WorldWideScience

Sample records for affected children independent

  1. Does Listening to Slow Tempo Classical Music During Independent Writing Affect Children's On-Task Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Rosemary

    This project explored the effects of slow tempo classical music on children's on-task performance during independent writing. The project sample consisted of 24 students from a first grade classroom in the New York City Public School System. The students' on-task behavior was observed with and without use of slow tempo classical music playing, and…

  2. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  3. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  4. Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap Doek

    2011-01-01

    This working paper addresses the role, contribution and impact of independent human rights institutions for children (IHRICs), also referred to as children’s ombudspersons or children’s commissioners. It looks at these institutions from the perspective and jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (the Committee) and the global perspective on the perception of the child and childhood resulting from contributions of these institutions to the process of implementing the Conventi...

  5. Different Types of Children's Independent Mobility in French Brittany

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Alain; Ripaud, Enora; Brisset, Elodie; Munchenbach,, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in various countries point out that children's independent mobility has been decreasing over the last decades. This survey was conducted in French Brittany on five sites of varying city size and density. Children mobility is examined through six licences related to outdoor independent movements reported by children aged from 7 to 15 years. From children's declarations, it emerges that there is a clear evolution of independent mobility from primary to secondary school. A clus...

  6. Children's active travel and independent mobility in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhri, Aslak; Hjorthol, Randi; Mackett, Roger L.;

    2011-01-01

    In many countries a decline in children's active and independent mobility, like walking and cycling is registered. In this paper the development of children's mobility in Denmark, Finland, Great Britain and Norway is compared to examine differences and similarities in these countries. Accessible...... units and more children in private schools. Traffic is an important reason for taking children to school by car, but convenience for the parents is also part of it. Organized leisure activities has also contributed to less walking and cycling, in addition to more time pressure in families, increased...

  7. Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H; Holm, Jens-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness...... in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA), and arterial stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). RESULTS...... analyses, the higher nighttime BP in the obese group was independent of logHOMA and cfPWV. CONCLUSIONS: Obese children had a higher nighttime BP when compared with the control group independently of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness. No relationship was found between insulin resistance and arterial...

  8. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280488

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…

  10. Otitis media. How are First Nations children affected?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Thomson

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether otitis media affects First Nations children more severely than other children, I studied the data on otitis media occurrence among these children; on risk factors, particularly bottle feeding; and on prevention and treatment. First Nations children do seem to have more severe otitis media than other children. Health promotion might help ameliorate the situation. Supporting breastfeeding in the community is strongly recommended.

  11. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  12. Children's colour choices for completing drawings of affectively characterised topics

    OpenAIRE

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn; Davis, Alyson

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to explore whether or not children systematically use particular colours when completing drawings of affectively characterised topics. Method: Three hundred and thirty 4-11-year-old children were subdivided into three conditions, colouring in a drawing of a man, a dog, or a tree, respectively. The children completed two test sessions in counterbalanced order. In one session, children rated and ranked ten colours in order of preference. In the other session,...

  13. A Brighter Future: Solutions to Policy Issues Affecting America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This collection of papers explains why deep reforms are necessary if today's children are to reach their full potential as productive, independent, and responsible adults. The papers are: (1) "Orphanages as Villages" (Richard B. McKenzie); (2) "Medicating Children" (Linda Gorman); (3) "Government Drug Pushers and the Ritalin Controversy" (Shelley…

  14. Children and Objects: Affection and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…

  15. Partial Occlusion Depiction and Its Relationship with Field Independence in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Eleanor S.; McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of the depiction of partial occlusion and its relationship with field independence (FI) in children with ASD. Nineteen ASD children and 29 TD children (5;6-10;0) attempted to copy two 3D occluded scenes, and also selected the "best" depiction of these scenes in drawings by others. ASD children were not significantly different…

  16. Relative Foster Parents of HIV-Affected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sally; Linsk, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The permanency planning needs of 28 HIV-affected relative foster parents were examined. Findings indicated that the HIV-affected caregivers' greatest need was a more adequate response from social workers and therapy services for the children; nonaffected caregivers needed financial assistance most. More HIV-affected caregivers were considering…

  17. KAPEAN: Understanding Affective States of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Barraza, Claudia; González, Nimrod; González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing seeks to create computational systems that adapt content and resources according to the affective states of the users. However, the detection of the user's affection such as motivation and emotion is challenging especially when an attention problem is present. An approach to convey learning resources to children with learning…

  18. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  19. Violent video games affecting our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J A; Lee, J E

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is associated with increased aggression and its sequelae. Unfortunately, the majority of entertainment video games contain violence. Moreover, children of both genders prefer games with violent content. As there is no compulsory legislative standards to limit the type and amount of violence in video games, concerned adults must assume an oversight role. PMID:12026362

  20. Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2006-01-01

    This IRC Insight highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The report looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling, and reinforces marginalization and deprivation. It explores the options for the care of children in communities affected by the AIDS epidemic. Beginning with the premise that the parent-child bond is the basic building block of child development and the family the basic unit of society, the r...

  1. An evaluation of the role played by Kenyan independent churches in the protection of the fundamental human rights of children / Wambua Leonard Munyao

    OpenAIRE

    Wambua, Leonard Munyao

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the role that Kenyan independent churches play in the protection of the fundamental human rights of children. It became apparent during the course of the research that Kenya's independent churches have numerous shortcomings that affect their ability to protect such rights. The Kenyan independent churches are affected by the negative effects of an African traditional worldview. Among the effects of this worldview is the tolerance of female genital mutilation, ...

  2. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  3. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  4. Challenges to Children's Independent Citizenship: Immigration, Family and the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Valerie; McDonald, Jennifer Lutzy; Jacobson, Heather T.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how recent federal legislation has increased the extent to which US children's citizenship is dependent upon their parents' citizenship, by contrasting children who are adopted internationally by US citizens and second-generation US children. Two interconnected phenomena are examined: (1) the broader material and theoretical…

  5. Relative importance of various measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological outcomes among children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relative importance of four different measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological problems among children affected by HIV in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 orphans (i.e., children who lost one or both of their parents to HIV), 466 vulnerable children (children who were living with HIV-infected parents), and 404 comparison children who were from the same community and did not have HIV-related illness or death in their families. Four HIV-related stigma measures include perceived public stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), perceived public stigma against children affected by HIV (orphans and vulnerable children), personal stigmatizing attitudes against PLWHA, and enacted stigma among children affected by HIV. Psychological problems included depression and adjustment problems. Various measures of HIV-related stigma independently and differentially contribute to children's psychological problems. Enacted stigma and children's perceived public stigma against PLWHA or children affected by HIV are generally stronger predictors of psychological problems than their own feelings or attitudes towards PLWHA. Various aspects of HIV-related stigma are important for us to understand the perception, attitudes, and experience of children affected by HIV, including both children experiencing HIV-related parental illness and death in their own family and children who were living in the communities hardly hit by HIV. Future health promotion and psychological care efforts for children affected by HIV need to consider the effect of various forms of HIV-related stigma on these children's psychosocial well-being and mobilize the community resources to mitigate the negative effect of HIV-related stigma on PLWHA and their children. PMID:21681458

  6. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  7. Social Marginalization and Children's Rights: HIV-Affected Children in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS within a Caribbean context and the specific ways in which children are affected. In particular, the article explores the nature of risk and vulnerability among especially marginalized children: street children. Literature on HIV/AIDS was reviewed, and semistructured interviews with 44 key…

  8. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  9. Financing Education for Children Affected by Conflict: Lessons from Save the Children's Rewrite the Future Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…

  10. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Bradley S. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (...

  11. Cross Cultural Indicators of Independent Learning in Young Children: A Jordanian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeqdad, Qais; Al-Hamouri, Firas; Zghoul, Rafe'a A; Al-Rousan, Ayoub; Whitebread, David

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the level of Independent Learning (IL) amongst a sample of Jordanian preschoolers. Behaviors of sixty preschool children aged 5-6 years old were observed and rated by their teachers against an Arabic version of the Children's Independent Learning Development (CHILD 3-5) observational instrument to explore the independent learning among young children according to their gender, engagement level, parental education and the size of their families. The results illustrated that preschoolers may show some aspects of behaviors particularly those related to pro-social and cognitive areas. It also indicated that children from high educated environments demonstrated IL behaviors more than those coming from low educated environments. Finally, children coming from larger family size showed less IL behaviors than those coming from smaller ones. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:27283750

  12. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  13. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  14. Children's Expression of Negative Affect: Reasons and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly

    1996-01-01

    Examines the influence of socialization figures (parents, friends), emotion type (anger, sadness, physical pain), age, and gender on 66 second-grade and 71 fifth-grade children's reasons for and methods of affect expression. Found that girls reported using verbal means to communicate emotion, whereas boys cited mildly aggressive methods. (MDM)

  15. Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Sherr, Lorraine; Adato, Michele; Belsey, Mark; Chandan, Upjeet; Desmond, Chris; Drimie, Scott; Haour-Knipe, Mary; Hosegood, Victoria; Kimou, Jose; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Mathambo, Vuyiswa; Wakhweya, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the arguments for the central role of families, defined very broadly, and we emphasise the importance of efforts to strengthen families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. We draw on work conducted in the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS's Learning Group 1: Strengthening Families, as well as published data and empirical literature to provide the rationale for family strengthening. We close with the following recommendations for strengthening families to ameliorate the effects of HIV and AIDS on children. Firstly, a developmental approach to poverty is an essential feature of responses to protect children affected by HIV and AIDS, necessary to safeguard their human capital. For this reason, access to essential services, such as health and education, as well as basic income security, must be at the heart of national strategic approaches. Secondly, we need to ensure that support garnered for children is directed to families. Unless we adopt a family oriented approach, we will not be in a position to interrupt the cycle of infection, provide treatment to all who need it and enable affected individuals to be cared for by those who love and feel responsible for them. Thirdly, income transfers, in a variety of forms, are desperately needed and positively indicated by available research. Basic economic security will relieve the worst distress experienced by families and enable them to continue to invest in the health care and education of their children. Lastly, interventions are needed to support distressed families and prevent knock-on negative outcomes through programmes such as home visiting, and protection and enhancement of children's potential through early child development efforts. PMID:22380973

  16. Prehension Kinematics, Grasping Forces, and Independent Finger Control in Mildly Affected Patients with Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, Kasja; Mumm, Mareike; Brandauer, Barbara; Kronenbürger, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Timmann, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Although the pathophysiology of essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders, is not fully understood, evidence increasingly points to cerebellar involvement. To confirm this connection, we assessed the everyday hand and finger movements of patients with ET, as these movements are known to be affected in cerebellar diseases. In 26 mildly affected patients with ET (compared to age- and gender-matched controls), kinematic and finger force parameters were assessed in a precision grip. In a second task, independent finger movements were recorded. The active finger had to press and release against a force-sensitive keypad while the other fingers stayed inactive. Finally, control of grip force to movement-induced, self-generated load changes was studied. Transport and shaping components during prehension were significantly impaired in patients with ET compared to controls. No significant group differences were observed in independent finger movements and grip force adjustments to self-generated load force changes. However, in the latter two tasks, more severely affected ET patients performed worse than less affected. Although observed deficits in hand and finger movement tasks were small, they are consistent with cerebellar dysfunction in ET. Findings need to be confirmed in future studies examining more severely affected ET patients. PMID:26310449

  17. Speaker-independent factors affecting the perception of foreign accent in a second languagea)

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Susannah V.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on foreign accent perception has largely focused on speaker-dependent factors such as age of learning and length of residence. Factors that are independent of a speaker’s language learning history have also been shown to affect perception of second language speech. The present study examined the effects of two such factors—listening context and lexical frequency—on the perception of foreign-accented speech. Listeners rated foreign accent in two listening contexts: auditory-o...

  18. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years. PMID:24941941

  19. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  20. Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates. PMID:27487917

  1. Keeping the focus on children: the challenges of safeguarding children affected by domestic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Peckover, Sue; Trotter, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Safeguarding children affected by domestic abuse is a key responsibility for all professionals working with children and families, but can be difficult to achieve in practice. Despite a policy emphasis on early intervention and child-centred work, limited attention has been paid to how professionals in universal and additional support services address this important area of work. This paper reports findings from qualitative research undertaken in one local authority area in the north of Engla...

  2. Maternal personality profile of children affected by migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Lucia Parisi,2 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Rosa Marotta,4 Marco Carotenuto1 1Center for Childhood Headache, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Background: Empirical evidence of the important role of the family in primary pediatric headache has grown significantly in the last few years, although the interconnections between the dysfunctional process and the family interaction are still unclear. Even though the role of parenting in childhood migraine is well known, no studies about the personality of parents of migraine children have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess, using an objective measure, the personality profile of mothers of children affected by migraine without aura (MoA. Materials and methods: A total of 269 mothers of MoA children (153 male, 116 female, aged between 6 and 12 years; mean 8.93 ± 3.57 years were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of mothers of 587 healthy children (316 male, 271 female, mean age 8.74 ± 3.57 years randomly selected from schools in the Campania, Umbria, Calabria, and Sicily regions. Each mother filled out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – second edition (MMPI-2, widely used to diagnose personality and psychological disorders. The t-test was used to compare age and MMPI-2 clinical basic and content scales between mothers of MoA and typical developing children, and Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the relation between MMPI-2 scores of mothers of MoA children and frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine attacks of their children. Results: Mothers of MoA children showed significantly higher scores in the paranoia and social introversion

  3. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  4. Resting State EEG in Children With Learning Disabilities: An Independent Component Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical

  5. The Children's Centre Teacher Role: Developing Practice in the Private, Voluntary and Independent Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Ros; Morgan, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the role of the teacher in two children's centres in England and identified some of the supporting and limiting factors that influenced outcomes. The teachers worked across several settings in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector, with the aim of enhancing early years practice and practitioner…

  6. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  7. Attachment styles in children affected by migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Anna Di Dona,1 Serena Marianna Lavano,2 Michele Roccella,4 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, The Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: In recent years, great attention has been given to the presence of psychological problems and psychiatric comorbidity that are also present in children affected by primary headaches. The relationship between pain and attachment has been identified, and it may be that pain perception may change in relation with specific attachment styles. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalent attachment style and verify its putative relationship and correlation with the main characteristics of migraine attacks, in school-aged children affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 219 children (103 males, 116 females aged between 6 and 11 years (mean 8.96 ± 2.14 years, consecutively referred for MoA compared with 381 healthy controls (174 males, 207 females; mean age 9.01 ± 1.75 years randomly selected from schools. All the children were classified according to the attachment typologies of the Italian modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test; monthly headache frequency and mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children. Headache intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The chi-square test and t-test, where appropriate, were applied, and the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to explore the relationship between the types of attachment

  8. Genetic Contribution of Variants near SORT1 and APOE on LDL Cholesterol Independent of Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Petra; Weise, Sebastian; Schleinitz, Dorit; Kiess, Wieland; Scholz, Markus; Kovacs, Peter; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess potential effects of variants in six lipid modulating genes (SORT1, HMGCR, MLXIPL, FADS2, APOE and MAFB) on early development of dyslipidemia independent of the degree of obesity in children, we investigated their association with total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in 594 children. Furthermore, we evaluated the expression profile of the candidate genes during human adipocyte differentiation. Results Expression of selected genes increased 101 to >104 fold during human adipocyte differentiation, suggesting a potential link with adipogenesis. In genetic association studies adjusted for age, BMI SDS and sex, we identified significant associations for rs599839 near SORT1 with TC and LDL-C and for rs4420638 near APOE with TC and LDL-C. We performed Bayesian modelling of the combined lipid phenotype of HDL-C, LDL-C and TG to identify potentially causal polygenic effects on this multi-dimensional phenotype and considering obesity, age and sex as a-priori modulating factors. This analysis confirmed that rs599839 and rs4420638 affect LDL-C. Conclusion We show that lipid modulating genes are dynamically regulated during adipogenesis and that variants near SORT1 and APOE influence lipid levels independent of obesity in children. Bayesian modelling suggests causal effects of these variants. PMID:26375028

  9. Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

  10. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  11. Lycopene Accumulation Affects the Biosynthesis of Some Carotenoid-related Volatiles Independent of Ethylene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Gao; Hongliang Zhu; Yi Shao; Anjun Chen; Chengwen Lu; Benzhong Zhu; Yunbo Luo

    2008-01-01

    For elucidating the regulatory mechanism of ethylene on carotenoid-related volatiles (open chain) compounds and the relationship between lycopene and carotenoid-related volatiles,transgenic tomato fruits in which ACC synthase was suppressed were used.The transgenic tomato fruit showed a significant reduction of lycopene and aroma volatiles with low ethylene production.6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and geranylacetone,which were suspected to be lycopene degradation products,were lower than those in wild type tomato fruits.In order to identify whether lycopene accumulation effects the biosynthesis of some carotenoid-related volatiles independent of ethylene in tomato or not,the capability of both wild type and transgenic tomato fruits discs to convert lycopene into carotenoid-related volatiles was evaluated.The data showed that external lycopene could convert into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol in vivo,Indicating that the strong inhibition of ethylene production had no effect on enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of some carotenoid-related volatiles.Therefore,in ACS-suppression transgenic tomato fruits,the low levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol was due to decreased lycopene accumulation,not ethylene production.Ethylene only affected the accumulation of lycopene,and then indirectly influenceed the level of lycopene-related volatiles.

  12. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Leann L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1 to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2 to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the

  13. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Andersen, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (P<0.05). Daily breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at....... Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions...... separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio...

  14. Independent associations of maternal education and household wealth with malaria risk in children

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that they play similar but independent roles, maternal education and household wealth are usually conflated in studies of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on malaria risk. Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey data from nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used to explore the relationship of malaria parasitemia in children with SES factors at individual and cluster scales, controlling for urban/rural residence and other important covariates....

  15. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SJ; Li, L.; Thammawijaya, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more lik...

  16. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  17. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  18. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  19. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  20. Strangers' Spending Time with Children Affects Adaptation to Maternal Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn L.; Passman, Richard H.

    This study examined techniques which facilitate children's separation from their mothers and their move into a novel situation. Subjects were 32 male and 32 female 40- to 48-month-old children. Some children were visited in their homes the night before the experiment. Subjects remained with their mothers in a waiting room for 10 minutes. A…

  1. Hope and Healing for Children Affected by Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Andrea; Kuchar, Karen; Bigelow, Shauna

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is a devastating social problem that leaves an enduring, negative impact on all family members, especially the victims and their children. The costs to children and to society as a whole are enormous. Children who have witnessed domestic violence or have been threatened or abused by a parent are at great risk for emotional and…

  2. Independent Association of Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, X; Santa-Clara, H; Santos, D A; Pimenta, N M; Minderico, C S; Fernhall, B; Sardinha, L B

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of muscular strength on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children, controlling for the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and central adiposity and to examine if differences among muscular strength tertiles translate to physiological differences. We assessed cIMT of the common carotid artery in 366 children between 11-12 years of age (191 girls). Measures included cIMT assessed with high-resolution ultrasonography, a maximal handgrip strength test, body fat mass and lean mass from DXA and CRF determined using a maximal cycle ergometer test. Association between muscular strength and cIMT adjusted for CRF and central adiposity, as measured by trunk fat, was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. Differences in risk factors among muscular strength groups were tested with ANOVA. The Muscular Strength Index (MSI) was inversely associated with cIMT independently of CRF and central adiposity (p<0.05). The low MSI group had the highest values of cIMT, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure and the lowest CRF (p<0.05). There was an inverse and independent association between muscular strength and cIMT. Low muscular strength was associated with higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. PMID:25875317

  3. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  4. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  5. Reactive/Proactive Aggression and Affective/Cognitive Empathy in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Oosterveld, Paul; Huskens, Bibi; Stockmann, Lex

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which affective and cognitive empathy were associated with reactive and proactive aggression, and whether these associations differed between children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 133 children (67 ASD, 66 TD, M age = 139…

  6. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Leann L; Ventura Alison K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess ...

  7. Prevalence and factors affecting enuresis amongst primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kapoor, Hema; Jagtap, Jyoti; Sen, Mercilina

    2007-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of enuresis in school children and to determine contributing factors along with treatment methods used in these children. Materials and Methods: The parents of 1473 children aged between 6-10 years completed a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic profiles, enuresis data, medical and psychiatric disorders and family stressors were collected. The data was analyzed and the results presented. R...

