concentrations of these factors in blood between malaria-infected and uninfected pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured trophoblast invasion, migration and viability in response to treatment with serum or plasma from two independent cohorts of Papua New Guinean women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in early pregnancy. Compared to uninfected women, serum and plasma from women with P. falciparum reduced trophoblast invasion (P = .06 and migration (P = .004. P. vivax infection did not alter trophoblast migration (P = .64. The P. falciparum-specific negative effect on placental development was independent of trophoblast viability, but associated with high-density infections. Serum from P. falciparum infected women tended to have lower levels of trophoblast invasion promoting hormones and factors and higher levels of invasion-inhibitory inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that in vitro models of placental development can be adapted to indirectly study the impact of malaria in early pregnancy. These infections could result in impaired trophoblast invasion with reduced transformation of maternal spiral arteries due to maternal hormonal and inflammatory disturbances, which may contribute to FGR by

  11. Growth and flower development in roses as affected by light

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of the two lateral shoots emerging from the axillary buds of these leaves was studied over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. In order to discriminate between the effects of irradiance level and light quality...

  12. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  13. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  14. Organizational development in Ethiopia: Factors affecting organizations’ implementation of feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Falconer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations (NGOs receiving organizational development assistance funded and facilitated by a third party frequently receive recommendations designed to improve their overall functioning. Research suggests that tailored in-person communication of recommendations results in increased implementation of recommendations. This study assessed whether the method and frequency of communication from an outside organization influenced Ethiopian NGOs’ ability to implement organizational development recommendations. A secondary study goal was to identify additional factors that facilitated or inhibited implementation of recommendations. Twenty two NGOs were surveyed about the amount, type, and timing of communication; their perception of the value of communication in implementing recommendations; barriers to implementation; and strategies used to overcome barriers to implementation. The frequency and level of personalization of communication was not consistently associated with organizational implementation of recommendations. Receiving communication was significantly associated with an organization’s motivation (mean = 4.5 ± 0.6, understanding (mean = 4.2 ± 0.6, and ability (mean = 3.9 ± 0.6 to implement recommendations (p value = 0.02. Respondents reported that external factors, including funding; staff time, expertise, and training; information systems; leadership; and government regulations on nonprofit administrative spending, strongly influenced their ability to implement recommendations.

  15. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  16. Deletion of PKBalpha/Akt1 affects thymic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The thymus constitutes the primary lymphoid organ for the majority of T cells. The phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is involved in lymphoid development. Defects in single components of this pathway prevent thymocytes from progressing beyond early T cell developmental stages. Protein kinase B (PKB is the main effector of the PI3K pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether PKB mediates PI3K signaling in the thymus, we characterized PKB knockout thymi. Our results reveal a significant thymic hypocellularity in PKBalpha(-/- neonates and an accumulation of early thymocyte subsets in PKBalpha(-/- adult mice. Using thymic grafting and fetal liver cell transfer experiments, the latter finding was specifically attributed to the lack of PKBalpha within the lymphoid component of the thymus. Microarray analyses show that the absence of PKBalpha in early thymocyte subsets modifies the expression of genes known to be involved in pre-TCR signaling, in T cell activation, and in the transduction of interferon-mediated signals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report highlights the specific requirements of PKBalpha for thymic development and opens up new prospects as to the mechanism downstream of PKBalpha in early thymocytes.

  17. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  18. Starch Content in Leaf Sheath Controlled by CO2-Responsive CCT Protein is a Potential Determinant of Photosynthetic Capacity in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kanako; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Misoo, Shuji; Fukayama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    CO2-responsive CCT protein (CRCT) is the suggested positive regulator of starch synthesis in vegetative organs, particularly the leaf sheath of rice. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the starch level in the leaf sheath on the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade using CRCT overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown transgenic rice grown under ambient (38 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 conditions. In leaf sheath, the starch content was markedly changed in relation to CRCT expression levels under both CO2 conditions. In contrast, the soluble sugar and starch contents of the leaf blade were markedly increased in the knockdown line grown under elevated CO2 conditions. The overexpression or RNAi knockdown of CRCT did not cause large effects on the photosynthetic rate of the transgenic lines grown under ambient CO2 condition. However, the photosynthetic rate of the overexpression line was enhanced, while that of the knockdown line was substantially decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. These photosynthetic rates were weakly correlated with the nitrogen contents and negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate contents. Thus, the capacity for starch synthesis in leaf sheath, which is controlled by CRCT, can indirectly affect the carbohydrate content, and then the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade of rice grown under elevated CO2 conditions.

  19. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  20. The Arabidopsis Mediator CDK8 module genes CCT (MED12) and GCT (MED13) are global regulators of developmental phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C Stewart; Silva-Ortega, Claudia O; Willmann, Matthew R; Buendía-Monreal, Manuel; Poethig, R Scott

    2014-12-01

    Temporal coordination of developmental programs is necessary for normal ontogeny, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is still poorly understood. We have previously shown that two components of the Mediator CDK8 module encoded by CENTER CITY (CCT; Arabidopsis MED12) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT; Arabidopsis MED13) are required for timing of pattern formation during embryogenesis. A morphological, molecular and genomic analysis of the post-embryonic phenotype of gct and cct mutants demonstrated that these genes also promote at least three subsequent developmental transitions: germination, vegetative phase change, and flowering. Genetic and molecular analyses indicate that GCT and CCT operate in parallel to gibberellic acid, a phytohormone known to regulate these same three transitions. We demonstrate that the delay in vegetative phase change in gct and cct is largely due to overexpression of miR156, and that the delay in flowering is due in part to upregulation of FLC. Thus, GCT and CCT coordinate vegetative and floral transitions by repressing the repressors miR156 and FLC. Our results suggest that MED12 and MED13 act as global regulators of developmental timing by fine-tuning the expression of temporal regulatory genes.

  1. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs.

  2. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  3. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  4. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence

  5. Study on affecting factors of collaborative product development based on collaboration hierarchy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaodong; LI Yingzi; ZHANG Zhiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the levels of collaborative degree in web-based product development,a collaboration hierarchy model of this product development is developed in this paper.Based on the model,the affecting factors on collaboration levels are analyzed systematically from many aspects,such as technology,organization and business.A gap analysis method is studied in detail,and is applied in a real project.The application shows that it can solve the diverse problems of collaborative product development effectively,and help enterprises find out the critical factors that affect the collaboration.

  6. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D; Clark, L A; Tellegen, A

    1988-06-01

    In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.

  7. Understanding and predicting online purchase intention: Development of a model for cognitive-affective shopper responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, KJ

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a model for online purchase intention in a B2C environment, integrating cognitive and affective responses based on the theory of reasoned action. Seven hypotheses were developedand tested on a dataset of 532 observations collected via a questionnaire survey. The results of this study indicate that both cognitive and affective judgements are important for online transactions.A contribution of this study is that it extends our understanding of how online purchase inte...

  8. Beta-CCT, a selective BZ-omega1 receptor antagonist, blocks the anti-anxiety but not the amnesic action of chlordiazepoxide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, C; Le Guisquet, A M; Griebel, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test further the hypothesis that different benzodiazepine (BZ-omega) receptor subtypes may mediate anxiolytic and amnesic effects of BZ agonists, using the selective BZ-omega1 receptor antagonist beta-CCT (beta-carboline-3-carboxylate t-butyl-ester). Experiments were performed in Swiss mice using the elevated plus-maze anxiety test and two learning tasks - passive avoidance and the radial arm maze. In the elevated plus-maze test, beta-CCT (30 mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished the increase in open-arm entries induced by the BZ chlordiazepoxide (5mg/kg, i.p.). Chlordiazepoxide decreased retention latency in the passive avoidance step-through procedure, and increased the number of errors in the radial arm maze. These effects were not modified by beta-CCT. Except for a slight, albeit significant, amnesic effect in the passive avoidance test, beta-CCT was devoid of intrinsic activity when administered alone. These results are in agreement with previous studies using selective BZ-omega1 agonists, and thus provide further evidence that BZ-omega1 receptors may be involved in the anxiolytic but not in the amnesic effects of BZ agonists.

  9. Contrastive Analysis of Impact by Affective Factors on Adult Foreign Lan-guage Learning and Child Language Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小丽

    2016-01-01

    Affective factors are the meaning of"decisive essence"in foreign language learning. Adult foreign language learning is much influenced by affective factors than children language development in the process of language development. In this pa-per, on the basis of a Krashen's"Affective Filter Hypothesis", the writer analyses the reasons, and analyses adult foreign lan-guage learning and child language development affect differently from four main affective factors:motivation, self-confidence, anxiety and empathy.

  10. Meditation in the context of holistic education in terms of affective and social development

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, L.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a literature review that explores holistic education and meditation in relation to affective and social development. Holistic education is a philosophy of education highlighting the importance of developing all parts of the human in order to reach our full potential and for living a fulfilling life. Learning theories are briefly discussed to gain an understanding of how holistic education is implemented. This thesis does not focus on all aspect of development suppor...

  11. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jing-ming; Li Hui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market &traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist's consumption level,consumption custom, operator's investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government's decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  12. The development of affective behavioral complexes: a level-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardyshevskaya M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses sources for, problems in, and ways of forming a hierarchical model of the development of whole affective behavioral complexes, not just mechanisms of emotional regulation, as was done in the original level-based model elaborated by Victor Lebedinsky. The author describes specific traits of affective behavioral complexes and types of links between them on different levels. Primitive affective behavioral complexes, either isolated or rigidly linked, dominate on the lower three levels. On the fourth level attachment behavior plays a “star” role, mediating and regulating all vital behaviors. On the fifth level symbolic activity permanently rebuilds the experience obtained on the lower levels. The author discusses links between affective behavioral complexes and nuclear personality formations.

  13. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders.

  14. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  15. FGF receptor antagonism does not affect adipose tissue development in nutritionally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroyen, Ilse; Vranckx, Christine; Lijnen, Henri Roger

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGF receptor (FGFR) system plays a role in angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular integrity, but its potential role in adipose tissue related angiogenesis and development is still unknown. Administration of SSR, a low molecular weight inhibitor of multiple FGFRs, did not significantly affect body weight nor weight of subcutaneous or gonadal (GON) fat, as compared with pair-fed control mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy and reduced adipocyte density were only observed in GON adipose tissues of treated mice. Adipose tissue angiogenesis was not affected by SSR treatment, as normalized blood vessel density was comparable in adipose tissues of both groups. Blocking the FGF-FGFR system in vivo does not markedly affect adipose tissue development in mice with nutritionally induced obesity.

  16. Medical Conditions Differentially Affect the Development of IADL Disability: Implications for Medical Care and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Sylvia E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determined independent effects of nine self-reported medical conditions on the likelihood of developing specific instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) disabilities at three points in time. Various medical conditions differentially affect each specific IADL disability, and each IADL disability has its own set of predictors, which, in…

  17. Variables Affecting the Effects of Recasts on L2 Pronunciation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how recasts can promote the L2 pronunciation development of word-initial /?/ by Japanese learners of English in relation to two developmental stages of English /?/ acquisition (i.e. change in second formant [F2] ? change in third formant [F3]) as well as four affecting variables (i.e. the amount of recasts and…

  18. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  19. Does Intellectual Disability Affect the Development of Dental Caries in Patients with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the severity of intellectual disability is a factor that affects the development of dental cavities in patients with cerebral palsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 165 individuals who were selected from a physical rehabilitation center, a special public school and a regular public school. Of…

  20. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  1. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  2. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  3. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  4. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  5. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A general population sample aged 19 to 72years was examined in 2006-2008 and again in 2011-2012. Longitudinal data on CI were analysed with the purpose of examining baseline negative affect as a risk factor for having developed CI at 5-year follow-up and for reporting persistent CI. Participants.......4% of the participants who had reported CI at baseline also reported CI at follow-up. In participants with no baseline CI, 15.5% reported CI at follow-up and 18.1% reported symptoms related to chemicals but no daily life adjustments. Baseline negative affect was positively and statistically significantly associated...

  6. Recording and Management of CCT in a Public Hospital in the Region of Laconia in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Gkiouzeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cranium-cerebral traumas in today’s era are a serious public health problem with bothsocial and economic dimensions. They are characterized as an ‘epidemic’, due to the increase in car accidents and they particularly affect the productive population.The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and allocation of Cranium-cerebral traumas among the population in the Prefecture of Laconia, in order to determine the explanatory factors or risk factors, the record of how they are managed (diagnosis, therapy, and outcome and their correlation with demographics and other factors.Methodology: This study was conducted with the collection of data from hospital archives and Emergency Department logbooks from the General Hospital of Sparta. Specifically designed record forms were used which included patient demographics, means of arrival to the hospital, the clinical pictures, the gravity of the injury, possible accompanying injuries, diagnostic tests, treatment and outcome, as well as evidence related to the causes of the injury.Results: 2352 cases of children and adults with Cranium-cerebral traumas were included in this study who came to the Emergency Department from 1st of January 2005 to 31st of December 2010. The cause of Cranium-cerebral traumas in adults is affected by gender, nationality and place of residence, while in children it is affected by place of residence and the means of arrival to the Emergency Department. Respectively, the outcome of Cranium–cerebral traumas in adults is affected by place of residence and their means of arrival to the hospital while in children it is affected by nationality and place of residence.Conclusions: This study has revealed the magnitude of the problem and the epidemiological characteristics of Cranium-cerebral traumas in the Prefecture of Laconia, with the ultimate need for intervention at a level of prevention. Proposals regard the improvement in road networks, informative

  7. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  8. Investigations into factors affecting the cascade developer used in ESDA--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Daéid, N; Hayes, K; Allen, M

    2008-10-25

    The Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) is a technique most commonly used for the visualisation of indented impressions on questioned documents. This work investigates some of the variables which are known to affect the results of ESDA and some variables which have, as yet, not been addressed. The investigation of variables included: examining the effects of different levels of indentation on different qualities of paper, chronological aging of cascade developer and the effects of repeated use of cascade developer on both the quality of results and the glass beads themselves, the effects of storage of cascade developer in a humidified environment and finally the effects of variation on the image development time. Results indicate that chronological aging of cascade developer does not have a negative effect on the quality of results and a 200 g portion of cascade developer will give good quality results for up to 30 traces before the quality will begin to deteriorate. Humidification of the cascade developer appears to have no advantages over storage in a normal environment and, in fact, the toner is lost sooner with humidification. The surface of the glass beads are affected through repeated use of cascade developer and appear to become visually smoother which may lead to a loss of attraction between them and the toner particles.

  9. CCT curve of X100 pipeline steel%X100管线钢的 CCT曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守显; 靳芳芳; 李钧正

    2014-01-01

    The law of phase transformation of X 100 pipeline steel during continuous cooling after rolling deformation was researched by using Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator , and then dynamic CCT curve was set up by adopting dilatation and metallographic method .The results show that the microstructure of X 100 pipeline steel transforms from ferritic to bainitic gradually and the hardness turns out upward trend with the increase of cooling rate .%用Gleeble-3500热/力模拟试验机对X100管线钢进行热模拟试验,研究X100管线钢经轧制变形后连续冷却过程中的相变规律,采用膨胀法和金相法建立动态CCT曲线。结果表明,随着冷却速率的增大,X100管线钢的组织由铁素体逐步转变为贝氏体组织,硬度呈上升趋势。

  10. Altered cytokine network in gestational diabetes mellitus affects maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Lauren; Belkacemi, Louiza

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an altered inflammatory profile, compared to the non-pregnant state with an adequate balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines needed for normal development. Cytokines are small secreted proteins expressed mainly in immunocompetent cells in the reproductive system. From early developmental stages onward, the secretory activity of placenta cells clearly contributes to increase local as well as systemic levels of cytokines. The placental production of cytokines may affect mother and fetus independently. In turn because of this unique position at the maternal fetal interface, the placenta is also exposed to the regulatory influence of cytokines from maternal and fetal circulations, and hence, may be affected by changes in any of these. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an overall alteration of the cytokine network. This review discusses the changes that occur in cytokines post GDM and their negative effects on maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

  11. How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along two pathways: it is formally acquired by the state and transferred into state ownership, or it is informally developed while remaining in collective ownership. Taking Beijing, the capital, as an example, and using data from land use surveys in the Changping district of the city, this paper examines the spatial patterns and characteristics of land development along these two pathways, and sets up a multinomial logit model to test whether land development with and without ownership change was affected by the same factors. The findings suggest that: (1 development on collective-owned land is more spatially scattered, and its links to public infrastructure are weaker; (2 transportation infrastructure, farmer income, spatial location, and previous land usage are the major factors that affect land development; nevertheless, the influences of the factors are different for the two pathways.

  12. Does Parental Divorce Affect Adolescents' Cognitive Development? : Evidence from Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna; Vuri, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we analyse data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate whether experiencing parental divorce during adolescence reduces measured cognitive ability. To account for the potential endogeneity of parental divorce we employ a difference-in-differences model that relies on observing teenagers' outcomes before and after divorce. We find that parental divorce does not negatively affect teenagers' cognitive development. Our results also suggest that cross-s...

  13. Does Parental Divorce Affect Adolescents' Cognitive Development? Evidence from Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanz de Galdeano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we analyse data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate whether experiencing parental divorce during adolescence reduces measured cognitive ability. To account for the potential endogeneity of parental divorce we employ a difference-in-differences model that relies on observing tenagers' outcomes before and after divorce. We find that parental divorce does not negatively affect teenagers' cognitive development. Our results also suggest that cross-se...

  14. Do personal characteristics of finance ministers affect the development of public debt?

    OpenAIRE

    Moessinger, Marc-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Using a unique dataset of personal characteristics of national finance ministers in Europe (1980 - 2010), I show that especially a finance minister's experience affects the development of public debt. Both a finance minister's experience gained in office and his political experience have an impact: The change of the debt to GDP ratio is negative the more experience a finance minister has gained as a minister of finance or in former positions as a national cabinet member. While the former resu...

  15. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  16. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  17. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  18. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  19. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeJing-ming; LiHui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market & traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist ''s consumption level,consumption custom, operator''s investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government''s decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators'' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  20. Utilizacao de residuos agroindustriais em processo biotecnologico para producao de ƒÒ-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 = Use of agroindustrial residues in biotechnological process by betagalactosidase production from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Manera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composicao do meio de cultura para a producao da enzima ƒÒ-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 utilizando a tecnica de delineamento experimental. A producao da enzima foi realizada em meio composto por soro de queijo, agua de maceracao de milho (AMM e hidrolisado de levedura Prodex-lacR e sais. Foi realizado um planejamento experimental fracionario (25-1 para determinar as variaveis significativas na producao da enzima. Foram testadas diferentes concentracoes de lactose presente no soro de queijo (10 a 70 g L-1, AMM (10 a 100 g L-1, Prodex-lac (4 a 20 g L-1, (NH42SO4 (0 a 10 g L-1 e o pH (5 a 7. As variaveis concentracao de lactose, AMM e o pH apresentaram efeito estatisticamente significativo na atividade enzimatica dentro das faixas estudadas, sendo estas variaveis empregadas num delineamento composto central rotacional para otimizar a producao da enzima. As faixas testadas foram: concentracao de lactose de 40 a 100 g L-1, AMM de 10 a 120 g L-1 e pH de 3,5 a 6,5. As condicoes que resultaram em maior atividade enzimatica (1400 U g-1 foram 70 g L-1 de lactose, 65 g L-1 de AMM, 4 g L-1 de Prodex-lac e pH 5, obtendo uma produtividade de 61 U L-1 h-1. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the culture medium for the production of the enzyme ƒÒ-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 using an experimental design. Enzyme production was carried out in a medium consisting of cheese whey, cornsteep liquor (CSL and Prodex-lacR yeast hydrolyzate. A factorial fractional design (25-1 was performed to determine the significant variables in the production of the enzyme. Different concentrations of lactose present in whey (10-70 g L-1, CSL (10-100 g L-1, Prodex-lac (40- 20 g L-1, (NH42SO4 (0-10 g L-1 and pH (5-7 were tested. Lactose concentration, CSL and pH were the variables that showed a statistically significant effect on enzyme activity withinthe ranges studied

  1. Institutional Guidance of Affective Bonding: Moral Values Development in Brazilian Military Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2016-09-01

    In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation.

  2. Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Hotzy, Cosima; Alavioon, Ghazal; Petersson, Erik; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single ejaculates of wild caught male salmon. We found that within-ejaculate variation in sperm longevity significantly affected offspring development and hence time until hatching. Whether these effects have a genetic or epigenetic basis needs to be further evaluated. However, our results provide experimental evidence for transgenerational effects of individual sperm function. PMID:24522632

  3. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  4. PMWS Development in Pigs from Affected Farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    , respiratory distress and diarrhoea. The main essential infectious agent for PMWS development is porcinecircovirus type 2 (PCV2), but the exact cause of PMWS is still unclear.PCV2 is present in most pig herds, but the occurrence of PMWS is more sporadic, and it is been difficult to reproduce PMWS......Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a worldwide spread condition that affects pigs in nursery and/or fattening units, and is considered to have a severe economic impact on swine production. The main clinical sign of PMWS is wasting, but can also include pallor of the skin, icterus...

  5. Conserved mosquito/parasite interactions affect development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M Mendes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists.

  6. Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia during early development leads to persistent changes in affective behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.

  7. Factors Affecting the Rate of Pediatric Pneumonia in Developing Countries: a Review and Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Ramezani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of children less than 5 years old die from pneumonia globally and about 75-70% of these deaths occur in infants. Persian and English articles of International and National databases such as “WHO, Scopus and the Cochrane, Pub Med, Science Direct, Wiley, Google Scholar, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Med Lib and Iran Doc were searched from 1970 to 2014. Result: The factors such as low birth weight, malnutrition, lack of breast feeding, micronutrient deficiencies, smoking tobacco, kindergarten and maternal education are the most important factors affecting the rate of pneumonia in developing countries. Conclusion: Actions such as nutritional interventions develop effective strategies on abstinence of smoking, promote the knowledge and practice of mothers about proper care of infants could have a significant effect on the reduction of morbidity and mortality of pneumonia in the infants.

  8. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gokon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by manually detecting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using GIS, and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses.

  9. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  10. 7-Rhamnosylated Flavonols Modulate Homeostasis of the Plant Hormone Auxin and Affect Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Benjamin M; Errafi, Sanae; Bucher, Rahel; Dobrev, Petre; Geisler, Markus; Bigler, Laurent; Zažímalová, Eva; Ringli, Christoph

    2016-03-04

    Flavonols are a group of secondary metabolites that affect diverse cellular processes. They are considered putative negative regulators of the transport of the phytohormone auxin, by which they influence auxin distribution and concomitantly take part in the control of plant organ development. Flavonols are accumulating in a large number of glycosidic forms. Whether these have distinct functions and diverse cellular targets is not well understood. The rol1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by a modified flavonol glycosylation profile that is inducing changes in auxin transport and growth defects in shoot tissues. To determine whether specific flavonol glycosides are responsible for these phenotypes, a suppressor screen was performed on the rol1-2 mutant, resulting in the identification of an allelic series of UGT89C1, a gene encoding a flavonol 7-O-rhamnosyltransferase. A detailed analysis revealed that interfering with flavonol rhamnosylation increases the concentration of auxin precursors and auxin metabolites, whereas auxin transport is not affected. This finding provides an additional level of complexity to the possible ways by which flavonols influence auxin distribution and suggests that flavonol glycosides play an important role in regulating plant development.

  11. Tumor inoculation site affects the development of cancer cachexia and muscle wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Tatsuzo; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Okayama, Tetsuya; Oka, Kaname; Adachi, Satoko; Mizushima, Katsura; Kimura, Reiko; Okajima, Manabu; Sakai, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Naoyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Kokura, Satoshi; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype and severity of cancer cachexia differ among tumor types and metastatic site in individual patients. In this study, we evaluated if differences in tumor microenvironment would affect the development of cancer cachexia in a murine model, and demonstrated that body weight, adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle decreased in tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, a reduction in heart weight was observed in the intraperitoneal tumor group but not in the subcutaneous group. We evaluated 23 circulating cytokines and members of the TGF-β family, and found that levels of IL-6, TNF-α and activin A increased in both groups of tumor-bearing mice. Eotaxin and G-CSF levels in the intraperitoneal tumor group were higher than in the subcutaneous group. Atrogin 1 and MuRF1 mRNA expressions in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly in both groups of tumor-bearing mice, however, in the myocardium, expression of these mRNAs increased in the intraperitoneal group but not in subcutaneous group. Based on these results, we believe that differences in microenvironment where tumor cells develop can affect the progression and phenotype of cancer cachexia through alterations in various circulating factors derived from the tumor microenvironment.

  12. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  13. Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Estomih Muro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

  14. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

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    Christopher Presslauer

    Full Text Available A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf, growth differentiation factor (Gdf9, and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75, all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329 were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a

  15. Pollen development and tube growth are affected in the symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, crinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansengco, Myra L; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Takagi, Shingo; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2004-05-01

    The symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, crinkle (crk), exhibits abnormal nodulation and other alterations in the root hairs, trichomes, and seedpods. Defective nodulation in crk mutant is due to the arrested infection thread growth from the epidermis into the cortex. Here, we describe that crk is also affected in male fertility that causes the production of small pods with few seeds. Under in vitro conditions, pollen germination and tube growth were markedly reduced in the crk mutant. A swollen tip phenotype with disorganized filamentous actin (F-actin) was observed in the mutant pollen tubes after prolonged in vitro culture. During pollen development, the striking difference noted in the mutant was the small size of the microspores that remained spherical. Histological examination of ovule development, as well as outcrosses of the mutant as female to wild type as male, showed no evidence of abnormality in the female gametophyte development. Based on these findings, the Crk gene, aside from its role in the infection process during nodulation, is also involved in male gametophyte development and function. Therefore, this gene represents a connection between nodule symbiosis, polar tip growth, and other plant developmental processes.

  16. White matter development in adolescence: the influence of puberty and implications for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence.We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly,information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents.