  8. The effects of kinesio taping on sitting posture and functional independence in children with myelomeningocele: report of four cases

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Türkücüoğlu, Bahriye; Üstünbaş, Gonca; Çokal, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    Myelomeningocele nbsp; is a defect of neural arch which causes body structure and function disorders participation restrictions and activity limitation in children Keeping body structure and functions and gaining functional independence are the most important goals in the rehabilitation of children with myelomeningocele In this study we analysed the effects of Kinesio Taping on sitting posture and functional independence in 4 cases with myelomeningocele Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 177 80

  9. A Model of Factors Affecting Independent Learners' Engagement with Feedback on Language Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Hurd, Stella

    2014-01-01

    In independent learning contexts, the effectiveness of the feedback dialogue between student and tutor or, in the absence of a tutor, the quality of the learning materials, is essential to successful learning. Using the voices of participants as the prime source of data through a combination of data-driven and concept-driven approaches, this…

  10. Guide to Children Affected by Parental Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Leah

    2010-01-01

    A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…

  11. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG. A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  12. Children's Moral and Affective Judgments Regarding Provocation and Retaliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Yell, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Children's moral judgments, attributions of emotion, and their associations were examined in hypothetical, prototypical situations and situations of provocation and peer retaliation. Children judged prototypical and provoked moral transgressions (hitting and teasing). Hypothetical moral transgressions were judged to be more serious and deserving…

  13. How Values in Education Affect Children's Environmental Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…

  14. Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  15. Characteristics of family mealtimes affecting children's vegetable consumption and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Claire; McGowan, Laura; Croker, Helen; Cooke, Lucy

    2011-02-01

    Research has documented an association between family mealtimes and higher dietary quality in school-aged children and adolescents. However, there is little understanding of the specific characteristics of mealtimes that are beneficial and a lack of research with preschool-aged children. This cross-sectional study conducted in the United Kingdom in 2008 examined associations between mealtime characteristics and preschoolers' vegetable consumption and liking. Four hundred and thirty-four primary caregivers of children aged 2 to 5 years reported on children's vegetable intake and liking and completed a questionnaire on frequency of family meals, food preparation, and the social and environmental context of family mealtimes. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses assessed mealtime variables and children's vegetable intake and liking. Multiple regression analysis revealed children's vegetable consumption was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (β=.14; P ≤ 0.01), using ready-made sauces (β=-.12; P ≤ 0.05), and cooking from scratch (β=.11; P ≤ 0.05), accounting for 21% of the variance (with covariates). Children's liking for vegetables was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (β=.15; P ≤ 0.01) and use of preprepared dishes (β=-.15; P ≤ 0.01), accounting for 8% of the variance (with covariates). Frequency of family mealtimes was unrelated to children's vegetable consumption or liking in this sample. This contrasts with findings in older children and adolescents, where frequency of family mealtimes is related to dietary quality and intake. In preschool-aged children, it seems emphasis should be placed on encouraging parents to provide home-cooked meals that mirror those eaten by the adults in the family to improve vegetable intake. PMID:21272701

  16. A model of factors affecting independent learners’ engagement with feedback on language learning tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Toro, Maria; Hurd, Stella

    2014-01-01

    In independent learning contexts, the effectiveness of the feedback dialogue between student and tutor or, in the absence of a tutor, the quality of the learning materials, is essential to successful learning. Using the voices of participants as the prime source of data through a combination of data-driven and concept-driven approaches, this investigation attempts to gain deeper insights into the dynamics of the learning process as students express emotional reactions to the learning environm...

  17. Statistical frequency in perception affects children's lexical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-06-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  18. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation. PMID:26095911

  19. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  20. War-Affected Societies and War-Affected Children: What Are the Long-Term Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jorgen Pauli

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of essential issues of children's development living under war conditions. Discusses the concept of child victims, including killed and wounded children, many kinds of child survivors suffering from psychosocial distress, and child and adolescent soldiers exposed to militaristic socialization. Suggests expanding the concept of…

  1. Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, S.; M. Moretti; Haley, G.; Marriage, K.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings...

  2. Limp Affecting the Hip and Knee in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bobechko, Walter P.

    1985-01-01

    Limp and pain are common findings about the hip and knee in growing children. Epiphyseal growth peculiarities in children account for many of the specific disease entities. Simple but specific physical examination and mandatory simple X-rays will virtually always give or exclude a diagnosis. problems about the hip are usually serious, for example Legg-Perthes, slipped epiphysis and septic arthritis. Most childhood knee problems are annoying but not serious. Chondromalacia patellae and Osgood-...

  3. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. PMID:27482573

  4. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F.; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-01-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  5. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  6. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  7. Three-year changes in fitness and adiposity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors among young danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jago, Russell; Froberg, Karsten; Cooper, Ashley R;

    2010-01-01

    independently or interactively associated with risk variables. RESULTS: Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z = 4.83, P < .001), LDL-C (z = 4.38, P < .001), systolic (z = 3.45, P < .001), and diastolic (z = 2.45, P = .014) blood pressure. CRF change was independently associated with......BACKGROUND: It is not clear the extent to which change in adiposity and cardiovascular fitness (CRF) during early childhood are associated with change in cardiovascular risk factors or if associations are independent or interactive. METHODS: 383 Danish children were examined at ages 6 and 9. CRF...... change in TC (z = -3.86, P < .001), HDL-C (z = 3.85, P < .001), and systolic blood pressure (z = 2.06, P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Change in fitness and adiposity were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF and...

  8. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  9. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  10. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  11. Autism risk assessment in siblings of affected children using sex-specific genetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carayol Jerome

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inheritance pattern in most cases of autism is complex. The risk of autism is increased in siblings of children with autism and previous studies have indicated that the level of risk can be further identified by the accumulation of multiple susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allowing for the identification of a higher-risk subgroup among siblings. As a result of the sex difference in the prevalence of autism, we explored the potential for identifying sex-specific autism susceptibility SNPs in siblings of children with autism and the ability to develop a sex-specific risk assessment genetic scoring system. Methods SNPs were chosen from genes known to be associated with autism. These markers were evaluated using an exploratory sample of 480 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE repository. A reproducibility index (RI was proposed and calculated in all children with autism and in males and females separately. Differing genetic scoring models were then constructed to develop a sex-specific genetic score model designed to identify individuals with a higher risk of autism. The ability of the genetic scores to identify high-risk children was then evaluated and replicated in an independent sample of 351 affected and 90 unaffected siblings from families with at least 1 child with autism. Results We identified three risk SNPs that had a high RI in males, two SNPs with a high RI in females, and three SNPs with a high RI in both sexes. Using these results, genetic scoring models for males and females were developed which demonstrated a significant association with autism (P = 2.2 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that individual susceptibility associated SNPs for autism may have important differential sex effects. We also show that a sex-specific risk score based on the presence of multiple susceptibility associated SNPs allow for the identification of

  12. Numerical magnitude processing deficits in children with mathematical difficulties are independent of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-11-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is thought to arise from difficulties in the ability to process numerical magnitudes. Most research relied on IQ-discrepancy based definitions of DD and only included individuals with normal IQ, yet little is known about the role of intelligence in the association between numerical magnitude processing and mathematical difficulties (MD). The present study examined numerical magnitude processing in matched groups of 7- to 8-year-olds (n=42) who had either discrepant MD (poor math scores, average IQ), nondiscrepant MD (poor math scores, below-average IQ) or no MD. Both groups of children with MD showed similar impairments in numerical magnitudes processing compared to controls, suggesting that the association between numerical magnitude processing deficits and MD is independent of intelligence. PMID:25036314

  13. [The food habit and its affecting factors of preschool children in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, J; Chen, Q; Sun, J; Xiong, R

    1998-09-30

    A survey of nutritional knowledge-attitude-practice was conducted among 1300 preschool children, their parents, 203 teachers and nurses in Kindergarten in 1997. Results showed that the food habit of preschool children was unsuitable. Most preschool children rejected eating animal liver, peanut product and animal blood, but often ate snacks. From statistic analysis among affecting factors, the mother's and teachers' nutritional knowledge and the food habit of parents had significant effect on food habit of preschool children. The family income did not significantly affect food habit of preschool children. Moreover, there was little nutrition education involved in the preschool children courses in 4 kindergartens. The result suggested that the nutrition education plan should be done. PMID:11939051

  14. Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

  15. How Did a Science Camp Affect Children's Conceptions of Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Duygu; Leblebicioglu, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Science explores nature and the most authentic way of introducing science is creating learning environments in the nature and let children make their own discoveries in the nature as real scientists. Science camps would be an opportunity for this kind of science education. This study introduces a science camp and reports findings regarding its…

  16. Indigenous Healing of War-Affected Children in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Green; Honwana, Alcinda

    1999-01-01

    The note identifies how an informal partnership between indigenous healers - with their ritualistic therapies - and donor-assisted programs - with emphasis on the family, and social adjustment - can provide a model of how indigenous, and Western scientific approaches can be pursued to provide war-torn children a maximum benefit. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been e...

  17. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  18. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  19. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental he...

  20. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao

    2006-01-01

    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  1. Effects of Workplace Intervention on Affective Well-Being in Employees' Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.; Kelly, Erin L.; King, Rosalind B.

    2016-01-01

    Using a group-randomized field experimental design, this study tested whether a workplace intervention--designed to reduce work-family conflict--buffered against potential age-related decreases in the affective well-being of employees' children. Daily diary data were collected from 9- to 17-year-old children of parents working in an information…

  2. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  3. Improving the Short-Term Affect of Grieving Children through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kaylin E.; Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in positive and negative affect of grieving children in response to art making compared to another noncreative, non-expressive, but engaging visuospatial task and assessed whether art making was equally or differentially effective in individual versus collaborative settings. We randomly assigned grieving children to one of…

  4. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  5. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bröning; Diana Moesgen; Michael Klein; Rainer Thomasius

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive...

  6. Disseminated coxsackievirus A6 affecting children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M D; Sears, A; Cookson, H; Lew, T; Laftah, Z; Orrin, L; Zuckerman, M; Creamer, D; Higgins, E

    2015-07-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an emerging pathogen that has in recent years been associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease. This manifests as a generalized papular or vesicular eruption, which may be associated with fever and systemic disturbance. We report a series of six children presenting to a single centre in the UK with disseminated CV-A6 infection on a background of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our patients exhibited a widespread papular or vesicular eruption in association with exacerbation of AD. Several of our cases mimicked eczema herpeticum, but the extent was more generalized, and individual lesions were discrete rather than clustered and were less circumscribed in character. This series highlights that CV-A6 infection may be encountered in the UK, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute exacerbation of AD, particularly in children. PMID:25677678

  7. The possibilities of affection hypermobility of older school children

    OpenAIRE

    KRBEČEK, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis at hand is based on a research on functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system, specifically focusing on congenital hypermobility in school children, paying special attention to shoulder and elbow joints. Hypermobility is a disorder of the musculoskeletal system, which causes excessive laxity of connective tissue that makes the joints get into extreme positions. This may cause damage not only to the articular cartilage, but also to the entire joint including the su...

  8. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children

    OpenAIRE

    Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G.; Boyer, C; P. Bélanger; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcom...

  9. Planning for long-term care : filial behavior and relationship quality of adult children with independent parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Mark Calvin

    1990-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the long-term care planning entered into by 170 adult children who had independent parents. A decision-making process with four stages was hypothesized. Sons and daughters entered into planning activities primarily at the "consideration" and "discussion" stages. This involvement proceeds along a sequence of stages with lower stage activities being completed before entering into more advanced stages. Minimal involvement from adult children in "preliminary p...

  10. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  11. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music. PMID:21668112

  12. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sofronoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability. It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  13. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

  14. Convergence between Physiological, Facial and Verbal Self-Report Measures of Affective Empathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of convergence between three different measures of vicarious affective responsiveness (affective empathy)--verbal self-report, facial expression and change in heart rate--in typically developing children (N=29, aged 8-10 years), when presented with an emotionally evocative film. Although convergence…

  15. Increased freezing and decreased positive affect in post-institutionalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellern, Sarah; Esposito, Elisa; Mliner, Shanna; Pears, Katherine; Gunnar, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Background Early neglect is associated with increased risk of internalizing disorders in humans and with increased fear behavior in animals. When children are adopted out of orphanages in which they experienced institutional neglect, anxiety and depressive disorders often are not seen until adolescence. What has not been examined is whether even young children adopted from institutional care exhibit heightened fear or behavioral inhibition. Method Children adopted between 15 and 35 months from institutional care were examined twice during their first year post-adoption and compared to children of the same age reared in their birth families. A modified version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery for Preschoolers was used with the children being exposed to two mechanical toys designed to be highly arousing and fear-eliciting. Because children in institutions tend to exhibit low levels of positive affect, the children were also examined during exposure to two positive stimuli. Sessions were videotaped and coded by observers blind to the study purpose. Results Post-institutionalized children froze more in fear vignettes and were less positive in both fear and positive vignettes than non-adopted children. Group differences did not diminish significantly from the first session to the next, 6 months later. Conclusions Children exposed to early institutional neglect exhibit emotional biases that are consistent with their previously demonstrated risk for the development of internalizing disorders. PMID:24482804

  16. Psychological Aspects in Children Affected by Duchenne De Boulogne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Roccella; Lucia Parisi; Teresa Di Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects ha...

  17. Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying Victimization among AIDS-Affected and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…

  18. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054. Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  19. PARENTAL TYPE OF PERSONALITY, NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY AND FAMILY STRESSFUL EVENTS IN CHILDREN WITH CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Gordana; Čulić, Srđana; Benko, Marta; Kalebić Jakupčević, Katja; Stepan, Jasminka; Šprajc, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychological interactions between parents,children and social environment are very important for childhood health. The type of personality and stressful events are probably also cancer risk factors. We investigated personality types A/B and D (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in parents of children with cancer (PCC), as well as social environmental factors, and family / children’s stressful events before the appearance of cancer. Subjects and methods: Bortne...

  20. Revealing lives: a qualitative study with children and young people affected by parental alcohol problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Louise Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been recognition that children and young people have considerable knowledge about their own lives that merits academic attention. The overall aim of this study is to reflexively engage with children and young people who have been affected by parental (or significant carer) alcohol problems and to explore, from their perspectives, the perceived impact on their lives and their experiences of support. Given the common secrecy and potential stigma of pr...

  1. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a si...

  2. How Mood and Task Complexity Affect Children's Recognition of Others’ Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Andrew J.; Rennels, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examined how mood affects children's accuracy in matching emotional expressions and labels (label-based tasks). This study was the first to assess how induced mood (positive, neutral, or negative) influenced 5- to 8-year-olds’ accuracy and reaction time using both context-based tasks, which required inferring a character's emotion from a vignette, and label-based tasks. Both tasks required choosing one of four facial expressions to respond. Children responded more accurately ...

  3. Peculiarities of ultrasonic picture of thyroid in children and teenagers affected by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic screening of thyroid has been carried out in 1577 children and teenagers 6-17 years old, who were affected by radionuclides and are living in goiter endemic territories of Gomel region. The spread of nodal pathology of the thyroid in children of Gomel region has been found to be more than 15% and that of cancer - 2,54%. 1 tab, 7 refs

  4. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children's Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  5. Association between Independent Reports of Maternal Parenting Stress and Children's Internalizing Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable research has investigated parenting stress and children's externalizing behavior problems, comparatively less has considered parenting stress in relation to children's internalizing difficulties. Even less research on parenting stress has incorporated children's report of their internalizing symptoms or the potential…

  6. Affective Modulation of the Startle Response among Children at High and Low Risk for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397

  7. An introduction to family-centred services for children affected by HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Richter Linda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Family-centred services in the context of HIV/AIDS acknowledge a broad view of a "family system" and ideally include comprehensive treatment and care, community agencies and coordinated case management. The importance of family-centred care for children affected by HIV/AIDS has been recognized for some time. There is a clear confluence of changing social realities and the needs of children in families affected by HIV and AIDS, but a change of paradigm in rendering services to childre...

  8. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  9. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children. PMID:26386301

  10. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  11. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  12. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  13. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  14. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  15. Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61). PMID:24814751

  16. Cuban studies of children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The assessment of the radiological impact includes: measurement of 137Cs body burden; internal, external, thyroids and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hematological, endocrinological, and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on 4506 children from Ukraine (69.3%), Russia (22.5%) and Belarus (8.1%). In 69% of the children, contents of 137Cs activity was detected in the body. Specific activity fluctuated from 1.5 to 565 Bq/kg. Of the children measured, 90% showed a specific activity under 20 Bq/kg. 8 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Do excessive internet use, television viewing and poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Vachhani, Pankit J; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Ali, Awab I

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether excessive internet use, television viewing and the ensuing poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children in a rapidly developing country. This is a cross-sectional study and 3000 school students aged between six and 18 years were approached and 2467 (82.2%) students participated. Of the studied school children 12.6 percent had low vision. Most of the low vision school children were in the 6-10 years age group and came from middle income backgrounds (41.8%; p = 0.008). A large proportion of the children with low vision spent ≥ 3 hours per day on the internet (48.2%; pspending prolonged hours on the computer or TV, fast food eating, poor lifestyle habits and low vision. PMID:20823076

  18. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  19. Social participation and independent mobility in children: the effects of two implementations of "we go to school alone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezza, Miretta; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Renzi, Daniela; Pietrobono, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the outcomes of the "We go to school alone" program in two Districts of Rome through a longitudinal study involving 392 children (mean age = 8.37 years) and 270 parents. The outcomes of the program in the two Districts were very different. Only one resulted in an increase in children's autonomous mobility on the home-school journey, a reduction in the number of times a child was taken to school by car, and, even more important, in an increase in the general level of children's independent mobility in their neighborhood. The findings are discussed in terms of a process evaluation that enabled us to understand the differing results. PMID:20391051

  20. Children and Society Policy Review: Health Policy Affecting Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkiss, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…

  1. Patterns of Sex Differences in Children's Information Processing with and without Independence from "g."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Christine W.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed sex differences in performance on the subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children using more than 2,500 children ages 2-1/2 to 12-1/2 years old. Results confirmed previous research with female superiority on short-term memory tasks and male superiority on spatial-visualization skills. (Author/ABL)

  2. Steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum affected by various salts and sugars: Time-independent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali R; Eivazlou, Razieh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-10-01

    The rheological properties of food hydrocolloids are remarkably influenced by the quality of solvent/cosolutes in a food system. In this work, the steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum (SSG, 0.5% w/w) at the presence of different levels of salts (KCl & MgCl2, 0-100mM) and sugars (sucrose, lactose & glucose, 0-6% w/w) was studied. It was found that the rheological properties of SSG were affected by the type of sugars and salts and their concentrations as well. Synergistic interaction was observed between SSG and sugars which enhanced the viscosity of gum solutions, while salts addition diminished the viscosity. SSG solutions exhibited a shear thinning behavior at all conditions tested. Various time-independent rheological models were used to fit the shear stress-shear rate data, although the Herschel-Bulkley (R(2)=0.994-0.999) and Sisko (R(2)=0.995-0.999) models showed the best results to describe the flow behavior of SSG. In the presence of salts, the yield stress (τ0), consistency coefficient (k), and flow behavior index (n) values decreased. The k and τ0 values enhanced and the n value lowered in the presence of sugars. Divalent cations of Mg(2+) and sucrose roughly showed more effect on rheological parameters than others. PMID:27316768

  3. Young children's affective responses to another's distress: dynamic and physiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  4. Signs of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated to evaluate the possible appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles living in the areas of Kaluga region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% over seven years. There is a significant difference in the frequency of antibody appearance between persons affected by radioactive iodine and those not affected. A greater quantity of the positive sera was recorded in the area with highest level of radioactive contamination. It is suggested that the elevated rate of autoimmune thyroiditis signs in children and juveniles is one of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  5. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  6. Increasing Independence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Video Self Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalos, Julie Iberer

    2013-01-01

    Independent task completion was examined using a multiple probe across participants research design for three students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) functioning in an inclusive classroom. Results were positive and suggest that video self-modeling (VSM) is a viable solution to decrease prompt dependence and increase independence and task…

  7. Needs of children affected by HIV and AIDS: Mangaung in the Free State

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Chakalane-Mpeli; L Roets

    2007-01-01

    The terminal illness or death of a parent due to HIV and AIDS has a disastrous effect on the surviving children. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the needs of HIV and AIDS orphans and pre-orphans. A qualitative method using indepth interviews with 10 children affected by their parent’s illness or death was carried out. Results indicate that there was a marked reduction in financial capital paving the way for basic physical needs such as food, clothing, fuel and shelter. L...

  8. Estimation of stochastic effects risk in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation risk estimation of stochastic effect was evaluated in a group of children assisted in the Cuba Republic as part of the program for medical attention with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident . Doses, received from different sources, were estimated for risk evaluation. The study shows total detrimental effects between 0,02 - 0,01% for different groups; values lower than expected for developed country (17-20%). Fatal thyroid cancer increased up to 0,07% in one of the studied groups. (authors). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Extended Speech Evaluation of Cleft Palate -Velopharyngeal Dysfunction Affected Children Using Jitter and Nasality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi R. Dixit

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication disorders are very complicated in individuals with cleft lip and/ or palate. In this paper, the pathological cases of speech disabled children affected with cleft type characteristics (CTCs and Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD are analyzed. The speech signal samples of children of age between three to eight years are considered for the present study. These speech signals are digitized and are used to determine the pathologic speech characteristics. NSI, Jitter Analysis is conducted on speech data samples which are concerned with both place of articulation and manner of articulation. The speech disability of pathological subjects was estimated using results of above analysis

  10. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  11. Child Participation and Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rébecca Steward

    2011-01-01

    Child participation is closely linked and interdependent with civil and political rights and with the fundamental perceived concepts of childhood, evolving capacity and autonomy. The right of children to express their views freely and to have them taken into account is both a substantive right and a general principle relevant to all aspects of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The degree of children’s participation within a society and the ways of involving children...