  17. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  18. Development of Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiota in Infancy is Affected by Mode of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Astrid A T M; Levin, Evgeni; van Houten, Marlies A; Hasrat, Raiza; Kalkman, Gino; Biesbroek, Giske; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; de Groot, Pieter-Kees C M; Pernet, Paula; Keijser, Bart J F; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-07-01

    Birth by Caesarian section is associated with short- and long-term respiratory morbidity. We hypothesized that mode of delivery affects the development of the respiratory microbiota, thereby altering its capacity to provide colonization resistance and consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the impact of mode of delivery on the nasopharyngeal microbiota development from birth until six months of age in a healthy, unselected birth cohort of 102 children (n=761 samples). Here, we show that the respiratory microbiota develops within one day from a variable mixed bacterial community towards a Streptococcus viridans-predominated profile, regardless of mode of delivery. Within the first week, rapid niche differentiation had occurred; initially with in most infants Staphylococcus aureus predominance, followed by differentiation towards Corynebacterium pseudodiphteriticum/propinquum, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Moraxella catarrhalis/nonliquefaciens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and/or Haemophilus influenzae dominated communities. Infants born by Caesarian section showed a delay in overall development of respiratory microbiota profiles with specifically reduced colonization with health-associated commensals like Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, thereby possibly influencing respiratory health later in life.

  19. Loss of Atrx affects trophoblast development and the pattern of X-inactivation in extraembryonic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ATRX is an X-encoded member of the SNF2 family of ATPase/helicase proteins thought to regulate gene expression by modifying chromatin at target loci. Mutations in ATRX provided the first example of a human genetic disease associated with defects in such proteins. To better understand the role of ATRX in development and the associated abnormalities in the ATR-X (alpha thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked syndrome, we conditionally inactivated the homolog in mice, Atrx, at the 8- to 16-cell stage of development. The protein, Atrx, was ubiquitously expressed, and male embryos null for Atrx implanted and gastrulated normally but did not survive beyond 9.5 days postcoitus due to a defect in formation of the extraembryonic trophoblast, one of the first terminally differentiated lineages in the developing embryo. Carrier female mice that inherit a maternal null allele should be affected, since the paternal X chromosome is normally inactivated in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, however, some carrier females established a normal placenta and appeared to escape the usual pattern of imprinted X-inactivation in these tissues. Together these findings demonstrate an unexpected, specific, and essential role for Atrx in the development of the murine trophoblast and present an example of escape from imprinted X chromosome inactivation.

  20. Developing a model of factors affecting the customer satisfaction in traditional and electronic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Heidari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking is among the major electronic services in electronic commerce, but the lack of appropriate tool for measurement of customer satisfaction in banking industry has diminished the speed of electronic banking development. This study aims at investigating the factors affecting the customer satisfaction in traditional and electronic banking industry in order to determine the factors which lead to the customer satisfaction. Therefore, the factors, namely, the traditional service quality with six dimensions, the electronic service quality with three dimensions, customer satisfaction, loyalty and trust are extracted according to the literature review, and the structural equation modeling is implemented on this basis. The statistical population of research consists of customers in one of the private banks and 242 subjects are selected as the samples. The data analysis is performed by partial least squares-structural equation modeling technique (PLS-SEM using Smart PLS software. The data analysis results indicate that one dimension of electronic service quality including the telephone banking quality affect the customer satisfaction and two dimensions of traditional service quality including the complaint management and tangibility also have impact on the customer satisfaction. Moreover, the impact of customer satisfaction on the customer trust and loyalty is approved in this study.

  1. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  2. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  3. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  4. Impulsive aggressiveness of pregnant women affects the development of the fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Wiebigke, Claudia; Siebel, Walter A; Stepan, Holger

    2009-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that the development of the fetus is heavily influenced by the intra-uterine milieu during pregnancy, and that such influence may have life-long consequences for the individual. The intra-uterine milieu is not only influenced by nutritional factors, but also by maternal endocrine and autonomic activity. Such activity is prone to be affected by an individual's personality, but only little is known about influences of maternal personality on the development of the fetus. We tested pregnant women for their propensity for impulsive, uncontrollable outbursts of temper (referred to here as moderate Intermittent Explosive Disorder, mIED). After the women gave birth, we measured electrocardiograms (ECGs) from their newborn infants to compare ECGs between newborns of women with and without mIED. The data show that infants of women with mIED have larger QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram, and lower heart rate variability, compared to infants of women without mIED. These results reveal effects of maternal mIED on the fetal heart development. These effects may predispose the individual to increased risk for later cardio-vascular disease. The findings open perspectives for better risk prevention models for the unborn child.

  5. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks

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    Vincent eSchmithorst

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using fMRI, we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7-12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21 and normal-hearing controls (N = 23 performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as touched the small green circle and the large blue square and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39, evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language.

  6. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL) may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7-12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21) and normal-hearing controls (N = 23) performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as "touched the small green circle and the large blue square" and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39), evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language.

  7. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production.

  8. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  9. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  10. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  11. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age.

  12. Prediction of microRNAs affecting mRNA expression during retinal development

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    Cogliati Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules (~22 nucleotides which have been shown to play an important role both in development and in maintenance of adult tissue. Conditional inactivation of miRNAs in the eye causes loss of visual function and progressive retinal degeneration. In addition to inhibiting translation, miRNAs can mediate degradation of targeted mRNAs. We have previously shown that candidate miRNAs affecting transcript levels in a tissue can be deduced from mRNA microarray expression profiles. The purpose of this study was to predict miRNAs which affect mRNA levels in developing and adult retinal tissue and to confirm their expression. Results Microarray expression data from ciliary epithelial retinal stem cells (CE-RSCs, developing and adult mouse retina were generated or downloaded from public repositories. Analysis of gene expression profiles detected the effects of multiple miRNAs in CE-RSCs and retina. The expression of 20 selected miRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR and the cellular distribution of representative candidates analyzed by in situ hybridization. The expression levels of miRNAs correlated with the significance of their predicted effects upon mRNA expression. Highly expressed miRNAs included miR-124, miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-204 and miR-9. Over-expression of three miRNAs with significant predicted effects upon global mRNA levels resulted in a decrease in mRNA expression of five out of six individual predicted target genes assayed. Conclusions This study has detected the effect of miRNAs upon mRNA expression in immature and adult retinal tissue and cells. The validity of these observations is supported by the experimental confirmation of candidate miRNA expression and the regulation of predicted target genes following miRNA over-expression. Identified miRNAs are likely to be important in retinal development and function. Misregulation of these miRNAs might contribute to retinal degeneration and disease

  13. A Positive Affect Intervention for People Experiencing Health-Related Stress: Development and Non-randomized Pilot Test

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Cohn, Michael A.; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect...

  14. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  15. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  17. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  18. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  19. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2017-01-09

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  1. Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M Uribe

    Full Text Available Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS.

  2. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  3. The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E

    2000-03-01

    Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level.

  4. Murine tribbles homolog 2 deficiency affects erythroid progenitor development and confers macrocytic anemia on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kou-Ray; Yang-Yen, Hsin-Fang; Lien, Huang-Wei; Liao, Wei-Hao; Huang, Chang-Jen; Lin, Liang-In; Li, Chung-Leung; Yen, Jeffrey Jong-Young

    2016-08-23

    Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) is a member of Tribbles protein pseudokinases and involves in apoptosis, autoimmunity, cancer, leukemia and erythropoiesis, however, the physiological function of Trib2 in hematopoietic system remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that Trib2 knockout (KO) mice manifest macrocytic anemia and increase of T lymphocytes. Although Trib2 deficient RBCs have similar half-life as the control RBCs, Trib2 KO mice are highly vulnerable to oxidant-induced hemolysis. Endogenous Trib2 mRNA is expressed in early hematopoietic progenitors, erythroid precursors, and lymphoid lineages, but not in mature RBCs, myeloid progenitors and granulocytes. Consistently, flow cytometric analysis and in vitro colony forming assay revealed that deletion of Trib2 mainly affected erythroid lineage development, and had no effect on either granulocyte or megakaryocyte lineages in bone marrow. Furthermore, a genetic approach using double knockout of Trib2 and C/ebpα genes in mice suggested that Trib2 promotes erythropoiesis independent of C/ebpα proteins in vivo. Finally, ectopic expression of human Trib2 in zebrafish embryos resulted in increased expression of erythropoiesis-related genes and of hemoglobin. Taking all data together, our results suggest that Trib2 positively promotes early erythrocyte differentiation and is essential for tolerance to hemolysis.

  5. The diageotropica gene differentially affects auxin and cytokinin responses throughout development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, C; Lomax, T L

    1998-05-01

    The interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin throughout plant development are complex, and genetic investigations of the interdependency of auxin and cytokinin signaling have been limited. We have characterized the cytokinin sensitivity of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a range of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated responses. Intact, etiolated dgt seedlings showed cross-resistance to cytokinin with respect to root elongation, but cytokinin effects on hypocotyl growth and ethylene synthesis in these seedlings were not impaired by the dgt mutation. Seven-week-old, green wild-type and dgt plants were also equally sensitive to cytokinin with respect to shoot growth and hypocotyl and internode elongation. The effects of cytokinin and the dgt mutation on these processes appeared additive. In tissue culture organ regeneration from dgt hypocotyl explants showed reduced sensitivity to auxin but normal sensitivity to cytokinin, and the effects of cytokinin and the mutation were again additive. However, although callus induction from dgt hypocotyl explants required auxin and cytokinin, dgt calli did not show the typical concentration-dependent stimulation of growth by either auxin or cytokinin observed in wild-type cells. Cross-resistance of the dgt mutant to cytokinin thus was found to be limited to a small subset of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated growth processes affected by the dgt mutation, indicating that auxin and cytokinin regulate plant growth through both shared and separate signaling pathways.

  6. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  7. Selected Factors Affecting the Development of Auditing Services Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Rydzak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three factors affecting the development of auditing services market and its oligopoly. The binding provisions of law concerning discretionary powers of auditing companies’ proprietary rights, to some extent, petrify the current auditing market structure. By means of numerous capital access deterrents they make it impossible to compete with the most influential entities on the market. Bearing in mind the vital influence of statutory auditors on companies’ functioning, and allowing the companies access to capital, it is advisable to abolish all binding restrictions and simultaneously strengthen the internal control mechanisms facilitating high quality of financial review and statutory auditors’ independence. The auditing services market is, most of all, subject to price competition. The binding requisition of statutory auditors’ (including auditing companies salary disclosure intensifies mutual chain of audit pricing dependence and restricts competition. Properly utilized rotation principle, by strengthening the competence, might positively influence functioning of the auditing services market. It increases an opportunity of collaborating with new entities, while enforcing constant improvement of qualifications required to perform financial reviews. Hence its wider use should be postulated.

  8. Regulation No. 44 of 11 September 1989 on the development of areas affected by migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Bulgarian Regulation establishes the following measures to aid the development of districts affected by migration: 1) local councils shall lease municipal land, buildings, and other property to newcomers for periods of at least 10 years; after the 10-year period has passed the lessee shall acquire title to the leased land or premises and be exempted from paying a transfer tax; 2) the State Savings Bank shall extend to the people of these districts loans for the construction of houses and farm buildings and reconstruction of living premises, with the state paying the interest on the loans; 3) new residents who have to change professions shall receive monetary benefits for up to 6 months during the time they are changing professions; 4) new residents employed in agriculture shall be exempted from payment of income taxes for 5 years; 5) transportation expenses incurred by new residents and their families during the process of resettlement are to be paid by the state; 6) persons under 35 who have graduated from high school shall be admitted to engineering, agriculture, and economic institutions of higher education without taking an entrance exam, if they agree to return to these districts after graduation and work there for no fewer than 6 years; and 7) retired persons working in these districts shall be entitled to receive full remuneration for their work, as well as full pensions.

  9. Study of Factors Affecting the Safety of Citizens and their Effects on Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Rahdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the basic needs of citizens in urban structures, it has particular importance due to the inclusion of solace and comfort for its citizens. Hence in urban studies, Security has always been regarded as one of the most important indicators in quality of life and urban planners. This study examines the sense of security of citizens in Dargaz urban development. In this thesis, the research methods are descriptive, analytical studies, documentary and field, and the SPSS software was used for analysis. In this survey the number of 384 residents between 15 and 50 years old in Dargaz is selected, the multi-stage cluster sampling were selected. The questionnaire results show that: Of the total 384 samples of the study, 17 percent had been feeling low security, 58 percent on average, and 25 percent had high security. Regression test results indicate that: Beta coefficient value of the variables in terms of economic, social, the role of defense and security forces, media performance, physical and social situation in the city, social capital and gender, has been able to explain 89% of the variance feel safe. The results of correlation and regression analysis corresponded with the theoretical approach research. We can say there is a significant positive relationship between the variables. So that the strength of one variable affects the other variable. Conversely, increasing and decreasing the negative effects of one variable on other variables can also have direct effects.

  10. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  11. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  12. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  13. Low dose zinc supplementation beneficially affects seizure development in experimental seizure models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Katyal, Jatinder; Gupta, Yogendra K

    2015-02-01

    The role of zinc in seizure models and with antiepileptic drugs sodium valproate (SV) and phenytoin (PHT) was studied using experimental models of seizures in rats. Male Wistar rats, 150-250 g were administered zinc 2, 20, and 200 mg/kg, orally for 14 days. Sixty minutes after the last dose of zinc, rats were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, ip) or maximal electroshock (MES, 70 mA, 0.2 s duration). In another group, SV (150/300 mg/kg, ip) or PHT (40 mg/kg, ip) was administered after 30 min of zinc administration followed by seizure challenge. Zinc pretreatment at all doses had no effect on MES seizures. In PTZ seizures, with the lowest dose used, i.e., 2 mg/kg, a protective effect was observed. Neither the protection offered by the 100 % anticonvulsant dose of SV (300 mg/kg) in PTZ seizures was affected by pre-treatment with zinc nor a combination of subanticonvulsant dose of SV (150 mg/kg) and zinc offer any statistically significant advantage over either drug alone. The combination of phenytoin with zinc had no effect on any of the parameters tested. Apart from this, chronic zinc administration hampered development of chemically (PTZ)-kindled seizures in rats. Zinc supplementation is unlikely to have any undesirable effect when used in epileptics rather it may offer advantage in epileptic and seizure prone patients.

  14. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  15. The Development and Implementation of an Affect Regulation and Attachment Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of the research and theory about affect regulation and attachment strategies of families to develop a low-cost multiple-family group intervention for incarcerated adolescents and their parents. Reviews the research that underlies the intervention, describes the development of the videotapes used, discusses the intervention…

  16. On the Strategies of Helping Students Develop Positive Affections in FLT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mofang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Former language experts and education practitioners have explored a lot as to the handing of affective factors in foreign language teaching and learning. Based on their achievements and also the observation,investigation and practice of the present author,several strategies of helping learners overcome negative affects and construct positive ones in foreign language learning and teaching will be put forward,with the guidance of principles formulated in this essay,which is very helpful to our teachers.

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  18. Developing Students' Affective Attitude in Primary English Foreign Language Classrooms in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benjamin; Siu, Ina

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues against the description of the common approach to English language teaching in the People's Republic of China (PRC) as mimetic and epistemic by exploring the pedagogical practices that primary English language teachers in the PRC adopt for implementing the affective dimension advocated in the new (2001) English language…

  19. The "Lord of the Rings": Affective Approaches to Teaching Literature. DRICE (Development & Research in Confluent Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aaron

    This paper was intended to be read to a class or group of people who will in turn respond to the directions given in the paper. It is an attempt to merge the affective and cognitive experiences of literature in order to provide a more meaningful experience while studying J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy, "The Lord of the Rings." The directions…

  20. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  1. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates. Prim

  2. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Elske N. de; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of

  3. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under eleva

  4. Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-09-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

  5. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Stewart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  6. The hydrology of northern peatlands as affected by biogenic gas: Current developments and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that accumulation and release of biogenic gas from northern peatlands may substantially affect future climate. Sudden release of free-phase gas bubbles into the atmosphere may preclude the conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the uppermost oxic layer of the peat, resulting in greater contribution of methane to the atmosphere than is currently estimated. The hydrology of these peatlands also affects and is affected by this process, especially when gas is released suddenly and episodically. Indirect hydrological evidence indicates that ebullitive gas releases are relatively frequent in some peatlands and time-averaged rates may be significantly greater than diffusive releases. Estimates of free-phase gas contained in peat have ranged from 0 to nearly 20% of the peat volume. Abrupt changes in the volume of gas may alter hydraulic gradients and movement of water and solutes in peat, which in turn could alter composition and fluxes of the gas. Peat surfaces also move vertically and horizontally in response to accumulation and release of free-phase gas. Future research should address the distribution, temporal variability, and relative significance of ebullition in peatlands and the consequent hydrological responses to these gas-emission events. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  8. Developing a function impairment measure for children affected by political violence: a mixed methods approach in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Susanty, D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Practitioners in political violence-affected settings would benefit from rating scales that assess child function impairment in a reliable and valid manner when designing and evaluating interventions. We developed a procedure to construct child function impairment rating scales using reso

  9. Complementary Expertise in a Zoo Educator Professional Development Event Contributes to the Construction of Understandings of Affective Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products--an Affective…

  10. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  11. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Christopher E Aston; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender de...

  12. Evidence implicating BRD1 with brain development and susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Bjarkam, Carsten; Kiær-Larsen, Stine;

    Introduction: Linkage studies suggest that chromosome 22q12-13 may contain one or more shared susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPD). In a Faeroese sample we previously reported association between microsatellite markers located at 22q13.31-qtel and both...... disorders. Methods: The present study reports an association analysis across 5 genes (including 14 single nucleotide and two microsatellite polymorphisms) in this interval using a case-control sample of 162 BPD, 103 SZ patients and 200 controls. Results: The bromodomain-containing 1 gene (BRD1), which...

  13. Timing of mounding for bambara groundnut affects crop development and yield in a rainfed tropical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai;

    2013-01-01

    to the crown of bambara groundnut plants and has been shown to improve seed yield of the crop. However, little information exists if and how the timing of mounding affects the productivity of the crop. To address this, two experiments during two consecutive years in rainfed fields in the Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological...... zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...

  14. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  15. Laptop usage affects abstract reasoning of children in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Koudenburg, Namkje; Hiersemann, Rena; Tellegen, Peter J.; Kocsev, Marton; Postmes, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising trend to provide low-cost laptops to children in developing countries. Notwithstanding strong claims about the educational effectiveness of these programs, there is very little systematic evidence. Given the level of modernization and the teacher-led learning environment in develop

  16. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two...

  17. Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety During Pregnancy Affect Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg-Eddes, T. van; Groot, L. de; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  18. The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Zanden, van J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry

  19. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  20. 78 FR 58316 - Complex Issues in Developing Medical Devices for Pediatric Patients Affected by Rare Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... workshop will help in developing a strategic plan to encourage and accelerate the development of new... medical devices for pediatric clinical practice; Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) marketing pathway... OOPD's functions is to designate devices as HUDs, which allows them to be eligible for...

  1. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  2. Affecting the Future: The Role of Appropriate Scaffolding in the Development of Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, Catherine M.

    Young children exhibit aggression in order to achieve their goals, to respond to their developing understandings of ownership. The NAEYC "Code of Ethical Conduct" for early childhood educators includes the commitment to support children's development, including helping them to learn to work cooperatively. The types of interventions that…

  3. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  4. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-05-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: A PERSPECTIVE FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Pandit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationally projects exhibit time and cost overrun. It is observed that problems during design development contribute significantly to delays. In India, projects undertaken by government were largely planned and designed by departmental planners and engineers. However, after globalization, projects have increased in number resulting in design outsourcing, but with attendant challenges. The paper is aimed at identifying and analysing factors in the design development phase that can have impact on project success. 30 factors related to design development were identified through two separate brainstorming sessions. A questionnaire was then administered to determine importance ranking of these factors. Relative importance index (RII was used to prioritise these factors. Top ten factors in design development identified using RII include structural design parameters, soil investigations, design quality control, topographic survey, and architectural design parameters. The results can help firms improve their design development practices by prioritising activities that could have more impact on project performance.

  6. Overexpression of pairedless Pax6 in the retina disrupts corneal development and affects lens cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiha; Lauderdale, James D

    2008-01-01

    The Pax6 transcription factor is required for multiple aspects of vertebrate eye development. The Pax6 gene encodes isoforms that either contain (Pax6+PD) or lack (Pax6DeltaPD) the N-terminal paired-box DNA-binding domain, in addition to the homeodomain. Alternative promoters control the expression of Pax6+PD and Pax6DeltaPD in the eye. Using a modified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgene that specifically expresses Pax6DeltaPD, but not paired-containing Pax6, in the normal endogenous pattern, we show that overexpression of Pax6DeltaPD causes a severe microphthalmic phenotype in both wild-type and Pax6-deficient (Sey(/+)) mice in a dosage-dependent manner. The microphthalmic phenotype is due to lens degeneration during embryonic development. Lens development initiates correctly, but cells in the lens undergo apoptotic cell death between E12 and E13. Concomitantly, in these mice, changes in Bmp4, Msx1, and Wnt2b expression were observed in the mesenchymal cells of the developing cornea. To visualize Pax6DeltaPD expression, we developed a dual-reporter Pax6 BAC transgene in which EGFP and DsRed demonstrate paired-containing and pairedless transcripts, respectively. In BAC transgenic mice, DsRed is predominantly expressed in the peripheral neural retina during early eye development, but not in the developing lens or cornea. Later DsRed is strongly expressed in the developing ciliary body, but not in the iris. We suggest that the ratio of Pax6+PD and Pax6DeltaPD isoforms in the distal retina is important for both cornea and lens development, either directly by controlling transcription of necessary growth factors or indirectly by controlling development of the distal neural retina.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTEINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC REVIVAL OF MINING AREAS AFFECTED BY RESTRUCTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Pleşea

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of an area or region, as a process of change, of economic and jobs development, entails, in the context of what it summarizes through the dualism: ecosystem-ecoeficiency, community concern over the current and future situation of its natural resources, energy, materials and information. With the responsible approach for the sustainable development of mining areas, the exploitation and the efficient use of coal as the main source of fossil fuel for energy production, involves the operation of a sustainable economy to meet the current needs of the society, respectively the orientation of the development technologies and the institutions of increasingly responsible for implementation, which actions must be convergent and replace the fact that mining must use resources with care such as mining as a whole, should not endanger the natural support systems of life. The paper presents, in an uniform and coherent whole, the specific principles and criteria of strategic and integrated management of sustainable development, based on what are the detailed objectives and priorities of economic development of mining regions, as well as highlights of the strategic management of sustainable development at the local, regional and national levels.

  8. How do patents and economic policies affect access to essential medicines in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Amir

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between patents and access to essential medicines. It finds that in sixty-five low- and middle-income countries, where four billion people live, patenting is rare for 319 products on the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines. Only seventeen essential medicines are patentable, although usually not actually patented, so that overall patent incidence is low (1.4 percent) and concentrated in larger markets. This and other results shed light on the policy dialogue among public health activists, the pharmaceutical industry, and governments that is often based on mistaken premises about how patents affect corporate revenues or the health of the world's poorest. Pragmatism and greater flexibility are urged, so that policy may better concentrate on the greater causes of epidemic mortality, which now pose unprecedented threats to global peace and security.

  9. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Affect Neurobehavioral Development in the Human Fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, Frederique F. T.; de Heus, Roel; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) utilized by pregnant women influence fetal neurobehavioral development. In this observational study we investigated developmental milestones of fetal behavior during the pregnancy of women wi

  10. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Singh, Lauren N; Manary, Mark J

    2016-11-05

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnosis or treatment of moderate or severe malnutrition during pregnancy. Establishing clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment will be essential in elevating the problem. Possible anthropometric measurements used to detect and monitor maternal malnutrition include pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, and mid upper arm circumference. Food supplements have the potential to increase gestational weight gain and energy intake which are positively associated with fetal growth and development. Overall more studies are needed to conclude the impact of food/nutrient supplements on infant growth in undernourished pregnant women in developing countries. Currently, a study underway may provide much needed documentation of the benefits of treating malnutrition in pregnancy.

  11. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  12. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  13. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovation in (epigenetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the United States, there are only twenty-three Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved companion diagnostics on the market for eleven unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for thirty-six hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and thirty-four non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  14. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  15. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  16. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase activity affects tumor development during the maize-Ustilago maydis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Robles, Francisco Ignacio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; García de la Cruz, Ramón Fernando; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic plant pathogenic fungus that leads to tumor development in the aerial tissues of its host, Zea mays. These tumors are the result of cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and are accompanied by the reprograming of primary and secondary metabolism of infected plants. Up to now, little is known regarding key plant actors and their role in tumor development during the interaction with U. maydis. Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. In a previous study, we found substantial increases of polyamine levels in tumors. In the present work, we describe the maize polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene family, its contribution to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and its possible role in tumor development induced by U. maydis. Histochemical analysis revealed that chlorotic lesions and maize tumors induced by U. maydis accumulate H2O2 to significant levels. Maize plants inoculated with U. maydis and treated with the PAO inhibitor 1,8-diaminooctane exhibit a notable reduction of H2O2 accumulation in infected tissues and a significant drop in PAO activity. This treatment also reduced disease symptoms in infected plants. Finally, among six maize PAO genes only the ZmPAO1, which encodes an extracellular enzyme, is up-regulated in tumors. Our data suggest that H2O2 produced through PA catabolism by ZmPAO1 plays an important role in tumor development during the maize-U. maydis interaction.

  17. RECENT DECISIONS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARCELLUS SHALE IN PENNSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Abbott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pennsylvania has a long history of natural gas exploration and development beginning in the 1800's. Despite having some of the country's oldest jurisprudence dealing with oil and gas disputes, Pennsylvania case law regarding oil and gas operations is relatively undeveloped in comparison to states like Texas and Oklahoma. With the boom in leasing and developing in the region in the last few years, there has also been an increase in oil and gas litigation in Pennsylvania state and federal courts. This paper will discuss the recent decisions that have impacted the development of Marcellus law in Pennsylvania, as well as identify some of the significant pending issues that are worth watching.

  18. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  19. Zebrafish: A Model for the Study of Toxicants Affecting Muscle Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Daczewska, Małgorzata; Lewicka, Anna; Migocka-Patrzałek, Marta; Niedbalska-Tarnowska, Joanna; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress in medicine, agriculture, and allied sciences has enabled the development of a large amount of potentially useful bioactive compounds, such as drugs and pesticides. However, there is another side of this phenomenon, which includes side effects and environmental pollution. To avoid or minimize the uncontrollable consequences of using the newly developed compounds, researchers seek a quick and effective means of their evaluation. In achieving this goal, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has proven to be a highly useful tool, mostly because of its fast growth and development, as well as the ability to absorb the molecules diluted in water through its skin and gills. In this review, we focus on the reports concerning the application of zebrafish as a model for assessing the impact of toxicants on skeletal muscles, which share many structural and functional similarities among vertebrates, including zebrafish and humans. PMID:27869769

  20. Zebrafish: A Model for the Study of Toxicants Affecting Muscle Development and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dubińska-Magiera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in medicine, agriculture, and allied sciences has enabled the development of a large amount of potentially useful bioactive compounds, such as drugs and pesticides. However, there is another side of this phenomenon, which includes side effects and environmental pollution. To avoid or minimize the uncontrollable consequences of using the newly developed compounds, researchers seek a quick and effective means of their evaluation. In achieving this goal, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has proven to be a highly useful tool, mostly because of its fast growth and development, as well as the ability to absorb the molecules diluted in water through its skin and gills. In this review, we focus on the reports concerning the application of zebrafish as a model for assessing the impact of toxicants on skeletal muscles, which share many structural and functional similarities among vertebrates, including zebrafish and humans.

  1. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Effect of Escherichia coli mutation affecting the RNA polymerase sigma factor on phage T4 development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Iu N

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial RNA polymerase sigma factor is necessary throughout T4 development. T4 can develop in the E. coli RpoD800 mutant cells only at permissive temperature. RNA synthesis in T4-infected mutant cells remains temperature-sensitive throughout infection as in uninfected mutant bacteria. This shows that bacterial sigma factor is necessary for all types of RNA synthesis in infected E. coli. The data obtained suggest also that active sigma factor is necessary for early, but not for late T4 DNA replication.

  3. Polymorphisms within beta-catenin encoding gene affect multiple myeloma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Rybka, Justyna; Łacina, Piotr; Gębura, Katarzyna; Frontkiewicz, Diana; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cereblon (CRBN) is essential for the anti-myeloma (MM) activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and lenalidomide, and that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be one of possible reasons of lenalidomide resistance. This prompted us to analyze the effect of polymorphisms within the genes coding for cereblon (CRBN (rs121918368 C>T)) and β-catenin (CTNNB1 (rs4135385 A>G; rs4533622 A>C)). MM patients (n=142) and healthy individuals (n=123) were genotyped using the Light SNiP assays. The presence of the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) A allele was more frequently detected in patients presented with stage II-III disease according to International Staging System (63/82 vs. 26/44, p=0.043) and Durie-Salmon criteria (75/99 vs. 14/26, p=0.049). The CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA homozygosity was more frequent among patients with better response to CTD, i.e., cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (18/23 vs. 32/60, p=0.047). Patients carrying the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA genotype were better responders to the first line therapy with thalidomide containing regimens (pCRBN polymorphism. These results suggest that the CTNNB1 polymorphisms may affect the clinical course and response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

  4. Does output market development affect irrigation water institutions? Insights from a case study in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of changing external conditions on irrigation water institutions in northern China. To this end, we perform a case study analysis of the impact of output market development on irrigation water transactions, using survey data collected among 315 hou

  5. Debt, Democratization, and Development in Latin America: How Policy Can Affect Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, Rene W.; Good, David H.; Krutilla, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis conjectures a nonlinear relationship between pollution and economic growth, such that pollution per capita initially increases as countries economically develop, but then reaches a maximum point before ultimately declining. Much of the EKC literature has focused on testing this basic hypothesis and,…

  6. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  7. Methuselah-like genes affect development, stress resistance, lifespan and reproduction in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Zhang, Yi; Yun, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanyun; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Methuselah (Mth) is associated with lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster, but Mth is not present in nondrosophiline insects. A number of methuselah-likes (mthls) have been identified in nondrosophiline insects, but it is unknown whether the functions of mth are shared by mthls or are divergent from them. Five mthls have been identified in Tribolium castaneum. Although they have different developmental expression patterns, they all enhance resistance to starvation. Only mthl1 and mthl2 enhance resistance to high temperature, whereas mthl4 and mthl5 negatively regulate oxidative stress in T. castaneum. Unlike in the fly with mth mutation, knockdown of mthls, except mthl3, shortens the lifespan of T. castaneum. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 are critical for Tribolium development. mthl1 plays important roles in larval and pupal development and adult eclosion, while mthl2 is required for eclosion. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 silencing reduces the fertility of T. castaneum, and mthl1 and mthl4 are also essential for embryo development. In conclusion, mthls have a significant effect on insect development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. These results provide experimental evidence for functional divergence among mthls/mth and clues for the signal transduction of Mthls.

  8. GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybulin, Olexandr; Sidorik, Evgeniy; Kyrylenko, Sergiy; Henshel, Diane; Yakymenko, Igor

    2012-03-01

    A wide range of non thermal biological effects of microwave radiation (MW) was revealed during the last decades. A number of reports showed evident hazardous effects of MW on embryo development in chicken. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the effects of MW emitted by a commercial model of GSM 900 MHz cell phone on embryo development in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during both short and prolonged exposure. For that, fresh fertilized eggs were irradiated during the first 38 h or 14 days of incubation by a cell phone in "connecting" mode activated continuously through a computer system. Maximum intensity of incident radiation on the egg's surface was 0.2 μW/cm2.The irradiation led to a significant (pGSM 900 MHz cell phone on developing quail embryos signify a possibility for non-thermal impact of MW on embryogenesis. We suggest that the facilitating effect of low doses of irradiation on embryo development can be explained by a hormesis effect induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Future studies need to be done to clarify this assumption.

  9. A new generation: How refugee trauma affects parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of

  10. Development of an Instrument To Measure Cultural Attitudes and Behaviors Affecting Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Virginia C.; Berven, Norman L.

    2002-01-01

    The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational Attitudes Questionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…

  11. Teacher Factors Affecting the Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education in Kericho Municipality, Kericho County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutindi, Koech Zipporah; Chepngeno, Kabwos Rebecca; Jeruto, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Childhood education is crucial in the life of a child because it lays the foundation of intellectual and physical development. Concerns have been raised over the state of the ECDE programmes with regard to the negative teacher attitudes towards selection and use of instructional resources due to low remuneration, lack of time and demotivation. The…

  12. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  13. Factors Affecting the Development of Two Spatial Abilities Basic to Technical Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Roland B.

    1977-01-01

    Report of a study, using 7 13 year-old boys and girls, which sought to determine if the growth of underlying spatial abilities are enhanced more if technical drawing activities requiring multiview spatial ability are presented before surface development activities, or vice versa. Includes implications for teaching technical drawing. (TA)

  14. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Penglase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth.

  15. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  16. The Place of Story in Affective Development: Implications for Educators and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Hugh

    1985-01-01

    Traditional literary criticism, reader-response research, and the techniques of systemic therapy are brought together to provide guidelines for teachers and counselors concerned with using stories to further the emotional development of children. A theory of reader-story interaction is proposed, and a case is made for individually composed…

  17. Lessons Learned from My Students: The Impact of SEM Teaching and Learning on Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Through reflection on his years as an enrichment teacher in Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) programs, the author describes significant ways the social and emotional development of his students was shaped by their involvement in enriched teaching and learning. Through portraits of his students engaged in Type II and Type III enrichment, the…

  18. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A; Snyder, Mark J; Cherr, Gary N

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), progesterone (P4) and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT(L. anamesus)>OCT>TBT(S. purpuratus)>E2>EE2>DDD>BisA>P4>E1>E3. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E2, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at concentrations as low as 0.02 ng

  19. Review on Development of Ceramic Membrane From Sol-Gel Route: Parameters Affecting Characteristics of the Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Othman and H. Mukhtar

    2012-01-01

    The importance of laboratory scale ceramic membrane preparation using sol-gel technique with pore sizes in the range of 1-10nm is reviewed. Parameters affecting the characteristics of membrane during membrane development are highlighted and discussed in detail. Experimental results from literatures have shown that the correct amount of acid, water, PVA, appropriate membrane thickness, proper control of drying rate, and appropriate temperature profile selection during sintering process are nec...

  20. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics.

  1. Dose of recombinant FSH and oestradiol concentration on day of HCG affect embryo development kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During follicular growth, the follicle is exposed to an almost ever-changing composition of isoforms of FSH and LH, which causes a number of different and divergent biological effects. Through a time-lapse system, embryo kinetics were examined following the use of FSH only (recombinant FSH, r......FSH) and gonadotrophins containing LH activity (human menopausal gonadotrophin, HMG, and FSH+HMG) in oocyte donors. No significant differences were seen between the three groups (for rFSH, HMG and rFSH+HMG, t2 was 27.8h, 27.9h and 27.5h respectively). Moreover, although embryos obtained with rFSH showed an increase...... in the proportions of optimal timings of development, the differences observed were not significant, as shown by the percentages of embryos inside/outside these kinetic variables. In contrast, for gonadotrophin dosage and oestradiol concentration, this study observed differences in embryo development kinetics...

  2. D-chiro-inositol affects accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in developing embryos of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Dzik, Tomasz

    2011-03-01

    Developing garden pea embryos are able to take up exogenously applied cyclitols: myo-inositol, which naturally occurs in pea, and two cyclitols absent in pea plants: d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol. The competition in the uptake of cyclitols by pea embryo, insensitivity to glucose and sucrose, and susceptibility to inhibitor(s) of H(+)-symporters (e.g. CCCP and antimycin A) suggest that a common cyclitol transporter is involved. Both d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol can be translocated through the pea plant to developing embryos. During seed maturation drying, they are used for synthesis of mainly mono-galactosides, such as fagopyritol B1 and galactosyl pinitol A. Accumulation of d-chiro-inositol (and formation of fagopyritols), but not d-pinitol, strongly reduces accumulation of verbascose, the main raffinose oligosaccharide in pea seeds. The reasons for the observed changes are discussed.

  3. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia.We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4.Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians.The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults' cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults.

  4. A STUDY OF FACTOR AFFECTING THE SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIAN CREATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Nugroho Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The creative industries promising opportunities, especially the interactive game business. creative industries is still undeveloped, but lately has been showing its contribution to the economic development of Indonesia. Implementation of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT strategy is a new discourse that can provide great opportunities for the entrepreneurial. This study aims to reveal the level of implementation of ICT strategies, the role of government influence on the development of business, industry conditions as well as the existing value chain in the interactive games industry. Type of research conducted by descriptive research, qualitative analysis was based on the findings of desk research / literature, interview sources, and the researcher's own knowledge. Level of subjectivity can be minimized with the help of quantitative analysis and the selection of competent resource persons in the field interviews. Secondary data obtained from the creative economy planning books in 2025, which was published by the Ministry of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia. Based on the research results, it is concluded that the implementation of ICT strategies by entrepreneurs in the interactive games industry is still less, and this is partly because in general the industry is still small-scale and micro enterprises, mash the industry is relatively new in the world of business, and entrepreneurs are still concentrating the creation, production, and distributio, commercialization are being developed. In general, interactive games industry is growing. In the future, need to research business model and business strategy, so it would complement the models developing strategy in the game interactive industry.

  5. Institutional factors that affect the development of the tourist industry in mazatlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rubén Ibarra Martínez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a reflection of how the negative social practices that are presents in the coexistence forms of the economic agents, who integrate the tourist industry of Mazatlan, are the determining factor to explain the stagnation that is undergoing the city in the last years. The analysis of this essay was realized under the economic geography approach, which takes into account the specifications of a place to explain its conditions and potentialities for Development.

  6. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  7. Does dietary protein in early life affect the development of adiposity in mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, C C

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the proposition that dietary protein in pre- and early postnatal life influences the development of adiposity in later life. In rodents, low protein intake during gestation can result in low birth weight and subsequently leads to various metabolic disturbances in adulthood, such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The few controlled studies conducted in animals suggest that high protein or energy intake during gestation leads to low birth weights. Observational studies in humans have been inconclusive in establishing a relationship between dietary protein intake in pregnancy and effects on birth weight and adiposity of the offspring later in life. There is only weak epidemiological evidence linking high protein intake during early childhood and the development of obesity. By contrast, studies in domestic animals have found that higher levels of protein intake are often associated with lower rates of fat accretion. Additional studies are proposed to explore claims linking protein nutrition in early life to the postnatal development of obesity and disease in humans.

  8. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-02-03

    Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis.

  9. The factors affecting the development of the musical performance : A study on the musical performance in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jin

    2010-01-01

    The development of musical theatre in china is still in its initial stage, only a few big theatres have the ability of operating musical performance, and at this time, musical theatre is only performed in few big cities in China, like Shanghai and Beijing. The the-sis focuses on the development of musical theatre in Shanghai. As an entertainment ac-tivity and also one of the performing arts, the demand for musical theatre could be affect by many factors like educational background, income and...

  10. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  11. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD.

  12. Does lighting manipulation during incubation affect hatching rhythms and early development of sole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Vives, B; Aliaga-Guerrero, M; Cañavate, J P; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2011-05-01

    Light plays a key role in the development of biological rhythms in fish. Previous research on Senegal sole has revealed that both spawning rhythms and larval development are strongly influenced by lighting conditions. However, hatching rhythms and the effect of light during incubation are as yet unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the light spectrum and photoperiod on Solea senegalensis eggs and larvae until day 7 post hatching (dph). To this end, eggs were collected immediately after spawning during the night and exposed to continuous light (LL), continuous darkness (DD), or light-dark (LD) 12L:12D cycles of white light (LD(W)), blue light (LD(B); λ(peak) = 463 nm), or red light (LD(R); λ(peak) = 685 nm). Eggs exposed to LD(B) had the highest hatching rate (94.5% ± 1.9%), whereas LD(R) and DD showed the lowest hatching rate (54.4% ± 3.9% and 48.4% ± 4.2%, respectively). Under LD conditions, the hatching rhythm peaked by the end of the dark phase, but was advanced in LD(B) (zeitgeber time 8 [ZT8]; ZT0 representing the onset of darkness) in relation to LD(W) and LD(R) (ZT11). Under DD conditions, the same rhythm persisted, although with lower amplitude, whereas under LL the hatching rhythm split into two peaks (ZT8 and ZT13). From dph 4 onwards, larvae under LD(B) showed the best growth and quickest development (advanced eye pigmentation, mouth opening, and pectoral fins), whereas larvae under LD(R) and DD had the poorest performance. These results reveal that developmental rhythms at the egg stage are tightly controlled by light characteristics, underlining the importance of reproducing their natural underwater photoenvironment (LD cycles of blue wavelengths) during incubation and early larvae development of fish.

  13. Interactive Software System Developed to Study How Icing Affects Airfoil Performance (Phase 1 Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2000-01-01

    SmaggIce (Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils), which is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is an interactive software system for data probing, boundary smoothing, domain decomposition, and structured grid generation and refinement. All these steps are required for aerodynamic performance prediction using structured, grid-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD), as illustrated in the following figure. SmaggIce provides the underlying computations to perform these functions, as well as a graphical user interface to control and interact with them, and graphics to display the results.

  14. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families.

  15. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

  16. Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Development of Identity Confusion in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celale Tangul Ozcan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Various factors may influence on development of identity sense. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of various factors including age, number of siblings, birth order, level of income, parents’ level of education, family types and living in urban or rural on development of identity sense in male adolescents. The sample consisted of 537 male adolescents from a health technician vocational high school. Participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF. Identity confusion was found in 15.3% of the sample. The mean score of SIAF reached peak level at 17 years old and then gradually decreased. The mean SIAF score of rural-based adolescents was significantly higher when compared with that of urban-based adolescents (p<0.05. The adolescents living in low income families showed significantly higher SIAF scores (p<0.05. The sons of fathers with low education (below 8 yrs had higher mean SIAF score (p<0.05. This study suggests that male adolescents who live in low income families and rural, and have father with low level of education are more likely to have identity confusion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 131-138

  17. Development of ceftriaxone resistance affects the virulence properties of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Yang, Yu-Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chun-Yin; Sun, Jian; Li, Lu-Lu; Liu, Bao-Tao; Yang, Shou-Shen; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Development of antibiotic resistance may alter the virulence properties of bacterial organisms. In this study, nine clinical ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains were subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of ceftriaxone in culture media. Mutations in virulence-associated genes and antibiotic efflux genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The expression levels of virulence genes invA and stn as well as efflux pump genes tolC, arcA, and arcB before and after the selection were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The stepwise selection resulted in the development of Salmonella strains that were highly resistant to ceftriaxone. Sequence analysis did not reveal any mutations or deletions in the examined virulence genes and regulatory gene, but a silent mutation (T423C) in acrR (encoding a repressor for the efflux pump) was detected in most of the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. The qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and decreased expression of invA and stn in the ceftriaxone-resistant strains. Moreover, decreased invasion into cultured epithelial cells and reduced growth rates were observed with the resistant strains. These results suggest that acquisition of ceftriaxone resistance is associated with the overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and leads to reduced virulence in Salmonella Typhimurium.

  18. Alginate production affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development and architecture, but is not essential for biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapper, A.P.; Narasimhan, G.; Oman, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Extracellular polymers can facilitate the non-specific attachment of bacteria to surfaces and hold together developing biofilms. This study was undertaken to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the architecture of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 and its alginate......-overproducing (mucA22) and alginate-defective (algD) variants in order to discern the role of alginate in biofilm formation. These strains, PAO1, Alg(+) PAOmucA22 and Alg(-) PAOalgD, tagged with green fluorescent protein, were grown in a continuous flow cell system to characterize the developmental cycles...... of their biofilm formation using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm Image Processing (BIP) and Community Statistics (COMSTAT) software programs were used to provide quantitative measurements of the two-dimensional biofilm images. All three strains formed distinguishable biofilm architectures, indicating...

  19. Endosulfan affects health variables in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces alterations in larvae development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.; Handy, R. D.; Sloman, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.16 or 0.48 mu g/L of the insecticide, endosulfan, for 28 days. Haematology, whole body ions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, organ histology and reproduction were assessed in adults. The resulting...... offspring were examined for latent effects on development (heart rate and morphometrics). On day 14, adult fish exposed to 0.16 mu g/L endosulfan showed significantly lower red blood cell counts than those exposed to 0.48 mu g/L endosulfan; adult fish exposed to 0.16 ug/L also showed elevated TBARS compared...... to controls. Both concentrations of endosulfan caused a 4.0 fold increase in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity compared to controls (ANOVA, p fish exposed to endosulfan had fewer, enlarged hepatocytes, with cell diameters greater than the controls (ANOVA, p

  20. How do liquid fuel physical properties affect liquid jet development in atomisers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2016-10-01

    The influence of liquid fuel properties on atomisation remains an open question. The droplet sizes in sprays from atomisers operated with different fuels may be modified despite the small changes of the liquid properties. This paper examines experimentally the development of a liquid jet injected from a plain orifice in order to evaluate changes in its behaviour due to modifications of the liquid properties, which may influence the final atomisation characteristics. Two aviation kerosenes with similar, but not identical physical properties are considered, namely, standard JP8 kerosene as the reference fuel and bio-derived hydro-processed renewable jet fuel as an alternative biofuel. The corresponding density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, and surface tension change by about +5%, -5%, -10%, and +5%, respectively, which are typical for "drop-in" fuel substitution. Three aspects of the liquid jet behaviour are experimentally considered. The pressure losses of the liquid jet through the nozzle are examined in terms of the discharge coefficient for different flowrates. The morphology of the liquid jet is visualised using high magnification Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) imaging. Finally, the temporal development of the liquid jet interfacial velocity as a function of distance from the nozzle exit is measured from time-dependent motion analysis of dual-frame LIF imaging measurements of the jet. The results show that for the small changes in the physical properties between the considered liquid fuels, the direct substitution of fuel did not result in a drastic change of the external morphology of the fuel jets. However, the small changes in the physical properties modify the interfacial velocities of the liquid and consequently the internal jet velocity profile. These changes can modify the interaction of the liquid jet with the surroundings, including air flows in coaxial or cross flow atomisation, and influence the atomisation characteristics during the

  1. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  2. MYT3, a Myb-like transcription factor, affects fungal development and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo Kim

    Full Text Available We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the Δmyt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the Δmyt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the Δmyt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the Δmyt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum.

  3. Loss of all 3 Extended Synaptotagmins does not affect normal mouse development, viability or fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michel G; Moss, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The extended synaptotagmins, E-Syt1, 2 and 3, are multiple C2 domain membrane proteins that are tethered to the endoplasmic reticulum and interact in a calcium dependent manner with plasma membrane phospholipids to form endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junctions. These junctions have been implicated in the exchange of phospholipids between the 2 organelles. The E-Syts have further been implicated in receptor signaling and endocytosis and can interact directly with fibroblast growth factor and other cell surface receptors. Despite these multiple functions, the search for a requirement in vivo has been elusive. Most recently, we found that the genes for E-Syt2 and 3 could be inactivated without effect on mouse development, viability, fertility or morphology. We have now created insertion and deletion mutations in the last of the mouse E-Syt genes. We show that E-Syt1 is specifically expressed throughout the embryonic skeleton during the early stages of chrondrogenesis in a pattern quite distinct from that of E-Syt2 or 3. Despite this, E-Syt1 is also not required for mouse development and propagation. We further show that even the combined inactivation of all 3 E-Syt genes has no effect on mouse viability or fertility in the laboratory. However, this inactivation induces an enhancement in the expression of the genes encoding Orp5/8, Orai1, STIM1 and TMEM110, endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junction proteins that potentially could compensate for E-Syt loss. Given the multiple functions suggested for the E-Syts and their evolutionary conservation, our unexpected findings suggest that they may only provide a survival advantage under specific conditions that have as yet to be identified.

  4. GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factors for chloroplast development affect ozone tolerance through the regulation of stomatal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoshi, Yukari; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Okuma, Eiji; Kubo, Akihiro; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Saji, Hikaru; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2016-04-12

    Stomatal movements regulate gas exchange, thus directly affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis and the sensitivity of plants to air pollutants such as ozone. The GARP family transcription factors GOLDEN 2-LIKE1 (GLK1) and GLK2 have known functions in chloroplast development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants expressing the chimeric repressors for GLK1 and -2 (GLK1/2-SRDX) exhibited a closed-stomata phenotype and strong tolerance to ozone. By contrast, plants that overexpress GLK1/2 exhibited an open-stomata phenotype and higher sensitivity to ozone. The plants expressing GLK1-SRDX had reduced expression of the genes for inwardly rectifying K(+) (K(+) in) channels and reduced K(+) in channel activity. Abscisic acid treatment did not affect the stomatal phenotype of 35S:GLK1/2-SRDX plants or the transcriptional activity for K(+) in channel gene, indicating that GLK1/2 act independently of abscisic acid signaling. Our results indicate that GLK1/2 positively regulate the expression of genes for K(+) in channels and promote stomatal opening. Because the chimeric GLK1-SRDX repressor driven by a guard cell-specific promoter induced a closed-stomata phenotype without affecting chloroplast development in mesophyll cells, modulating GLK1/2 activity may provide an effective tool to control stomatal movements and thus to confer resistance to air pollutants.

  5. Characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 in the presence of industrial wastes and its application in the biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elias J; Rocha e Silva, Nathália Maria P; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Silva, Ricardo O; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-05-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 cultivated with 2% soybean waste frying oil and 2% corn steep liquor as substrates produced a biosurfactant with potential application in the bioremediation of soils. The biosurfactant was classified as an anionic biomolecule composed of 75% lipids and 25% carbohydrates. Characterization by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) revealed the presence of carbonyl, olefinic and aliphatic groups, with typical spectra of lipids. Four sets of biodegradation experiments were carried out with soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds amended with molasses in the presence of an indigenous consortium, as follows: Set 1-soil+bacterial cells; Set 2-soil+biosurfactant; Set 3-soil+bacterial cells+biosurfactant; and Set 4-soil without bacterial cells or biosurfactant (control). Significant oil biodegradation activity (83%) occurred in the first 10 days of the experiments when the biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used together (Set 3), while maximum degradation of the organic compounds (above 95%) was found in Sets 1-3 between 35 and 60 days. It is evident from the results that the biosurfactant alone and its producer species are both capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent.

  6. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  7. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  8. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terézia Horváthová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the temperature-size rule (TSR, ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2 and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium, and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber. Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  9. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martines

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. RESULTS: Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (p < 0.05; children were more susceptible to develop otitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (p < 0.05. Allergy and urban localization increased the risk of otitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (p < 0.05; the joint effect of asthma and presence of pets in allergic population increased the risk of recurrence of 11%, while allergy, cough and runny nose together increased this risk of 74%. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Ecologically Different Fungi Affect Arabidopsis Development: Contribution of Soluble and Volatile Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubia, Salvatore; Sapienza, Sara; Fritz, Héma; Daghino, Stefania; Rosenkranz, Maaria; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Martin, Francis; Perotto, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and development can be influenced by mutualistic and non-mutualistic microorganisms. We investigated the ability of the ericoid endomycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius to influence growth and development of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Different experimental setups (non-compartmented and compartmented co-culture plates) were used to investigate the influence of both soluble and volatile fungal molecules on the plant phenotype. O. maius promoted growth of A. thaliana in all experimental setups. In addition, a peculiar clumped root phenotype, characterized by shortening of the primary root and by an increase of lateral root length and number, was observed in A. thaliana only in the non-compartmented plates, suggesting that soluble diffusible molecules are responsible for this root morphology. Fungal auxin does not seem to be involved in plant growth promotion and in the clumped root phenotype because co-cultivation with O. maius did not change auxin accumulation in plant tissues, as assessed in plants carrying the DR5::GUS reporter construct. In addition, no correlation between the amount of fungal auxin produced and the plant root phenotype was observed in an O. maius mutant unable to induce the clumped root phenotype in A. thaliana. Addition of active charcoal, a VOC absorbant, in the compartmented plates did not modify plant growth promotion, suggesting that VOCs are not involved in this phenomenon. The low VOCs emission measured for O. maius further corroborated this hypothesis. By contrast, the addition of CO2 traps in the compartmented plates drastically reduced plant growth, suggesting involvement of fungal CO2 in plant growth promotion. Other mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a saprotrophic and a pathogenic fungus, were also tested with the same experimental setups. In the non-compartmented plates, most fungi promoted A. thaliana growth and some could induce the clumped root phenotype. In the compartmented plate experiments, a general

  11. Development of Quality Management Systems: How Have Disruptive Technological Innovations in Quality Management Affected Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Hellman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.