  12. The Effectiveness of a Parent Education Programme Offered Through Distance Education About Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (IACEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent education program on parents’ awareness about the Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (ACEC: in Turkish OCEM. The program was offered through a distance education program. Participants of the study included parents of 72 children with autism who were receiving education in one of the ACEC in Istanbul. The study was carried out during 2005-2006 school year. The research study was experimental including a pre and a post-test to determine the effectiveness of the program. The Parent Education Program included five VCDs, each of which incorporated about 20 minute-presentation on various topics about Autism and the ACEC, and five handbooks. Participants in experimental and control groups were randomly assigned. The experimental group took a five-week training while the control group did not receive any training. Data were gathered by ACEC Knowledge Test developed by the researchers. The results indicated that significant differences were found between pre-and post-test scores of the experimental group. The findings showed that parent education programme offered through the distance education about Independent Autistic Children Education Centre was significantly effective. .

  13. Post-event information affects children's autobiographical memory after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie; Melnyk, Laura

    2009-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether post-event information (PEI) about true and false events persisted in children's reports after approximately 1 year. In Experiment 1, 4- to 6-year-olds were given PEI and then were given memory tests 2 weeks and 15 months later. Although PEI appeared in free recall at the initial testing, it decreased substantially by the long-term test. In contrast, on recognition tasks the children showed facilitation and misinformation effects at initial and follow-up tests. Experiment 2 replicated lasting misinformation and facilitation effects in recognition memory among 4- to 9-year-olds who were tested after 1-week and 10-month delays. We conclude that true and false reminders about an experienced event continue to affect children's memory approximately 1 year later. PMID:18679779

  14. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  15. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    = 70.393; P > 0.001 and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002.Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.Keywords: children, functional articulation disorders, sensory integration dysfunction, speech therapy, efficacy

  16. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Trejos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena. Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program. Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information. Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  17. Needs of children affected by HIV and AIDS: Mangaung in the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Chakalane-Mpeli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The terminal illness or death of a parent due to HIV and AIDS has a disastrous effect on the surviving children. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the needs of HIV and AIDS orphans and pre-orphans. A qualitative method using indepth interviews with 10 children affected by their parent’s illness or death was carried out. Results indicate that there was a marked reduction in financial capital paving the way for basic physical needs such as food, clothing, fuel and shelter. Lack of school fees, uniforms and transport money together with biased teachers and rigid school policies were affecting school attendance and performance. On the psychosocial level needs expressed were for family and community support, friendship, acceptance by the group as well as love and belonging. It seems as if stigmatisation and resulting ostracism by important-others is a drawback at all levels of interaction for AIDS orphans and pre-orphans.

  18. Pathophysiological changes that affect drug disposition in protein-energy malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya Kazeem A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a major public health problem affecting a high proportion of infants and older children world-wide and accounts for a high childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. The epidemiology of PEM has been extensively studied globally and management guidelines formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO. A wide spectrum of infections such as measles, malaria, acute respiratory tract infection, intestinal parasitosis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS may complicate PEM with two or more infections co-existing. Thus, numerous drugs may be required to treat the patients. In-spite of abundant literature on the epidemiology and management of PEM, focus on metabolism and therapeutic drug monitoring is lacking. A sound knowledge of pathophysiology of PEM and pharmacology of the drugs frequently used for their treatment is required for safe and rational treatment. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological changes in children with PEM that may affect the disposition of drugs frequently used for their treatment. This review has established abnormal disposition of drugs in children with PEM that may require dosage modification. However, the relevance of these abnormalities to the clinical management of PEM remains inconclusive. At present, there are no good indications for drug dosage modification in PEM; but for drug safety purposes, further studies are required to accurately determine dosages of drugs frequently used for children with PEM.

  19. Disease painting or painting disease: how does illness and hospitalisation affect children's artistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci, Benan; Forouz, Aria; Sahin, Ahmet B; Abali, Mustafa; Aliyeva, Gyulten Z

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous speculations about famous artists and how their perception was affected by their medical conditions. In this study, we examined how illness and hospitalisation affect children's art. A total of 157 paintings by 122 hospitalised children were interpreted by three reputed artists. Works of ill children were compared with those of a control group from an international art exhibition. We also comment on how diseases influenced the technique of famous artists to further examine the possible impact of illness on the artistry of hospitalised children. Developmental delay in painting was evident in the study group. Use of ready-made schemas was a common practice (55%). 56% of the work from patients older than eight years failed in perspective and site perception. The theme in 89% of the drawings had no human figures. Projection of self sufferings, prominent elementary lines, and reflection of distorted perception could be clearly recognised in various study materials; anxiety about assigned surgery was exhibited by scribbling. There exists a close relationship between medicine and humanities. The interpretation of fine art from a medical perspective may help to increase our appreciation of the suffering of an individual. It is obvious that diseases change the artistic style and inner perspective. The question is how do healthcare specialists view this? PMID:20120269

  20. From infant affect expression to symbolic play: the coherence of development in Down syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti, F; Cicchetti, D; Sroufe, L A

    1983-10-01

    To examine further the coherence of development of a sample of Down syndrome children, assessments were made of the quality and level of play at age 3-5 years. It was found that, with corrections for mental age, the play of these children was similar to that of nonhandicapped children. Moreover, individual differences in the level and quality of play were strongly predicted from Bayley DQ scores obtained at age 2 and by several indexes of affective expressiveness including 1 obtained in the first year of life. This was despite limitations on the performance range represented in the subsample included in this follow-up study. Finally, the various aspects of play, as indexed by 5 separate scales, intercorrelated strongly, suggesting consistent individual differences in the play session itself. All of these findings point to the coherence of development of these children. In addition, it is suggested that early affective assessments are strong predictors of the later functioning of Down syndrome. PMID:6194942

  1. Intrinsic fantasy: motivation and affect in educational games made by children

    OpenAIRE

    Habgood, M. P. Jacob; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Benford, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic fantasy has been considered central to the aim of usefully applying the positive affect of computer games to learning. Games with intrinsic fantasy are defined as having “an integral and continuing relationship with the instructional content being presented”, and are claimed as “more interesting and more educational” than extrinsic fantasy games [1]. Studies of children making educational games have shown they usually create extrinsic games for curriculum learning con...

  2. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Di Rosa Giuseppe; Morasso Pietro; Frascarelli Flaminia; Masia Lorenzo; Petrarca Maurizio; Castelli Enrico; Cappa Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of sub...

  3. Acute Physical Exercise Affects Cognitive Functioning in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Désirée B; Gane, Claire; Dufour, Sophie-Krystale; Wyss, Dominik; Bouyer, Laurent J; McFadyen, Bradford J; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan; Voisen, Julien I

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of acute exercise on the cognitive functioning of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Selected cognitive functions were thus measured using a pediatric version of the Stroop test before and after maximal, locomotor based aerobic exercise in 16 independently ambulatory children (8 children with CP), 6-15 years old. Intense exercise had: 1) a significant, large, positive effect on reaction time (RT) for the CP group (preexercise: 892 ± 56.5 ms vs. postexercise: 798 ± 45.6 ms, p effect on the interference effect for the CP group (preexercise: 4.5 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 13 ± 2.9%RT, p effect for the TD group (preexercise: 7.2 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 6.9 ± 2.9%RT, p > .4, d = 0.03). Response accuracy was high in both groups pre- and postexercise (>96%). In conclusion, intense exercise impacts cognitive functioning in children with CP, both by increasing processing speed and decreasing executive function. PMID:26502458

  4. Three Independent Evaluations of Healthy Kids Programs Find Substantial Gains in Children's Dental Health Care. In Brief, September 2008, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana; Howell, Embry; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Dubay, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents highlights from rigorous, independent evaluations of the Healthy Kids programs in three California counties: Los Angeles, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Launched by Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) in these counties between 2001 and 2003, the three Healthy Kids programs provide children with comprehensive health insurance…

  5. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage

  6. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of “number” is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  7. Psychological aspects in children affected by Duchenne de Boulogne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Roccella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease.

  8. Psychological Aspects in Children Affected by Duchenne De Boulogne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  9. Ten years of work in Cuban Program to children from areas affected of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April of 2000 the Cuban program for specialised medical attention to children from areas affected by the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident completed 10 years of work. In the program had been assisted more than 18 000 children and adults, among them 50 Brazilians related with the Goiania accident. A group of medical procedures and dosimetric, biomedical and psychological investigations have been carried out in the program. The main significant medical attention activities are the treatment of haematological disorders, among them, 120 leukaemia, the realisation of bone marrow transplants and the treatment of endocrinological and neoplasic illnesses. The dosimetric studies has allowed to create a database that accumulates information about internal contamination for 137Cs, internal, external, and total doses, of 7000 children. The analysis of the behaviour of all the medical information that is generated in the program in function of the contamination of the land and of the internal contamination of the children is also performed. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and radiological emergencies experts.(author)

  10. Effectiveness of a Structured Work System to Improve the Independence of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Degner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The TEACCH approach (Mesibov, Shea & Schopler, 2005 is a widely used concept to educate individuals with autism spectrum disorders (Francis, 2005; Frith, 2008. According to Research Autism (2010, the TEACCH-approach has „limited positive evidence“. Furthermore, Research Autism highlights the need of a manual that clarifies the implementation of TEACCH. To broaden the empirical foundation of TEACCH, this study examined to what extent a “TEACCH-structured work system” (Mesibov et al., 2005, manualized by the “Action-Motivation Approach” (Schatz, Schellbach & Degner 2007, improved the on-task behavior and the independence of two students with autism (7;6 and 6;8 years old. An A1B1A2B2 reversal design with generalization and maintenance phase was used to address this research question. The visual inspection of data as well as the percentage of non-overlapping data-points indicates an improvement of on-task behavior and independence for both participants. However, a causal relationship between independent and dependent variables was evident only for one participant. The TEACCH-structured work system was effective in new settings, too. Additionally, social validity measurements confirmed a decrease of challenging behavior.

  11. An effective strategy for intervention with children and adolescents affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart-Walker, S; Moss, N E

    2000-04-01

    angry outbursts and provocative behavior have been integrated into the story of the group. As children need to express rage they at times speak of John, using his ability to express this feeling as an example to the safety of the group. Again this type of work is not only powerful and intense, but needs to be unhurried. Children such as John and his comembers need time to experience their grief and heal their pain. Thus, groups are an effective strategy for work with HIV-affected children in helping them deal with the losses within their families and continue to grow into healthy adults. PMID:10768070

  12. Dysbiosis in Ukrainian Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Affected by Natural Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sheikh Sajjadieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Microbiota has an important role in human metabolism, nutrition, immunity, and protection against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. Radiation can harm the beneficial members of the gastrointestinal tract flora.Methods: Our study included 75 rural children aged 4-18 years, who lived in contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and 20 healthy urban participants aged 5-15 as control group. The intestinal bacterial microbiota was examined from stool samples.Findings: Our results indicated the population levels of microbiota such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus,Lactobacillus and Bifidbacterium in caecal contents in 61 subjects (81.3% was significantly less than in control group.Conclusion: We investigated alternation of the intestinal microbiota affected by ionizing radiation in children with clinical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Independent Child Migration From Northern Ghana to Techiman Municipality : Perspectives of 'Kayayie' (Female Children Head Poters)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwaku, Effa Rexford

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the north-south migration of children is on the increase and is gaining popularity in the Ghanaian media especially in Accra and Kumasi. Previous studies on child migration focused mainly on boys as well as on big cities like Accra and Kumasi. However, this research focuses on Techiman town which serves as a transit town between resource-deprived northern parts of Ghana and the southern parts where migrants are usually destined. This explores the motives of female migrant chi...

  14. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M;

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  15. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  16. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  17. How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

  18. Young Children's Affective Decision-Making in a Gambling Task: Does Difficulty in Learning the Gain/Loss Schedule Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…

  19. Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism and Sex Interact to Predict Children's Affective Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon eBen-Israel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of Theory of Mind (ToM as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R allele within the third exon of the Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in prosocial behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins (LIST. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.

  20. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  1. Time spent playing outdoors after school and its relationship with independent mobility: a cross-sectional survey of children aged 10–12 years in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time spent outdoors is positively associated with physical activity and has been suggested as a proxy for physical activity of children. The role of children's independence in physical activity and time spent outdoors is less understood. This study aimed to assess how much time children spent playing outdoors after school, and to explore the relationship between outdoor play and independence among children aged 10–12 years. Method Children recorded how much time they spent playing outdoors or watching TV/videos or playing computer games after school using a five-day diary, and also reported whether they were allowed to walk on their own in their neighbourhood as an indicator of their independent mobility. Parents were surveyed on family demographics and perception of neighbourhood safety. The surveys were conducted in late 2006 as part of the Central Sydney Walk to School program which involved 1975 children and their parents from 24 primary schools. Factors associated with time spent playing outdoors were determined by logistic regression modelling. Results Thirty-seven per cent of children spent less than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school, and 43% spent more than 2 hours a day watching TV, videos or playing computer games. Forty-eight per cent of children were allowed to walk on their own near where they lived. Children's independent mobility was significantly associated with outdoor play after adjusting for other confounders. Compared with those who were never allowed to walk on their own near where they lived, students who were allowed to walk on their own were significantly more likely to spend more than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.6, 95% CI 1.84–3.58, P Conclusion The findings that a significant proportion of children spend less than half an hour a day playing outdoors after school and have excessive screen time have important implications for

  2. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Ng, Lauren; Kirk, Catherine M.; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William Rigby; Brennan, Robert Thomas; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara Nicole; Cyamatare, Felix R; Sezibera, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Design Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. Methods The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child–caregiver relationships, family communication and ...

  3. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking. PMID:26508454

  4. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  5. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems. PMID:25015711

  6. Independent Living Service Programs for Foster Youth: How Individual Factors and Program Features Affect Participation and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines factors that impact the provision of services and resources for youth during their transition from foster care into adulthood, specifically the support provided through federally funded Independent Living Skills Programs (ILSPs). The population targeted by these programs numbers fewer than 400,000 current and former foster youth between the ages of 16 and 21 at any given time. The review of the ILSP evaluation literature presented here shows little evidence to sug...

  7. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay on children form areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The health effects of the Chernobyl accident and particularly the long-term effects continue to be interesting and significant for the international scientific community. The DNA damages caused by radiation exposure are considered responsible for the effects at cellular level and in the whole organism. The comet assay is one of the current tools with greatest application and sensitivity to evaluate DNA damages, particularly in chronic exposures. The preliminary results with the application of the comet assay to blood lymphocytes of 30 Ukrainian children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident are shown in our study. The children were in Cuba at the moment of the study. 137Cs internal contamination was measured in a whole body counter and correlated with DNA damages, children blood was taken by fingerprick. Factors like illnesses, medical treatments, or the external doses by surface contamination were also considered in the study. Until the present the radiological factor has not shown influence in the levels of observed DNA damages. (orig.)

  8. The mental health of male victims and their children affected by legal and administrative partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joshua L; Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-07-01

    The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346-361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522849

  9. Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Howson, Christopher P; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W; Blencowe, Hannah K; Christianson, Arnold L; Kent, Alastair; Malherbe, Helen; Murray, Jeffrey C; Padilla, Carmencita D; Walani, Salimah R

    2016-08-01

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are adopted by United Nations member states, children with congenital disorders remain left behind in policies, programs, research, and funding. Although this finding was recognized by the creation and endorsement of the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution in 2010 calling on United Nations member states to strengthen prevention of congenital disorders and the improvement of care of those affected, there has been little to no action since then. The Sustainable Development Goals call for the global health and development community to focus first and foremost on the most vulnerable and those left behind in the Millennium Development Goal era. To maximize the opportunity for every woman and couple to have a healthy child and to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected, their families and communities, and national health care systems, we propose priority measures that should be taken urgently to address this issue. PMID:27366873

  10. Affecting factors to effectiveness of starting therapy in children with hiv infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Denisenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research – to characterize of the factors that influence the effectiveness of the starting highly activе antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection.Materials and methods. A total of 67 children with HIV infectionat the age from 24 to 36 months who have not received antiretroviral treatment. Patients received highly activе antiretroviral therapy on clinical, immunological and laboratory indications. Regimen consisted of two HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine and lamivudine in combination with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or viral protease inhibitor. Аs the third component of the scheme in 22 patients (32,8% used nevirapine, in 24 (35,8% – lopinavir/ritonavir, in 21 children (31,3% – nelfinavir. In the future, the effectiveness of treatment was assessed by clinical parameters, the number of CD4 lymphocytes in the blood and HIV blood viral load. Data on the duration of the effectiveness of conservation regimens examined using Cox proportional hazard model.Results. Duration of highly activу antiretroviral therapy was 12–79 months (median 28 months, interquartile range 13–60 months. In 55,2% patients, achieved sustained viral suppression (viral load levels below the level of test system sensitivity, improving the immune status (increase number of CD4 lymphocytes, the positive dynamics of clinical symptoms. In 37,3% patients, initial regimen was modified because of its inefficiency, which is often due to the inability to completely suppress viral replication (37,5% and improve immune status (8,9%. Side effects occurred in 28,4% children, but only in 7,5% patients they were the cause of change therapies. When testing the clinical and laboratory parameters prior to treatment in the Cox model revealed that an independent factor increasing the duration of the effectivenessof homepage conservation regimen was the appointment of

  11. Eveningness and poor sleep quality independently contribute to self-reported depression severity in psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Background Chronotype and insomnia have been related to the development and to an unfavourable course of depression. However, the mutual relationship of both risk factors is as yet unclear, especially in acute, clinically manifest depressive disorders. Aims The present study was carried out to elucidate the separate direct and indirect influence of chronotype and poor sleep quality on depression severity in patients hospitalized for depression. Methods Depression severity (BDI-II), chronotype (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), and subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index total score) were assessed concurrently in inpatients with a depressive syndrome and insomnia during routine treatment. Correlations, multiple regression and bootstrapping methods for testing mediation models were applied to assess the independent direct and indirect effects of chronotype and sleep quality on depression severity, after adjusting for effects of age and gender. Results Data from 57 consecutively admitted patients (88% with major depression) were analyzed (68% women, mean age 41 ± 13 years). Significant correlations between morningness-eveningness (p <0.05) or sleep quality (p <0.01) and depression severity were found; in a multiple regression model comprising chronotype, sleep quality, age and gender, only chronotype (p <0.05) and sleep disturbances (p <0.01) remained as independent significant concurrent predictors of depression severity (R(2) = 0.184, p <0.01). Two mediation models revealed no significant results. Conclusions Eveningness and poor subjective sleep quality were independently and directly associated with higher depression severity in inpatients with depressive syndromes. Chronotype and sleep quality should be taken into account not only in risk assessment and prevention but also in hospitalized patients to develop and improve treatment options. PMID:26634390

  12. How does joint provision of audit and non-audit services affect audit quality and independence? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Marnet, Oliver; Gwilliam, David; Teng, Chie Min

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this report is to analyse changes in recent years in the market for the provision of non-audit services (NAS), with a particular focus on the joint provision of audit and non-audit services and the potential effects on independence and the quality of audit. This report is relevant to the ongoing debate at both national and European level on issues of competition, liability and regulation in the audit market. and it seeks to contextualise the issue and provide a résumé of th...

  13. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships. PMID:26362037

  14. Reduced positive affect (anhedonia) is independently associated with 7-year mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Pelle, Aline J; Boersma, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    Negative mood states (e.g., anxiety and depression) have been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD), but little is known about the impact of positive emotions on these health outcomes. We examined whether anhedonia (i.e., reduced positive...... affect) was associated with 7-year mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  15. Executive dysfunction in children affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-08-01

    , all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.871, gender (P = 0.704, z-score of body mass index (P = 0.656, total intelligence quotient (P = 0.358, and PDSS scores (P = 0.232. The OSAS children showed a significantly higher rate of total errors (P < 0.001, perseverative errors (P < 0.001, nonperseverative errors (P < 0.001, percentage of total errors (P < 0.001, percentage of perseverative errors (P < 0.001, and percentage of nonperseverative errors (P< 0.001. On the other hand, OSAS children showed a significant reduction in the number of completed categories (P = 0.036, total correct sorts (P = 0.001, and categorizing efficiency (P < 0.001. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between all error parameters and apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, and percentage of mean desaturation of O2 with a specular negative relationship between the error parameters and the mean oxygen saturation values, such as a significant negative relationship between apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, percent of mean desaturation of O2, and the number of completed categories. Conclusion: Our study identified differences in the executive functioning of children affected by OSAS and is the first to identify a correlation between alteration in respiratory nocturnal parameters and EF that has not yet been reported in developmental age. These findings can be considered as the strength and novelty of the present report in a large pediatric population. Keywords: OSAS, polysomnography, executive functions, sleep, sleepiness, children

  16. A poor start in life negatively affects dominance status in adulthood independent of body size in green swordtails Xiphophorus helleri

    OpenAIRE

    Royle, Nick J.; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2005-01-01

    Whilst there is an abundance of studies revealing how dominance interactions affect access to resources critical for survival and reproductive success, very little is known about how dominance status is influenced by early life experiences. However, there is increasing evidence that early developmental trajectories can shape the physiology and behaviour of the adult. In particular, compensatory growth following a period of poor nutrition can have long-term effects on the phenotype. Since catc...

  17. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail: akeita@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  18. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rosa Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA, during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF, and a wash-out phase (WO in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected

  19. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  20. Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanczyk Guilherme V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the interrater agreement for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiological version for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E. METHODS: Four interviewers being trained with the K-SADS-E scored independently 29 videotaped interviews performed with psychiatric outpatients in the ADHD Outpatient Clinic at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Interrater agreement analysis was performed using the kappa coefficient (k. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients were .93 (p<.001 for affective disorders, .9 (p<.001 for anxiety disorders, .94 (p<.001 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an excellent interrater agreement for the diagnosis of several mental disorders in childhood and adolescence by the Brazilian Portuguese version of the K-SADS-E.