  12. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebocho, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth. PMID:27553356

  13. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kirunda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education  for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  14. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annis Elizabeth; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Coen, Enrico S

    2016-08-23

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth.

  15. Short-term undernutrition affects final development of ovulatory follicles in sheep synchronized for ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Meikle, A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, in sheep, the effect of a short-term undernutrition on growth dynamics and competence of pre-ovulatory follicles. Synchronization of sexual cycles and induction of ovulation were performed, with progestagens and gonadotrophins, in 14 adult female sheep. Morphological characteristics and developmental competence of ovarian follicles to achieve ovulation were determined by imaging techniques (ultrasonography and laparoscopy) and blood sampling. All the animals ovulated and mean ovulation rates were similar between groups (2.0 ± 0.6 corpora lutea in control ewes and 2.2 ± 0.8 in undernourished sheep). However, nutritional restriction, even during a short period, was related to the presence of large follicles in static growing phase which, despite reaching ovulation, persisted static during the induced follicular phase and evidenced functional alterations as there was no inhibition of the development of subordinate follicles. Thus, this study suggests the existence of deleterious effects from short-term undernutrition on functionality of pre-ovulatory follicles, which can compromise fertility.

  16. Do multi-sectoral development programmes affect health? A Bolivian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, F; Dearden, K; Jimenez, W

    1999-12-01

    This cross-sectional study, carried out in Inquisivi, Bolivia, a rural area where Save the Children/US works, tests the hypothesis that participation in multisectoral development programmes results in improved health behaviours and better health outcomes. To test this hypothesis, four groups of households were compared: those participating in Save the Children's health-only programmes; those with access to health and micro-enterprise credit or health and literacy programmes; those participating in all three programmes (health, credit and literacy); and households from comparison communities (no access to any of Save the Children's programmes). Data come from a stratified sample of 499 households in the altiplano, foothills and valleys of the Andes. Findings reported here suggest that there is no clear association between participation in one or more of Save the Children's programmes and parents' actions to prevent and treat diarrhoea. Additionally, the point prevalence of diarrhoea was similar for all four groups. However, children of individuals participating in health, credit and literacy were significantly less likely than children from comparison communities to be malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished, even after controlling for such potentially confounding factors as social class, source of drinking water, and the availability of health facilities.

  17. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.

  18. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching.

  19. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  20. Acute hypoxic exposure affects gamete quality and subsequent fertilization success and embryonic development in a serpulid polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer.

  1. Loss of LORELEI function in the pistil delays initiation but does not affect embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of seed development. Previously, we reported that loss of LORELEI, which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, in the female reproductive tissues causes a delay in initiation of seed development. From these studies, however, it was unclear if embryos derived from fertilization of lre-5 gametophytes continued to lag behind wild-type during seed development. Additionally, it was not determined if the delay in initiation of seed development had any lingering effects during seed germination. Finally, it was not known if loss of LORELEI function affects seedling development given that LORELEI is expressed in eight-day-old seedlings. Here, we showed that despite a delay in initiation, lre-5/lre-5 embryos recover, becoming equivalent to the developing wild-type embryos beginning at 72 hours after pollination. Additionally, lre-5/lre-5 seed germination, and seedling and root development are indistinguishable from wild-type indicating that loss of LORELEI is tolerated, at least under standard growth conditions, in vegetative tissues. PMID:21051955

  2. Loss of LORELEI function in the pistil delays initiation but does not affect embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2010-11-01

    Double fertilization, uniquely observed in plants, requires successful sperm cell delivery by the pollen tube to the female gametophyte, followed by migration, recognition and fusion of the two sperm cells with two female gametic cells. The female gametophyte not only regulates these steps but also controls the subsequent initiation of seed development. Previously, we reported that loss of LORELEI, which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, in the female reproductive tissues causes a delay in initiation of seed development. From these studies, however, it was unclear if embryos derived from fertilization of lre-5 gametophytes continued to lag behind wild type during seed development. Additionally, it was not determined if the delay in initiation of seed development had any lingering effects during seed germination. Finally, it was not known if loss of LORELEI function affects seedling development given that LORELEI is expressed in eight-day-old seedlings. Here, we showed that despite a delay in initiation, lre-5/lre-5 embryos recover, becoming equivalent to the developing wild-type embryos beginning at 72 hours after pollination. Additionally, lre-5/lre-5 seed germination, and seedling and root development are indistinguishable from wild type indicating that loss of LORELEI is tolerated, at least under standard growth conditions, in vegetative tissues.

  3. Aging affects epidermal Langerhans cell development and function and alters their miRNA gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying-Ping; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Wenbin; Shi, Yuling; Cui, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Immunosenescence is a result of progressive decline in immune system function with advancing age. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), belonging to the dendritic cell (DC) family, act as sentinels to play key roles in the skin immune responses. However, it has not been fully elucidated how aging affects development and function of LCs. Here, we systemically analyzed LC development and function during the aging process in C57BL/6J mice, and performed global microRNA (miRNA) gene expression profiles in aged and young LCs. We found that the frequency and maturation of epidermal LCs were significantly reduced in aged mice starting at 12 months of age, while the Langerin expression and ability to phagocytose Dextran in aged LCs were increased compared to LCs from aged and young mice. Functionally, aged LCs were impaired in their capacity to induce OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs in aged epidermal LCs showed a distinct profile compared to young LCs. Most interestingly, aging-regulated miRNAs potentially target TGF-β-dependent and non- TGF-β-dependent signal pathways related to LCs. Overall, our data suggests that aging affects LCs development and function, and that age-regulated miRNAs may contribute to the LC developmental and functional changes in aging.

  4. Development and preliminary testing of a web-based, self-help application for disaster-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Erica K; Gros, Kirstin; Welsh, Kyleen E; McCauley, Jenna; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla K; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2016-09-01

    Technology-based self-help interventions have the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental healthcare, especially for families affected by natural disasters. However, development of these interventions is a complex process and poses unique challenges. Usability testing, which assesses the ability of individuals to use an application successfully, can have a significant impact on the quality of a self-help intervention. This article describes (a) the development of a novel web-based multi-module self-help intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents and (b) a mixed-methods formal usability study to evaluate user response. A total of 24 adolescents were observed, videotaped, and interviewed as they used the depressed mood component of the self-help intervention. Quantitative results indicated an above-average user experience, and qualitative analysis identified 120 unique usability issues. We discuss the challenges of developing self-help applications, including design considerations and the value of usability testing in technology-based interventions, as well as our plan for widespread dissemination.

  5. The Psycho-Neurology of Cross-Species Affective/Social Neuroscience: Understanding Animal Affective States as a Guide to Development of Novel Psychiatric Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.

  6. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Changlian [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Department of Physiology, Henan Traditional Medical University (China); Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Kuhn, Hans-Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Blomgren, Klas, E-mail: klas.blomgren@neuro.gu.se [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  7. Common genetic variants of the mitochondrial trafficking system and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins affect the development of two slowly developing demyelinating disorders, leukoaraiosis and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Z

    2010-01-01

    As the central energy source, the mitochondria are of great importance in the maintenance of the glia cells of the brain. It is presumed that mitochondrial energy production is affected not only by well-characterized genetic mutations of the mitochondria, which are associated with severe malfunctions and resultant acute glia and neuronal cell death, but also by a number of other unfavorable genetic variants. The genetic variants of the kinesin motor proteins and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are believed to influence the mitochondrial energy production in different distress states of the glia cells. The kinesin motor proteins carry the mitochondria from the central parts to the peripheral parts of the glia cells, where myelin protein synthesis takes place. The UCPs are essential for regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential under different physiological conditions, thereby finally attuning mitochondrial energy production in environmental states such as cold exposure, fasting or chronic mild hypoxia. While the capacity of the kinesin motor proteins can affect the number of mitochondria in the peripheral parts of the glia cells, the functional features of the UCPs can affect the degree of energy production of the mitochondria by influencing the mitochondrial membrane potential. The different genetic variants may display different activities, and some may result in a slowly developing energy shortage in the glia cells. In this context, this article discusses the roles of genetic variants of the kinesin motor proteins and UCPs in slowly developing diseases of the white matter of the brain as multiple sclerosis and leukoaraiosis.

  8. Indirect effect of financial strain on daily cortisol output through daily negative to positive affect index in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Haritatos, Jana; Adler, Nancy E; Sidney, Steve; Schwartz, Joseph E; Epel, Elissa S

    2013-12-01

    Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self-reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 776 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone, tapping the burden of chronic financial strain, and its effects on biology.

  9. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  10. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  11. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  12. Estimation of the minimum dose required to measure ventricular width in follow-up cranial computed tomography (CCT) in children with hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhof, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Wohlgemuth, W.A.; Berlis, A. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To estimate the minimum dose needed at follow-up cranial computed tomography (CCT) to reliably determine ventricular width in children with hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: For the study, a phantom was created using the calvarium of an infant which was filled with gelatin and the shaped inner cones of two carrots serving as lateral ventricles. The phantom was scanned ten times with two multi-slice CTs (LightSpeed Ultra, GE, and Somatom Sensation, Siemens), using a tube current of 400, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150, and 100 mA, and a tube voltage of 140, 120, 100, and 80 kV. The width of both lateral ventricles was measured at 4 sites. The values derived from scans performed at 380 / 400 mA and 140 kV (LightSpeed/Somatom) served as a reference. Measurements scored 1 point if they did not differ by more than 0.5 mm from the reference values. Results: The radiation dose can be reduced from 61.0 mGy to 9.2 mGy (15.1 %) with LightSpeed and from 55.0 mGy to 8.0 mGy (14.6 %) with Somatom without impairing the reliability of ventricular width measurements. However, in the case of both scanners, certain combinations of tube voltage and current yielded less reliable measurements although the dose was higher and the pixel noise was lower. Conclusion: There is no single cut-off dose or setting for tube voltage and current which guarantees reliable ventricular width measurements with the least radiation exposure for both scanners. As a guideline, it is safe to use the standard protocols with a reduced tube current of 100 kV. (orig.)

  13. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

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    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  14. Chronic hypoxia in pregnancy affects thymus development in Balb/c mouse offspring via IL2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Lingjun; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Pengjie; Tang, Jiaqi; He, Yu; Zhu, Di; Xu, Zhice

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia during pregnancy can adversely affect development. This study, addressed the impact of prenatal hypoxia on thymus development in the rodent offspring. Pregnant Balb/c mice were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy, and the thymuses of their offspring were tested. Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased fetal body weight, with an increased thymus-to-body weight ratio. Histological analysis revealed a smaller cortical zone in the thymus of the offspring exposed to hypoxia. A reduction in the cortical T lymphocyte population corresponded to increased mRNA abundance of caspase 3 (Casp3) and decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Mki67). Differences in T lymphocyte sub-populations in the thymus further indicate that thymus development in offspring was retarded or stagnated by prenatal hypoxia. The abundance of IL2 and its receptor was reduced in the thymus following prenatal hypoxia. This was accompanied by an increase in thymus HIF1A and IKKβ and a decrease in phosphorylated NFKB, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3 compared to control pregnancies. Together, these results implicate deficiencies in IL2-mediated signaling as one source of prenatal-hypoxia-impaired thymus development.

  15. A Gain-of-Function Mutation in OsIAA11 Affects Lateral Root Development in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Xing Zhu; Yu Liu; Shao-Jun Liu; Chuan-Zao Mao; Yun-Rong Wu; Ping Wu

    2012-01-01

    Lateral roots are important to plants for the uptake of nutrients and water.Several members of the Aux/IAA family have been shown to play crucial roles in lateral root development.Here,a member of the rice Aux/IAA family genes,OsIAA11 (LOC_Os03g43400),was isolated from a rice mutant defective in lateral root development.The gain-of-function mutation in OsIAA 11 strictly blocks the initiation of lateral root primordia,but it does not affect crown root development.The expression of OsIAA11 is defined in root tips,lateral root caps,steles,and lateral root primordia.The auxin reporter DR5-GUS (β-glucuronidase) was expressed at lower levels in the mutant than in wild-type,indicating that OsIAA11 is involved in auxin signaling in root caps.The transcript abundance of both OsPIN1b and OsPIN10a was diminished in root tips of the Osiaa11 mutant.Taken together,the results indicate that the gain-of-function mutation in OsIAA11 caused the inhibition of lateral root development in rice.

  16. Development of alternative interpretations: The story of an orphaned boy affected by HIV and AIDS and father abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Meyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborated specifically on the research journey in arriving at the development of an alternative narrative, which points beyond the local community, with reference to a broader study which aimed at addressing uncertainties about the type and nature of the relationship between HIV and AIDS and adolescent male orphans affected by this disease and all its aspects, such as poverty, exposure to crime and stigmatisation and lack in parental figures, more specifically the lack of the father figure. Subsequently, this study aimed at dissecting the orphan�s life experiences in the midst of HIV and AIDS and how these experiences will influence his sexual and power relations with women and his role as future father and husband, in the absence of a father figure. The researcher wanted to explore ways in which these past and future narratives influence or affect the male orphan�s view of and relationship with God and assess whether it is it just this view of and relationship with God that influence and affect his relationship with his past narrative and writing of his future narratives. This article described and explained the research process as it utilised the epistemological viewpoints of a postfoundational notion of practical theology and the methodological tools of the seven movements of a postfoundational practical theology. With the use of the metaphor of Tree of Life and the David narrative, the researcher journeyed with the co-researchers (i.e. the children who took part in this research in the construction of a preferred alternative narrative, which, in turn, functions as a guiding metaphor, for aspiring to the future and living their lives in a preferred and satisfying manner. This article concluded with an alternative narrative as developed by one of the co-researchers, as an example of how these theoretical viewpoints can be used in praxis in developing alternative narratives which frees the persons from the constraints of a

  17. Shaping the Development of Prejudice: Latent Growth Modeling of the Influence of Social Dominance Orientation on Outgroup Affect in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during the early postnatal period adversely affects the structure and function of the developing rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zankhana R; Porzionato, Andrea; Kesavan, Kalpashri; Mason, Ariel; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Shirahata, Machiko; Gauda, Estelle B

    2016-09-01

    The carotid body (CB) substantially influences breathing in premature infants by affecting the frequency of apnea and periodic breathing. In adult animals, inflammation alters the structure and chemosensitivity of the CB, yet it is not known if this pertains to neonates. We hypothesized that early postnatal inflammation leads to morphological and functional changes in the developing rat CB, which persists for 1 wk after the initial provoking insult. To test our hypothesis, we exposed rat pups at postnatal day 2 (P2) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) or saline (SAL) intraperitoneally. At P9-10 (1 wk after treatment), LPS-exposed animals had significantly more spontaneous intermittent hypoxic (IH) events, attenuated ventilatory responses to changes in oxygen tension (measured by whole body plethysmography), and attenuated hypoxic chemosensitivity of the carotid sinus nerve (measured in vitro), compared with SAL-exposed controls. These functional changes were associated with the following: 1) increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels; 2) decreased volume of supportive type II cells; and 3) elevated dopamine levels (a major inhibitory neuromodulator) within the CB. These findings suggest that early postnatal inflammation in newborn rats adversely affects the structure and function of the CB and is associated with increased frequency of intermittent desaturations, similar to the phenomenon observed in premature infants. Furthermore, this is the first newborn model of spontaneous intermittent desaturations that may be used to understand the mechanisms contributing to IH events in newborns.

  19. Nomothetic outcome assessment in counseling and psychotherapy: Development and preliminary psychometric analyses of the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Meier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative affect (NA plays a significant role in the initiation, persistence, and response to psychotherapy of many client problems (Moses & Barlow, 2006. This report describes the development of a brief NA measure, the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA scale, and preliminary analyses of its psychometric properties. An initial pool of DANA items was selected on the basis of a review of relevant literature about emotion science and counseling outcomes, related tests, and feedback from psychotherapists as part of a pilot test. The DANA was evaluated in two representative clinical samples where psychotherapists produced a total of 363 session ratings with 81 clients. DANA scores evidenced adequate internal consistency, evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change over the course of psychotherapy. Effect sizes (ES of DANA scores consistently equaled or exceeded the average ES of .68 found for scales assessing the outcomes of counseling and psychotherapy in meta-analytic studies (Smith & Glass, 1977. ESs greater than 1 were found on DANA variables for clients whose therapists rated them as experiencing, rather than avoiding, NA.

  20. Interaction Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Factors Affecting Speech and Language Development in Treacher-Collins Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treacher-Collins syndrome is a congenital craniofacial disorder with multiple anomalies. This syndrome affects the maxilla, mandible, eyes, middle and outer ears, and soft palate. Conductive hearing loss due to the deformities of the middle and external ears is prevalent. The characteristics of this syndrome include multiple and serious threats to normal communication development in children. In this study, speech and language features of a Persian speaking child with this syndrome are presented.Case: The case was an 8-year old girl with Treacher-Collins syndrome and bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss due to atretic canal. In language and speech assessments, moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors and morphosyntactic deficits were observed. There were 13 phonemes that were incorrectly produced at least in one position. Besides, she used 22 types of phonological processes that were abnormal and disappear before the age of three in normal Persian speaking children.Conclusion: Moderate hearing loss, velopharyngeal incompetency, malocclusion and dental anomalies, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and environmental factors resulted in severe speech and language disorders in this case. These disorders affected her academic performance as well. Moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors, and excessive and abnormal use of phonological processes were not presented as prevalent characteristics of Treacher-Collins syndrome in other resources.

  1. Glutamine synthetase I-deficiency in Mesorhizobium loti differentially affects nodule development and activity in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Thapanapongworakul, Pilunthana; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Van Dao, Tan; Asahi, Toshimasa; Tada, Kuninao; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Mika

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the effect of glutamine synthetase (GSI) activity in Mesorhizobium loti on the symbiosis between the host plant, Lotus japonicus, and the bacteroids. We used a signature-tagged mutant of M. loti (STM30) with a transposon inserted into the GSI (mll0343) gene. The L. japonicus plants inoculated with STM30 had significantly more nodules, and the occurrence of senesced nodules was much higher than in plants inoculated with the wild-type. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per nodule inoculated with STM30 was lowered compared to the control. Also, the concentration of chlorophyll, glutamine, and asparagine in leaves of STM30-infected plants was found to be reduced. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a GSI deficiency in M. loti differentially affects legume-rhizobia symbiosis by modifying nodule development and metabolic processes.

  2. Shedding of neurexin 3β ectodomain by ADAM10 releases a soluble fragment that affects the development of newborn neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcel, Erika; Palczynska, Magda; Krzisch, Marine; Dimitrov, Mitko; Ulrich, Giorgio; Toni, Nicolas; Fraering, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Neurexins are transmembrane synaptic cell adhesion molecules involved in the development and maturation of neuronal synapses. In the present study, we report that Nrxn3β is processed by the metalloproteases ADAM10, ADAM17, and by the intramembrane-cleaving protease γ-secretase, producing secreted neurexin3β (sNrxn3β) and a single intracellular domain (Nrxn3β-ICD). We further completed the full characterization of the sites at which Nrxn3β is processed by these proteases. Supporting the physiological relevance of the Nrxn3β processing, we demonstrate in vivo a significant effect of the secreted shedding product sNrxn3β on the morphological development of adult newborn neurons in the mouse hippocampus. We show that sNrxn3β produced by the cells of the dentate gyrus increases the spine density of newborn neurons whereas sNrxn3β produced by the newborn neuron itself affects the number of its mossy fiber terminal extensions. These results support a pivotal role of sNrxn3β in plasticity and network remodeling during neuronal development. PMID:27991559

  3. E-Commerce in Developing Countries: A Case Study on the Factors Affecting E-commerce Adoption in Libyan Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Othman El-fitouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development and increasing spread of e-commerce technology utilization have led to inspiring more Libyan companies to inaugurate web sites on the internet, in order to make much benefit from the services render thereon, to increase the mutual exchanges between these companies and other states, in such a manner as to save time and cost and stock as well as to create a competitive advantage. However, there are some obstacles which impede making benefit from the advantages and opportunities the e-commerce attempts to make.The paper aimed to determine the most important obstacles that are facing the implementation of commerce, that is to say, technological, Legal, human and organizational obstacles in the Libyan companies. This is on one hand, however, the paper aimed, on the other, to know whether there is a correlation that is statistically significant between such obstacles as to affect the implementation of e-commerce and the level of utilization of the same by industrial and commercial companies in Libya.Findings have shown, on the whole, that there is a high positive correlation of statistical significance at (α = 0.01 and (α =0.05 levels between the obstacles which affect commerce and the level of e-commerce utilization, this is pursuant to the points of view of the managers of the companies in question.The paper has reached a number of findings which have shown the fact that there are many obstacles which may impede the growth of commerce in Libya. This is in addition to other significant findings the paper has reached. However, the paper has suggested a number of recommendations to help develop e-commerce in Libya.This paper also contributes substantially to enrich the applied research studies on commerce and its applied activities and provides in details the related debate on the similarities and proposals for future studies.

  4. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

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    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  5. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dilu; Menger, Michael D; Wang, Hongbo; Laschke, Matthias W

    2014-02-01

    In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE(+)) and without luminal epithelium (LE(-)) were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP(+)) donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP(-) wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE(-) fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE(+) fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE(+) lesions compared with LE(-) lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP(+) microvessels grew outside the LE(-) lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  6. The DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein PSA2 affects light acclimation and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids and the assembly of thylakoid membranes are critical for the photoautotrophic growth of plants. Different factors are involved in these two processes. In recent years, members of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain proteins have been found to take part in the biogenesis and/or the maintenance of plastids. One member of this family of proteins, PSA2, was recently found to localize to the thylakoid lumen and regulate the accumulation of photosystem I. In this study, we report that the silencing of PSA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in variegated leaves and retarded growth. Although both chlorophylls and total carotenoids decreased in the psa2 mutant, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin accumulated in the mutant seedlings grown under growth condition. Lower levels of non-photochemical quenching and electron transport rate were also found in the psa2 mutant seedlings under growth condition compared with those of the wild-type plants, indicating an impaired capability to acclimate to normal light irradiance when PSA2 was silenced. Moreover, we also observed an abnormal assembly of grana thylakoids and poorly developed stroma thylakoids in psa2 chloroplasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PSA2 is a member of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein family that affects light acclimation and chloroplast development.

  7. Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Li, Xiaopeng; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2015-03-28

    The aim of the present study was to describe age-related changes in anatomic, functional and microbial variables during the rumen development process, as affected by the feeding system (supplemental feeding v. grazing), in goats. Goats were slaughtered at seven time points that were selected to reflect the non-rumination (0, 7 and 14 d), transition (28 and 42 d) and rumination (56 and 70 d) phases of rumen development. Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration (P= 0·002), liquid-associated bacterial and archaeal copy numbers (Pmicrobial copy numbers (Pmicrobial copy numbers increased (Pamylase and protease activity potentials occurred at 28 d. Most anatomic and functional variables evolved progressively from 14 to 42 d, while microbial colonisation was fastest from birth to 28 d. These outcomes suggest that the supplemental feeding system is more effective in promoting rumen development than the grazing system; in addition, for both the feeding systems, microbial colonisation in the rumen is achieved at 1 month, functional achievement at 2 months, and anatomic development after 2 months.

  8. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface.

  9. Factors affecting recovery efficiency in isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from vegetables for standard method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    While recently published techniques for recovering parasites from fruits and vegetables demonstrate a marked increase in efficiency and utility, there is still scope for further improvement in developing a standard method, particularly with difficult, but important, sample matrices such as bean sprouts. Herein, a number of parameters used in published techniques are investigated more closely. While sample size reduction may improve recovery efficiency because of a range of factors, it is important to keep the sample large enough for detection of low-level contamination. Age of sample is also important, and samples should be as fresh as possible. Elution procedures may contribute to losses of Giardia and should be more thoroughly investigated. Improved immunomagnetic separation techniques currently coming onto the market also have the potential to increase recovery efficiency substantially, even with difficult samples such as aged bean sprouts. However, merely increasing magnetic strength of the capturing magnet does not affect recovery efficiency, which must be reliant on a superior bead system, buffering system, or both.

  10. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  11. Congenital absence of corticospinal tract does not severely affect plastic changes of the developing postnatal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Xian, Q; Shen, N; Shi, L; Qu, Y; Zhou, L

    2015-08-20

    The arrival and refinement of corticospinal afferents are likely to influence the maturation of the spinal cord and sensory-motor networks. To understand this better, we studied the revision of monosynaptic muscle afferents, the expression of activity-related genes, neurotrophins and their receptors in the cervical spinal cord from postnatal day (P) 0 to 21. We compared control and Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which corticospinal axons never develop. The corticospinal tract (CST), labeled by anti-protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) antibody in the dorsal funiculus, increased gradually in the control, but was never visible in the mutant. Using anti-parvalbumin and choline acetyltransferase double immunostaining, close contacts between proprioceptive afferent fibers and spinal motor neurons appeared at P0 and were gradually eliminated thereafter, with no difference between control and mutant mice. In both genotypes, the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons increased similarly from P7 to P21, and a comparable upregulation of c-Jun protein was seen at P7. Contrary to control samples, in which ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protein levels increased from P0 to P7 and gradually decreased after P14, CNTF concentrations were time-invariant in mutant samples. The dynamic profile of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) expression was also moderately affected in mutant mice. In control spinal cord, NT3 was increased at P7 and decreased at P14, but remained more stable in mutant samples. In contrast, expression profiles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) B, TrkC, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were similar in both genotypes. In conclusion, with the possible exception of CNTF and NT3 expression, most events that accompany maturation of the spinal cord appear largely independent of corticospinal inputs.

  12. SGO1 maintains bovine meiotic and mitotic centromeric cohesions of sister chromatids and directly affects embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Yin

    Full Text Available Shugoshin (SGO is a critical factor that enforces cohesion from segregation of paired sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis. It has been studied mainly in invertebrates. Knowledge of SGO(s in a mammalian system has only been reported in the mouse and Hela cells. In this study, the functions of SGO1 in bovine oocytes during meiotic maturation, early embryonic development and somatic cell mitosis were investigated. The results showed that SGO1 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV to the metaphase II stage. SGO1 accumulated on condensed and scattered chromosomes from pre-metaphase I to metaphase II. The over-expression of SGO1 did not interfere with the process of homologous chromosome separation, although once separated they were unable to move to the opposing spindle poles. This often resulted in the formation of oocytes with 60 replicated chromosomes. Depletion of SGO1 in GV oocytes affected chromosomal separation resulting in abnormal chromosome alignment at a significantly higher proportion than in control oocytes. Knockdown of SGO1 expression significantly decreased the embryonic developmental rate and quality. To further confirm the function(s of SGO1 during mitosis, bovine embryonic fibroblast cells were transfected with SGO1 siRNAs. SGO1 depletion induced the premature dissociation of chromosomal cohesion at the centromere and along the chromosome arm giving rise to abnormal appearing mitotic patterns. The results of this study infer that SGO1 is involved in the centromeric cohesion of sister chromatids and chromosomal movement towards the spindle poles. Depletion of SGO1 causes arrestment of cell division in meiosis and mitosis.

  13. Identification of α-amylase by random and specific mutagenesis of Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis 13CCT strain isolated from extreme alkaline-saline soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-López, Juan Manuel; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Hernández-Montañez, Zahuiti; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline α-amylase produced by Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis 13CC(T) strain was identified by random mutagenesis and confirmed by directed mutagenesis. A transposon mutagenesis approach was taken to identify the gene responsible for the degradation of starch in T. texcoconensis 13CC(T) strain. The deduced amino acids of the amy gene had a 99% similarity with those of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 and 97% with those of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus YK9. The enzyme showed a maximum activity of 131.1 U/mL at 37 °C and pH 9.5 to 10.5. In situ activity of the enzyme determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed only one band with amylolytic activity. This is the first report of a bacterium isolated from the extreme alkaline-saline soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico) with amylolytic activity in alkaline conditions while its potential as a source of amylases for the industry is discussed.

  14. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  15. Digital Divide as It Affects the Development of E-Commerce in Nigeria: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorogbe, Cyril Amadin Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that information and communications technology (ICT) is important in economic and business development. The advent and rapid development of ICT have not helped in bridging the technological gap between developing countries and advanced countries. In fact, there is an Internet access gap between developed and developing…

  16. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  17. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  18. The Development of a Canine Para-Agility Program: Positive Affects in Children with Autism and in Therapy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Pop

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that both children and dogs might benefir from Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA, with some factors mediating/ moderating the results. The present study took these factors into consideration, by creating an AAA program consisting of two types of human-animal interactions (structured and unstructured activities, with an accent being put on the encouragement of positive behaviors. Differences in the frequency of behavioral indicators of positive affects were compared between sessions, in both species (humans and dogs. The preliminary analysis of the results indicated no significant differences between the structured and unstructured sessions in regards of the behavioral indicators of positive affects in humans and dogs, concluding that children and dogs enjoyed the activities in both types of sessions. A more in depth statistical analysis is currently being performed.

  19. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  20. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  1. 命题质量影响因素的实证研究%An Empirical Study of Factors Affecting Test Development Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美珍; 张林英; 张晓涛; 欧瑜

    2013-01-01

    本研究采用实证方法研究命题质量影响因素。命题质量主要取决于教师素质、教学行为、命题行为、命题环境、命题态度等影响因素的协同作用;命题行为受教学行为的直接影响较大;命题环境支持对教师的命题态度和考试结果有很大影响。研究结论为提高命题管理水平提供了实证参考。%An empirical research method is used to find the factors affecting test development quality. Test development quality depends on several synergistic effects’factors such as the quality of the teachers, teaching behavior, test development behavior, test development environment, and test development attitudes. Test development behavior is directly influenced by teaching behavior. Test development environment greatly affects test development attitudes as well as exam results. The conclusion of this study can provide a solid theoretical basis for quality control of test development and improve the management level.

  2. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  3. 25 CFR 224.73 - How will the scope of energy resource development affect the Secretary's determination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... energy resource development under the TERA will include a determination as to each type of energy resource development subject to the TERA for which the tribe seeks to regulate, and each type of regulatory activity the tribe proposes to assume. The Secretary's review of a TERA must be limited to...

  4. Market-oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Aims to ascertain whether a well-known theory within consumer research - a means-end chain (MEC) - can be used as a catalyst to achieve market oriented product development. Design/methodology/approach - Describes a case study, involving a Danish food manufacturer, where a MEC approach...... was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two different stages of the development process. Findings - Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed....... The resukts also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in the early stages of the development process and that lack of a learning orientation may inhibit the effects of a MEC approach. Originality/value - The MEC approach shows clear advantages for market oriented product development....

  5. Effect of welding conditions on transformation and properties of heat-affected zones in LWR (light-water reactor) vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Mohammed, S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Welding Research and Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    The continuous cooling transformation behavior (CCT) and isothermal transformation (IT) behavior were determined for SA-508 and SA-533 materials for conditions pertaining to standard heat treatment and for the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The resulting diagrams help to select welding conditions that produce the most favorable microconstituent for the development of optimum postweld heat treatment (PWHT) toughness levels. In the case of SA-508 and SA-533, martensite responds more favorably to PWHT than does bainite. Bainite is to be avoided for the optimum toughness characteristics of the HAZ. The reheat cracking tendency for both steels was evaluated by metallographic studies of simulated HAZ structures subjected to PWHT cycles and simultaneous restraint. Both SA-533, Grade B, Class 1, and SA-508, Class 2, cracked intergranularly. The stress rupture parameter (the product of the stress for a rupture life of 10 min and the corresponding reduction of area) calculated for both steels showed that SA-508, Class 2, was more susceptible to reheat cracking than SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Cold cracking tests (Battelle Test and University of Tennessee modified hydrogen susceptibility test) indicated that a higher preheat temperature is required for SA-508, Class 2, to avoid cracking than is required for SA-533, Grade B, Class 1. Further, the Hydrogen Susceptibility Test showed that SA-508, Class 2, is more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement than is SA-533, Grade B, Class 1.

  6. Using the tracer-dilution discharge method to develop streamflow records for ice-affected streams in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Sullivan, Joseph R.; O'Neill, Gregory B.; Williams, Cory A.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate ice-affected streamflow records are difficult to obtain for several reasons, which makes the management of instream-flow water rights in the wintertime a challenging endeavor. This report documents a method to improve ice-affected streamflow records for two gaging stations in Colorado. In January and February 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, conducted an experiment using a sodium chloride tracer to measure streamflow under ice cover by the tracer-dilution discharge method. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate ice-affected streamflow records by using a sodium chloride tracer that was injected into the stream. The tracer was injected at two gaging stations once per day for approximately 20 minutes for 25 days. Multiple-parameter water-quality sensors at the two gaging stations monitored background and peak chloride concentrations. These data were used to determine discharge at each site. A comparison of the current-meter streamflow record to the tracer-dilution streamflow record shows different levels of accuracy and precision of the tracer-dilution streamflow record at the two sites. At the lower elevation and warmer site, Brandon Ditch near Whitewater, the tracer-dilution method overestimated flow by an average of 14 percent, but this average is strongly biased by outliers. At the higher elevation and colder site, Keystone Gulch near Dillon, the tracer-dilution method experienced problems with the tracer solution partially freezing in the injection line. The partial freezing of the tracer contributed to the tracer-dilution method underestimating flow by 52 percent at Keystone Gulch. In addition, a tracer-pump-reliability test was conducted to test how accurately the tracer pumps can discharge the tracer solution in conditions similar to those used at the gaging stations. Although the pumps were reliable and consistent throughout the 25-day study period

  7. How does socioeconomic development affect COPD mortality? An age-period-cohort analysis from a recently transitioned population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Little is known about the effects of economic development on COPD mortality, although economic development may potentially have positive and negative influences over the life course on COPD. We took advantage of a unique population whose rapid and recent economic development is marked by changes at clearly delineated and identifiable time points, and where few women smoke, to examine the effect of macro-level events on COPD mortality. METHODS: We used Poisson regression to decompose sex-specific COPD mortality rates in Hong Kong from 1981 to 2005 into the effects of age, period and cohort. RESULTS: COPD mortality declined strongly over generations for people born from the early to mid 20th century, which was particularly evident for the first generation to grow up in a more economically developed environment for both sexes. Population wide COPD mortality decreased when air quality improved and increased with increasing air pollution. COPD mortality increased with age, particularly after menopause among women. CONCLUSIONS: Economic development may reduce vulnerability to COPD by reducing long-lasting insults to the respiratory system, such as infections, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution. However, some of these gains may be offset if economic development results in increasing air pollution or increasing smoking.

  8. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Developing Low Cost Recipes for Malnourished Children in the Tsunami affected Areas of Nagapattinam District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja lakshmi. J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean is one of the worst natural disasters in the modern times. The grief and worry created by the disaster has affected the health status of women and children. Malnutrition and ill health are major problems. This study investigated the nutritional status of the children and provided a nutrition education program for the mothers. Aims: To study the demographic profile, dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, clinical assessment, incident rates of infectious diseases among the 500 children. To assess the dietary intake of 100 malnourished children and to formulate ten low cost nutritionally balanced recipes and to provide nutrition education program for the mothers. Sample: 500 preschool children in the age group of 3-6 years of the tsunami affected Nagapattinam district were the samples of this study. Method: Interview schedule was administered to 500 mothers. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, mid arm circumference, head circumference and chest circumference were recorded by the investigator. Three day dietary recall method was used to assess the nutrient intake. Clinical assessment was conducted with the help of a doctor. Nutrition education was provided to the mothers with the help of posters and charts. Results: The results found that, majority of the children were under nourished and there was a significant difference between the mean nutrient intake and the recommended dietary allowance. Mean scores of nutritional knowledge and awareness significantly increased after the nutrition education program. Conclusion: Nutrition education must be provided to the mothers to improve the nutritional status of the children. The gained knowledge had to be put into practice.

  9. Subfertility factors rather than assisted conception factors affect cognitive and behavioural development of 4-year-old singletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Seggers, Jorien; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    Research on cognitive and behavioural development of children born after assisted conception is inconsistent. This prospective study aimed to explore underlying causal relationships between ovarian stimulation, in-vitro procedures, subfertility components and child cognition and behaviour. Participa

  10. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  11. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  12. THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DIVERSIFICATION OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREAS AFFECTED BY RESTRUCTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eremia VLAICU POPA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of what is implemented through dualism "ecosystem-efficient", sustainable development involves the care of the human potential of the present situation and the future of its natural resources, energy, materials and information. As an effect of responsibility for future generations, the efficient use of resources requires, at the same time, the operation of a sustainable economy, by diversification and development of the labour market in order to meet present and future demands of human society. At local and regional level, through the closing of mines and large enterprises, with an effect in restructuring the economic sector and employment, development strategies and rehabilitation of the affected industrial areas as a common principle approach, analyzing the problems, defining the objectives and policies, identifying actions to attack problems and provide for mechanisms that will enable the progress control. In this paper it is presented the concept of sustainable development as imperative for economic growth, diversification and development of the labour market, being dealt the representative criteria and principles of sustainable development strategy of any company. Are defined the components and objectives of a strategy for local and regional development of industrial areas affected by the restructuring.

  13. Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christine T; Wais, Joshua; Crawford, Dorota A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been on the rise over recent years. The presence of diverse subsets of candidate genes in each individual with an ASD and the vast variability of phenotypical differences suggest that the interference of an exogenous environmental component may greatly contribute to the development of ASDs. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is released from phospholipids of cell membranes, and is important in brain development and function; PGE2 is involved in differentiation, synaptic plasticity and calcium regulation. The previous review already described extrinsic factors, including deficient dietary supplementation, and exposure to oxidative stress, infections and inflammation that can disrupt signaling of the PGE2 pathway and contribute to ASDs. In this review, the structure and establishment of two key protective barriers for the brain during early development are described: the blood-brain barrier; and the placental barrier. Then, the first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during critical developmental periods when barrier components are still being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable periods in development.

  14. Retention of OsNMD3 in the cytoplasm disturbs protein synthesis efficiency and affects plant development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanyun; Liu, Xiangling; Li, Rui; Gao, Yaping; Xu, Zuopeng; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua

    2014-07-01

    The ribosome is the basic machinery for translation, and biogenesis of ribosomes involves many coordinated events. However, knowledge about ribosomal dynamics in higher plants is very limited. This study chose a highly conserved trans-factor, the 60S ribosomal subunit nuclear export adaptor NMD3, to characterize the mechanism of ribosome biogenesis in the monocot plant Oryza sativa (rice). O. sativa NMD3 (OsNMD3) shares all the common motifs and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm via CRM1/XPO1. A dominant negative form of OsNMD3 with a truncated nuclear localization sequence (OsNMD3(ΔNLS)) was retained in the cytoplasm, consequently interfering with the release of OsNMD3 from pre-60S particles and disturbing the assembly of ribosome subunits. Analyses of the transactivation activity and cellulose biosynthesis level revealed low protein synthesis efficiency in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Pharmaceutical treatments demonstrated structural alterations in ribosomes in the transgenic plants. Moreover, global expression profiles of the wild-type and transgenic plants were investigated using the Illumina RNA sequencing approach. These expression profiles suggested that overexpression of OsNMD3(ΔNLS) affected ribosome biogenesis and certain basic pathways, leading to pleiotropic abnormalities in plant growth. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that OsNMD3 is important for ribosome assembly and the maintenance of normal protein synthesis efficiency.

  15. Effects of neonatal fluoxetine exposure on behavior across development in rats selectively bred for an infantile affective trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Germeyan, Sierra C

    2015-03-01

    Infants born to women with depressive symptoms are at higher risk for insecure attachment and behavioral problems. Thus current medical practice is to continue psychotropic medication of pregnant women with depression despite concerns about its behavioral teratology. There are few animal studies focused on long-term behavioral effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure; in addition, studies have not looked at individual differences in baseline affective state as a source of response variability. In this study, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), was administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days 2-7 to model exposure to antidepressants in the human third trimester. Four behavioral measures were conducted from the neonatal to adult age periods in Low and High lines selectively bred for their rate of ultrasonic vocalizations after brief maternal separation. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased distress calls in both lines, but to a greater extent in High line rats than Low line. Neonatal fluoxetine also impaired motor coordination in neonates. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased social behavior in both juvenile and adult subjects. Fluoxetine-related reductions in anxiety behavior were not observed at the two older ages. As expected, High line subjects displayed more anxiety behavior than Low line subjects at all three test ages. These results suggest that there are may be significant behavioral consequences of antidepressant use during late pregnancy on offspring maternal attachment and social behavior, with implications for increased risk of autism spectrum disorders.

  16. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  17. Maternal stress and plural breeding with communal care affect development of the endocrine stress response in a wild rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Davis, Garrett T; Romero, L Michael

    2015-09-01

    Maternal stress can significantly affect offspring fitness. In laboratory rodents, chronically stressed mothers provide poor maternal care, resulting in pups with hyperactive stress responses. These hyperactive stress responses are characterized by high glucocorticoid levels in response to stressors plus poor negative feedback, which can ultimately lead to decreased fitness. In degus (Octodon degus) and other plural breeding rodents that exhibit communal care, however, maternal care from multiple females may buffer the negative impact on pups born to less parental mothers. We used wild, free-living degus to test this hypothesis. After parturition, we manipulated maternal stress by implanting cortisol pellets in 0%, 50-75%, or 100% of adult females within each social group. We then sampled pups for baseline and stress-induced cortisol, negative feedback efficacy, and adrenal sensitivity. From groups where all mothers were implanted with cortisol, pups had lower baseline cortisol levels and male pups additionally had weaker negative feedback compared to 0% or 50-75% implanted groups. Contrary to expectations, stress-induced cortisol did not differ between treatment groups. These data suggest that maternal stress impacts some aspects of the pup stress response, potentially through decreased maternal care, but that presence of unstressed mothers may mitigate some of these effects. Therefore, one benefit of plural breeding with communal care may be to buffer post-natal stress.

  18. Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

  19. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber formati

  20. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children’s Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beißert, Hanna M.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests. PMID:28066287

  1. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  2. Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz

    2011-01-01

    People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

  3. bHLH142 regulates various metabolic pathway-related genes to affect pollen development and anther dehiscence in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Khurana, Reema; Malik, Naveen; Badoni, Saurabh; Parida, Swarup K.; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Apposite development of anther and its dehiscence are important for the reproductive success of the flowering plants. Recently, bHLH142, a bHLH transcription factor encoding gene of rice has been found to show anther-specific expression and mutant analyses suggest its functions in regulating tapetum differentiation and degeneration during anther development. However, our study on protein level expression and gain-of-function phenotype revealed novel aspects of its regulation and function during anther development. Temporally dissimilar pattern of bHLH142 transcript and polypeptide accumulation suggested regulation of its expression beyond transcriptional level. Overexpression of bHLH142 in transgenic rice resulted in indehiscent anthers and aborted pollen grains. Defects in septum and stomium rupture caused anther indehiscence while pollen abortion phenotype attributed to abnormal degeneration of the tapetum. Furthermore, RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of tetrad and mature pollen stage anthers of wild type and bHLH142OEplants suggested that it might regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cell death-related genes during rice anther development. Thus, bHLH142 is an anther-specific gene whose expression is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional/translational levels. It plays a role in pollen maturation and anther dehiscence by regulating expression of various metabolic pathways-related genes. PMID:28262713

  4. Silencing of CYP6 and APN genes affects the growth and development of rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sudhakara Rao eKola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6 and Aminopeptidase N (APN of rice yellow stem borer (YSB on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of chemically synthesized 5ꞌ FAM labeled 21-nt dsRNA into rice cut stems and allowing the larvae to feed on these stems which resulted in increased mortality and observed growth and development changes in larval length and weight compared with its untreated control at 12-15 days after treatment. These results were further supported by observing the reduction in transcripts expression of these genes in treated larvae. Fluorescence detection in treated larvae also proved that dsRNA was readily taken by larvae when fed on dsRNA treated stems. These results from the present study clearly show that YSB larvae fed on dsRNA designed from Cytochrome P450 and Aminopeptidase N has detrimental effect on larval growth and development. These genes can be deployed to develop YSB resistance in rice using RNAi approach.

  5. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P; Padmakumari, Ayyagari Phani; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Balachandran, Sena M; Ravindra Babu, V; Madhav, Maganti S

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of chemically synthesized 5' FAM labeled 21-nt dsRNA into rice cut stems and allowing the larvae to feed on these stems which resulted in increased mortality and observed growth and development changes in larval length and weight compared with its untreated control at 12-15 days after treatment. These results were further supported by observing the reduction in transcripts expression of these genes in treated larvae. Fluorescence detection in treated larvae also proved that dsRNA was readily taken by larvae when fed on dsRNA treated stems. These results from the present study clearly show that YSB larvae fed on dsRNA designed from Cytochrome P450 and Aminopeptidase N has detrimental effect on larval growth and development. These genes can be deployed to develop YSB resistance in rice using RNAi approach.

  6. How Do Social Networks and Faculty Development Courses Affect Clinical Supervisors' Adoption of a Medical Education Innovation? An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, Erik; Steinert, Yvonne; Pols, Jan; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.; van Engelen, Jo M. L.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. Method During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based qu

  7. Individual differences in moral development: Does intelligence really affect children’s moral reasoning and moral emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Maria Beißert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129 completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  8. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  9. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  10. Exposure of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to antimicrobial compounds affects associated Vibrio bacterial density and development of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, M E; Brooker, J; Chung, K W; Kelly, M; Martinez, J; Moore, J G; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial compounds are widespread, emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystem and human health. This study characterized effects of antimicrobial compounds common to human and veterinary medicine, aquaculture, and consumer personal care products [erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC), and triclosan (TCS)] in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on grass shrimp mortality and lipid peroxidation activity were measured. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on the bacterial community of the shrimp were then assessed by measuring Vibrio density and testing bacterial isolates for antibiotic resistance. TCS (0.33 mg/L) increased shrimp mortality by 37% and increased lipid peroxidation activity by 63%. A mixture of 0.33 mg/L TCS and 60 mg/L SMX caused a 47% increase in shrimp mortality and an 88% increase in lipid peroxidation activity. Exposure to SMX (30 mg/L or 60 mg/L) alone and to a mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC did not significantly affect shrimp survival or lipid peroxidation activity. Shrimp exposure to 0.33 mg/L TCS increased Vibrio density 350% as compared to the control whereas SMX, the SMX/TCS mixture, and the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC decreased Vibrio density 78-94%. Increased Vibrio antibiotic resistance was observed for all shrimp antimicrobial treatments except for the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC. Approximately 87% of grass shrimp Vibrio isolates displayed resistance to TCS in the control treatment suggesting a high level of TCS resistance in environmental Vibrio populations. The presence of TCS in coastal waters may preferentially increase the resistance and abundance of pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate the need for further study into the potential interactions between antimicrobials, aquatic organisms, and associated bacterial communities.

  11. Overexpression of a novel chrysanthemum SUPERMAN-like gene in tobacco affects lateral bud outgrowth and flower organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Lin; Xu, Ke-Dong; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liang-Jun; Xi, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum.

  12. How Should an Understanding of the Process of Language Development Affect the Practice of Teaching English as a Foreign Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佩君

    2008-01-01

    This essay firstly has a brief review on three theoretical approaches: behaviourism,innatism and interactionism,and their relationship with language acquisition.Then it points out the significance of understanding the process of language development in the practice of classroom teaching English as a foreign language.Furthermore,some constractive suggestions are put forward in order th at English teachers may achieve more in their English teaching.

  13. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  14. Individual differences in moral development: Does intelligence really affect children’s moral reasoning and moral emotions?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Maria Beißert; Marcus Hasselhorn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months...

  15. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  16. O afeto como um processo de desenvolvimento ecológico Affection as an ecologic development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve a importância do afeto como um dos elementos essenciais para o desenvolvimento humano e, por isso, considerado como intrínseco à Abordagem Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano, formulada por Bronfenbrenner. O afeto traduz-se pela capacidade do ser humano estabelecer relações, nas quais se criam vínculos e, por esse motivo, poderá ser descrito como um processo do desenvolvimento ecológico. Assim, neste artigo, a presença do afeto nas relações foi proposta como um elemento imprescindível na efetividade dos processos proximais. Além disso, o afeto foi descrito como um dos fatores que asseguram a continuidade do processo desenvolvimental ao longo das várias fases que compõem o ciclo de vida e poderá ser considerado como o principal componente de superação da mudança, ao longo do desenvolvimento. O afeto, como elemento de desenvolvimento, resulta da interação do indivíduo com o meio em que está inserido. Nessa perspectiva, foi um elemento considerado transversal aos vários sistemas da Abordagem Bioecológica: microssistema, mesossistema, exossistema e macrossistema, nos quais se discutiu a importância do afeto em cada um desses níveis. Por fim, destacou-se a necessidade de estabelecerem-se relações afetivas ao longo do tempo, para que possam ser fortalecidas as capacidades de adaptação às diversas exigências, dificuldades do desenvolvimento humano e, assim, o afeto constitui-se como um elemento que assegura estabilidade e segurança no decorrer desse processo.The present paper describes emotional development as one of the most important aspect that increases and guides human development. It could be considered as an important "layer" of the development, as it is referred by the bioecological systems theory, proposed by Bronfenbrenner. The abilities to establish relationships depend on emotional aspects, and might be seen as an ecological developmental process. The presence of emotional

  17. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  18. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  19. Investigation of Time Dependent Development of Soil Structure and Formation of Macropore Networks as Affected by Various Precrop Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian K. Pagenkemper

    2014-06-01

    Air-capacity was highest for alfalfa (3 years, 75 cm. Tortuosity (τ ranged between 1.3 and 4.38, while alfalfa (3 years showed the highest value, which indicated structural development due to crack formation by enhanced root water uptake. Thus, an increase in accessible surface may improve water and nutrient supply for plants, whereas the high τ values may assume that oxygen supply is limited. It was found that the interaction of gas-diffusivity and the calculated parameters should be further investigated in terms of limitations to plant growth.

  20. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Sudhakara Rao eKola; P eRenuka; Ayyagari Phani Padmakumari; Satendra Kumar Mangrauthia; Balachandran eS M; MAGANTI SHESHU MADHAV

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of ch...

  1. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Erwin M; van Gameren, Mieke M; Kampinga, Harm H; Szabó, Ben G; Coppes, Rob P

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung.

  2. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  3. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  4. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  5. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Faculty Members in the Development of Instructional Materials: Basis for Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan V. Dio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary for every higher education institutions to produce quality instructional materials (IMs with higher level standards that cater to the needs of the students and other stakeholders which will be part of the inventions produced by the institutions. This policy research is a descriptive method of study which involved 95 faculty of the Sorsogon State College chosen purposively as respondents. The study determined the profile of the faculty along IM preparation to serve as basis in recommending policy guidelines for the production and publication of instructional materials. Data were identified through triangulation of survey questionnaire, interview and documentary analysis. The study revealed that the faculty members advance studies, academic rank, and trainings attended are significantly related to their involvement in instructional materials preparations. Despite the fact that most of them do not have appropriate trainings on IMs preparation yet majority of the faculty are developing IMs which are utilized for instruction. However, very few are able to seek approval for its classroom utilization and very few have applied for copyright of their inventions so that these will be sold to the public for utilization and commercialization. To increase engagement of the faculty in the development of quality and publishable instructional materials, a scheme on policy recommendation has been formulated which contains provisions on the formation of the IMs committee, the evaluation procedures, approval, copyrighting and patenting, reproduction, publication and utilization of instructional materials.