  1. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamu Merid Mengesha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design: Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result: 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06]. Conclusions: Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome.

  2. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  3. Multifaceted emotion regulation, stress and affect in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Li, Mengjiao; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    We tested a novel multi-component emotion self-regulation construct that captured physiological (vagal tone), cognitive (reappraisal) and temperament (effortful control) aspects of emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between more stressors and greater negative/less positive affectivity (NA and PA). A socio-economically diverse sample of 151 women with young children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit (including cognitive and parent-child interaction tasks and vagal tone measurement). Women with more stressors had more NA and less PA. Furthermore, for NA only, having more stressors was substantially associated with NA but only among women with the lowest ER. This pattern was evident for the composite as well as individual indicators of ER. Results were not attributable to individual differences in executive function. Findings are discussed in light of the diathesis-stress model of stress and coping. PMID:25759238

  4. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  5. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health. PMID:26965294

  6. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    OpenAIRE

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level.Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP.Design: Hea...

  7. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I. H.; Jordans, M. J. D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; Jong, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  8. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Developing Low Cost Recipes for Malnourished Children in the Tsunami affected Areas of Nagapattinam District

    OpenAIRE

    Raja lakshmi. J; Sheila John

    2011-01-01

    Background: The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean is one of the worst natural disasters in the modern times. The grief and worry created by the disaster has affected the health status of women and children. Malnutrition and ill health are major problems. This study investigated the nutritional status of the children and provided a nutrition education program for the mothers. Aims: To study the demographic profile, dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, clinical assessment...

  10. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  11. "John Thinks that Mary 'Feels'..." False Belief in Children across Affective and Physical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jessica R.; MacDonald, Christine A.; Miller, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 5-8 years (N = 64) were given 3 first- and 3 second-order tasks testing their ability to represent false beliefs about physical facts, positive emotions, and negative emotions. The children were also asked to justify their responses to the test questions. Older children were more successful than younger children at both answering the…

  12. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J;

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly...... at calving (2.68 v. 2.34, P < 0.01). Energy corrected milk yield and energy-intake post-calving were not affected by pre-calving diets. Changes in BCS and blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose in early lactation showed that cows offered diet H pre......-calving generally mobilised more body reserves compared to cows offered diet L pre-calving. An interaction between pre- and post-calving diets showed that cows offered diet H pre-calving had lower body tissue mobilisation when offered diet H post-calving compared to diet L. Cows offered diet L pre-calving, did not...

  13. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) service...

  14. Estudo da independência funcional, motricidade e inserção escolar de crianças com Paralisia Cerebral Study of functional independence, motor skills and school integration of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Sôffa Rézio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Paralisia Cerebral (PC é uma condição clínica que gera alta prevalência de sequelas funcionais. As crianças com este diagnóstico podem apresentar diversos problemas nas atividades funcionais e no controle dos movimentos voluntários. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o nível de independência funcional, motricidade e inserção escolar de crianças com PC. A amostra foi composta por 14 crianças com idade entre um a 11 anos que frequentam regularmente o Setor Clínico da Associação Pestalozzi de Goiânia, seus respectivos pais e/ou responsáveis e professores do ensino escolar. Os resultados mostraram que quanto maior o nível de independência funcional e melhor o desempenho na função motora grossa das crianças com Paralisia Cerebral, menor é a assistência fornecida pelos cuidadores e menos adaptações são necessárias para que essas crianças realizem as tarefas do ensino escolar. É importante uma parceria entre os profissionais da saúde com os professores, através de orientações e contribuições, no que for necessário para a inclusão escolar das crianças com deficiência.Cerebral Palsy is a medical condition that causes high prevalence of functional sequelae. For this reason, children with this diagnosis can present several problems in functional activities related to controlling voluntary movements. The aim of this study was to examine the level of functional independence, motor skills and school integration of children with cerebral palsy. The sample consisted of 14 children aged one to 11 years attending regularly the Clinical Sector of the Pestalozzi Association−Goiânia Unit, their parents and/or guardians and school teachers. The results showed that the higher the level of functional independence and the better their performance in gross motor function of these children with cerebral palsy, the lower the assistance provided by caregivers and fewer the adjustments needed for these children to perform

  15. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Chisholm

    Full Text Available Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation and dyadic (joint attention and warmth behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical

  16. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  17. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting

  18. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  19. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational ex...

  20. Explaining the effects of targeted online advertising on children's cognitive, affective, and behavioral brand responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Reijmersdal; E. Rozendaal; N. Smink; G. van Noort; M. Buijzen

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, information from children's profile pages on social network sites is used to target online advertising. This practice has raised concerns in society and academia, however, effects of profile targeting on children remained unstudied. Therefore, this study focused on children's cognitive

  1. Finnish and English Children's Color Use to Depict Affectively Characterized Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Tala, Katri; Low, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children use colors systematically in relation to how they feel about certain colors and the figures that they draw. This study explored cultural differences between Finnish and English children's use of color to represent figures with contrasting emotional characters. One hundred and eight children (54 Finnish, 54…

  2. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  3. Neural responses to affective and cognitive theory of mind in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Park, Bumhee; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Song, Dong-Ho

    2016-05-16

    Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by an impaired Theory of Mind (ToM). Recent evidence suggested that two aspects of ToM (cognitive ToM versus affective ToM) are differentially impaired in individuals with ASD. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of cognitive and affective ToM in children and adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing children (TDCs). Twelve children and adolescents with ASD and 12 age, IQ matched TDCs participated in this functional MRI study. The ToM task involved the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to a cartoon character based on verbal and eye-gaze cues. In cognitive ToM tasks, ASD participants recruited the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and superior temporal gyrus (STG) to a greater extent than did TDCs. In affective ToM tasks, both ASD and TDC participants showed more activation in the insula and other subcortical regions than in cognitive ToM tasks. Correlational analysis revealed that greater activation of the mPFC/ACC regions was associated with less symptom severity in ASD patients. In sum, our study suggests that the recruitment of additional prefrontal resources can compensate for the successful behavioral performance in the ToM task in ASD participants. PMID:27084690

  4. Classroom Norms of Bullying Alter the Degree to Which Children Defend in Response to Their Affective Empathy and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kätlin; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Juvonen, Jaana; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the degree to which bullying is normative in the classroom would moderate associations between "intra"- (cognitive and affective empathy, self-efficacy beliefs) and "inter"personal (popularity) factors and defending behavior. Participants were 6,708 third- to fifth-grade children (49% boys;…

  5. A survey of children affected by ectomermal dysplasia syndromes shows an increased prevalence of atopic disorders and immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are rare genetic disorders that affect the development of tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Studies and anecdotal experience have indicated that atopic disorders (AD) and immune deficiencies (ID) may be associated with ED in children. Some ED genotypes ...

  6. Effects of Experimentally Manipulated Peer Rejection on Children's Negative Affect, Self-Esteem, and Maladaptive Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lambert, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Children (n = 88) aged 8 and 10 years participated in a minimal group study in which their rejection versus acceptance, by one other person versus a group of three people, was experimentally manipulated. Analysis of their self-reported negative affect, self-esteem, and maladaptive social behavior, revealed that, regardless of the source of the…

  7. The contribution of schools to supporting the well being of children affected by HIV in eastern Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural...... Zimbabwe. Design:Data from a cross-sectional household survey of 4577 children (aged 6–17 years), conducted between 2009 and 2011, were linked to data on the characteristics of 28 primary schools and 18 secondary schools from a parallel monitoring and evaluation facility survey. Methods:We construct two...... measures of school quality (one general and one HIV-specific) and use multivariable regression to test whether these were associated with improved educational outcomes and well being for vulnerable children. Results:School quality was not associated with primary or secondary school attendance, but was...

  8. Children, parents and sports : An interview studie of upbringing as affected by soccer and golf

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe and understand the significance of sports for children active in sports, their parents, and family. I am interested in how daily sports practice is understood by children active in sports and their parents and what sports mean for upbringing of children and young people. In the study eighteen children were interviewed, twelve boys and six girls in the ages of 10-12 years and their parents. Nine of the children play golf and nine play soccer. The perspec...

  9. DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 polymorphisms independently confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorders and additively predict affected status in male-only affected sib-pair families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettinger Joe A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA modulates executive functions, learning, and emotional processing, all of which are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Our previous findings suggest a role for dopamine-related genes in families with only affected males. Methods We examined two additional genes which affect DA function, the DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 genes, in a cohort of 112 male-only affected sib-pair families. Selected polymorphisms spanning these genes were genotyped and both family-based and population-based tests were carried out for association analysis. General discriminant analysis was used to examine the gene-gene interactions in predicting autism susceptibility. Results There was a significantly increased frequency of the DRD2 rs1800498TT genotype (P = 0.007 in affected males compared to the comparison group, apparently due to over-transmission of the T allele (P = 0.0003. The frequency of the PPP1R1B rs1495099CC genotype in affected males was also higher than that in the comparison group (P = 0.002 due to preferential transmission of the C allele from parents to affected children (P = 0.0009. Alleles rs1800498T and rs1495099C were associated with more severe problems in social interaction (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0016, respectively and communication (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0046, and increased stereotypic behaviours (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.00072. General discriminant analysis found that the DRD2 and PPP1R1B genes additively predicted ASDs (P = 0.00011; Canonical R = 0.26 and explain ~7% of the variance in our families. All findings remained significant following corrections for multiple testing. Conclusion Our findings support a role for the DRD2 and PPP1R1B genes in conferring risk for autism in families with only affected males and show an additive effect of these genes towards prediction of affected status in our families.

  10. Influences of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Affective Behavior of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…

  11. FeNO and Bronchial Responsiveness are Associated and Continuous traits in Young Children Independent of Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    and in children without a history of asthma symptoms. METHODS 196 six-year-old children comprising asymptomatic children, children with intermittent asthmatic symptoms and children with persistent asthma were randomly included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Elevated fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are used as surrogate markers of asthma. These traits may be continuous in the population. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether FeNO and bronchial responsiveness are associated both in children with......) high-risk birth cohort born of mothers with asthma. Bronchial responsiveness was assessed as the relative change in specific airway resistance after cold-dry-air hyperventilation. FeNO measurements were performed prior to the hyperventilation test. The association between FeNO and bronchial...

  12. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Developing Low Cost Recipes for Malnourished Children in the Tsunami affected Areas of Nagapattinam District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja lakshmi. J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean is one of the worst natural disasters in the modern times. The grief and worry created by the disaster has affected the health status of women and children. Malnutrition and ill health are major problems. This study investigated the nutritional status of the children and provided a nutrition education program for the mothers. Aims: To study the demographic profile, dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, clinical assessment, incident rates of infectious diseases among the 500 children. To assess the dietary intake of 100 malnourished children and to formulate ten low cost nutritionally balanced recipes and to provide nutrition education program for the mothers. Sample: 500 preschool children in the age group of 3-6 years of the tsunami affected Nagapattinam district were the samples of this study. Method: Interview schedule was administered to 500 mothers. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, mid arm circumference, head circumference and chest circumference were recorded by the investigator. Three day dietary recall method was used to assess the nutrient intake. Clinical assessment was conducted with the help of a doctor. Nutrition education was provided to the mothers with the help of posters and charts. Results: The results found that, majority of the children were under nourished and there was a significant difference between the mean nutrient intake and the recommended dietary allowance. Mean scores of nutritional knowledge and awareness significantly increased after the nutrition education program. Conclusion: Nutrition education must be provided to the mothers to improve the nutritional status of the children. The gained knowledge had to be put into practice.

  13. Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone's Kids

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Carrell; Mark L. Hoekstra

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that between ten and twenty percent of children in the United States are exposed to domestic violence annually. While much is known about the impact of domestic violence and other family problems on children within the home, little is known regarding the extent to which these problems spill over to children outside the family. The widespread perception among parents and school officials is that these externalities are significant, though measuring them is difficult due to data...

  14. Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone

    OpenAIRE

    Mark L. Hoekstra; Scott Carrell

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread perception that externalities from troubled children are significant, though measuring them is difficult due to data and methodological limitations. We estimate the negative spillovers caused by children from troubled families by exploiting a unique data set in which children’s school records are matched to domestic violence cases. We find that children from troubled families significantly decrease their peers’ reading and math test scores and increase misbehavior in the c...

  15. Can video games affect children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Agne Suziedelyte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether there is a causal relationship between video game playing and children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills. According to the literature, video games have a potential to improve children's cognitive abilities. Video games may also positively a ect such non-cognitive skills as the ability to sustain attention and pro-social behavior. On the other hand, there are concerns that video games can teach children to behave aggressively. The Child Develo...

  16. Does early maternal employment affect non-cognitive children outcomes? - A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskó, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing research-findings in the field of early maternal employment and children's psychological development. We are concentrating on maternal work during the first 4-5 years of children's life, and look at research investigating linkages between maternal employment and various aspects of children's psychological functioning in these early years or later. Most articles discussed here came from the Journal of Marriage and the Family, although some other journals are als...

  17. Allergie affections of the larynx in children-a clinico pathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Gobind Chandra

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal manifestation of allergy though less common than, Rhinosinusitis, tubotympanitis and bronchopulmanary allergy but it is not that uncommon which is usually misdiagnosed and mistreated in children. Hence the importance of larynx as the allergic shock organ in children with spasmodic croup and laryngotracheo bronchits. In the present study in children bellow five years, presenting with stridor and/or hoarsness were evaluated regarding the history of allergy, direct laryngoscopic findin...

  18. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Maria; Bergström, Kirstin; Lachmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children's cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induced di...

  19. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eKlatte; Kirstin eBergstroem; Thomas eLachmann

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children´s cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induc...

  20. Psychomotor approach in children affected by nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS: a new rehabilitative purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Francesca Gimigliano,1,2 Maria Ruberto,2 Rosa Marotta,3 Beatrice Gallai,4 Lucia Parisi,5 Serena Marianna Lavano,3 Giovanni Mazzotta,6 Michele Roccella,5 Marco Carotenuto1 1Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Odontostomathologic Disciplines, Head Pathology, Orthopedic Sciences, Second University of Naples, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 4Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 5Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 6Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria, Terni, Italy Background: According to the Rome III criteria, encopresis without constipation was defined as nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS with not yet well understood etiology. Treatment approaches reported in the literature with varying results include biofeedback, hypnosis, reflexology, and Internet-based educational programs. In developmental age, another behavioral treatment could be identified in the psychomotor approach, which is called psychomotricity in the European countries, or is also known as play therapy. The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficacy of play therapy plus toilet training in a small sample of prepubertal children affected by FNRFS. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (group 1; 16 males, mean age of 5.92 ± 0.84 years underwent a psychomotor approach therapy program in association with toilet training for 6 months, and the other 26 subjects (group 2; 17 males, mean age of 5.76 ± 0.69 underwent the sole toilet training program for 6 months. During the observational time period (T0 and after 6 months (T1 of both treatments, the patients were evaluated for FNRFS frequency and for the

  1. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  2. Are diagnostic criteria for acute malnutrition affected by hydration status in hospitalized children? A repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegan Gregory

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dehydration and malnutrition commonly occur together among ill children in developing countries. Dehydration (change in total body water is known to alter weight. Although muscle tissue has high water content, it is not known whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC may be altered by changes in tissue hydration. We aimed to determine whether rehydration alters MUAC, MUAC Z score (MUACz, weight-for-length Z-score (WFLz and classification of nutritional status among hospitalised Kenyan children admitted with signs of dehydration. Study procedure We enrolled children aged from 3 months to 5 years admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital with clinical signs compatible with dehydration, and without kwashiorkor. Anthropometric measurements were taken at admission and repeated after 48 hours of treatment, which included rehydration by WHO protocols. Changes in weight observed during this period were considered to be due to changes in hydration status. Results Among 325 children (median age 11 months the median weight gain (rehydration after 48 hours was 0.21 kg, (an increase of 2.9% of admission body weight. Each 1% change in weight was associated with a 0.40 mm (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.44 mm, p Conclusion MUAC is less affected by dehydration than WFLz and is therefore more suitable for nutritional assessment of ill children. However, both WFLz and MUAC misclassify SAM among dehydrated children. Nutritional status should be re-evaluated following rehydration, and management adjusted accordingly.

  3. The autism diagnosis in translation: shared affect in children and mouse models of ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the absence of molecular biomarkers that can be used to diagnose ASD, current diagnostic tools depend upon clinical assessments of behavior. Research efforts with human subjects have successfully utilized standardized diagnostic instruments, which include clinician interviews with parents and direct observation of the children themselves [Risi et al., 2006]. However, because clinical instruments are semi-structured and rely heavily on dynamic social processes and clinical skill, scores from these measures do not necessarily lend themselves directly to experimental investigations into the causes of ASD. Studies of the neurobiology of autism require experimental animal models. Mice are particularly useful for elucidating genetic and toxicological contributions to impairments in social function [Halladay et al., 2009]. Behavioral tests have been developed that are relevant to autism [Crawley, 2004, 2007], including measures of repetitive behaviors [Lewis, Tanimura, Lee, & Bodfish, 2007; Moy et al., 2008], social behavior [Brodkin, 2007; Lijam et al., 1997; Moretti, Bouwknecht, Teague, Paylor, & Zoghbi, 2005], and vocal communication [D'Amato et al., 2005; Panksepp et al., 2007; Scattoni et al., 2008]. Advances also include development of high-throughput measures of mouse sociability that can be used to reliably compare inbred mouse strains [Moy et al., 2008; Nadler et al., 2004], as well as measures of social reward [Panksepp & Lahvis, 2007] and empathy [Chen, Panksepp, & Lahvis, 2009; Langford et al., 2006]. With continued generation of mouse gene-targeted mice that are directly relevant to genetic linkages in ASD, there remains an urgent need to utilize a full suite of mouse behavioral tests that allows for a comprehensive assessment of the spectrum of social difficulties relevant to ASD. Using impairments in shared affect as an example, this paper explores potential avenues for collaboration between clinical and basic scientists, within an amply considered

  4. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  5. A Measure of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Children Using Parent Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; Hunter, Kirsten; Hawes, David J.; Frost, Aaron D. J.; Vassallo, Shane; Bunn, Paul; Merz, Sabine; El Masry, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    The construct of "empathy" embodies a number of characteristics necessary for psychological health in children. Surprisingly, most research has been based solely on children and adolescent report and observational measures despite evidence that multi-informant assessment is fundamental to the accurate measurement of such constructs. We present…

  6. A Bibliography for Young Children: Birth Through Eight Years - Affective Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Rebecca S., Comp.

    The citations in this annotated bibliography of literature for young children cover many topics including aggression, feelings of ambivalence, anger, anxiety, loneliness, making friends, nightmares, perseverance, sibling rivalry, teasing, trust, values, and attitudes toward work. The books cited focus on aspects of children's emotional experience…

  7. Clinical Inquiry: Does primary nocturnal enuresis affect childrens' self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Phuc; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Children with primary nocturnal enuresis often, but not always, score about 10% lower on standardized rating scales for self-esteem, or scores for symptoms similar to low self-esteem (sadness, anxiety, social fears, distress) than children without enuresis. PMID:25973452

  8. Hope and Healing: A Caregiver's Guide to Helping Young Children Affected by Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathleen Fitzgerald; Groves, Betsy McAlister

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that close to 1 million children a year are identified as victims of maltreatment. The National Clearinghouse of Child Abuse and Neglect estimates that between 3 and 10 million children a year witness the abuse of a parent or caregiver. In recent years, therapists, educators, and…

  9. Investigating the Factors Affecting Resiliency in Mothers of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Hatice; Kaner, Sema

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of quantity and quality of social support and problem-focused coping style on mothers' resilience was examined by conducting a structural equation modeling. The sample of the research consisted of 257 mothers of children with intellectual disability, and 234 mothers of typically-developing children. The data were gathered…

  10. Transmission and Prevention of Mood Disorders among Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; O'Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide a conceptual review of the literature on children of depressed parents over the past 12 years. Method: This selective review focused on published studies that delineate the diagnosis of depression in parents, have large samples, describe children 6 to 17 years old, and are methodologically rigorous. The review emphasized…

  11. Dance Movement as a Way to Help Children Affected by War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Fran J.; Ranjbar, Azita; Dean, Colleen Hearn

    2006-01-01

    In the midst of the violence of the 21st century, many children fear that they or someone they know will lose a relative or friend through terrorism. Professionals in dance movement therapy, dance education, and physical education can help children to overcome their fears in order to feel safe and to build self-esteem. This article examines how…

  12. "It's because they care": understanding pathways to classroom concentration problems among HIV-affected children and youth in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2016-03-01

    Children and young people living in households affected by HIV are experiencing poorer educational outcomes compared to their peers. This article explores how different forms of marginalisation interface and manifest themselves in classroom concentration problems, undermining their education. This mixed qualitative methods study was conducted with teachers and pupils from three primary and three secondary schools in the Siaya County of Western Kenya. Specifically, it involved 18 teachers through individual interviews and 51 HIV-affected children and youth through individual interviews (n = 47) and Photovoice (n = 51). Verbatim transcripts were imported into NVivo10 for thematic indexing and analysis. The analysis revealed three core pathways to classroom concentration problems amongst HIV-affected pupils. One, a general 'lack of care' and neglect in the context of household poverty and illness, meant that many of the participating pupils went to school hungry, unable to follow classes. Others were teased by peers for looking visibly poor, and felt anxious when in school. Two, some HIV-affected pupils play a key role in keeping their household afloat, generating food and income as well as providing practical support. 'Caregiving' pupils often reported coming to school exhausted, with limited physical and mental energy left for learning. Three, many participating pupils had their minds at home ('caring about'). They were concerned about sick or frail household members, thinking about their next meal and care needs. Although the pupils demonstrated an admirable attentiveness to the needs of others, this came at a heavy price, namely their ability to concentrate in class. The paper argues that care ethics, household poverty and familial HIV are central to understanding the classroom concentration problems of HIV-affected pupils. To ensure school-going children and youth affected by HIV have the same opportunities as their peers, education initiatives must

  13. Evaluation of morphological characteristics of septal rims affecting successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Balli, Sevket; Ece, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Determining other echocardiographic predictors along with the measured atrial septal defect (ASD) size and evaluating the closure together with these predictors would increase the chance of success for transcatheter closure of ASD. Aim To evaluate echocardiographic parameters affecting defect closure in children and adult patients with secundum ASD. Material and methods In all patients, size of ASD, total length of atrial septum (TS), superior-posterior, inferior-posterior, super...

  14. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Beardslee, William Rigby; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven Alex

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. ...

  15. County-level determinants of dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions: How does place affect use?

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Donald L.; Leroux, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how place affects childrens’ access to dental care. We analyzed data for 25,908 Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions to identify the county-level determinants of dental utilization. Our analyses suggest that higher levels of poverty and designation as a dental health professional shortage area at the county-level are associated with lower probability of child-level dental use. There are significant interactions between child-level race/ethnicity and co...

  16. Children's Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Do School Environment and Policies Affect Choice At School and Away from School?

    OpenAIRE

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Jensen, Helen H.

    2013-01-01

    School environment and policies affect children's healthy eating choices both at and away from school. We estimate their effect on fruit and vegetable intakes and control for the endogenous decision to participate in the National School Lunch Program. School meal participants consume more total fruits and vegetables, with relatively more at school and less away from school compared to nonparticipants. The policies had little effect on participation itself. Policies to restrict high fat milks ...

  17. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade. PMID:26613693

  18. Analysis on Factors Affecting Chinese Independent Innovation Based on SVAR Model%影响我国自主创新因素的SVAR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵严伟

    2012-01-01

    The capability of independent innovation is not only the core competitiveness of a country, but also an inexhaustible motive force of prosperity. Through the compilation of relevant literature, it was proposed that the factors affecting Chinese independent innovation include the potential innovation resources, the input capability of innovation resources, the capacity-building of innovation vector and the protection capacity of innovation environment. Accordingly, the structure vector autoregressive (SVAR) model was established by stationary test, cointegration test, Granger causality test. Furthermore, impulse response and variance decomposition was applied to analyze the impact of various factors on innovation. Finally,some useful and constructive policy recommendations for the decision-making departments are provided.%自主创新能力是一个国家的核心竞争力,也是一个国家兴旺发达的不竭动力.通过对相关文献的整理分析,认为影响我国自主创新的因素包括潜在自主创新资源、创新资源的投入能力、创新载体的自主创新建设能力以及创新环境的保障能力.在此基础上通过平稳性检验、协整检验、格兰杰因果检验,建立结构向量自回归(SVAR)模型,利用脉冲响应和方差分解技术分析各个因素对自主创新的影响,最后为决策部门提供可供参考且具有建设性的政策建议.

  19. Limitations in Social Anticipation Are Independent of Imaginative and Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism but Not in Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Douglas Jozef; de Rosnay, Marc; Lunenburg, Patty; Meerum Terwogt, Mark; Begeer, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Anticipating future interactions is characteristic of our everyday social experiences, yet has received limited empirical attention. Little is known about how children with autism spectrum disorder, known for their limitations in social interactive skills, engage in "social anticipation." We asked children with autism spectrum disorder…

  20. How parents'education and working status affect the nutri-tion and immunization status of preschool children in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati P; Pal M; Bharati S

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the paper is to see how educational and working status of the parents affect the nutri-tional and immunization status of preschool children in India.Methods:We have used data of more than 24 000 preschool children spread over different states in India.The data were collected by National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)in 1998-99.For assessing the nutritional status,only the Z-scores of weight-for-height (WHZ)have been computed and for immunization status,it has been seen whether BCG,DPT3,Poli-o3 and measles have been administered.Children who fall below -2SD(-3SD)from median are considered to be moderately (severely)malnourished.Results:According to the NFHS-2 data,70% of children are vac-cinated by BCG,50% receive the full course of DPT,54% get all the three dozes of polio and only 42% are protected from measles by vaccination in India.The percentages of moderately and severely wasted children in India are 12.1 and 2.8,respectively.There is a marked regional variation of these percentages.Bivariate and multivariate analysis clearly points to the need of educational status of mothers rather than fathers for proper nu-tritional and immunization status of preschool children.Parents'occupation and working status also have some effect,but not so pronounced as parents'education.Conclusion:The Indian preschool children need particu-lar attention for high risk of wasting and low immunization.The prevalence of malnutrition can be arrested more by improving the mother's education level rather than their fathers and by raising the standard of living of their house-holds.

  1. Factors that affect the social well-being of children with cochlear implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Jensen, J.H.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Thomsen, J.; Gudman, M.; Lopez, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    well-being. Data relate to 167 children with cochlear implants. In structural interviews, parents rated their children's level of social well-being regarding the degree of their child's personal-social adjustment. Five different factors were considered. Logistic regression models and proportional odds...... models were used to analyse the relationship between the considered factors and the assessments. The analyses showed that the communication mode at home was the most highly associated factor. A statistically significant association was found between the level of social well-being and speech understanding......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of social well-being for cochlear implanted children and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for the children's well-being. Another aim was to analyse associations between speech and language level and the level of social...

  2. Can We Create a "Gold Standard of Education" for Our Children through the "Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) Program"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    We need to come together as a team and become one system of total quality improvement regarding the education of our nation's children. In order to achieve a gold standard in the education of our nation's children, leadership has to be willing to go against the status quo and build bridges for long-term sustainable change. In order to…

  3. Can Schools Support HIV/AIDS-Affected Children? Exploring the 'Ethic of Care' amongst Rural Zimbabwean Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How realistic is the international policy emphasis on schools 'substituting for families' of HIV/AIDS-affected children? We explore the ethic of care in Zimbabwean schools to highlight the poor fit between the western caring schools literature and daily realities of schools in different material and cultural contexts. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 teachers and 55 community members, analysed in light of a companion study of HIV/AIDS-affected pupils' own accounts of their care-related experiences. We conceptualise schools as spaces of engagement between groups with diverse needs and interests (teachers, pupils and surrounding community members), with attention to the pathways through which extreme adversity impacts on those institutional contexts and social identifications central to giving and receiving care. Whilst teachers were aware of how they might support children, they seldom put these ideas into action. Multiple factors undermined caring teacher-pupil relationships in wider contexts of poverty and political uncertainty: loss of morale from low salaries and falling professional status; the inability of teachers to solve HIV/AIDS-related problems in their own lives; the role of stigma in deterring HIV/AIDS-affected children from disclosing their situations to teachers; authoritarian teacher-learner relations and harsh punishments fuelling pupil fear of teachers; and lack of trust in the wider community. These factors undermined: teacher confidence in their skills and capacity to support affected pupils and motivation to help children with complex problems; solidarity and common purpose amongst teachers, and between teachers and affected children; and effective bridging alliances between schools and their surrounding communities-all hallmarks of HIV-competent communities. We caution against ambitious policy expansions of teachers' roles without recognition of the personal and social costs of emotional labour, and the need for significant

  4. The Influence of a Model's Reinforcement Contingency and Affective Response on Children's Perceptions of the Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assesses the influence of model consequences on perceived model affect and, conversely, assesses the influence of model affect on perceived model consequences. Also appraises the influence of model consequences and model affect on perceived model attractiveness, perceived model competence, and perceived task attractiveness. (Author/RK)

  5. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  6. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  7. Does use of tangible rewards with individual children affect peer observers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, P R

    1975-01-01

    The common assumption that employing tangible rewards with individual children will have adverse effects upon peer observers was studied in the preschool setting. Multiple-subject, multiple-baseline procedures were applied to two classes of children, aged 3.5 to 6 yr. In each group, three consecutive children with low base rates of in-seat behavior received a verbal contingency and food rewards for sitting, while peers (with either low or high rates of in-seat behavior) received neither food nor teacher attention for sitting. Peer reactions measured were in-seat behavior, aggression, nonaggressive disruptive behavior, and complaints. The procedures neither decreased the in-seat behavior of peer observers, nor increased their aggressive or disruptive behavior. On the contrary, peers with low base rates of sitting initially displayed an abrupt, but temporary, increase in sitting. Moreover, although no compensatory attention was delivered, all children exhibited improved sitting by the end of the study. Complaints, which consisted mainly of requests for rewards, decreased in frequency with successive program phases, and within each phase. It is suggested that the class improvement in sitting behavior and the absence of negative effects on observers may be partially due to the high frequency of attention the teacher maintained for other desired behavior and the lack of attention to children's complaints. PMID:16795493

  8. Circadian motor activity affected by stimulant medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Sarah; Davidson, Fiona; Corkum, Penny

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder occurring in approximately 3-5% of school-aged children. The core symptoms of ADHD are effectively treated with stimulant medications such as methylphenidate; however, there are also negative side effects, including insomnia. It has been suggested that administration of stimulant medication may alter the timing or regularity of circadian motor activity levels. This study aimed to investigate the impact of stimulant medication on the strength and timing of circadian rhythms in 16 stimulant medication-naïve children with ADHD. Participants were monitored for changes in motor activity during a 3-week blinded placebo-controlled medication trial to examine the impact of immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride. Motor activity was measured by actigraphy, and 24-h activity profiles were analysed using cosinor analyses to identify measurable changes in circadian rhythms. The children in this sample demonstrated significant increases in motor activity during the sleep-onset latency period. They also showed a significant reduction in relative circadian amplitude and a phase-delay in the timing of the daily rhythm. Clinicians and parents of children being treated with stimulant medication for ADHD should be aware that stimulant medication may cause disruption of sleep/circadian rhythms. Behavioural strategies to improve sleep may be useful for children experiencing these negative effects from medication. PMID:20629940

  9. Search for gene mutations affecting protein structure in children of A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children who were born between May 1, 1946 and April 1, 1971 to survivor(s) exposed to A-bombing within 2,000 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as exposed group; their sex- and age-matched children born to survivor(s) who were exposed at 2,500 m or farther were selected as control group. When these children were in junior high school, mutation of protein structure was examined by using electrophoresis and by determining red cell enzymes with decreased activity and heat-unstable red cell enzymes. Electrophoretic study revealed a ''rare type of protein mutation'' in 635 of 12,242 individuals in the exposed group and in 448 of 10,154 individuals in the control group. The number of locuses in all proteins examined was calculated. The number of locuses per protein was corrected using the rate of parents' mutation type, and relative number of locuses were obtained. As a result, there was no difference in the mutation frequency per locus and generation between the exposed and control groups. Among children having red cell enzymes with decreased activity, mutant in triose phosphate isomerase was detected in one child in the exposed group, in whom electrophoretic pattern was normal and red cell enzymes were stable to heat. Heat-unstable red cell enzymes were seen in 9 children and their parents. However, family survey revealed genetic mutation in all instances irrespective of A-bombing. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Maria; Bergström, Kirstin; Lachmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children's cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induced disruption was also found for non-auditory tasks, i.e., serial recall of visually presented lists and reading. The impact of chronic exposure to noise was examined in quasi-experimental studies. Indoor noise and reverberation in classroom settings were found to be associated with poorer performance of the children in verbal tasks. Regarding chronic exposure to aircraft noise, studies consistently found that high exposure is associated with lower reading performance. Even though the reported effects are usually small in magnitude, and confounding variables were not always sufficiently controlled, policy makers responsible for noise abatement should be aware of the potential impact of environmental noise on children's development. PMID:24009598

  11. Does noise affect learning? A short review on noise effects on cognitive performance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKlatte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an overview of research concerning both acute and chronic effects of exposure to noise on children´s cognitive performance. Experimental studies addressing the impact of acute exposure showed negative effects on speech perception and listening comprehension. These effects are more pronounced in children as compared to adults. Children with language or attention disorders and second-language learners are still more impaired than age-matched controls. Noise-induced disruption was also found for non-auditory tasks, i.e., serial recall of visually presented lists and reading. The impact of chronic exposure to noise was examined in quasi-experimental studies. Indoor noise and reverberation in classroom settings were found to be associated with poorer performance of the children in verbal tasks. Regarding chronic exposure to aircraft noise, studies consistently found that high exposure is associated with lower reading performance. Even though the reported effects are usually small in magnitude, and confounding variables were not always sufficiently controlled, policy makers responsible for noise abatement should be aware of the potential impact of environmental noise on children´s development.

  12. Laparoscopic diagnosis in children affected by the Chernobyl accident who were attended at Jose Marti Pioneers City (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19 ukrainian children who were affected by the catastrophe at Chernobyl were performed a laparascopy. Ages ranged between 3 and 15; 9 females and 10 males. Indication for the laparascopy were: in 8 children with acute leucosis, 4 of them were B-virus carriers, 3 were hepatitis C carriers, and 1 with negative B and C antigens, but in whom toxicity by cytostatic was assessed. 4 other children had an over-3-month positive ALAT, 3 with B+ antigens but which -through immunological studies- an autoimmune active chronic hepatitis was assessed. A B+ antigen was found in 4 other patients during the scheduled check-up, with an ALAT within the normal limits. Two children who were suspected of having hepatic damage in a metabolic congenital disease (one of them supposedly with the Gilbert's disease and the other one with a congenital hypothyroidism). The remaining patient was suspected of having a traumatic splenic hematoma. Out of all the children , 5 suffered from active chronic hepatitis: 2 of type B, 2 of type C and one of the autoimmune type. The first four have been treated with Interferon and have presented a chemical and biochemical improvement to date. The patient with autoimmune HCA, who is also chemically and humorally better, is treated whit Azathioprine and Prednizone. Four children had a persistent chronic hepatitis , 2 with AgS+, 1 with AgC+ and one with both negative, but with criteria of congenital hypothyroidism and normal immunological study. Those with B+ and C+ are treated with Interferon, with favourable results. B antigen carriers with laparoscopic and biopsic criteria of normal liver were immunized with the cuban vaccine and are still being followed up through external consultation

  13. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation

  14. The influential child: How children affect their environment and influence their own risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Maayan; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Serbin, Lisa A; Moss, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Views regarding children's influence on their environment and their own development have undergone considerable changes over the years. Following Bell's (1968) seminal paper, the notion of children's influence and the view of socialization as a bidirectional process have gradually gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research implementing this theoretical advancement has lagged behind. This Special Section compiles a collection of new empirical works addressing multiple forms of influential child processes, with special attention to their consequences for children's and others' positive functioning, risk and resilience. By addressing a wide variety of child influences, this Special Section seeks to advance integration of influential child processes into myriad future studies on development and psychopathology and to promote the translation of such work into preventive interventions. PMID:26439055

  15. Timing of intervention affects brain electrical activity in children exposed to severe psychosocial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E Vanderwert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early psychosocial deprivation has profound effects on brain activity in the young child. Previous reports have shown increased power in slow frequencies of the electroencephalogram (EEG, primarily in the theta band, and decreased power in higher alpha and beta band frequencies in infants and children who have experienced institutional care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the consequences of removing infants from institutions and placing them into a foster care intervention on brain electrical activity when children were 8 years of age. We found the intervention was successful for increasing high frequency EEG alpha power, with effects being most pronounced for children placed into foster care before 24 months of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dependence on age of placement for the effects observed on high frequency EEG alpha power suggests a sensitive period after which brain activity in the face of severe psychosocial deprivation is less amenable to recovery.

  16. A systematic review of factors affecting children's right to health in cluster randomized trials in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwo, Elizabeth; Edwards, Sarah J L

    2014-01-01

    Following the South African case, Treatment Action Campaign and Others v Minister of Health and Others, the use of 'pilot' studies to investigate interventions already proven efficacious, offered free of charge to government, but confined by the government to a small part of the population, may violate children's right to health, and the negative duty on governments not to prevent access to treatment. The applicants challenged a government decision to offer Nevirapine in a few pilot sites when evidence showed Nevirapine significantly reduced HIV transmission rates and despite donor offers of a free supply. The government refused to expand access, arguing they needed to collect more information, and citing concerns about long-term hazards, side effects, resistance and inadequate infrastructure. The court ruled this violated children's right to health and asked the government to immediately expand access. Cluster randomized trials involving children are increasingly popular, and are often used to reduce 'contamination': the possibility that members of a cluster adopt behavior of other clusters. However, they raise unique issues insufficiently addressed in literature and ethical guidelines. This case provides additional crucial guidance, based on a common human rights framework, for the Kenyan government and other involved stakeholders. Children possess special rights, often represent a 'captive' group, and so motivate extra consideration. In a systematic review, we therefore investigated whether cluster trial designs are used to prevent or delay children's access to treatment in Kenya or otherwise inconsistently with children's right to health as outlined in the above case. Although we did not find state sponsored cluster trials, most had significant public sector involvement. Core obligations under children's right to health were inadequately addressed across trials. Few cluster trials reported rationale for cluster randomization, offered post- trial access or

  17. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  18. To identify the factors affecting the risk of recurrent febrile seizures in saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the risk factors of recurrent febrile seizures (FS) in Saudi children in a Northern Province of Hail in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: Descriptive prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric department, King Khalid Hospital Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 01 October 2010 to 30 September 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 132 children (age ranges from 03 months to 60 months) were included in the study, while they were admitted with the diagnosis of FS during the study period, in the Pediatric department of the King Khalid University Hospital, Hail. A predesigned study proforma was utilized for data collection. All the children included in the study were followed for a period of 01 year after discharge from the pediatric ward for any recurrence of FS. Results: During the study period 132 children were admitted for FS, the mean age of children in our sample was 16 months. There was a preponderance of male children. Among the causes of fever, mostly 63(47.73%) had symptoms of viral prodrome. Recurrent febrile seizure was found in 46 (34.85%) children. There was a statistically significant association between low temperature at onset of seizure and recurrent FS in 65.22% cases p-value= 0.001). Similarly, the association of duration of fever (= 6 hour) prior to onset of FS and recurrence was found to be significant in 56.52% (p-value= 0.001). Moreover it was found that lower age <12 months at onset of first FS and complex FS had a statistically significant association with its recurrence in 65.22% and 69.57% cases respectively p-value= 0.01 and 0.001). Non significant factors were sex and family history. Conclusion: FS is a common paediatric problem predominantly seen in males. Almost one third of these children are at risk for recurrence in later dates. The risk factors for these recurrences are modest rise in body temperature at the onset of seizure, younger age at presentation, onset of seizure within 6 hours of fever and

  19. Learning from the ground up: responding to children affected by parental incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services. PMID:22239377

  20. Anxiety of Parents of Mentally Handicapped Children and Affects of Informing on Anxiety Level

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu; Said Bodur

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 5...

  1. Do parents affect the early political prioritisation of nature in their children?

    OpenAIRE

    Pettifor, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the roots of environmentalism in young people in Britain and in particular the role parents play in the formation of deep green political attitudes in their children. Using a series of multiple logistic regressions on a pooled sample of children aged 11 to 16 (n=6,590) it is observed that compared to any other political party the odds of a child choosing the Green Party are greater if the father or the mother is also partisan to the green party. Contrary to other ...

  2. Social Participation and Independent Mobility in Children: The Effects of Two Implementations of "We Go to School Alone"

    OpenAIRE

    Prezza, Miretta; Alparone, Francesca; Renzi, Daniela; Pietrobono, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the outcomes of the ''We go to school alone'' program in two Districts of Rome through a longitudinal study involving 392 children (mean age?8.37 years) and 270 parents. The outcomes of the program in the two Districts were very different. Only one resulted in an increase in children's autonomous mobility on the home-school journey, a reduction in the number of times a child was taken to school by car, and, even more important, in an increase in the g...