  6. Transient in utero knockout (TIUKO of C-MYC affects late lung and intestinal development in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Pengbo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmentally important genes often result in early lethality in knockout animals. Thus, the direct role of genes in late gestation organogenesis cannot be assessed directly. In utero delivery of transgenes was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer to pulmonary and intestinal epithelial stem cells. Thus, this technology can be used to evaluate late gestation development. Results In utero gene transfer was used to transfer adenovirus with either an antisense c-myc or a C-MYC ubiquitin targeting protein to knockout out c-myc expression in late gestation lung and intestines. Using either antisense or ubiquitin mediated knockout of C-MYC levels in late gestation resulted in similar effects. Decreased complexity was observed in both intestines and lungs. Stunted growth of villi was evident in the intestines. In the lung, hypoplastic lungs with disrupted aveolarization were observed. Conclusions These data demonstrated that C-MYC was required for cell expansion and complexity in late gestation lung and intestinal development. In addition they demonstrate that transient in utero knockout of proteins may be used to determine the role of developmentally important genes in the lungs and intestines.

  7. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  8. Factors Affecting the Development of Oxide Scales on Austenitic Stainless Steels during Hot Rolling in Steckel Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, S. J.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2008-10-01

    The hot rolling of austenitic stainless steels in Steckel Mills introduces particular characteristics to the development of oxides scales and surface structures. In this work, the formation of oxide structures during multipass hot rolling of 302 steel was studied under different sets of processing parameters in a laboratory system designed for the simulation of the Steckel process. The resulting surface structures were characterized by a set of complementary techniques involving scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS). The surface analysis revealed two alternative surface structures: one consisting in a thin protective oxide layer rich in Cr2O3 and the other consisting in thick complex structures containing several successive nonprotective oxide scale and metal layers resulting from a cyclic oxidation pattern involving stages of protective oxidation, chemical breakaway, and duplex oxidation. The critical condition that determined the activation of one mechanism or the other was identified associated with the parabolic rate constant for Cr2O3 growth and the diffusivity of Cr in the alloy. The effects of changes in temperature, deformation, and furnace atmosphere are discussed. Alternatives for controlling scale development are presented.

  9. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    Full Text Available The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  10. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Wu, Liwen; Xu, Qiankun; Li, Zizhuang; Yu, Haiping; Zhang, Yu; Leng, Yujia; Hu, Jiang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Dong, Guojun; Zhang, Guangheng; Guo, Longbiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Moderate plant height and successful establishment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull‐like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was expressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1‐green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes. PMID:26486996

  11. Distance to seed sources and land-use history affect forest development over a long-termheathland to forest succession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Ransijn, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    of developing forest communities. Although both factors had long-lasting effects on rates of colonization, the spatial patterns of colonization and species composition were mainly determined by distance to seed sources. The importance of distance to seed sources became less over time, suggesting that dispersal......Questions Is there a spatial pattern in the community structure (stem densities, species richness and species composition) of trees and shrubs during more than 100 yr of heathland to forest succession? To what extent is community structure influenced by land-use history and distance to seed sources......) to analyse spatio-temporal patterns in stem densities, species richness and species composition and the effects of land-use history and distance to seed sources. Results Tree and shrub densities increased exponentially over time and were consistently lower at longer distance from seed sources. Land...

  12. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyong Ren; Li Zhu; Zhenyu Gao; Guojun Dong; Guangheng Zhang; Longbiao Guo; Dali Zeng; and Qian Qian; Yuchun Rao; Liwen Wu; Qiankun Xu; Zizhuang Li; Haiping Yu; Yu Zhang; Yujia Leng; Jiang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Moderate plant height and successful establish-ment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull-like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was ex-pressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1-green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes.

  13. The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator NRC is a pleiotropic modulator affecting growth, development, apoptosis, reproduction, and wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Muktar A; Das, Sharmistha; Zhu, Hong; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Samuels, Herbert H

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC) is a 2,063-amino-acid coregulator of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors (e.g., c-Fos, c-Jun, and NF-kappaB). We and others have generated C57BL/6-129S6 hybrid (C57/129) NRC(+/-) mice that appear outwardly normal and grow and reproduce. In contrast, homozygous deletion of the NRC gene is embryonic lethal. NRC(-/-) embryos are always smaller than NRC(+/+) embryos, and NRC(-/-) embryos die between 8.5 and 12.5 days postcoitus (dpc), suggesting that NRC has a pleotrophic effect on growth. To study this, we derived mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from 12.5-dpc embryos, which revealed that NRC(-/-) MEFs exhibit a high rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, a small interfering RNA that targets mouse NRC leads to enhanced apoptosis of wild-type MEFs. The finding that C57/129 NRC(+/-) mice exhibit no apparent phenotype prompted us to develop 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice, since the phenotype(s) of certain gene deletions may be strain dependent. In contrast with C57/129 NRC(+/-) females, 20% of 129S6 NRC(+/-) females are infertile while 80% are hypofertile. The 129S6 NRC(+/-) males produce offspring when crossed with wild-type 129S6 females, although fertility is reduced. The 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice tend to be stunted in their growth compared with their wild-type littermates and exhibit increased postnatal mortality. Lastly, both C57/129 NRC(+/-) and 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice exhibit a spontaneous wound healing defect, indicating that NRC plays an important role in that process. Our findings reveal that NRC is a coregulator that controls many cellular and physiologic processes ranging from growth and development to reproduction and wound repair.

  14. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  15. The utility of zebrafish to study the mechanisms by which ethanol affects social behavior and anxiety during early brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O.; Annan, Leonette V.; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H.; Brock, Alistair J.; Combe, Fraser J.; Baiamonte, Matteo; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during brain development has a number of effects on social behavior but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this are not well understood. Gaining a better understanding of these factors may help to develop therapeutic interventions in the future. Zebrafish offer a potentially useful model in this regard. Here, we introduce a zebrafish model of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure. Embryos were exposed to 20 mM ethanol for seven days (48hpfs–9dpf) and tested as adults for individual social behavior and shoaling. We also tested their basal anxiety with the novel tank diving test. We found that the ethanol-exposed fish displayed reductions in social approach and shoaling, and an increase in anxiety in the novel tank test. These behavioral differences corresponded to differences in hrt1aa, slc6a4 and oxtr expression. Namely, acute ethanol caused a spike in oxtr and ht1aa mRNA expression, which was followed by down-regulation at 7dpf, and an up-regulation in slc6a4 at 72hpf. This study confirms the utility of zebrafish as a model system for studying the molecular basis of developmental ethanol exposure. Furthermore, it proposes a putative developmental mechanism characterized by ethanol-induced OT inhibition leading to suppression of 5-HT and up-regulation of 5-HT1A, which leads, in turn, to possible homeostatic up-regulation of 5-HTT at 72hpf and subsequent imbalance of the 5-HT system. PMID:24690524

  16. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  17. Rating of Everyday Arm-Use in the Community and Home (REACH scale for capturing affected arm-use after stroke: development, reliability, and validity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Simpson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a brief, valid and reliable tool [the Rating of Everyday Arm-use in the Community and Home (REACH scale] to classify affected upper limb use after stroke outside the clinical setting. METHODS: Focus groups with clinicians, patients and caregivers (n = 33 and a literature review were employed to develop the REACH scale. A sample of community-dwelling individuals with stroke was used to assess the validity (n = 96 and inter-rater reliability (n = 73 of the new scale. RESULTS: The REACH consists of separate scales for dominant and non-dominant affected upper limbs, and takes five minutes to administer. Each scale consists of six categories that capture 'no use' to 'full use'. The intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted kappa for inter-rater reliability were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-0.98 and 0.91 (0.89-0.93 respectively. REACH scores correlated with external measures of upper extremity use, function and impairment (rho = 0.64-0.94. CONCLUSIONS: The REACH scale is a reliable, quick-to-administer tool that has strong relationships to other measures of upper limb use, function and impairment. By providing a rich description of how the affected upper limb is used outside of the clinical setting, the REACH scale fills an important gap among current measures of upper limb use and is useful for understanding the long term effects of stroke rehabilitation.

  18. The wavelength composition and temporal modulation of ambient lighting strongly affect refractive development in young tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Siegwart, John T; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-12-12

    Shortly after birth, the eyes of most animals (including humans) are hyperopic because the short axial length places the retina in front of the focal plane. During postnatal development, an emmetropization mechanism uses cues related to refractive error to modulate the growth of the eye, moving the retina toward the focal plane. One possible cue may be longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), to signal if eyes are getting too long (long [red] wavelengths in better focus than short [blue]) or too short (short wavelengths in better focus). It could be difficult for the short-wavelength sensitive (SWS, "blue") cones, which are scarce and widely spaced across the retina, to detect and signal defocus of short wavelengths. We hypothesized that the SWS cone retinal pathway could instead utilize temporal (flicker) information. We thus tested if exposure solely to long-wavelength light would cause developing eyes to slow their axial growth and remain refractively hyperopic, and if flickering short-wavelength light would cause eyes to accelerate their axial growth and become myopic. Four groups of infant northern tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri, dichromatic mammals closely related to primates) began 13 days of wavelength treatment starting at 11 days of visual experience (DVE). Ambient lighting was provided by an array of either long-wavelength (red, 626 ± 10 nm) or short-wavelength (blue, 464 ± 10 nm) light-emitting diodes placed atop the cage. The lights were either steady, or flickering in a pseudo-random step pattern. The approximate mean illuminance (in human lux) on the cage floor was red (steady, 527 lux; flickering, 329 lux), and blue (steady, 601 lux; flickering, 252 lux). Refractive state and ocular component dimensions were measured and compared with a group of age-matched normal animals (n = 15 for refraction (first and last days); 7 for ocular components) raised in broad spectrum white fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux). During the 13 day

  19. Fetal exposure to maternal inflammation does not affect postnatal development of genetically-driven ileitis and colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hemmerling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory disorders have been increasing in incidence over the past decades following geographical patterns of industrialization. Fetal exposure to maternal inflammation may alter organ functions and the offspring's disease risk. We studied the development of genetically-driven ileitis and colitis in response to maternal inflammation using mouse models. METHODS: Disease susceptible (TnfΔARE/+ and IL10-/- and disease-free (Tnf+/+ and IL10-/+ offspring were raised in inflamed and non-inflamed dams. Ileal, caecal and colonic pathology was evaluated in the offspring at 8 or 12 weeks of age. Ly6G-positive cells in inflamed sections from the distal ileum and distal colon were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured in whole tissue specimens by quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses were performed on laser microdissected intestinal epithelium. Caecal bacterial communities were assessed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. RESULTS: Disease severity, the number of infiltrated neutrophils as well as Tnf and Il12p40 mRNA expression were independent of maternal inflammation in the offspring of mouse models for ileitis (TnfΔARE/+ and colitis (IL10-/-. Although TNF-driven maternal inflammation regulated 2,174 (wild type and 3,345 (TnfΔARE/+ genes in the fetal epithelium, prenatal gene expression patterns were completely overwritten after birth. In addition, co-housing experiments revealed no change in phylogenetic diversity of the offspring's caecal microbiota in response to maternal inflammation. This is independent of the offspring's genotype before and after the onset of tissue pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Disease risk and activity in mouse models of chronic ileitis and colitis was independent of the fetal exposure to maternal inflammation. Likewise, maternal inflammation did not alter the diversity and composition of offspring's caecal microbiota, clearly

  20. Trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid: do they affect eye development in the Sprague-Dawley rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D A; Graeter, L J; Channel, S R; Eggers, J S; Goodyear, C D; Macmahon, K L; Sudberry, G L; Latendresse, J R; Fisher, J W; Baker, W H

    2006-01-01

    unclear whether DCA specifically disrupted ocular development even under these provocative exposure conditions. Clearly, however, if TCE is capable of disrupting ocular development in the Sprague-Dawley rat, a higher dose than that employed in the present study is required.

  1. The development of a rich multimedia training environment for crisis management: using emotional affect to enhance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Bacon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PANDORA is an EU FP7-funded project developing a novel training and learning environment for Gold Commanders, individualswho carry executive responsibility for the services and facilities identified as strategically critical e.g. Police, Fire, in crisis management strategic planning situations. A key part of the work for this project is considering the emotional and behavioural state of the trainees, and the creation of more realistic, and thereby stressful, representations of multimedia information to impact on the decision-making of those trainees. Existing training models are predominantly paper-based, table-top exercises, which require an exercise of imagination on the part of the trainees to consider not only the various aspects of a crisis situation but also the impacts of interventions, and remediating actions in the event of the failure of an intervention. However, existing computing models and tools are focused on supporting tactical and operational activities in crisis management, not strategic. Therefore, the PANDORA system will provide a rich multimedia information environment, to provide trainees with the detailed information they require to develop strategic plans to deal with a crisis scenario, and will then provide information on the impacts of the implementation of those plans and provide the opportunity for the trainees to revise and remediate those plans. Since this activity is invariably multi-agency, the training environment must support group-based strategic planning activities and trainees will occupy specific roles within the crisis scenario. The system will also provide a range of non-playing characters (NPC representing domain experts, high-level controllers (e.g. politicians, ministers, low-level controllers (tactical and operational commanders, and missing trainee roles, to ensure a fully populated scenario can be realised in each instantiation. Within the environment, the emotional and behavioural state of the

  2. AtSWEET4, a hexose facilitator, mediates sugar transport to axial sinks and affects plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chao; Tian, Zhihong; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-04-22

    Plants transport photoassimilates from source organs to sink tissues through the phloem translocation pathway. In the transport phloem, sugars that escape from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between the sieve element/companion cell complex (SE/CC) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs) during the process of long-distance transport. The competition for sugar acquisition between SE/CC and adjoining PPCs is mediated by plasma membrane translocators. YFP-tagged AtSWEET4 protein is localized in the plasma membrane, and PromoterAtSWEET4-GUS analysis showed that AtSWEET4 is expressed in the stele of roots and veins of leaves and flowers. Overexpression of AtSWEET4 in Arabidopsis increases plant size and accumulates more glucose and fructose. By contrast, knock-down of AtSWEET4 by RNA-interference leads to small plant size, reduction in glucose and fructose contents, chlorosis in the leaf vein network, and reduction in chlorophyll content in leaves. Yeast assays demonstrated that AtSWEET4 is able to complement both fructose and glucose transport deficiency. Transgenic plants of AtSWEET4 overexpression exhibit higher freezing tolerance and support more growth of bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121. We conclude that AtSWEET4 plays an important role in mediating sugar transport in axial tissues during plant growth and development.

  3. CaMF2, an anther-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP) gene, affects pollen development in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Hao, Xuefeng; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Qinghua; Liu, Shaoqun; Lei, Jianjun

    2011-10-01

    Based on the gene differential expression analysis performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L., a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterile lines. A transcript-derived fragment (TDF) specifically accumulated in the flower buds of fertile line was isolated, and the corresponding full-length cDNA and DNA were subsequently amplified. Bioinformatical analyses of this gene named CaMF2 showed that it encodes a lipid transfer protein with 94 amino acids. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis indicated that CaMF2 was an anther-specific gene and the expression of CaMF2 was detected only in flower buds at stage 3-7 of male fertile line with a peak expression at stage 4, but not detected in the roots, tender stems, fresh leaves, flower buds, open flowers, sepals, petals, anthers or pistils of male sterile line. Further, inhibition of the CaMF2 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method resulted in the low pollen germination ability and shriveled pollen grains. All these evidence showed that CaMF2 had a vital role in pollen development of C. annuum.

  4. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

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    Sarah Jade Meale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down or abrupt. We describe the shifts towards a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  5. NOS2 is critical to the development of emphysema in Sftpd deficient mice but does not affect surfactant homeostasis.

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    Lars Knudsen

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Surfactant protein D (SP-D has important immuno-modulatory properties. The absence of SP-D results in an inducible NO synthase (iNOS, coded by NOS2 gene related chronic inflammation, development of emphysema-like pathophysiology and alterations of surfactant homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: In order to test the hypothesis that SP-D deficiency related abnormalities in pulmonary structure and function are a consequence of iNOS induced inflammation, we generated SP-D and iNOS double knockout mice (DiNOS. METHODS: Structural data obtained by design-based stereology to quantify the emphysema-like phenotype and disturbances of the intracellular surfactant were correlated to invasive pulmonary function tests and inflammatory markers including activation markers of alveolar macrophages and compared to SP-D (Sftpd(-/- and iNOS single knockout mice (NOS2(-/- as well as wild type (WT littermates. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: DiNOS mice had reduced inflammatory cells in BAL and BAL-derived alveolar macrophages showed an increased expression of markers of an alternative activation as well as reduced inflammation. As evidenced by increased alveolar numbers and surface area, emphysematous changes were attenuated in DiNOS while disturbances of the surfactant system remained virtually unchanged. Sftpd(-/- demonstrated alterations of intrinsic mechanical properties of lung parenchyma as shown by reduced stiffness and resistance at its static limits, which could be corrected by additional ablation of NOS2 gene in DiNOS. CONCLUSION: iNOS related inflammation in the absence of SP-D is involved in the emphysematous remodeling leading to a loss of alveoli and associated alterations of elastic properties of lung parenchyma while disturbances of surfactant homeostasis are mediated by different mechanisms.

  6. Feline foamy virus adversely affects feline mesenchymal stem cell culture and expansion: implications for animal model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, Boaz; Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J; Wood, Joshua A; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients.

  7. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary.

  8. 141 BOVINE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT RATES ARE AFFECTED WHEN OOCYTES ARE MATURED IN DIFFERENT VIALS CONTAINING HEPES/BICARBONATE BUFFERED MEDIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N; Secher, J O; Pryor, J H; Long, C R; Looney, C R; Avery, B; Hyttel, P; Stroebech, L

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory ware for the in vitro-produced embryos is generally made from embryo-tested plastic instead of glass. The quality of the plastic is crucial for the outcome because plastic is often toxic to gametes (Nijs et al. 2009 Fertil. Steril. 92, 527-535). In addition, gas molecules permeate through the plastic at a rate that depends on a variety of factors, such as diffusion coefficient and thickness of the plastic. In an incubator with appropriate concentration of CO2 and vented culture vessels, the gas permeability of the plastic is not important. When oocytes are transported outside a controlled atmosphere, gas permeability, toxicity, and oocyte cumulus cell CO2 metabolism could perturb the outcome. Medium containing bicarbonate buffer increases pH outside of a controlled atmosphere within minutes, whereas medium buffered with HEPES maintains suitable pH for hours. Previously, we tested that gas permeability differs among plastic vials and glass vials with no cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) by measuring pH after 2, 5, and 24h at the same temperature. The objective of this study was to compare pH post-maturation, blastocyst development rates on Day 8 post-IVF (Day 0=IVF) between 2 different 1.2-mL polypropylene cryovials (A: VWR DK, 479-1219; B: Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, CLS430289), glass vial (VWR DK, NSCAC4015-96), and 4-well plate (4WP) as control (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA, 144444). A total of 1135 abattoir-derived COC in Exp. 1 and 133 in Exp. 2 were divided equally between the treatments (20-25 COC per vessel). Vials/4WP contained 0.8/0.5mL of BO-IVM HEPES, a HEPES/bicarbonate medium (IVF Bioscience; BO-HEPES-IVM, UK). Maturation lasted 22 to 24h at 38.8°C in an incubator with either a humidified atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 in air (Exp. 1) or with no CO2 contact (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, oocyte vials were matured without a vial lid while in Exp. 2 vial lids were closed. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square and mean±SD. In Exp

  9. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

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    Mugoša S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Snežana Mugoša,1,2 Nataša Djordjević,3 Nina Djukanović,4 Dragana Protić,5 Zoran Bukumirić,6 Ivan Radosavljević,7 Aneta Bošković,8 Zoran Todorović5,9 1Department of Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montenegro, 2Clinical Trial Department, Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro; 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, 4High Medical School “Milutin Milanković”, Belgrade, 5Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 6Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 7Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia; 8Clinic for Heart Diseases, Clinical Centre of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro; 9Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Medical Center “Bežanijska kosa”, Belgrade, Serbia Abstract: The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6 on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9% patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001, with ADRs’ occurrence significantly

  10. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  11. Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne javanica females as affected by constantly high vs fluctuating temperature in an in-vivo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DARBAN D.A.; GOWEN S.R.; PEMBROKE B.; MAHAR A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Growth room and glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the development of Pasteuria penetrans a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were inoculated with Meloidogynejavanica second-stage juveniles attached with endospores ofP. penetrans and were grown in growth room at 26-29 ℃ and in glasshouse at 20-32 ℃. The tomato plants were sampled from the growth room after 600 degree-days based on 17 ℃/d, accumulating each day above a base temperature of 10 ℃ and from the glasshouse after 36 calendar days. Temperature affected the development ofP. penetrans directly. The rate of development at constant temperature in growth room was faster than that in the glasshouse at fluctuating temperatures.

  12. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  13. A Study of Models of Life Quality Development of Isan Marginal Communities as Affected by Installation of the Solar Home System

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    Pongsil Simvised

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The electricity production system by using solar home cells is regarded as a substitute for energy which the state provides for the marginal communities because the area cannot be extended for putting up pylons with electric cables, all this for the marginal communities to have better life and being. The purposes of this thesis were to examine the history and development of the electricity production system by using solar home cells, and to examine models of life quality of Isan marginal communities as affected by the use of solar home system by using solar home cells. Approach: The sample consisted of 100 people in Isan marginal communities who lived in mountains, on highlands, on lowlands, and in national park areas with totally 4 areas. The instruments used for collecting data were an observation form, an interview form a group discourse note-taking form and workshop note-taking form. The 6 aspects of Minimum Needs (MN was included into every instrument. The data analysis results were subsequently presented by means of a descriptive analysis: Results: 1for the history and development of the solar home system, it was found that Thailand began using solar cells in 1977 by the Unit of Volunteer Doctors. At present, solar cells are used in various types: battery charging stations, communication systems, water pumping system, traffic light signals, blinkers and electric systems in marginal communities in general.2 for the models of life quality development of Isan marginal communities as affected by the use of the solar home system, the life quality was developed according to indicators of maximum needs in these 6 aspects: the model of developing good health, the model of developing progressive incomes, the models of This value cultivation and the model of developing cooperative development. It was found that the positive effects were at 98.67% and negative effects were at only 1.33%. Conclusion/Recommendation: There for, it can

  14. Increased carotid IMT in overweight and obese women affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis: an adiposity and autoimmune linkage?

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    Pietro Guida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most important cause of hypothyroidism. It is a systemic disease that can even affect the cardiovascular system, by accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Aim of this study was to examine whether autoimmune thyroiditis has an effect on the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT-CCT, independently of the thyroid function and well-known cardiovascular risk factors. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a systemic disease. The aim is to examine whether autoimmune thyroiditis and adiposity can effect carotid IMT independently of thyroid hormones and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total of 104 obese women (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m-2, with FT3 and FT4 serum levels in the normal range and TSH levels Results Of the 104 women, 30 (28.8% were affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Significantly higher values of IMT-CCT (p Conclusions The present study shows that Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated to an increased IMT only in overweight and obese, independently of the thyroid function, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. These results suggest that Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a marker of evolution of the atherosclerosis if combined to adiposity.

  15. Family-based HIV prevention and intervention services for youth living in poverty-affected contexts: the CHAMP model of collaborative, evidence-informed programme development

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    Bhana Arvin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Family-based interventions with children who are affected by HIV and AIDS are not well established. The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program (CHAMP represents one of the few evidence-based interventions tested in low-income contexts in the US, Caribbean and South Africa. This paper provides a description of the theoretical and empirical bases of the development and implementation of CHAMP in two of these countries, the US and South Africa. In addition, with the advent of increasing numbers of children infected with HIV surviving into adolescence and young adulthood, a CHAMP+ family-based intervention, using the founding principles of CHAMP, has been developed to mitigate the risk influences associated with being HIV positive.

  16. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and effects on nutrient intake in the Mid-South: the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N; Hare, Marion E; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A

    2013-05-03

    Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m(2)). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  17. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  18. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  19. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  20. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  1. PENICILLIN-STREPTOMYCIN IN THE CULTURE MEDIUM DURING IN VITRO MATURATION (IVM OF BOVINE OOCYTES AFFECTS NUCLEAR MATURATION AND SUBSEQUENT EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRAZI A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Standard concentrations of antibiotics in culture media are thought to have no detectable toxic effects on the cultured cells. However, since antibiotics are biologically active substances, the possibility that they interfere to some extent with cellular processes occurring in the cultured cells can not always be totally excluded. This study, therefore, was conducted to assess whether the presence of penicllin-streptomycin (pen-strep during in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs affect nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation and subsequent embryo development. Materials and Methods: Bovine COCs were matured at 39oC in a humidified atmosphere with 5 % CO2 in air for 24 h in: 1- culture medium M 199 supplemented with 10 % FCS (Fetal calf serum, 0.05 IU/ml rhFSH (recombinant human FSH and 100 units penicillin and 100 ?g streptomycin/ ml. 2- culture medium M 199 without FCS and rhFSH in the presence of pen-strep. Cultures without antibiotics served as control. Six series of experiments, each consisted of at least 3 replicates, were performed. Results: In vitro maturation in the presence of pen-strep in culture medium supplemented with FCS and rhFSH significantly (P<0.05 increased the percentage of MII oocytes, however, when the COCs were divided, on the basis of appearance of the cumulus investment, into bright and dark groups, this effect was less obvious in both types of COCs, 76% vs 72% in bright COCs (P= 0.149 or 83% vs 80% in dark COCs (P=0.296 in treated and control groups respectively. The percentage of oocytes with type III of cortical granules (CGs distribution was not affected in the presence of pen-strep. The COCs expansion after IVM was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in culture medium. The subsequent embryo development of IVM/IVF produced ova, which were exposed to pen-strep during IVM, was significantly (P<0.05 decreased with respect to blastocyst formation by day 9. In vitro maturation in

  2. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care.