  3. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  4. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

  5. Independent mobility, perceptions of the built environment and children's participation in play, active travel and structured exercise and sport: the PEACH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griew Pippa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Independent mobility (IM and perceptions of the built environment may relate differentially to children's participation in various physical activity contexts. This cross-sectional study investigated whether independent mobility and perceptions of the built environment in boys and girls were related to physical activity in three different contexts (outdoor play, structured exercise/sport, active commuting. Methods Thirteen hundred and seven 10-11 year old boys and girls from 23 schools in a large UK city completed a computerised questionnaire. Independent variables in logistic regression analyses were weekly self-reported frequency of participation in outdoor play, structured exercise/sport and mode of travel home from school. Dependent variables were perceptions of the environment (aesthetics, nuisance, safety, social norm, constraint, play space, accessibility, local and area independent mobility and linear distance from home to school. Analyses were adjusted for body mass index, minutes of daylight after school, level of neighbourhood deprivation and pubertal status. Results For boys, local independent mobility (Local-IM was related to an increased likelihood of everyday participation in play (OR 1.58: 95% CI 1.19-2.10, structured exercise/sport (OR 1.42: 1.06-1.89 and active commuting (OR 1.40: 1.07-1.87 but was only related to active commuting for girls (OR1.49: 1.07-2.07. Boys and girls were more likely to report playing out every day if they had higher scores for Social Norm (Boys: OR 1.63 (1.12-2.37; Girls: OR 1.53 (1.01-2.31 and, for girls only, more positive perceptions of traffic safety (OR 1.63: 1.14-2.34. Easy access to a range of destinations was the dominant predictor for taking part in structured exercise/sport everyday (Boys: OR 1.62 (1.01-2.66; Girls: OR 1.65 (1.07-2.53. Shorter distance from home to school (OR 0.99: 0.98-0.99 and, for boys only, greater perceived accessibility (OR 1.87: 1.04-3.36 were

  6. Current socio-economic measures, and not those measured during infancy, affect bone mass in poor urban South african children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Shane A; Sheppard, Zoë A; Griffiths, Paula L; Cameron, Noël; Pettifor, John M

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on physical development in children is important, especially in developing countries where considerable inequalities persist. This is the first study to examine the association between SES on bone development at the whole body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in black children living in Soweto and Johannesburg, South Africa. Linear regression models were used to study associations between SES during infancy and current SES, anthropometric, and DXA-derived bone mass in 9/10-yr-old children (n = 309). Findings suggest that current SES measures, rather than SES during infancy, are stronger predictors of current whole body bone area (BA) and whole body BMC after adjusting for body size, pubertal development, physical activity, habitual dietary calcium intake, and body composition. SES had no significant effect on either hip or spine bone mass. Caregiver's marital/cohabiting status (indicator of social support) and whether there was a television in the home (indicator of greater income) at age 9/10 yr were the most important socio-economic determinants of whole body BA and BMC. SES has a significant independent effect on whole body BMC through its impact on BA. This suggests that poverty alleviation policies in South Africa could have a positive effect on bone health. PMID:18442310

  7. Failure To Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children's Minds--for Better and Worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Jane M.

    As the federal government provides funding to wire classrooms to the Internet, software companies market educational programs even for preschoolers, and school administrators cut funding in other areas to make room for new computers, it is time to examine the impact of computer use on children. Presented in three parts, this book examines the…

  8. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  9. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  10. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  11. Children's Affective Reactions and Coping under Threat of Uprooting: The Case of the Golan Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingman, Avigdor

    2000-01-01

    Examines the response of children in the Golan Heights to the ambiguous situation during the continuing peace talks between Israel and Syria concerning a possible evacuation of the region's settlers. Results suggest that social support, defensiveness, religion, and living in smaller settlements predicted better coping, whereas less social support…

  12. "Mama," Affection, and Migration: Recommended Books about Latinos for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books to teach children and adolescents about Latinos and the Latino culture. Topics of the books range from the spirit of the Latino folk arts to poetic expressions, migration stories, and insightful essays about Cuba under Castro. (SM)

  13. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  14. Interest of the thyroid scintigraphy in the hypothyroidism of children affected by Downs Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrected hypothyroidism for the trisomic children can have diverse etiologies. the thyroid scintigraphy allows to precise the stage of the thyroiditis in case of auto-immune disease and to comfort the hypothesis of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis immaturity in the case of negative immunological evaluation. (N.C.)

  15. Does Having Children Affect Adult Smoking Prevalence and Behaviours at Home?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson AK

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours have changed in society and an increased awareness of the importance of protecting children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is reported. The aim of this study was to find out if smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours were influenced by parenthood, and if differences in health-related quality of life differed between smoking and non-smoking parents. Methods Questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected sample, including 1735 men and women (20–44 years old, residing in the south-east of Sweden. Participation rate was 78%. Analyses were done to show differences between groups, and variables of importance for being a smoker and an indoor smoker. Results Parenthood did not seem to be associated with lower smoking prevalence. Logistic regression models showed that smoking prevalence was significantly associated with education, gender and mental health. Smoking behaviour, as well as attitudes to passive smoking, seemed to be influenced by parenthood. Parents of dependent children (0–19 years old smoked outdoors significantly more than adults without children (p Conclusion As smoking behaviour, but not smoking prevalence, seems to be influenced by parenthood, it is important to consider the effectiveness of commonly used precautions when children's risk for ETS exposure is estimated.

  16. Visual Data Collection Methods for Research on the Affective Dimensions of Children's Personal Experiences of PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of research on Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) over the past decade has paid little attention to research methodology. This paper redresses this lack of attention to research methods and reports on a study conducted on children's personal experiences of Game Sense. The study focuses on the use of year six students'…

  17. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influen...... children sensitized to birch pollen protein Bet v 1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein...

  18. Multi-micronucleus cells related with viral diseases, detected in the study of children affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells with multiple chromosome aberrations have been observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Different explanation have proposed, included hot particle induction in persons related to the Chernobyl accident. The frequency of chromosome aberration and micronuclei were established in 14 Ukrainian children with different hematological disorders. They arrived in Cuba thanks to the program by means of which medical attention is offered to children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At least 500 metaphases and bi-nucleate cells were analyzed in each case. The detection of 4 cells with 7-11 micronuclei in a 14 year old boy with cat scratch disease was the most significant cytogenetical finding. The viral origin of the cat scratch disease has been reported, this suggested a viral etiology of the cells with multiple micronuclei. No rogue cells were detected. Cells with multiple micronuclei or rogue cells were not found in other patients from this group. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  20. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  1. Burden of lysosomal storage disorders in India: experience of 387 affected children from a single diagnostic facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Jayesh; Mistri, Mehul; Sheth, Frenny; Shah, Raju; Bavdekar, Ashish; Godbole, Koumudi; Nanavaty, Nidhish; Datar, Chaitanya; Kamate, Mahesh; Oza, Nrupesh; Ankleshwaria, Chitra; Mehta, Sanjeev; Jackson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered to be a rare metabolic disease for the national health forum, clinicians, and scientists. This study aimed to know the prevalence of different LSDs, their geographical variation, and burden on the society. It included 1,110 children from January 2002 to December 2012, having coarse facial features, hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal dysplasia, neuroregression, leukodystrophy, developmental delay, cerebral-cerebellar atrophy, and abnormal ophthalmic findings. All subjects were screened for I-cell disease, glycolipid storage disorders (Niemann-Pick disease A/B, Gaucher), and mucopolysaccharide disorders followed by confirmatory lysosomal enzymes study from leucocytes and/or fibroblasts. Niemann-Pick disease-C (NPC) was confirmed by fibroblasts study using filipin stain. Various storage disorders were detected in 387 children (34.8 %) with highest prevalence of glycolipid storage disorders in 48 %, followed by mucopolysaccharide disorders in 22 % and defective sulfatide degradation in 14 % of the children. Less common defects were glycogen degradation defect and protein degradation defect in 5 % each, lysosomal trafficking protein defect in 4 %, and transport defect in 3 % of the patients. This study demonstrates higher incidence of Gaucher disease (16 %) followed by GM2 gangliosidosis that includes Tay-Sachs disease (10 %) and Sandhoff disease (7.8 %) and mucopolysaccharide disorders among all LSDs. Nearly 30 % of the affected children were born to consanguineous parents and this was higher (72 %) in children with Batten disease. Our study also demonstrates two common mutations c.1277_1278insTATC in 14.28 % (4/28) and c.964G>T (p.D322Y) in 10.7 % (3/28) for Tay-Sachs disease in addition to the earlier reported c.1385A>T (p.E462V) mutation in 21.42 % (6/28). PMID:23852624

  2. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p self-esteem (β = -0.17, p self-esteem (β = -0.18, p children (β = 0.24, p self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  3. Development of an epidemiological index for primary anterior teeth affected by erosion and prevalence of dental erosion in pre-school Saudi children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Malik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Erosion affects both dentitions but has proved difficult to measure. It has been thought to affect children who are less susceptible to caries but previous studies have been confined to countries where caries prevalence is low. The aims of this study were first, to develop and then investigate the validity of an index to measure erosion in primary teeth. Secondly, to determine the prevalence of erosion in primary incisors amongst kindergarten children in Jeddah and its relat...

  4. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG in children affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Weissbrich, Benedikt; Süß-Fröhlich, Yvonne; Girschick, Hermann J.

    2007-01-01

    Parvovirus (PV) B19 is the causative agent of the childhood disease erythema infectiosum. An association of PV B19 with chronic arthropathies, sometimes resembling rheumatoid arthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), has repeatedly been described. Other studies, however, have failed to identify any such relationship. In order to study further whether there is a link between PV B19 and JIA, we determined the prevalence of PV B19 specific IgG antibodies in serum samples from children wi...

  5. Mood Induction in Children: Effect of the Affective Valence of a Text on Phonological Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fartoukh, Michaël; Chanquoy, Lucile; Piolat, Annie

    2014-01-01

    The influence of mood on working memory capacity has been investigated in adults, albeit with conflicting results, but remains relatively unexplored in children. The present study examined the effect of a mood induction procedure on phonological working memory capacity in fourth and fifth graders. An initial working memory span test was followed first by a collective mood induction procedure, then by a second working memory span test. Results showed an effect of mood induction procedure on ph...

  6. Breakfast Frequency and Quality May Affect Glycemia and Appetite in Adults and Children1234

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mark A.; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experim...

  7. Differential effects of parental separation on child outcomes : are children from higher social backgrounds affected more?

    OpenAIRE

    BERNARDI, Fabrizio; Boertien, Diederik; Popova, Daria

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of high divorce rates for intergenerational mobility depend on two factors. The first has been widely studied and regards the differing incidence of divorce according to socio-economic background. The second has been studied less and is the heterogeneity in the effects of divorce according to parental background. This paper investigates whether signs from earlier research that children from higher social backgrounds suffer more from divorce can indeed be interpreted as such. ...

  8. Do Child Tax Benefits Affect the Wellbeing of Children? Evidence from Canadian Child Benefit Expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Kevin; Stabile, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A vast literature has examined the impact of family income on the health and development outcomes of children. One channel through which increased income may operate is an improvement in a family's ability to provide food, shelter, clothing, books, and other expenditure-related inputs to a child's development. In addition to this channel, many scholars have investigated the relationship between income and the psychological wellbeing of the family. By reducing stress and conflict, more income ...

  9. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama Saaka; Shaibu Mohammed Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS)...

  10. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, J. V.; Satoh, C; Hamilton, H B; Otake, M; Goriki, K; Kageoka, T; Fujita, M.; Neriishi, S; Asakawa, J

    1980-01-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of "proximally exposed" parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of "distally exposed" parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

  11. New Social Risks Affecting Children. A Survey of Risk Determinants and Child Outcomes in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Eppel, Rainer; Leoni, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Socio-economic transformations associated with the shift to post-industrial societies have not only created new opportunities and prosperity, but have also given rise to the emergence of new social risks occurring at different stages of life. This paper examines the situation of children, who can arguably be considered a particularly vulnerable social group. It provides an overview of the changes generating child-related risk structures and, given this background, compares child well-being ou...

  12. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure

  13. How does credit access affect children's time allocation? Evidence from rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Fuwa Nobuhiko; Ito Seiro; Kubo Kensuke; Kurosaki Takashi; Sawada Yasuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Using a unique dataset obtained from rural Andhra Pradesh, India that contains direct observations of household access to credit and detailed time use, results of this study indicate that credit market failures lead to a substantial reallocation of time used by children for activities such as schooling, household chores, remunerative work, and leisure. The negative effects of credit constraints on schooling amount to a 60% decrease of average schooling time. However, the magnitude of decrease...

  14. How trait anxiety, interpretation bias and memory affect acquired fear in children learning about new animals

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Zoë C; Field, Andy P.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of vulnerability to anxiety propose that information processing biases such as interpretation bias play a part in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, at present little is known about the role of memory in information processing accounts of child anxiety. The current study investigates the relationships between interpretation biases, memory and fear responses when learning about new stimuli. Children (aged 8-11 years) were presented with ambiguous infor...

  15. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  16. Maternal mentalization affects mothers' - but not children's - weight via emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Bergmann, Sarah; Nolte, Tobias; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2016-10-01

    Previous research on childhood obesity has shown that maternal obesity is an important risk factor for this malady. Because biological and environmental factors are able to explain the transgenerational transmission of obesity only in part, psychological risk factors (e.g., emotional eating) have become more important in recent research. As maternal mentalization - which lays the foundation for the child's ability to regulate his/her emotions - has not yet been investigated, we examined the effects of mentalization on maternal and childhood obesity. By investigating groups of obese (n = 30) and normal-weight (n = 30) mothers and their children aged 18 to 55 months, we found, contrary to our expectations, that obese mothers' mentalization (Reflective Functioning Scale) was similar to that of mothers with normal weight and that mentalization showed no direct effect on the child's weight. However, we found hints of an indirect influence of mentalization via emotional eating on mothers' but not on children's weight and via mother-child attachment (Attachment Q-Set) on children's weight. Possible reasons for these inconclusive effects are discussed. PMID:27334552

  17. 幼儿自主游戏的指导策略%Guiding Strategy of Children's Independent Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2014-01-01

    Children's daily study can't leave the guide of interest, early childhood education had to be content with the state of physical and mental development of young children as a precondition for planning, in recent years about the children's all-round education model and advanced education applications already distorted early childhood caused a disturbance after 2012,"3-6 years old children's learning and development guidelines"promulgated, children's learning content has clear seg-mentation and division, addition and subtraction within 10 began to be divided to 6 years old learning areas around them. As a basis for teaching early childhood education reform, then where early childhood education should focus on what they should continue to improve, this article will continue in-depth discussion.%幼儿日常学习离不开兴趣的引导,幼儿教育的内容却必须以幼儿的生理和心理发展状态为前提进行规划,在近些年来关于幼儿的全能型教育模式和超前教育方式的扭曲性应用已经为幼儿教育造成了干扰,当2012年《3-6岁儿童学习与发展指南》正式颁布之后,幼儿的学习内容被进行了明显的区隔和划分,10以内的加减法开始被划分到6岁左右的学习范畴当中。以此为基准进行幼儿教学的教育改革,那么幼儿教育究竟应该从何处着眼又应该从何处继续改善,本文将对此继续深入的讨论。

  18. Noise and childrens health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology a...

  19. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  20. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  1. The association with Turner syndrome significantly affects the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children, irrespective of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; Mazzanti, Laura; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Mussa, Alessandro; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Scarano, Emanuela; De Luca, Filippo; Wasniewska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies have investigated to now whether the association with Turner syndrome (TS) may affect the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether the presentation and long-term course of HT in TS children may be characterized by a peculiar and atypical pattern. The clinical and biochemical findings at HT diagnosis in 90 TS children (group A) were compared with those recorded in 449 girls with HT but without TS (group B); in group A patients, thyroid function tests were re-evaluated after a median time interval of 4.9 years. At HT diagnosis median TSH levels and the rate of cases presenting with a thyroid dysfunction picture were significantly lower in group A, irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. In group A only 34.8 % of the girls who had initially presented with euthyroidism remained euthyroid even at re-evaluation, whilst 67.7 % of those who had presented with subclinical hypothyroidism became overtly hypothyroid over time; also such evolutive pattern was irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. (1) In TS girls, HT presents with a milder hormonal pattern, which often deteriorates over time; (2) these biochemical features are not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype. PMID:25542186

  2. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (p<0.05). No observed effects on Bone Area and Bone Mineral Density. Conclusions Fish-containing NND school meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  3. Did FDA Decisionmaking Affect Anti-Psychotic Drug Prescribing in Children?: A Time-Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Franklin, Jessica M.; Eddings, Wesley; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, many drugs are prescribed for non-FDA-approved (“off-label”) uses. If substantial evidence supports the efficacy and safety of off-label indications, manufacturers can pursue formal FDA approval through supplemental new drug applications (sNDAs). We evaluated the effect of FDA determinations on pediatric sNDAs for antipsychotic drugs on prescribing of these products in children. Methods Retrospective, segmented time-series analysis using new prescription claims during 2003–2012 for three atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone). FDA approved the sNDAs for pediatric use of olanzapine and quetiapine in December 2009, but did not approve the sNDA for pediatric use of ziprasidone. Results During the months before FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA, new prescriptions of olanzapine decreased for both children and adults. After FDA approval, the increase in prescribing trends was similar for both age groups (P = 0.47 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; P = 0.37 for other indications). Comparable decreases in use of quetiapine were observed between pediatrics and adults following FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.88; P = 0.63). Prescribing of ziprasidone decreased similarly for pediatric and adult patients after FDA non-approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.61; P = 0.79). Conclusions The FDA’s sNDA determinations relating to use of antipsychotics in children did not result in changes in use that favored the approved sNDAs and disfavored the unapproved sNDA. Improved communication may help translate the agency’s expert judgments to clinical practice. PMID:27032095

  4. Anxiety of Parents of Mentally Handicapped Children and Affects of Informing on Anxiety Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 51.9±10.1; their father’s average age was 40.2±8.6, average state anxiety point was 35.9±6.5 and average trait anxiety point was 41.3±6.2. Anxiety points of mothers are higher. Mothers who are graduated from primary school, younger than 35 age, have a boy or child younger than 12 age, have social assurance, do not take institutional service, have low family income, and whose first or last child is mentally handicapped, whose husband do not help with caring child have significant decrease in anxiety points after informing. In the fathers, only a decrease in the trait anxiety level was significant. CONCLUSION: Education decreases the parents’ anxiety level. Institutional services have to contain all of the mentally handicapped children and should be educated the parents by nurses periodically to decrease their anxiety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 405-412

  5. Dependence of P-wave dispersion on mean arterial pressure as an independent hemodynamic variable in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibet Chávez González

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension.Objective:To determine the dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population.Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed.Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p <0.01 and r= 0.33, p <0.01, respectively. There was a significant correlation found between PWD and the left atrial area (r= 0.45 and p <0.01.Conclusions: We highlight the dependency between PWD, the electrocardiogram and  mean  blood pressure. We also draw attention to the dependence of PWD on the left atrial area.  This result provides an explanation for earlier changes in atrial electrophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics in pediatric patients.

  6. Does Eating During Television Viewing Affect Mealtimes in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Susana R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Powers, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    This study looks for differences in mealtime characteristics and glycemic control for young children with type 1 diabetes who either eat with television (TV) viewing or without TV viewing. Sample size is 24 families (M child age= 5.2, SD=1.0 years). Meals with TV lasted six minutes longer than meals without TV. Meals with TV were associated with greater fat intake and higher average glucose levels, but not with greater intake of calories, carbohydrates, or more child bites. This study suggest...

  7. Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria affecting children from León, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya, Erick José

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Annual child mortality has declined in the world from 12.5 million in 1990 to 8.8 million in 2008. Yet, infectious diseases are still the major cause of death in this group (6.97 million); with diarrhoea responsible for the death of 1.3 million and neonatal septicaemia for 0.5 million. On the positive side, Latin America/Caribbean is among the regions with the highest progress in reduction of child mortality. In Nicaragua, nearly 4000 children under 5 years of ag...

  8. Alterations of the Salivary Secretory Peptidome Profile in Children Affected by Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Mastinu, Andrea; Denotti, Gloria; Pusceddu, Pietro Paolo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva of type 1 diabetic children was analyzed by reversed phase (RP)1–HPLC-ESI-MS and compared with that of sex- and age-matched control subjects. Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins (aPRP), histatins, α-defensins, salivary cystatins, statherin, proline-rich peptide P-B (P-B), beta-thymosins, S100A8 and S100A9*(S100A9* corresponds to S100A9 vairant lacking the first four amino acids), as well some naturally occurring peptides derived from saliva...

  9. Exposure to grass pollen – but not birch pollen – affects lung function in Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzieva, O.; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J.; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung‐function‐ and IgE‐tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO 2, PM 10, PM 2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure t...

  10. Impaired sleep affects quality of life in children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspers Gertjan JL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase of pediatric cancer survival rates, late effects and quality of life (QoL have received more attention. Disturbed sleep in pediatric cancer is a common clinical observation, but research on this subject is sparse. In general, sleep problems can lead to significant morbidity and are associated with impaired QoL. Information on sleep is essential to develop interventions to improve QoL. Methods Children (2-18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL were eligible for this multi-center study. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ, Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0™ Acute Cancer Version (PedsQL were used to assess sleep and QoL halfway through maintenance therapy. Sleep and QoL were measured during and after dexamethasone treatment (on-dex and off-dex. Results Seventeen children participated (age 6.7 ± 3.3 years, 44% boys. Children with ALL had more sleep problems and a lower QoL compared to the norm. There were no differences on-dex and off-dex. Pain (r = -0.6; p = 0.029 and worry (r = -0.5; p = 0.034 showed a moderate negative association with sleep. Reduced overall QoL was moderately associated with impaired overall sleep (r = -0.6; p = 0.014 and more problems with sleep anxiety (r = -0.8; p = 0.003, sleep onset delay (r = -0.5; p = 0.037, daytime sleepiness (r = -0.5; p = 0.044 and night wakenings (r = -0.6; p = 0.017. Conclusion QoL is impaired in children during cancer treatment. The results of this study suggest that impaired sleep may be a contributing determinant. Consequently, enhanced counseling and treatment of sleep problems might improve QoL. It is important to conduct more extensive studies to confirm these findings and provide more detailed information on the relationship between sleep and QoL, and on factors affecting sleep in pediatric ALL and in children with cancer in general.