  3. Trace level impurity method development with high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry: systematic study of factors affecting the performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champarnaud, Elodie; Laures, Alice M-F; Borman, Phil J; Chatfield, Marion J; Kapron, James T; Harrison, Mark; Wolff, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    For the determination of trace level impurities, analytical chemists are confronted with complex mixtures and difficult separations. New technologies such as high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) have been developed to make their work easier; however, efficient method development and troubleshooting can be quite challenging if little prior knowledge of the factors or their settings is available. We present the results of an investigation performed in order to obtain a better understanding of the FAIMS technology. The influence of eight factors (polarity of dispersion voltage, outer bias voltage, total gas flow rate, composition of the carrier gas (e.g. %He), outer electrode temperature, ratio between the temperatures of the inner and outer electrodes, flow rate and composition of the make-up mobile phase) was assessed. Five types of responses were monitored: value of the compensation voltage (CV), intensity, width and asymmetry of the compensation voltage peak, and resolution between two peaks. Three types of studies were performed using different test mixtures and various ionisation modes to assess whether the same conclusions could be drawn across these conditions for a number of different types of compounds. To extract the maximum information from as few experiments as possible, a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach was used. The results presented in this work provide detailed information on the factors affecting FAIMS separations and therefore should enable the user to troubleshoot more effectively and to develop efficient methods.

  4. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2. Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001 from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  5. Archive of single-beam bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 07CCT01 nearshore of Fort Massachusetts and within Camille Cut, West and East Ship Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, B.J.; Hansen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 07CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2007 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first (01) field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. Data were collected using a 26-foot (ft) Glacier Bay catamaran. The single-beam transducers were sled mounted on a rail attached between the catamaran hulls. Navigation was acquired using HYPACK, Inc., Hypack version 4.3a.7.1 and differentially corrected using land-based GPS stations. See the digital FACS equipment log for details about the acquisition equipment used. Raw datasets were stored digitally and processed systematically using NovAtel's Waypoint GrafNav version 7.6, SANDS version 3.7, and ESRI ArcGIS version 9.3.1. For more information on processing refer to the Equipment and Processing page.

  6. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  7. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  8. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  9. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  10. 大学校园足球运动开展的影响因素调查%Factors Affecting the Development of University Campus Football Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      足球作为一项团体对抗性运动在欧洲及南美等国家很受欢迎。我国足球运动开展得不顺利,我国群众足球运动、职业足球运动及校园足球运动都遭遇困难。每个学生参加足球运动的动机不同,影响学生参与足球运动的因素也很多,试通过问卷调查影响足球运动的因素以及大学生参与足球运动的动机,并提出对策,以期对校园足球运动的开展提供帮助。%Football game as a team sport is very popular in the Europe and the South America and other countries .The de-velopment of soccer sports in China has been not carried out not smoothly , the masses of football sport , the campus football sport ,even the professional football sport all meet the difficulties for themselves .There are different motivations for each student to participate in the football sport and many factors affecting the participation of students in the football game The put forward some suggestions to promote the development of the campus football sport .

  11. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies.

  12. A modeling study of the physical processes affecting the development of seasonal hypoxia over the inner Louisiana-Texas shelf: Circulation and stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Justić, Dubravko

    2009-06-01

    The physical processes affecting the development of seasonal hypoxia over the Louisiana-Texas shelf were examined using a high-resolution, three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model was forced with the observed freshwater fluxes from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, surface winds, heat fluxes, tides and offshore conditions. The simulations were carried out over a six-month period, from April to September 2002, and the model performance was evaluated against several independent series of observations that included tidal gauge data, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data, shipboard measurements of temperature and salinity, vertical salinity and sigma-t profiles, and satellite imagery. The model accurately described the offshore circulation mode generated over the Louisiana-Texas shelf by the westerly winds during summer months, as well as the prevalent westward flow along the coast caused by the easterly winds during the rest of the study period. The seasonal cycle of stratification also was well represented by the model. During 2002, the stratification was initiated in early spring and subsequently enhanced by the intensity and phasing of riverine freshwater discharges. Strong stratification persisted throughout the summer and was finally broken down in September by tropical storms. The model simulations also revealed a quasi-permanent anticyclonic gyre in the Louisiana Bight region formed by the rotational transformation of the Mississippi River plume, whose existence during 2002 was supported by the satellite imagery and ADCP current measurements. Model simulations support the conclusion that local wind forcing and buoyancy flux resulting from riverine freshwater discharges were the dominant mechanisms affecting the circulation and stratification over the inner Louisiana-Texas shelf.

  13. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  14. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-06-15

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  15. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  16. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  17. 13CCT04_IFB_tracklines.shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In August of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi. These efforts are a continued part of...

  18. Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in Salt-affected Soils%盐碱地农业高效利用措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珍; 刘永信

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of improving salt-affected soils to realize Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in our country had been summaried. The regional distribution of plants in Yellow River delta was analyzed. By regional planting of four kinds of salt-tolerant plants-Suaeda crassifolia Pall., Tamarix chinensis Lour., Phragmites australis., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.exDC, the feasibility modes and economic benefits of Regional planting saline plants were explored and the basis for a-gricultural efficient use of saline-alkali land was provided.%概述了目前我国为实现盐碱地农业高效利用而采取的盐碱地治理的基本措施,分析了黄河三角洲滨海地区植物区域化分布情况,通过选择4种耐盐植物翅碱蓬、柽柳、芦苇和甘草,进行区域化种植,探索了盐碱地植物区域化种植的可行性模式及经济效益,为盐碱地农业高效利用提供依据.

  19. ER type I signal peptidase subunit (LmSPC1) is essential for the survival of Locusta migratoria manilensis and affects moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Xia, Y

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum type I signal peptidase complex (ER SPC) is a conserved enzyme that cleaves the signal peptides of secretory or membrane preproteins. The deletion of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of uncleaved proteins in biomembranes and cell death. However, the physiological functions of ER SPC in insects are not fully understood. Here, a catalytic subunit gene of ER SPC, LmSPC1, was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis and its physiological functions were analysed by RNA interference (RNAi). The LmSPC1 open reading frame encoded a protein of 178 amino acids with all five conserved regions of signal peptidases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LmSPC1 resulted in high mortality. Sixty-nine per cent of dead nymphs died of abnormal moulting, corresponding to decreased activity of moulting fluid protease. Moreover, insects in the RNAi group experienced a decline in food intake, and a decrease in the secretion of total protein and digestive enzymes from midgut tissues to the midgut lumen. Furthermore, the females produced fewer eggs and eggs with disrupted embryogenesis. These results indicate that LmSPC1 is required for the secretion of secretory proteins, affects physiological functions, including moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development, and is essential for survival. Therefore, LmSPC1 may be a potential target for locust control.

  20. Increased dosage of RAB39B affects neuronal development and could explain the cognitive impairment in male patients with distal Xq28 copy number gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarsenille, Lieselot; Giannandrea, Maila; Fieremans, Nathalie; Verbeeck, Jelle; Belet, Stefanie; Raynaud, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Männik, Katrin; Õunap, Katrin; Jacqueline, Vigneron; Briault, Sylvain; Van Esch, Hilde; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Froyen, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Copy number gains at Xq28 are a frequent cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report on a recurrent 0.5 Mb tandem copy number gain at distal Xq28 not including MECP2, in four male patients with nonsyndromic mild ID and behavioral problems. The genomic region is duplicated in two families and triplicated in a third reflected by more distinctive clinical features. The X-inactivation patterns in carrier females correspond well with their clinical symptoms. Our mapping data confirm that this recurrent gain is likely mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between two directly oriented Int22h repeats. The affected region harbors eight genes of which RAB39B encoding a small GTPase, was the prime candidate since loss-of-function mutations had been linked to ID. RAB39B is expressed at stable levels in lymphocytes from control individuals, suggesting a tight regulation. mRNA levels in our patients were almost two-fold increased. Overexpression of Rab39b in mouse primary hippocampal neurons demonstrated a significant decrease in neuronal branching as well as in the number of synapses when compared with the control neurons. Taken together, we provide evidence that the increased dosage of RAB39B causes a disturbed neuronal development leading to cognitive impairment in patients with this recurrent copy number gain.

  1. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-03-07

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages.

  2. MiRNA-320 in the human follicular fluid is associated with embryo quality in vivo and affects mouse embryonic development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruizhi; Sang, Qing; Zhu, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Miao; Xu, Yan; Shi, Huijuan; Xu, Yao; Qu, Ronggui; Chai, Renjie; Shao, Ruijin; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Sun, Xiaoxi; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-03

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated the existence of miRNAs in human follicular fluid. In the current study, we have sought to identify miRNAs that might affect oocyte/embryo quality in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection and to investigate their roles in in vitro fertilization outcomes in mouse oocytes. 53 samples were classified as Group 1 (high quality) if the day-3 embryos had seven and more cells or as Group 2 (low quality) if the embryos had six and fewer cells. TaqMan Human microRNAs cards and qRT-PCR were performed to verify differently expressed miRNAs. The function of the corresponding miRNA was investigated in mouse oocytes by injecting them with miRNA-inhibitor oligonucleotides. We found that hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-197 had significantly higher expression levels in the Group 1 follicular fluids than in Group 2 (p = 0.0073 and p = 0.008, respectively). Knockdown of mmu-miR-320 in mouse oocytes strongly decreased the proportions of MII oocytes that developed into two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.0069, respectively). Wnt signaling pathway components had abnormal expression level in miR-320 inhibitor-injected oocytes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNAs in human follicular fluid are indicative of and can influence embryo quality.

  3. The factors affecting the development of green construction%影响绿色建筑发展的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽; 董晶

    2016-01-01

    为更好地推动绿色建筑的实施 ,实现绿色建筑行业稳定发展 ,通过研究国内外绿色建筑发展现状 ,总结国内外学者观点 ,并对权威专家学者的观点进行分析 ,得出影响绿色建筑发展的29个重要因素 ,并归纳为7大类 :绿色建筑消耗的费用、绿色建筑的界定、绿色建筑的明文规定、绿色建筑供求关系、绿色建筑专业人员素质、绿色材料和绿色技术 ,并通过层次分析法确定各因素的影响程度 ,得出绿色建筑消耗的费用是第一影响因素 ,为实现绿色建筑的快速发展提供一条可行的技术路径.%Based on the current situation of the development of green building at home and abroad ,and in order to better promote the implementation of the green building ,and to achieve stable development of green building industry ,this paper presents the point of view s of the domestic and foreign scholars .It is concluded that there are 29 factors affecting the development of green building ,which can be classified into 7 categories :definition of the cost of the consumption of green building ,green building ,clear stipulation of green building ,green building supply ,demand ,the green building professional quality ,green material and green technology .Through the analytic hierarchy process (ahp) of determining the influence degree of various factors ,it is concluded that the cost of the consumption of green building is the first influence factor ,in order to realize the rapid development of green architecture and provide a feasible technique route .

  4. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

  5. Development of a Geo-Referenced Database for Weed Mapping and Analysis of Agronomic Factors Affecting Herbicide Resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (Silky Windgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Massa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluate the role of agronomic factors in the selection for herbicide resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (silky windgrass. During a period of three years, populations were collected in more than 250 conventional fields across Europe and tested for resistance in the greenhouse. After recording the field history of locations, a geo-referenced database has been developed to map the distribution of herbicide-resistant A. spica-venti populations in Europe. A Logistic Regression Model was used to assess whether and to what extent agricultural and biological factors (crop rotation, soil tillage, sowing date, soil texture and weed density affect the probability of resistance selection apart from the selection pressure due to herbicide application. Our results revealed that rotation management and soil tillage are the factors that have the greatest influence on the model. In addition, first order interactions between these two variables were highly significant. Under conventional tillage, a percentage of winter crops in the rotation exceeding 75% resulted in a 1280-times higher risk of resistance selection compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Under conservation tillage, the adoption of >75% of winter crops increased the risk of resistance 13-times compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Finally, early sowing and high weed density significantly increased the risk of resistance compared to the reference categories (later sowing and low weed density, respectively. Soil texture had no significant influence. The developed model can find application in management programs aimed at preventing the evolution and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations.

  6. A gestational high protein diet affects the abundance of muscle transcripts related to cell cycle regulation throughout development in porcine progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In various animal models pregnancy diets have been shown to affect offspring phenotype. Indeed, the underlying programming of development is associated with modulations in birth weight, body composition, and continual diet-dependent modifications of offspring metabolism until adulthood, producing the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome is permanently altered depending on maternal diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess alterations of the offspring's transcriptome due to gestational protein supply, German Landrace sows were fed isoenergetic diets containing protein levels of either 30% (high protein--HP or 12% (adequate protein--AP throughout their pregnancy. Offspring muscle tissue (M. longissimus dorsi was collected at 94 days post conception (dpc, and 1, 28, and 188 days post natum (dpn for use with Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays and subsequent statistical and Ingenuity pathway analyses. Numerous transcripts were found to have altered abundance at 94 dpc and 1 dpn; at 28 dpn no transcripts were altered, and at 188 dpn only a few transcripts showed a different abundance between diet groups. However, when assessing transcriptional changes across developmental time points, marked differences were obvious among the dietary groups. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, short- and long-term effects were observed for mRNA expression of genes related to cell cycle regulation, energy metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the abundance of transcripts related to cell cycle remained divergent among the groups during development. CONCLUSION: Expression analysis indicates that maternal protein supply induced programming of the offspring's genome; early postnatal compensation of the slight growth retardation obvious at birth in HP piglets resulted, as did a permanently different developmental alteration and responsiveness to the common environment of the

  7. Paternal deprivation affects the development of corticotrophin-releasing factor-expressing neurones in prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus of the biparental Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Poeggel, G; Holetschka, R; Helmeke, C; Braun, K

    2011-11-01

    Although the critical role of maternal care on the development of brain and behaviour of the offspring has been extensively studied, knowledge about the importance of paternal care is comparatively scarce. In biparental species, paternal care significantly contributes to a stimulating socio-emotional family environment, which most likely also includes protection from stressful events. In the biparental caviomorph rodent Octodon degus, we analysed the impact of paternal care on the development of neurones in prefrontal-limbic brain regions, which express corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF is a polypeptidergic hormone that is expressed and released by a neuronal subpopulation in the brain, and which not only is essential for regulating stress and emotionality, but also is critically involved in cognitive functions. At weaning age [postnatal day (P)21], paternal deprivation resulted in an elevated density of CRF-containing neurones in the orbitofrontal cortex and in the basolateral amygdala of male degus, whereas a reduced density of CRF-expressing neurones was measured in the dentate gyrus and stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region at this age. With the exception of the CA1 region, the deprivation-induced changes were no longer evident in adulthood (P90), which suggests a transient change that, in later life, might be normalised by other socio-emotional experience. The central amygdala, characterised by dense clusters of CRF-immunopositive neuropil, and the precentral medial, anterior cingulate, infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, were not affected by paternal deprivation. Taken together, this is the first evidence that paternal care interferes with the developmental expression pattern of CRF-expressing interneurones in an age- and region-specific manner.

  8. Auxin polar transport of etiolated Ageotropum pea epicotyls is not affected by gravistimulation: Relevance to automorphosis-like growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Ueda, Junichi

    There appears to be a close relationship between automorphosis and changes in auxin polar transport due to the fact that microgravity conditions cause both changes in the activity of auxin polar transport and in automorphosis of etiolated Alaska pea epicotyls. In addition, the application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport results in automorphosis-like growth and development. To elucidate the role of auxin polar transport in gravimorphogenesis in etiolated pea seedlings, we have studied the effects of gravistimulation on growth and development, and auxin polar transport in epicotyls of an agravitropic pea mutant " Ageotropum" seedlings and the normal "Alaska" seedlings. When the embryo axes in seeds of Alaska pea were set in a vertical (parallel to the direction of gravity) or a horizontal (vertical to the direction of gravity) position, and allowed to germinate and grow under 1 g conditions in the dark for 3 or 6.5 days, the epicotyls grew upward due to negative gravitropic responses regardless of gravistimulation during seed germination. On the other hand, epicotyls of etiolated Ageotropum pea seedlings showed automorphosis-like bending away from the cotyledons regardless of gravistimulation during seed germination. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending of etiolated Ageotropum pea seedlings was also unaffected by clinorotation on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat. The activity of auxin polar transport in the 2nd internodes of 6.5-d-old etiolated Ageotropum pea seedlings was lower than those of Alaska pea seedlings, and was not affected by clinorotation on a 3-D clinostat or by changes in gravity conditions during seed germination. These findings strongly support our previous studies that showed that normal auxin polar transport is required for the normal graviresponse of epicotyls in etiolated pea seedlings.

  9. Expression of intracellular interferon-alpha confers antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and does not affect the full development of SCNT embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most significant diseases of dairy herds, has substantial effects on farm economics, and currently, disease control measures are limited. In this study, we constructed a vector with a human interferon-α (hIFN-α (without secretory signal sequence gene cassette containing the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus. Stably transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts were obtained by G418 selection, and hIFN-α transgenic embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Forty-six transgenic embryos were transplanted into surrogate cows, and five cows (10.9% became pregnant. Two male cloned calves were born. Expression of hIFN-α was detected in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, transgenic SCNT embryos, and different tissues from a transgenic SCNT calf at two days old. In transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, expression of intracellular IFN-α induced resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection, increased apoptosis, and induced the expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase gene (PKR and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (2'-5' OAS, which are IFN-inducible genes with antiviral activity. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of PKR, 2'-5' OAS, and P53 were significantly increased in wild-type bovine fetal fibroblasts stimulated with extracellular recombinant human IFN-α-2b, showing that intracellular IFN-α induces biological functions similar to extracellular IFN-α. In conclusion, expression of intracellular hIFN-α conferred antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and did not significantly affect the full development of SCNT embryos. Thus, IFN-α transgenic technology may provide a revolutionary way to achieve elite breeding of livestock.

  10. How does the topic of conversation affect verbal exchange and eye gaze? A comparison between typical development and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Aparna; Lee, Iris; Singh, Leher; Bosshart, Kyle; Ozonoff, Sally

    2010-07-01

    Conversation is a primary area of difficulty for individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) although they have unimpaired formal language abilities. This likely stems from the unstructured nature of face-to-face conversation as well as the need to coordinate other modes of communication (e.g. eye gaze) with speech. We conducted a quantitative analysis of both verbal exchange and gaze data obtained from conversations between children with HFA and an adult, compared with those of typically developing children matched on language level. We examined a new question: how does speaking about a topic of interest affect reciprocity of verbal exchange and eye gaze? Conversations on generic topics were compared with those on individuals' circumscribed interests, particularly intense interests characteristic of HFA. Two opposing hypotheses were evaluated. Speaking about a topic of interest may improve reciprocity in conversation by increasing participants' motivation and engagement. Alternatively, it could engender more one-sided interaction, given the engrossing nature of circumscribed interests. In their verbal exchanges HFA participants demonstrated decreased reciprocity during the interest topic, evidenced by fewer contingent utterances and more monologue-style speech. Moreover, a measure of stereotyped behaviour and restricted interest symptoms was inversely related to reciprocal verbal exchange. However, both the HFA and comparison groups looked significantly more to their partner's face during the interest than generic topic. Our interpretation of results across modalities is that circumscribed interests led HFA participants to be less adaptive to their partner verbally, but speaking about a highly practiced topic allowed for increased gaze to the partner. The function of this increased gaze to partner may differ for the HFA and comparison groups.

  11. Integrating Sustainable Development and Climate Change in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M.; Canziani, O.; Davidson, O.; Metz, B.; Parry, M.; Harrison, M. [Munasinghe Institute for Development MIND, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2003-07-01

    The Third Assessment Report of the IPCC did take into account the nexus between climate change and sustainable development and attempted to assess the linkages between these two. However, much more remains to be done in providing a comprehensive assessment of this nexus, and how it is likely to affect human civilization in the decades ahead. It is for this reason that the issue of sustainable development is going to be incorporated as a major cross cutting theme in the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. The Expert Meeting held in Colombo on Climate Change and Sustainable Development was the first of two expert meetings approved by the IPCC Plenary in Paris, in February 2003 (see Annex A for details). Sustainable development had been identified as a Cross Cutting Theme (CCT) for the Third Assessment Report (TAR), but was not developed fully therein. The Colombo Expert Meeting was held early, to enable the outcomes to inform the two IPCC Scoping Meetings (scheduled for May and September 2003), and to eventually provide guidance to the Lead Authors. At the IPCC Plenary XX, Paris, February 2003, seven Cross Cutting Themes (CCTs) were approved as forming a fundamental aspect of the structure of the forthcoming Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). These themes are: Risk and Uncertainty; Regional Integration; Water; Key Vulnerabilities including Article 2 issues; Adaptation and Mitigation; Sustainable Development; Technology. Introductory presentations were made by invited speakers, covering many of the key aspects of sustainable development, including linkages both from and to climate change. Summaries of these presentations are provided in this section, while original PowerPoint versions of the presentations are included in Part B of the volume.

  12. Growth and development of moringa (Moringa oleifera L. stem cuttings as affected by diameter magnitude, growth media, and indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddeen Rufai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledged status of Moringa oleifera L. in sub-Saharan Africa, especially western Africa, has of recent accorded it the significance of being a good source of income to a large segment of many of its populace. Intensification of research into the realization of its full economic potential will be of utmost value to impoverished societies globally. One way to achieve this is the full exploration of all possible means that will facilitate its successful growth, propagation, and domestication. Even though it can be successfully raised through seeds, the high level outcrossing (64.3% observed is a hindrance to realization of true to type trees. Vegetative propagation can be employed as an option to tackle the noted limitation, ease the cultivation process, and achieve the required realization of its economic potential. Our trial was carried out to study the influence of two growth media and three levels of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA on root and shoot development in cuttings taken from a coppiced moringa tree existent in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Semi-hardwood cuttings of moringa, of between 20 and 30 mm diameter, cut into 25 cm length, were obtained, rinsed with a fungicide, then dipped, through their basal portion, inside varying levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA for between 7 and 10 seconds. The treated cuttings were then transplanted into a polyethylene bags (23 cm × 36 cm, containing two growth media - a munchong series soil (M and a combination of a munchong series soil thoroughly mixed with biochar (MB in a 3:1 ratio sequence. The trial was conducted inside a shade house where the humidity of the experimental area was manipulated through a regular daily manual hand sprinkling. Plant height, percentage of primary branch produced, leaf area, and dry matter (DM were found to be significantly (P<0.05 influenced by variation in stem diameter magnitude, while the diameter of the primary branch and spad

  13. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  14. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In t

  15. Assistive Technology and Affective Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Garay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of attention towards affective communication in assistive technology and disability research can be potentially overcome thanks to the development of affective computing and affective mediation areas. This document describes the main impairments and disorders that may involve affective communication deficits. We also present several affective mediation technologies that are being applied or may be integrated in assistive technologies in order to improve affective communication for a range of disabilities. Finally, we describe our experience with Gestele, an application that incorporates multimodal elements of affective mediation for people with mobility impairments, as well as the results of an empirical study conducted to evaluate the application’s validity in communication via telephone.

  16. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting.

  17. The role of motivation and metacognition on the development of cognitive and affective responses in physical education les-sons: A self-determination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Karagiannidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.

  18. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  19. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  20. Visual affect recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Stathopoulou, I-O

    2010-01-01

    It is generally known that human faces, as well as body motions and gestures, provide a wealth of information about a person, such as age, race, sex and emotional state. This monograph primarily studies the perception of facial expression of emotion, and secondarily of motion and gestures, with the purpose of developing a fully automated visual affect recognition system for use in modes of human/computer interaction. The book begins with a survey of the literature on emotion perception, followed by a description of empirical studies conducted with human participants and the construction of a '

  1. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  2. Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development, growth and reproduction in two lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiangfeng; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T

    2014-08-01

    Insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo so they acquire this essential nutrient from their food. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol found in most insects, but in plant vegetative tissue it makes up only a small fraction of the total sterol profile. Instead, plants mostly contain phytosterols; plant-feeding insects generate the majority of their cholesterol by metabolizing phytosterols. However, not all phytosterols are readily converted to cholesterol, and some are even deleterious when ingested above a threshold level. In a recent study we showed that caterpillars reared on tobacco accumulating novel sterols/steroids exhibited reduced performance, even when suitable sterols were present. In the current study we examined how the dominant sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol) and steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) typical of the modified tobacco plants affected two insect herbivores (Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea). The sterols/steroids were incorporated into synthetic diets singly, as well as in various combinations, ratios and amounts. For each insect species, a range of performance values was recorded for two generations, with the eggs from the 1st-generation adults as the source of neonates for the 2nd-generation. Performance on the novel steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) was extremely poor compared to suitable sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol). Additionally, performance tended to decrease as the ratio of the novel dietary steroids increased. We discuss how the balance of different dietary sterols/steroids affected our two caterpillar species, relate this back to recent studies on sterol/steroid metabolism in these two species, and consider the potential application of sterol/steroid modification in crops.

  3. Chemokine-like receptor 1 deficiency does not affect the development of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Gruben

    Full Text Available The adipokine chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (Cmklr1, are associated with insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which covers a broad spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. It is possible that chemerin and/or Cmklr1 exert their effects on these disorders through inflammation, but so far the data have been controversial. To gain further insight into this matter, we studied the effect of whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency on insulin resistance and NAFLD. In view of the primary role of macrophages in hepatic inflammation, we also transplanted bone marrow from Cmklr1 knock-out (Cmklr1-/- mice and wild type (WT mice into low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr-/- mice, a mouse model for NASH. All mice were fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet containing 21% fat from milk butter and 0.2% cholesterol for 12 weeks. Insulin resistance was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, an insulin tolerance test, and by measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. Liver pathology was determined by measuring hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, lipid accumulation and the NAFLD activity score (NAS. Whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency did not affect body weight gain or food intake. In addition, we observed no differences between WT and Cmklr1-/- mice for hepatic inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression, immune cell infiltration, lipid accumulation or NAS. In line with this, we detected no differences in insulin resistance. In concordance with whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency, the absence of Cmklr1 in bone marrow-derived cells in Ldlr-/- mice did not affect their insulin resistance or liver pathology. Our results indicate that Cmklr1 is not involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance or NAFLD. Thus, we recommend that the associations reported between Cmklr1 and insulin resistance or NAFLD should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Neurotransmitters affecting time perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been demonstrated that dopamine and acetylcholine are the main neurotransmitters that affect time perception,which is also affected by other neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE:To summarize how the neurotransmitter affect the time perception,and put forward the perspectives for further study on time perception.RETRIEVE STRATEGY:An online search for related literatures published in English was conducted in Elsevier SDOL(ScienceDirect Online)database from May 1990 to March 2007 using key words of "timing neurotransmitter".Totally 69 literatures were collected,and they were primarily checked.Inclusive criteria:Reviews and experimental studies;correlative studies of timing neurotransmitter.Exclusive criteria:Repeated studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The literatures were mainly sourced from Cognitive Brain Research and Neuroscience,and they were analyzed according to the inclusive criteria.Nineteen of them were involved,and all were experimental studies and reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS:The studies on time perception are developed mainly concentrating on dopamine and acetylcholine.Dopamine D2 receptors mainly affect the speed of internal clock.Dopamine receptors play an important role in both timing excitation and inhibition,which suggests the bi-directional regulation of dopamine.Injection of dopamine agonist can affect the attention to timing information.Injection of BW813U(antagonist of acetylcholine) can induce memory disorder,which indicates the effect of acetylcholine on timing memory,and further study shows that it is the effect of acetylcholine in precentral medial area.In a word,the study on the neurotransmitters affecting time perception is still at the primary stage.CONCLUSION:Dopamine and acetylcholine are the neurotransmitters known to be related to time perception.Dopamine in the basal ganglia is related to internal-clock in the range of seconds and minutes;Acetylcholine in prefrontal cortex is related to the mechanisms of temporal memory and attention

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FRASTA SIMULATION SOFTWARE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.G. Cao; K. Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Fracture-surface topography analysis ( FRASTA ) was successfully used to simulate the process of crack and calculate parameters of crack such as the crack opening angle (COA) and crack-tip opening angle (CTOA). But because the amount of calculation is large, errors are often made during the course of calculation. FRASTA simulation software, namely fracture surface analyst (FSA) is developed and a series of center-cracked tension (CCT) and double edge notched (DEN)specimens of different materials with different sizes are tested, their fracture surfaces are scanned by non-contact 3D scanning system and the elevation data of the fracture surfaces is recorded.FSA used the recorded elevation data of fracture surfaces to simulate the process of crack based on the principle of FRASTA. Results show that FSA can accurately simulate the process and calculate the parameters of crack.

  6. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE repeats gene (RERE is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala, which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the

  7. Alpha beta T-cell development is not affected by inversion of TCR beta gene enhancer sequences: polar enhancement of gene expression regardless of enhancer orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Cabaud, Olivier; Verthuy, Christophe; Hueber, Anne-Odile; Ferrier, Pierre

    2003-08-01

    V(D)J recombination and expression of the T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta) gene are required for the development of the alphabeta T lymphocyte lineage. These processes depend on a transcriptional enhancer (Ebeta) which acts preferentially on adjacent upstream sequences, and has little impact on the 5' distal and 3' proximal regions of the TCRbeta locus. Using knock-in mice, we show that alphabeta T-cell differentiation and TCRbeta gene recombination and expression are not sensitive to the orientation of Ebeta sequences. We discuss the implication of these results regarding the mode of enhancer function at this locus during T lymphocyte development.

  8. THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT AND REHABILITATION OF WOMEN AFFECTED BY THE 2004 TSUNAMI IN THE OF THE STATE OF TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sri Jothi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The great Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a destructive tsunami which devastated coastal communities bordering the Indian Ocean, killing thousands of people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Malaysia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. In India, the death toll and damages were severe, particularly along the southern and eastern coastal regions. Subsequently, central and state government authorities in the state of Tamilnadu - one of the most severely stricken regions - took immediate measures for tsunami preparedness and rehabilitation. The media played a major role in this effort by communicating to the public information related to the science and technology facts of tsunami hazards and to ways of mitigating their impact with better understanding and preparedness. Through its superior ability to communicate effectively information, the media became the role model in helping people make decisions for their own welfare. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the media’s role in the post-rehabilitation efforts and particularly in improving the status of affected women of the north Chennai region, who were forced to migrate from Ernavour and Ennore, in Chennai district, in the India state of Tamilnadu, by providing them science and technology communication.

  9. Going Deep into Mechanisms for Moral Reasoning Growth: How Deep Learning Approaches Affect Moral Reasoning Development for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Blaich, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine the effects of deep approaches to learning on the moral reasoning development of 1,457 first-year students across 19 institutions. Results showed a modest positive relationship between our measures of deep approaches to learning and moral reasoning at the end of the first year of college even after…

  10. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe...

  11. How should we manage information needs, family anxiety, depression, and breathlessness for those affected by advanced disease: development of a Clinical Decision Support Tool using a Delphi design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, L.M. van; Harding, R.; Bausewein, C.; Payne, S.; Higginson, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinicians request guidance to aid the routine use and interpretation of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs), but tools are lacking. We aimed to develop a Clinical Decision Support Tool (CDST) focused on information needs, family anxiety, depression, and breathlessness (measured us

  12. Genomic Imbalances in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines Affect Expression of Genes Frequently Altered in Primary Tumors: An Approach to Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Tumor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Missiaglia; J. Selfe; M. Hamdi; D. Williamson; G. Schaaf; C. Fang; J. Koster; B. Summersgill; B. Messahel; R Versteeg; K. Pritchard-Jones; M. Kool; J. Shipley

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcomas. They resemble developing skeletal muscle and are histologically divided into two main subtypes; alveolar and embryonal RMS. Characteristic genomic aberrations, including the PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1 fusion genes in alveolar case

  13. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  14. Development of a Family-Based Program to Reduce Risk and Promote Resilience among Families Affected by Maternal Depression: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anne W.; Valdez, Carmen R.; Barrueco, Sandra; Mills, Carrie; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Rawal, Purva

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a family matter. It not only diminishes the quality-of-life of the depressed person, but also strains the resources of the family unit and increases the children's risk of developing significant problems that start early and persist into adulthood. Although treatment of a parent's depression is critical, many families also need…

  15. THE TSUNAMI TRANSFORMATION: HOW AGENCY FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION [BRR] CONVERT DISASTER INTO AN OPPORTUNITY TO SUSTAINABLY DEVELOP TSUNAMI AFFECTED REGIONS OF ACEH AND NIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadi Arifin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction and rehabilitation is urgently needed by Aceh, both in terms of infrastructure and its development of the economic sector. Acehnese need to face this challenge to not only reconstruct the economics of Aceh but also to reconstruct the infrastructure and to build the social life of the Acehnese people. After the tsunami, Acehnese have lost their family member and also their property. It has been three years and the reconstruction for the transformation is still going on. The primary task of transformation projects should be further intensified and the education system, infrastructure, health, social, cultural, and economic development of Acehnese need to be reconstructed. This paper tries to elaborate the political economy related to the acute problems faced by BRR and Aceh Local Government and other agencies in the region.

  16. Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus.

  17. Differential precocious sexual development of Proctoeces lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) in three sympatric species of keyhole limpets Fissurella spp. may affect transmission to the final host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa, L; George-Nascimento, M; Ojeda, F P

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence, abundance, and developmental status of the digenetic trematode Proctoeces lintoni Siddiqui et Cable 1960 were compared in 3 species of keyhole limpets Fissurella. A total of 197 limpets was collected at Caleta Chome, south-central Chile. Fissurella picta and F. costata had the highest prevalence of infection, whereas F. picta showed the greatest abundance of parasites, which increased with host shell length. However, the frequency of P. lintoni specimens with eggs in the uterus was greatest in F. costata. These results suggest that an increased rate of development of a parasite in the intermediate host may shorten the residence time necessary for maturation in the final host. Thus, faster development of the parasite in F. costata suggests the possibility that the parasites transmitted through this host species have shorter maturation times in clingfishes than individuals transmitted via other limpet species.

  18. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation.

  19. crinkle, a novel symbiotic mutant that affects the infection thread growth and alters the root hair, trichome, and seed development in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansengco, Myra L; Hayashi, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2003-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we examined a novel symbiotic mutant, crinkle (Ljsym79), from the model legume Lotus japonicus. On nitrogen-starved medium, crinkle mutants inoculated with the symbiont bacterium Mesorhizobium loti MAFF 303099 showed severe nitrogen deficiency symptoms. This mutant was characterized by the production of many bumps and small, white, uninfected nodule-like structures. Few nodules were pale-pink and irregularly shaped with nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and expressing leghemoglobin mRNA. Morphological analysis of infected roots showed that nodulation in crinkle mutants is blocked at the stage of the infection process. Confocal microscopy and histological examination of crinkle nodules revealed that infection threads were arrested upon penetrating the epidermal cells. Starch accumulation in uninfected cells and undeveloped vascular bundles were also noted in crinkle nodules. Results suggest that the Crinkle gene controls the infection process that is crucial during the early stage of nodule organogenesis. Aside from the symbiotic phenotypes, crinkle mutants also developed morphological alterations, such as crinkly or wavy trichomes, short seedpods with aborted embryos, and swollen root hairs. crinkle is therefore required for symbiotic nodule development and for other aspects of plant development.

  20. Introduction of silencing-inducing transgene against Fgf19 does not affect expression of Tbx5 and beta3-tubulin in the developing chicken retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Tomonari, Sayuri; Naito, Yuki; Saigo, Kaoru; Noji, Sumihare; Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2008-03-01

    Fgf19 is known to be expressed in the developing chicken eye but its functions during retinal development have remained elusive. Since Fgf19 is expressed in the dorsal portion of the optic cup, it is intriguing to know whether FGF19 is required for expression of dorso-ventral morphogenetic genes in the eye. To clarify this, expression patterns of Tbx5 and Vax were examined in the developing eye after in ovo RNA interference targeted against Fgf19. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeted against Fgf19 could reduce its expression in the eye to less than 50% of a relative amount of mRNA, compared with contralateral or untreated control eyes. However, no obvious alteration in expression domains of Tbx5 or Vax was observed. Misexpression of Tbx5 or Tbx5-RNAi did not alter the Fgf19 expression either. Furthermore, although Fgf19 is expressed in the central retina before neurogenesis occurs, beta3-tubulin, a marker for early retinal differentiation was still detected in the central retina after knockdown of Fgf19. Thus, knockdown of Fgf19 supports no obvious regulations between Fgf19 and Tbx5, or exhibits no phenotypes that perturb early retinal differentiation.

  1. Delay in liver bud development during early embryogenesis leads to violation of epicardium formation and its epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, but do not affect coronary endothelium formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pototskaya O. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive investigation of heart embryogenesis the origin of coronary endothelium is still under debate. Existence of close interrelation between proepicardium, liver bud, sinus venosus and early coronary vessels is obvious, but the nature of this interconnection is unclear as well as exact source of endothelial cells. Thus, the purpose of our research was to investigate the effect of inhibition of liver bud development on formation of coronary vessels. To inhibit the liver bud we injected aminoguanidine sulfate into the yolk sack of chick embryos on 14 stage of development by HH (first group - to prevent contact between proepicardium and liver, and on 16 stage (second group to allow contact between proepicardium and liver during a short period of time. In the first group it was observed the violation of epicardium formation and early death during first 3 days of incubation. At embryos it was revealed thinning of myocardium and atrio-ventricular cushions, abnormal looping – presumably due to the absence of epicardium. The death was caused by heart insufficiency. In the second group it was observed the beginning of epicardium formation, but the heart defects were the same as in the first group – presumably due to the absence of epicardium-derived cells. At embryos of this group, who survived till 26 stage of development (4.5 day of incubation, despite absence of cellular component in subepicardial space and almost completely absence of liver, we observed formation of coronary vessels. They were concentrated on the dorsal surface of atrio-vetricular channel and were presented by continuation of endothelium of the sinus venosus.

  2. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice.

  3. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.

  4. Development of a Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection Protocol for Cercospora kikuchii in Soybean Leaves and Its Use for Documenting Latent Infection as Affected by Fungicide Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, A K; Ward, N A; Robertson, C L; Chen, Z-Y; Schneider, R W

    2014-10-01

    Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) of soybean, caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a serious disease in the southern United States. A sensitive TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to specifically detect and quantify C. kikuchii in naturally infected soybean plants. The sensitivity was 1 pg of genomic DNA, which was equivalent to about 34 copies of genome of C. kikuchii. Using this qPCR assay, we documented a very long latent infection period for C. kikuchii in soybean leaves beginning at the V3 growth stage (as early as 22 days after planting). The levels of biomass of C. kikuchii remained low until R1, and a rapid increase was detected from the R2/R3 to R4/R5 growth stages shortly before the appearance of symptoms at R6. The efficacy of various fungicide regimens under field conditions also was evaluated over a 3-year period using this qPCR method. Our results showed that multiple fungicide applications beginning at R1 until late reproductive stages suppressed the development of C. kikuchii in leaves and delayed symptom expression. Different fungicide chemistries also had differential effects on the amount of latent infection and symptom expression during late reproductive growth stages.

  5. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  6. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  7. The Principal Forces of Oocyte Polarity Are Evolutionary Conserved but May Not Affect the Contribution of the First Two Blastomeres to the Blastocyst Development in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Sayyed-Morteza; Moulavi, Fariba; Tanhaie-Vash, Nima; Asgari, Vajihe; Ghanaei, Hamid-Reza; Abedi-Dorche, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Naser; Gourabi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Dizaj, Ahmad Vosough; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte polarity and embryonic patterning are well-established features of development in lower species. Whether a similar form of pre-patterning exists in mammals is currently under hot debate in mice. This study investigated this issue for the first time in ovine as a large mammal model. Microsurgical trisection of unfertilized MII-oocytes revealed that cortical cytoplasm around spindle (S) contained significant amounts of total maternal mRNAs and proteins compared to matched cytoplast hemispheres that were located either near (NS) or far (FS) -to-spindle. RT-qPCR provided striking examples of maternal mRNA localized to subcellular substructures S (NPM2, GMNN, H19, PCAF, DNMT3A, DNMT1, and STELLA), NS (SOX2, NANOG, POU5F1, and TET1), and FS (GCN) of MII oocyte. Immunoblotting revealed that specific maternal proteins DNMT3A and NANOG were asymmetrically enriched in MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Topological analysis of sperm entry point (SEP) revealed that sperm preferentially entered via the MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Even though, the topological position of first cleavage plane with regard to SEP was quite stochastic. Spatial comparison of lipid content revealed symmetrical distribution of lipids between 2-cell blastomeres. Lineage tracing using Dil, a fluorescent dye, revealed that while the progeny of leading blastomere of 2-cell embryos contributed to more cells in the developed blastocysts compared to lagging counterpart, the contributions of leading and lagging blastomeres to the embryonic-abembryonic parts of the developed blastocysts were almost unbiased. And finally, separated sister blastomeres of 2-cell embryos had an overall similar probability to arrest at any stage before the blastocyst (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula) or to achieve the blastocyst stage. It was concluded that the localization of maternal mRNAs and proteins at the spindle are evolutionarily conserved between mammals unfertilized ovine oocyte could be considered polar with

  8. Analytical method development for powder characterization: Visualization of the critical drug loading affecting the processability of a formulation for direct compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirschberg, Cosima; Sun, Calvin Changquan; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of particulate systems (powders) is one of the remaining scientific challenges. Evaluation of powder behaviour is often empirical and the decision-making processes are experience-based. There is a need for development of analytical instrumentation enabling more fundamental...... understanding of powder behaviour. Flowability and tabletability, two key factors in commercial scale manufacturing of tablets with direct compression (DC) approach, were analysed for formulations containing increasing amounts of several model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Flowability......H 102) was used as a threshold for adequate flowability of model formulations. The threshold for tablet tensile strength was set to 2 MPa. Simultaneous visual presentation of both- flowability and tabletability were used for a fast evaluation of manufacturability of a given formulation. The results...

  9. ENU mutagenesis reveals that Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila affects Cdkn1a and several members of the Wnt pathway during murine pre-implantation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lossie Amy C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our interests lie in determining the genes and genetic pathways that are important for establishing and maintaining maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy. Mutation analysis targeted to a 34 Mb domain flanked by Trp53 and Wnt3 demonstrates that this region of mouse chromosome 11 contains a large number of essential genes. Two mutant alleles (l11Jus1 and l11Jus4, which fall into the same complementation group, survive through implantation but fail prior to gastrulation. Results Through a positional cloning strategy, we discovered that these homozygous mutant alleles contain non-conservative missense mutations in the Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 gene. NLE1 is a member of the large WD40-repeat protein family, and is thought to signal via the canonical NOTCH pathway in vertebrates. However, the phenotype of the Nle1 mutant mice is much more severe than single Notch receptor mutations or even in animals in which NOTCH signaling is blocked. To test the hypothesis that NLE1 functions in multiple signaling pathways during pre-implantation development, we examined expression of multiple Notch downstream target genes, as well as select members of the Wnt pathway in wild-type and mutant embryos. We did not detect altered expression of any primary members of the Notch pathway or in Notch downstream target genes. However, our data reveal that Cdkn1a, a NOTCH target, was upregulated in Nle1 mutants, while several members of the Wnt pathway are downregulated. In addition, we found that Nle1 mutant embryos undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis as hatched blastocysts, but not as morulae or blastocysts. Conclusions Taken together, these results uncover potential novel functions for NLE1 in the WNT and CDKN1A pathways during embryonic development in mammals.

  10. Three transcription factors and the way immune cells affected by different plasma change in opposite ways in the development of the syndrome of pre-eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhou; Zhu Jing; Wang Yunfei; Wang You; Zhang Yu; Lin Jianhua; Di Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background How the transcriptional factors regulated the innate and adaptive immune system in pregnancy and preeclampsia are less understood.Nevertheless,what the plasma work in the development of this disease was not sure.The present study was design to evaluate what the transcriptional factors change in innate and adaptive immune system and what the plasma do in this filed.Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-pregnant women (n=18),women with clinically normal pregnancies (n=23) and women with pre-eclampsia (n=20) were separated from peripheral blood to isolate monocytes and T cells.The purity of monocytes and T cells were analysed by flow cytometry.Monocytes and T cells were stimulated in either lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA),respectively.Transcription Factor Arrays were used to screen the transcription factors of interest in comparing of different groups.PBMC were isolated from another 8 nonpregnant samples were co-incubated with different groups of plasma.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using whole cell extractions of the samples.Results Nuclear factor of activated T-cells-1 (NFAT-1),signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT-1) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) are up-regulated in monocytes in pregnancy and more so in pre-eclampsia.On the the contrary,NFAT-1,STAT-1 and AP-1 are down-regulated in T cells in pregnancy and more so in pre-eclampsia.A reduction was observed in interferon (IFN)-y,interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4 expression in T cells incubated with pre-eclamptic plasma.An elevation was observed in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,IL-1 and IL-12 expression in monocytes incubated with preeclamptic plasma.Conclusions Innate immunity is over activated and adaptive immunity is over suppressed in the development of preeclampsia.NFAT-1,STAT-1 and AP-1 might be the central transcription factors in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.They induced some changes in plasma and "educate" the

  11. GGPPS-mediated Rab27A geranylgeranylation regulates β cell dysfunction during type 2 diabetes development by affecting insulin granule docked pool formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Shen, Di; Jia, Wen-Jun; Han, Xiao; Shen, Ning; Tao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Loss of first-phase insulin secretion associated with β cell dysfunction is an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset. Here we found that a critical enzyme involved in protein prenylation, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS), is required to maintain first-phase insulin secretion. GGPPS shows a biphasic expression pattern in islets of db/db mice during the progression of T2DM: GGPPS is increased during the insulin compensatory period, followed by a decrease during β cell dysfunction. Ggpps deletion in β cells results in typical T2DM β cell dysfunction, with blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and consequent insulin secretion insufficiency. However, the number and size of islets and insulin biosynthesis are unaltered. Transmission electron microscopy shows a reduced number of insulin granules adjacent to the cellular membrane, suggesting a defect in docked granule pool formation, while the reserve pool is unaffected. Ggpps ablation depletes GGPP and impairs Rab27A geranylgeranylation, which is responsible for the docked pool deficiency in Ggpps-null mice. Moreover, GGPPS re-expression or GGPP administration restore glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in Ggpps-null islets. These results suggest that GGPPS-controlled protein geranylgeranylation, which regulates formation of the insulin granule docked pool, is critical for β cell function and insulin release during the development of T2DM.

  12. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  13. Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4 Affects Pathogenesis and Development of Rheumatoid Arthrisits%肽基精氨酸脱亚胺酶4( PADI4)对RA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘肖帅; 葛鲁娜; 韩金祥; 常晓天; 朱有名; 王世立

    2011-01-01

    类风湿关节炎(RA)是一种病因和发病机制尚不清楚的自身免疫疾病,一般认为是由多种遗传因素和环境因素共同作用的结果.遗传因素中以组织相容性白细胞抗原HLA最为重要,另外作为非HLA的肽基精氨酸脱亚胺酶4(PADI4)也参与了RA的发病.PADI4是一种翻译后修饰酶,可在钙离子存在的情况下将精氨酸残基转化为瓜氨酸残基,瓜氨酸化后的蛋白质往往改变其分子构象,从而导致其生化活性亦发生改变.在不用种族的人群中,PADI4基因多态性与RA的易感性不尽相同.PADI4在RA患者血清中含量明显升高,在机体内产生自身抗PADI4抗体,并且PADI4瓜氨酸化多种蛋白质引起机体自身的免疫反应参与RA的发生与发展.近些年来的其他研究表明PAID4也参与了肿瘤、渍疡性结肠炎、多发性硬化症的发病.尽管针对PADI4的研究已经取得了很多重大进展,但是仍然存在很多悬而未决的问题等待科研工作者进一步的研究和证实.%Rheumatoid arthrisits( RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that exact pathogeny is unknown. Generally speaking, the pathogenic factors of RA are due to environmental factors and genetic factors. In genetic factors histocompatibaility leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) is one of the most important elements. In addition, peptidylarginine deiminase 4 ( PADI4) which does not belong to HLA has been thought to participate in the development of RA recently. PADI4 can catalyse peptidylarginine to citrulline in the presence of Ca2+ . This action leads to posttranslational modification of protein. Citrullination brings to conformation change in peptide chains and active sites transformation. In various population, the relation between the SNP which located in PADI4 gene and pothogenesy of RA is different. PADI4 is up-regulated in RA patient' s blood serum and results in autoimmune antibody. PADI4 also citrullinates various protein induced autoimmune response which

  14. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  15. Stand establishment, root development and yield of winter wheat as affected by tillage and straw mulch in the water deifcit hilly region of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-su; LI Jin-gang; TANG Yong-lu; WU Xiao-li; WU Chun; HUANG Gang; ZENG Hui

    2016-01-01

    Good crop stand establishment and root system development are essential for optimum grain yield of dryland wheat (Triti-cum aestivumL.). At present, little is known about the effect of tilage and straw mulch on the root system of wheat under dryland areas in southwestern China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three tilage treatments (no-til, NT; rotary til, RT; conventional til, CT) and two crop residue management practices (straw mulch, ML; non-straw mulch, NML) on stand establishment, root growth and grain yield of wheat. NT resulted in lower soil cover thickness for the wheat seed, higher number of uncovered seeds, lower percentage of seedling-less ridges and lower tiler density compared to RT and CT; ML resulted in higher tiler density compared to NML. Straw mulching resulted in more soil water content and root length density (RLD) at most of the growth stages and soil depths. The maximum RLD, root surface area density and root dry matter density were obtained under NT. In the topmost 10 cm soil layer, higher RLD values were found under NT than those under RT and CT. There were no signiifcant differences in the yield or yield components of wheat among the tilage treatments in 2011–2012, but NT resulted in a signiifcant higher yield compared to RT and CT in 2012–2013. Grain yield was signiifcantly higher in ML compared to in NML. A strong relationship was observed between the water-use efifciency and the grain yield. Both NT and ML proved beneifcial for wheat in term of maintaining higher tiler density, better soil water status and root growth, leading to a higher grain yield and enhanced water-use efifciency, especialy in a low rainfal year.

  16. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  17. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbon data from a monitoring station affected by oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford shale, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar W. Schade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Within the last decade, unconventional oil and gas exploration in the US has become a new source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Although a geographically dispersed source, field measurements in and downwind of a number of shale basins demonstrate the impact exploration activities have on ambient levels of hydrocarbons. Due to concerns related to ozone production, regulatory agencies are adding monitoring stations to better understand the potential influence of emissions from areas with increased oil and gas related activities. The Eagle Ford shale in south Texas is a rapidly developing shale play producing both oil and natural gas, providing 10% and 5% of US domestic oil and gas production, respectively, in 2013. We analyzed the first year of measurements from a newly established monitoring site at its central north edge. The data reveal median ethane mixing ratios—used as a marker for oil and gas exploration related emissions—at five times its typical clean air background. Ethane mixing ratios above ten times the background occurred regularly. Saturated hydrocarbons with likely origin in oil and gas exploration explain half of the data set’s variability. They dominate OH radical reactivity at levels both similar to other shale areas and similar to Houston’s ship channel area a decade ago. Air advecting slowly across the shale area from east-southeast and southwest directions shows the most elevated hydrocarbon concentrations, and evidence is presented linking elevated alkene abundances to flaring in the shale area. A