  11. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Sanchez, Christine E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31 ± 2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P milk increased milk intake by 20 ± 3 kcal compared to serving the 100% portion (P milk intake by 49 ± 4 kcal (63%; P milk was served, but meal energy intake (food + milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43 ± 8 kcal (P milk did not reduce food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24 ± 10 kcal (P = 0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  12. Mortality studies in children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the district of Gomel, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the district of Gomel in Belarus has become the most contaminated area within the former USSR. A comparative pilot study conducted by the authros to establish the mortality in that district during the 1984-1992 period has not yet revealed any elevated mortality among children aged 0 to <15 years for the period after the accident. Diseases of the respiratory system and congential anomalies were found to be the principal causes of death in this age group (ICD9: classes VIII and XIV). Owing to the low number of children born during the study period and the concomitant small number of deaths from neoplasms, a clear analysis of changes in the structure of mortality from neoplasma (ICD9: class II) has not yet been possible. The birth rate in the Gomel district where the highest radiation exposure was experienced has dropped: There was an obvious decrease suring 1987, i.e. during the year which immediately followed that of the accident, to rise again in 1992 to levels comparable to those of other study areas. (orig.)

  13. Equivalent neural responses in children and adolescents with and without autism during judgments of affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent C. Vander Wyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has noted disrupted patterns of neural activation during emotion, processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, prior research relied on, designs that may place greater cognitive load on individuals with ASD. In order to address this issue, we adapted the fMRI task of Ochsner et al. (2004a for children by, presenting fewer stimuli, with fewer valence levels, and longer stimuli duration. A localizer sample of, typically developing children (n = 26 was used to construct regions of interest involved in emotional, processing. Activations in these regions during self- and other-referential emotion processing was, compared in age, IQ, gender matched groups (n = 17 ASD, n = 16 TD. Matched samples replicate, condition contrasts of the localizer, but no group differences were found in behavior measures or, neural activation. An exploratory functional connectivity analysis in a subset of the matched groups, also did not detect striking differences between the groups. These findings suggest that disruptions in activation in emotion processing neural networks in ASD is partially a function of task related cognitive load.

  14. Lower head temperature does not affect children's self-paced running velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, João; Martini, Angelo; Borba, Diego; Gomes, Leonardo; Pinto, João; Oliveira, Bernardo; Coelho, Daniel; Prado, Luciano; Rodrigues, Luiz

    2013-02-01

    To test if the use of a peaked cap protects children against sun radiation, allowing increased exercise performance, nineteen healthy children (10.3 ± 0.8 years old, 146.2 ± 6.9 cm, 36.8 ± 5.5 kg, 1.2 ± 0.1 m2 and 44.1 ± 2.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) took part in 4 experimental situations: 2 initial familiarization runs and 2 self-paced 6km runs (4 × 1.5 km exercise bouts with 3min rest intervals) one of them wearing a peaked cap (CAP) and another situation without the cap (NOCAP). The CAP and NOCAP situations were randomized. Exercise was performed outdoors 3-7 days apart. Environmental variables were measured every 10min, and physiological variables were measured before and after each run and during the rest intervals. Running velocity did not differ between CAP and NOCAP situations. The mean head temperature was reduced by 1.1 °C in the CAP situation (p temperature, mean heart rate, rate of perceived exertion and wet bulb and globe temperature did not differ between CAP and NOCAP. The decrease in the mean head temperature was not sufficient to alter running velocity. PMID:23406699

  15. Differential diagnosis of inflammatory lung affections by X-ray in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the rise in neonatal infections by β-streptococci the clinical respiratory distress syndrome in neonates is becoming increasingly important for differential diagnosis. The present paper reports on special problems in differential X-ray diagnosis of β-streptococcus pneumonia as compared to inflammatory lung affections attributable to various causes. (orig.)

  16. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  17. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  18. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  19. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lyn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body.

  20. Developmental stage affects cognition in children with recently-diagnosed symptomatic focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Linda M; Embuldeniya, Upeka S; Harvey, A Simon; Wrennall, Jacquie A; Testa, Renee; Anderson, Vicki A; Wood, Amanda G

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the impact of developmental stage on cognitive function in children with recently-diagnosed epilepsy. In keeping with a neurodevelopmental framework, skills in a critical developmental period were expected to be more vulnerable than those stable at the time of seizure onset. We studied children with early-onset (EO) symptomatic focal epilepsy (onset: 3-5 years; n=18) and compared their performance with that of the group with late-onset (LO) epilepsy (onset: 6-8 years performance of; n=8) on a range of cognitive tasks. Performance of both groups was compared with normative standards. 'Critical' and 'stable' classifications were based on developmental research. Nonparametric analyses revealed that skills in a critical developmental period for the group with EO epilepsy fell below normative standards (Phonological Processing: p=.007, Design Copying: p=.01, Visuomotor Precision:, p=.02) and fell below the performance of the group with LO epilepsy (Design Copying: p=.03, Visuomotor Precision: p=.03). There were no differences between the group with EO epilepsy and the group with LO epilepsy on measures of receptive vocabulary and memory, which were proposed to be in a stable developmental period across both groups. Auditory span, as measured by Word Order, was reduced for both the group with EO epilepsy (p=.02) and the group with LO epilepsy (p=.02) relative to normative standards, but the groups did not differ from each other. These results are consistent with a prolonged period of critical development for this skill. These findings support the notion that skills in a critical phase of development are particularly vulnerable following the onset of symptomatic focal epilepsy in childhood. PMID:25240120

  1. Towards a constructionist approach to emotions: verification of the three-dimensional model of affect with EEG-independent component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Ligeza, Tomasz S.

    2014-01-01

    The locationist model of affect, which assumes separate brain structures devoted to particular discrete emotions, is currently being questioned as it has not received enough convincing experimental support. An alternative, constructionist approach suggests that our emotional states emerge from the interaction between brain functional networks, which are related to more general, continuous affective categories. In the study, we tested whether the three-dimensional model of affect based on vale...

  2. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26382732

  3. Does the transparency of the counting system affect children's numerical abilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eDowker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh language uses a regular counting system, whereas English uses an irregular counting system, and schools within Wales teach either through the medium of Welsh or English. This provides the opportunity to compare linguistic effects on arithmetical skills in the absence of many other confounding factors that arise in international comparisons. This study investigated the hypothesis that language properties influence children's performance in certain numerical tasks by comparing the performance of 20 Welsh- and 20 English-medium Year Two pupils in nonverbal line estimations and transcoding. Groups did not differ on global arithmetic abilities, but the pupils taught through the medium of Welsh on average performed better in the nonverbal line estimation tasks than the English-medium group. This superiority was most apparent in comparisons involving numbers over 20: a result which was complicated by the fact that Welsh-medium pupils showed a lower range of error scores than the English-medium pupils. These results were thought to be related to the increased transparency of the Welsh counting system.

  4. Does the radiation from the interim storage in Gorleben affect the sex ratio of newborn children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the professional world but especially in public, the question is discussed whether ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities has a significant impact on the secondary sex ratio of newborn children in the vicinity of the plants. This issue is of exceptional importance in the region around Gorleben, where the opposition to nuclear facilities and activities for decades is particularly strong. At the site borders of the interim storage facility (TBL-G) of GNS the effective individual dose is about 0.2 mSv per year, mainly caused by neutron irradiation from 108 casks with high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing. In the surrounding villages there is no radiation measurable. Statistical studies allegedly have shown evidence that in some villages in the area and during certain periods, proportionately fewer girls were born in comparison to the average for the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on these purely statistical results henceforward was also alleged that neutron-induced secondary effects such as activation or secondary gamma radiation would be responsible for it. Monte Carlo calculations and special measurements yielded values of the dose at the plant border for activation products less than E-04 mSv/a and for secondary gamma radiation of about E-03 mSv/a. These results indicate that the ionizing radiation from the Gorleben interim storage facility cannot be held accountable for shifts of the secondary sex ratio.

  5. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Low-level processes of children's written language production are cognitively more costly than those involved in speaking. This has been shown by French authors who compared oral and written memory span performance. The observed difficulties of children's, but not of adults' low-level processes in writing may stem from graphomotoric as well as from orthographic inadequacies. We report on five experiments designed to replicate and expand the original results. First, the French results were successfully replicated for German third-graders, and for university students. Then, the developmental changes of the cognitive costs of writing were examined during primary school, comparing the performance of second- and fourth-graders. Next, we show that unpractised writing modes, which were experimentally induced, also lead to a decrease of memory performance in adults, which supports the assumption that a lack of graphomotoric automation is responsible for the observed effects in children. However, unpractised handwriting yields clearer results than unpractised typing. Lastly, we try to separate the influences of graphomotoric as opposed to orthographic difficulties by having the words composed through pointing on a "spelling board". This attempt, however, has not been successful, probably because the pointing to letters introduced other low-level costs. In sum, throughout the four years of primary school, German children show worse memory span performance in writing compared to oral recall, with an overall increase in both modalities. Thus, writing had not fully caught up with speaking regarding the implied cognitive costs by the end of primary school. Therefore, conclusions relate to the question of how to assess properly any kind of knowledge and abilities through language production. Los procesos de bajo nivel en la producción de lenguaje escrito en niños son más costosos a nivel cognitivo que los que están implicados en el habla. Esto ha sido demostrado por autores

  6. 影响流动儿童计划免疫接种效果的原因与对策分析%Affect the Floating Children Immunization Vaccination Effect aAnalysis of the Causes and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解辖区内流动儿童计划免疫接种情况。方法筛选476例儿童,将“五苗全程”儿童纳入覆盖组,余者纳入未覆盖组,进行因素分析。结果覆盖组占88.45%,未覆盖组占11.55%;户籍地、父母工作单位、母工作单位、儿童出生地、有接种证明需要成为独立危险因素,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论流动儿童计划免疫接种效果是多种因素共同作用的结果,应加强干预。%Objective To understand the situation of the planned immunization of the migrant children in the area,analyze the influencing factors. Methods TScreening of 476 children, the“five seedlings full”child into the cover group, the rest were included in the group, a factor analysis. Results The coverage of groups of children accounted for 88.45%,does not cover the group of children accounted for 11.55%;household ,parents work units ,the parent work unit ,children born to ,a certifi-cate of vaccination against were independent risk the factors,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Many factors affect the floating children planning immunization effect,should to strengthen intervention.

  7. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  8. DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32) polymorphisms independently confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorders and additively predict affected status in male-only affected sib-pair families

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger Joe A; Liu Xudong; Hudson Melissa L; Lee Alana; Cohen Ira L; Michaelis Ron C; Schwartz Charles E; Lewis Suzanne ME; Holden Jeanette JA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates executive functions, learning, and emotional processing, all of which are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Our previous findings suggest a role for dopamine-related genes in families with only affected males. Methods We examined two additional genes which affect DA function, the DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32) genes, in a cohort of 112 male-only affected sib-pair families. Selected polymorphisms spannin...

  9. Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, WIETSE A.; KOMPROE, IVAN H.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Vallipuram, Anavarathan; Sipsma, Heather; SIVAYOKAN, SAMBASIVAMOORTHY; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques ...

  10. Field-dependence/independence as a Factor Affecting Performance on Listening Comprehension Sub-skills: the Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Shiela kheirzadeh; Zohreh Kassaian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if field- dependence/ independence (FD\\I) cognitive style was related to the performance of Iranian EFL learners on listening comprehension sub-skills. More specifically, the study attempted to focus on three listening comprehension sub-skills, namely listening for main idea, listening for specifics, and making inference. The choice of these sub-skills was based on Weir’ (1993) taxonomy. The study also tried to investigate the effect of FD\\I on...

  11. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  12. Affective Imagination in Science Education: Determining the Emotional Nature of Scientific and Technological Learning of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.

  13. Book Review: Kaplan, S. (2008.Children in Genocide: Extreme traumatization and affect regulation, London: International Psychoanalysis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Roderick, M.Ed., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Children in Genocide: Extreme traumatization and affect regulation (2008, Suzanne Kaplan explores the affects and memories of individuals who have survived extreme traumatization during their childhood, specifically Jewish survivors of the Holocaust and teenagers who survived the genocide in Rwanda in 1994. In the introduction, Kaplan explains that she has aimed to “write a text that can, to the greatest extent possible, convey a fraction of the feeling of what it meant to be a child during a genocide” (Kaplan, 2008, p.1. The majority of the book is devoted to presenting an analysis of the oral life histories of the survivors interviewed. The experiences are organized into three themes: 1 perforating, how the psychic shield is has been perforated by intense trauma; 2 space creating, the inner psychic processes through which the persecuted create mental space helps to survive the psychological damage and trauma; and 3 age distorting, a twisting of time that results in participants not feeling their actual chronological age. Age distorting is presented as containing aspects of perforating and space creating, and is linked to reproductive patterns of the survivors. A chronology of genocide events is used to organize these themes, through which the life histories of participants are presented in rich descriptive detail. Kaplan focuses both on the content of the interviews conducted as well as how the memories of the atrocities survived were recounted (the affects. The text provides readers with a glimpse into lived experience of these horrors in a manner that can only be achieved through narrative.

  14. Position of the kissing-loop interaction associated with PTE-type 3’CITEs can affect enhancement of cap-independent translation

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kuhlmann, Micki M.; Kumar, Kalyani; Simon, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The Panicum mosaic virus-like translation enhancer (PTE) functions as a cap-independent translation enhancer (3’CITE) in members of several Tombusviridae genera including 7/19 carmoviruses. For nearly all PTE, a kissing-loop connects the element with a hairpin found in several conserved locations in the genomic RNA (5’ terminal hairpin or ~100 nt from the 5’end) and small subgenomic RNA (~63 nt from the 5’end). Moving the interaction closer to the 5’end in reporter mRNAs using Saguaro cactus ...

  15. The Independent Contributions of Emotion Dysregulation and Hypermentalization to the "Double Dissociation" of Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Female Adolescent Inpatients With BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Vanwoerden, Salome; Elhai, Jon D; Sharp, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Harari, Shamay-Tsoory, Ravid, and Levkovitz (2010) demonstrated a "double dissociation" in empathy in borderline personality disorder (BPD), such that BPD patients had higher affective than cognitive empathy, whereas controls exhibited the opposite pattern. Two processes that may relate to this dissociation are emotion dysregulation (ER) and hypermentalization. However, these interrelated processes have not been studied concomitantly, and the dissociation of empathy types has not been examined in adolescents with BPD. This study examined the relations between ER, hypermentalization, and cognitive and affective empathy in 252 adolescent inpatients with and without BPD. Participants completed a computerized task of hypermentalization and measures of ER and empathy. Findings only partially replicated Harari et al.'s findings, with differential performance in cognitive and affective empathy demonstrated across groups. Multivariate analyses revealed that in both groups, ER related to increased affective empathy. Hypermentalizing related to decreased cognitive empathy in BPD patients, whereas hypermentalizing did not relate to either empathy type in non-BPD patients. PMID:25905730

  16. Factors affecting the healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers regarding their children in a rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Nilanjana Ghosh; Indranil Chakrabarti; Manasi Chakraborty; Romy Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Background : An ailing, unresponsive health system and the existing social complexities, with considerable contextual differences, are all pervasive in India. In health, these are manifested as differences in morbidity and mortality, severely affecting child health and survival. Objectives: To find out the possible factors affecting the health-seeking behavior of mothers with regard to their children, in a rural community of Darjeeling district, and the reasons for not seeking curative care f...

  17. Lifetime Incidences of Traumatic Events and Mental Health among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were gathered from 1,625 children (M age = 12.85, SD = 2.21) which included 755 AIDS orphans, 466 vulnerable children, and 404 comparison children. Participants completed self-report measures of exposure to traumatic events, and psychosocial adjustment including behavior problems, depression, self-esteem, and future…

  18. Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone's Kids. NBER Working Paper No. 14246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that between ten and twenty percent of children in the United States are exposed to domestic violence annually. While much is known about the impact of domestic violence and other family problems on children within the home, little is known regarding the extent to which these problems spill over to children outside the family. The…

  19. Physiologically-Indexed and Self-Perceived Affective Empathy in Conduct-Disordered Children High and Low on Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) was employed to compare vicarious affective arousal across three groups of children (aged 7.6 - 11, N = 95): Conduct Disordered (CD) elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits ("CD/CU"), CD low on CU traits ("CD-only"), and "typically-developing" controls, matched in age, gender and socioeconomic background. While watching an emotion…

  20. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  1. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  2. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

  3. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Coker, Bamidele Atinuke; Nudamajo, Felix Yasha; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25%) of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1), CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32), enterovirus 71 (EV71), EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed. PMID:27087810

  4. Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a school-based, cross-sectional study in 147 randomly selected girls (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 27.8 +/- 9.3% body......-intensity activity (accelerometer counts >2,001/min). We measured total and central fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was expressed as the homeostasis model assessment score. RESULTS: Time (min/day) spent sedentary was significantly and positively associated with insulin resistance...... (beta-coefficient = 0.001 [95% CI 0.0002-0.002]; P = 0.013). Time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (-0.002 [-0.003 to -0.001]; P = 0.0009) and overall physical activity (-0.001 [-0.008 to 0.003]; P < 0.0001) were significantly and inversely associated with insulin resistance...

  5. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25% of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1, CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32, enterovirus 71 (EV71, EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed.

  6. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Coker, Bamidele Atinuke; Nudamajo, Felix Yasha; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25%) of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1), CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32), enterovirus 71 (EV71), EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed. PMID:27087810

  7. Fanconi anemia with biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations - Case report of a family with three affected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svojgr, Karel; Sumerauer, David; Puchmajerova, Alena; Vicha, Ales; Hrusak, Ondrej; Michalova, Kyra; Malis, Josef; Smisek, Petr; Kyncl, Martin; Novotna, Drahuse; Machackova, Eva; Jencik, Jan; Pycha, Karel; Vaculik, Miroslav; Kodet, Roman; Stary, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Fanconi anemia, complementation group D1 with bi-allelic FANCD1 (BRCA2) mutations, is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by early onset of childhood malignancies, including acute leukemia, brain cancer and nephroblastoma. Here, we present a case report of a family with 3 affected children in terms of treatment outcome, toxicity and characterization of the malignancies using comprehensive cytogenetic analysis. The first child was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia when he was 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from repeated pancytopenia, sepsis and severe vincristine polyneuropathy, and 18 months after primary diagnosis, he succumbed to secondary acute monocytic leukemia. The second child was diagnosed with stage 2 triphasic nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), when he was 3 years and 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from vincristine polyneuropathy. Currently, he is in complete remission, 29 months following the initial diagnosis. The third child was diagnosed with medulloblastoma with classical histology, when she was 4 years and 5 months old. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, she suffered from prolonged pancytopenia, sepsis and severe skin and mucosal toxicity. Six weeks after primary diagnosis, a first relapse in the posterior fossa was diagnosed, and at 7 and half months after primary diagnosis, a second relapse was diagnosed that led to the patient's death. Our case report underscores tumor heterogeneity, treatment toxicity and poor outcome in Fanconi anemia patients of complementation group D1. PMID:26657402

  8. Bishop Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Harris Liam H.; Perkins Stephanie; Roach Paul A.; Jones Siˆan K.

    2013-01-01

    Bishop Independence concerns determining the maximum number of Bishops that can be placed on a board such that no Bishop can attack any other Bishop. This paper presents the solution to the Bishop Independence problem, determining the Bishop Independence number, for all sizes of boards on the following topologies: the cylinder, the M¨obius strip, the torus, the Klein bottle and the surface of a cube.

  9. Early brain loss in circuits affected by Alzheimer’s disease is predicted by fornix microstructure but may be independent of gray matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan eFletcher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a cohort of community-recruited elderly subjects with normal cognition at initial evaluation, we found that baseline fornix white matter microstructure was significantly correlated with early volumetric longitudinal tissue change across a region of interest (called fSROI, which overlaps circuits known to be selectively vulnerable to AD pathology. Other white matter and gray matter regions had much weaker or non-existent associations with longitudinal tissue change. Tissue loss in fSROI was in turn a significant factor in a survival model of cognitive decline, as was baseline fornix microstructure. These findings suggest that WM deterioration in the fornix and tissue loss in fSROI may be the early beginnings of posterior limbic circuit and default mode network degeneration. We also found that gray matter baseline volumes in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus predicted cognitive decline in survival models. But since GM regions did not also significantly predict brain tissue loss, our results may imply a view in which early, prodromal deterioration appears as two quasi independent processes in white and gray matter regions of the limbic circuit crucial to memory.

  10. 18F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a 18F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  11. Position of the kissing-loop interaction associated with PTE-type 3’CITEs can affect enhancement of cap-independent translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kuhlmann, Micki M.; Kumar, Kalyani; Simon, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The Panicum mosaic virus-like translation enhancer (PTE) functions as a cap-independent translation enhancer (3’CITE) in members of several Tombusviridae genera including 7/19 carmoviruses. For nearly all PTE, a kissing-loop connects the element with a hairpin found in several conserved locations in the genomic RNA (5’ terminal hairpin or ~100 nt from the 5’end) and small subgenomic RNA (~63 nt from the 5’end). Moving the interaction closer to the 5’end in reporter mRNAs using Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) sequences had either a minimal or substantial negative effect on translation. Movement of the kissing loop from position 104 to the SCV 5’ terminal hairpin also reduced translation by 4-fold. These results suggest that relocating the PTE kissing loop closer to the 5’end reduces PTE efficiency, in contrast to results for the Barley yellow dwarf BTE and Tomato bushy stunt virus Y-shaped 3’CITEs , suggesting that different 3’CITEs have different bridging requirements. PMID:24928038

  12. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ affects LPS-induced disturbance of blood-brain barrier via lipid kinase-independent control of cAMP in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frister, Adrian; Schmidt, Caroline; Schneble, Nadine; Brodhun, Michael; Gonnert, Falk A; Bauer, Michael; Hirsch, Emilio; Müller, Jörg P; Wetzker, Reinhard; Bauer, Reinhard

    2014-12-01

    The breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key event in the development of sepsis-induced brain damage. BBB opening allows blood-born immune cells to enter the CNS to provoke a neuroinflammatory response. Abnormal expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) was shown to contribute to BBB opening. Using different mouse genotypes in a model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation, our present report reveals phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) as a mediator of BBB deterioration and concomitant generation of MMP by microglia. Unexpectedly, microglia expressing lipid kinase-deficient mutant PI3Kγ exhibited similar MMP regulation as wild-type cells. Our data suggest kinase-independent control of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity by PI3Kγ as a crucial mediator of microglial cell activation, MMP expression and subsequent BBB deterioration. The results identify the suppressive effect of PI3Kγ on cAMP as a critical mediator of immune cell functions. PMID:25033932

  13. Methadone Poisoning in Children and some Factors affecting it: A Cross-sectional Study in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ghorbani; Nasrin Salimkhani; Sina Pakdel; Mahni Rahkar farshi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children may be intentionally or unintentionally exposed to any substance. Substance poisoning is one of the most important emergency interventions in children that cause a great number of deaths each year. Regarding the importance of this issue and recent increase in number of poisoning cases, a study with the aim of investigating cases of substance poisoning and factors involved in emerging them was carried out in Children Hospital of Tabriz.Materials and Methods: The present ...

  14. Children Affected by AIDS in Brazil: Estimates of the Number of Children at Risk of Being Orphaned and Displaced by AIDS in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Miguel B.; Hillis, Janette; Wasek, Glenn K.

    1998-01-01

    Estimated the number of Brazilian children under 14 whose mothers are HIV-positive, living with AIDS, or dead due to AIDS. Found that of the 210,150 children, 17,600 were HIV-positive Findings underscore the urgent need for new programs to increase the longevity of persons with AIDS and to decrease the likelihood of child displacement and severe…

  15. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B.;

    2015-01-01

    and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH...

  16. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  17. Gender Differences that Affect Emerging Literacy in First Grade Children: The U.S., India, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.; Chhikara, Sudha; Hsiu-Ching, Chen; Kuo, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in perceptual and cognitive abilities and in reading skills among 922 first graders in the United States, India, and Taiwan. Found that girls scored significantly higher than boys on reading skills, visual memory, directionality, and ability to track nonsymbolic figures. Urban children outscored rural children on four…

  18. The Effects of Foster Care Intervention on Socially Deprived Institutionalized Children's Attention and Positive Affect: Results from the BEIP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…

  19. Txt Msg N School Literacy: Does Texting and Knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children's Literacy Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…

  20. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... board independence. It would redefine independence to include those directors that are independent of the firm's controller, but, at the same time, it would require them to be more accountable to (minority) shareholders....... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous...

  1. “It's because they care”: understanding pathways to classroom concentration problems among HIV-affected children and youth in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children and young people living in households affected by HIV are experiencing poorer educational outcomes compared to their peers. This article explores how different forms of marginalisation interface and manifest themselves in classroom concentration problems, undermining their education. This mixed qualitative methods study was conducted with teachers and pupils from three primary and three secondary schools in the Siaya County of Western Kenya. Specifically, it involved 18 teachers through individual interviews and 51 HIV-affected children and youth through individual interviews (n = 47) and Photovoice (n = 51). Verbatim transcripts were imported into NVivo10 for thematic indexing and analysis. The analysis revealed three core pathways to classroom concentration problems amongst HIV-affected pupils. One, a general ‘lack of care’ and neglect in the context of household poverty and illness, meant that many of the participating pupils went to school hungry, unable to follow classes. Others were teased by peers for looking visibly poor, and felt anxious when in school. Two, some HIV-affected pupils play a key role in keeping their household afloat, generating food and income as well as providing practical support. ‘Caregiving’ pupils often reported coming to school exhausted, with limited physical and mental energy left for learning. Three, many participating pupils had their minds at home (‘caring about’). They were concerned about sick or frail household members, thinking about their next meal and care needs. Although the pupils demonstrated an admirable attentiveness to the needs of others, this came at a heavy price, namely their ability to concentrate in class. The paper argues that care ethics, household poverty and familial HIV are central to understanding the classroom concentration problems of HIV-affected pupils. To ensure school-going children and youth affected by HIV have the same opportunities as their peers, education

  2. Interventions for Children Affected by Armed Conflict: a Systematic Review of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Pigott, Hugo; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion children under the age of 18 live in countries affected by armed conflict. This systematic review replicates an earlier study, aiming to provide a comprehensive update of the most current developments in interventions for children affected by armed conflict. For the period 2009-2015, a total of 1538 records were collected from PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and the included interventions involve data from 4858 children. Although the number of publications and level of evidence has improved since the previous review, there is still a general lack of rigor and clarity in study design and reported results. Overall, interventions appeared to show promising results demonstrating mostly moderate effect sizes on mental health and psychosocial well-being. However, these positive intervention benefits are often limited to specific subgroups. There is a need for increased diversification in research focus, with more attention to interventions that focus at strengthening community and family support, and to young children, and improvements in targeting and conceptualizing of interventions. PMID:26769198

  3. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise. PMID:23225034

  4. How do ADHD children perceive their cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of anger expression in school setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghighi Habib

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anger is an ignored research area in children and young adolescents with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in the school setting. This study compares school anger dimensions in children and young adolescents with ADHD and a control group. Methods The subjects were a clinical sample of 67 children and young adolescents with ADHD and their parents, with a sample of 91 children from the community of similar age and gender as control group. Anger was measured by the Farsi version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI. Results The scores of the two components of "Hostile Outlook" and "Positive Coping" were different between the groups. The mean scores for the Anger components did not statistically differ between the children with ADHD and ODD and ADHD without ODD, boys and girls, or different types of ADHD. Conclusion Children with ADHD do not report higher rates of experience of anger and they do not apply destructive strategies more than the control group. However, children with ADHD appear to have a more hostile outlook toward school and their coping strategy is weaker than that of the control group.

  5. Qualitative options in political psychology and gender. Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Olga L. Obando S

    2009-01-01

    Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r): the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a cr...

  6. Behavioral Profiles of Affected and Unaffected Siblings of Children with Autism: Contribution of Measures of Mother-Infant Interaction and Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozga, Agata; Hutman, Ted; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Dapretto, Mirella; Sigman, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether deficits in social gaze and affect and in joint attention behaviors are evident within the first year of life among siblings of children with autism who go on to be diagnosed with autism or ASD (ASD) and siblings who are non-diagnosed (NoASD-sib) compared to low-risk controls. The ASD group did not differ from the other two…

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression Symptoms among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a negative impact of orphanhood and HIV-related stigma on the psychological well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Little is known about psychological protective factors that can mitigate the effect of orphanhood and HIV-related stigma on psychological well-being. This research examines the relationships among several risk and protective factors for depression symptoms using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS or...

  8. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2–5 years in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Judith K.; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M.; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Michael J Boivin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver–child interactions and neuroco...

  9. Dual-energy X-ray aborptiometry assessment in children and adolescents with diseases that may affect the skeleton: the 2007 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nick; Braillon, Pierre; Burnham, Jon; Cimaz, Rolando; Davies, Justin; Fewtrell, Mary; Hogler, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Kathy; Mäkitie, Outi; Mughal, Zulf; Shaw, Nick; Vogiatzi, Maria; Ward, Kate; Bianchi, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force focusing on the use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children and adolescents with diseases that may affect the skeleton reviewed over 300 articles to establish the basis for the Official Positions. A significant number of studies used DXA-based outcome measures to assess the effects of specific interventions and charted the natural history of incremental changes in bone size and mass in specific disease states in children. However, the utility of DXA in clinical practice has not been evaluated systematically, in large part due to the lack of a workable definition for childhood osteoporosis. Thus, in combination with the Official Positions addressing the diagnosis of osteoporosis in children, and the reporting of DXA results in children, this document presents clear guidelines from which clinicians and researchers alike can work. This report delineates a set of disorders in which it is appropriate to use DXA as part of the comprehensive assessment of skeletal health in children and adolescents, and provides guidance concerning the initiation of assessment and the frequency of monitoring. Importantly, this document also highlights significant gaps in our knowledge, emphasizing areas for future research. PMID:18442751

  10. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in 6- to 8-year-old children of rural Nepal, with prevalence estimates modestly affected by inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S F; Arguello, Margia; Cui, Hongjie; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Stewart, Christine P; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven; West, Keith P

    2014-06-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol 2 μg/L, 20%), B-12 (cobalamin 8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium 1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention. PMID:24744314

  11. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill...

  12. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11 year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile as well as the impact of fat mass and...... physical activity in Danish 8-11 year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the OPUS School Meal Study....

  13. Investigating the role of social-affective attachment processes in cradling bias: the absence of cradling bias in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Lea-Ann; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that leftward cradling bias may facilitate mother-infant relationships, as it preferentially locates the infant in the mother's left hemi-space, which is specialized for several social-affective processes. If leftward cradling bias is mediated by social-affective attachment processes, it should be reduced in humans who are deficient in such processes. Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) constitute a population with known deficits in social and emotional relating. A pilot study confirmed reduced bias in this group, and in the present study, we elaborated methods to assess also the impact of higher cognitive processes on cradling bias. Direct systematic observation was used to investigate the occurrence of cradling bias in ASD, non-ASD intellectually disabled children and typically developing children. Ninety-three participants aged 5-15 years cradled a life-like doll on four separate occasions. Intelligence and executive functions were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that ASD diagnosis was the only significant predictor of atypical cradling preference. While intellectually disabled and typically developing children clearly preferred to cradle to the left, no preference was evident in the ASD group. Results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling bias is associated with basic social-affective capacities. PMID:25131653

  14. Results obtained from the treatment of the acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) to children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since march 1990, 103 children with acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) have received medical treatment in Cuba. All the patients had arrived with a previous treatment, which had them go through different stages of the therapeutic scheme which was in force in our country, the 7-ALL-87. The statistical study by the Kaplan Meler method showed a complete remission period of a 64% at 24 months. The event-free survival was of a 64%, and the global survival was of an 89%. In 25 children (24,2%), a relapse in the bone marrow was produced, where as 4 children (3,8%) underwent a relapse in the central nervous system. Eleven patients died, mostly because of a progression in the disease; 73 (70,8%) are under remission for periods of 3-32 months. Bone marrow autologous transplant was performed in five children with high risk; 2 died and the other 3 are under remission

  15. Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. O...

  16. How packaging affects the product preferences of children and the buyer behaviour of their parents in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogba, Ike; Johnson, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Health is becoming an increasingly important issue in the UK as well as the rest of Europe. Emphasis on the importance of healthy eating is ongoing for many reasons, including the growing concern about childhood obesity resulting in the ban of advertising of unhealthy foods to children in the UK in April 2007. However, although legislation has been placed upon the advertising of unhealthy food products, no such restrictions have been placed on the packaging of children's foods despi...

  17. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Affects Auditory Processing in 5–7 Year-Old Children: Evidence From Brain Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Alexandra P. F.; Molfese, Dennis L.; O’Brien, Louise; Gozal, David

    2009-01-01

    Poor sleep in children is associated with lower neurocognitive functioning and increased maladaptive behaviors. The current study examined the impact of snoring (the most common manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing) on cognitive and brain functioning in a sample of 35 asymptomatic children ages 5–7 years identified in the community as having habitual snoring (SDB). All participants completed polysomnographic, neurocognitive (NEPSY) and psychophysiological (ERPs to speech sounds) assess...

  18. Methadone Poisoning in Children and some Factors affecting it: A Cross-sectional Study in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghorbani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children may be intentionally or unintentionally exposed to any substance. Substance poisoning is one of the most important emergency interventions in children that cause a great number of deaths each year. Regarding the importance of this issue and recent increase in number of poisoning cases, a study with the aim of investigating cases of substance poisoning and factors involved in emerging them was carried out in Children Hospital of Tabriz.Materials and Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on hospitalized children with substance poisoning diagnosis during two years. The data was collected through referring to patients’ case and using demographic information questionnaire and symptoms checklist. The data was analyzed using SPSS 13, descriptive statistics, T test, chi- square and spearman tests.Results: During two years, 97 children with the mean age of 48 months were hospitalized due to substance poisoning. 59.3% of the study population consisted of boys and 40.7% of girls. Drowsiness, decreased level of consciousness, vomiting and pin point pupil were the most common symptoms recorded in children. The relationship between the type of substance and parents’ addiction was statistically significant. However, there was no significant relationship between intentional and unintentional poisoning and parents’ addiction.Conclusion: Non-specific package, unsafe keeping, and shortage of people’s knowledge are among the most important factors involved in Methadone poisoning in children. Delivering clear information about the fatal effect of this drug on children by health- care personnel especially doctors seems necessary.

  19. Oral zinc supplementation positively affects linear growth, but not weight, in children 6-24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Abdollahi; Zahra Abdollahi; Fereshteh Fozouni; Dolly Bondarianzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Me...

  20. Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    ABDOLLAHI, Morteza; Zahra ABDOLLAHI; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Bondarianzadeh, Dolly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Method...

  1. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  2. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  3. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  4. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2-5 years in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith K; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver-child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver-child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV-affected children

  5. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children's development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale. PMID:26209447

  6. Dynamics of Risk Determinants Regarding Diarrhea Affected Slum Children in Urban Dhaka: A Dysfunctional Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choyon Kumar Saha M.S.S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to focus on the socio-cultural risk determinants of health behavior which is closely associated with the severity of persistent diarrheal illness among fewer than five children. It is a dominant cause of childhood mortality and frequent faltering of infant growth of underprivileged slum children in Bangladesh. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 109 mother-child pairs of 0-59 month old children at Agargaon slum of Mirpurzone in metropolitan Dhaka from July to August 2008. An explanatory model of Health Care System (HCS was applied toexplorethe nature of health care practices during diarrheal episodes which incorporates conventional folktraditions (Fakir, Kabiraj, Hujur, popular (lay and non-professional such as family, community etc. and professionalized traditions (modern scientific medicine among slum women and justify the functionality of three components of HCS in relation to the risk factors associated with diarrheal treatment of respondents’ children. The findings of this study indicate that various socio-cultural factors such as unhygienic conditions (garbage, offensive smell, unclean utensils, ineffective hand washing, flies and mosquitoes etc., eating stale and stationary food (biscuits, cake and bread from vendors or roadsides, limited breast feeding practices, unsafe drinking water and gender discrimination in providing treatment are frequently noticed in slum areas which drive under five children to high risk of persistent diarrhea.

  7. Nothing can defeat combined hands (Abashize hamwe ntakibananira): protective processes and resilience in Rwandan children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Stulac, Sara N; Barrera, Amy Elizabeth; Mushashi, Christina; Beardslee, William R

    2011-09-01

    In Rwanda, the dual vectors of HIV and legacy of the 1994 genocide have had devastating consequences for children and families. In this and other low-resource settings, extreme poverty, poor access to services, family conflict, and other adversities put children and families affected by HIV/AIDS at increased risk of mental health problems. However, even in the face of tremendous hardship, many children and families demonstrate better than expected outcomes. To design interventions that harness these natural sources of resilience, greater knowledge of local protective processes is needed. This study used free listing exercises (N = 68) and key informant interviews (N = 58) with adults and children (ages 10-17) to investigate strengths and sources of resilience in Rwandan children and families at risk for psychosocial difficulties due to HIV/AIDS. Clinician key informants (N = 10) were also interviewed. Five forms of protective resources emerged through this research: perseverance (kwihangana); self-esteem/self-confidence (kwigirira ikizere); family unity/trust (kwizerana); good parenting (kurera neza) and collective/communal support (ubufasha abaturage batanga). Operating within individual, family, and collective/community systems, these resources support children at multiple ecological levels. Study evidence suggests that these protective processes provide "leverage points" for strengths-based interventions designed to increase resilient outcomes and prevent mental health problems. This information on culturally-appropriate practices for building resilience, along with input from local community advisory boards and the government, has informed the development of a Family Strengthening Intervention, which has broad applications to many forms of adversity and trauma. PMID:21840634

  8. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. PMID:24400727

  9. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  10. Gender and School Choice: Factors Influencing Parents When Choosing Single-Sex or Co-Educational Independent Schools for Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn; Bisset, Moray

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores factors influencing parents' choices of single-sex or co-educational schools in the independent sector. In doing so, it explores two relatively under-researched aspects of school choice by focusing upon gender and upon the middle classes. The paper draws upon research conducted in three independent schools--a boys' school, a…

  11. Psychological Aspects of Help to Mothers with Children who Suffer from Perinatal Affections of the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulya, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal Psychology is a unique new branch of psychology which is very popular in modern medical practice. The incidence of perinatal lesions of the nervous system in Ukraine is 16-43 % of all diseases of children under one year of age, 47-60 % of which belong to hypoxic and ischemic damage of the nervous system. Review of specialized literature was performed in order to summarize and present modern views on the problem of the psychological state of mothers of children with nervous system pe...

  12. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    -reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However......, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.263....

  13. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  14. Affect-matching music improves cognitive performance in adults and young children for both positive and negative emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Fabia; Swaine, Joel S.; Israni, Shweta; Zaborowska, Katarzyna A.; Kaloko, Fatmata; Kesavarajan, Indu; Majek, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the hypothesis that cognitive benefits associated with exposure to music only occur when the perceived emotion expression of the music and the participant’s affective state match. Experiment 1 revealed an affect-matching pattern modulated by gender when assessing high-arousal states of opposite valence (happy/angry) in an adult sample (n=94) in which mood classification was based on self-report, and affective valence in music was differentiated by mode and other exp...

  15. SERUM IgA LEVELS IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IS INDEPENDENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MORBIDITY Profile- a Cross Sectional Study of Urban Vadodara

    OpenAIRE

    Tanu Shree Singh; Mini Sheth

    2014-01-01

    IgA levels are considered as one of the most important determinant of immunity in children and undernutrition may result in deviated IgA levels due to repetitive infection resulting in acute respiratory infections (ARI) and diarrhoea. Hence, the study was undertaken to determine serum IgA levels of 80 undernourished and 30 nourished children using Immunoturbidimetric assay and correlate with their nutritional and morbidity status. Due to the known variability of immunoglobulin levels, subject...

  16. The Influence of Rurality and Parental Affect on Kindergarten Children's Social and Behavioral Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Clarke, Brandy L.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Coutts, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Children's early academic achievement is supported by positive social and behavioral skills, and difficulties with these skills frequently gives way to underachievement. Social and behavioral problems often arise as a product of parent-child interactional patterns and environmental influences. Few studies have examined the…

  17. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Tol; I.H. Komproe; M.J.D. Jordans; A. Ndayisaba; P. Ntamatumba; H. Sipsma; E.S. Smallegange; R.D. Macy; J.T.V.M. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  18. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  19. Children caring for their "caregivers": exploring the caring arrangements in households affected by AIDS in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting dominant understandings of childhood, many researchers describe orphans as an emotional and financial cost to the households in which they live. This has created a representation of orphans as a burden, not only to their fostering household, but also to society. This article seeks to challenge this representation by exploring children's contributions to their fostering households. Drawing on research from Bondo District in Kenya, this article brings together the views of 36 guardians and 69 orphaned children between the ages of 11 and 17, who articulated their circumstances through photography and drawing. Nearly 300 photos and drawings were selected by the children and subsequently described in writing. An additional 44 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted to explore findings further. The data suggest that many fostering households benefit tremendously from absorbing orphaned children. All orphans were found to contribute to their fostering household's income and provide valuable care or support to ageing, ailing or young members of their households. The article concludes that caution should be exercised in using the term "caregiver" to describe foster parents due to the reciprocity, and indeed at times a reversal, of caring responsibilities. PMID:20390486

  20. Magical Thinking in Judgments of Causation: Can Anomalous Phenomena Affect Ontological Causal Beliefs in Children and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    In four experiments, 4-, 5-, 6- and 9-year-old children and adults were tested on the entrenchment of their magical beliefs and their beliefs in the universal power of physical causality. In Experiment 1, even 4-year-olds showed some understanding of the difference between ordinary and anomalous (magical) causal events, but only 6-year-olds and…

  1. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml...

  2. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  3. The Shame and Guilt Scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A): Psychometric Properties for Responses from Children, and Measurement Invariance Across Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shaun D; Gomez, Rapson; Gullone, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study examined various psychometric properties of the items comprising the shame and guilt scales of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-Adolescent (TOSCA-A) in a group children between 8 and 11 years of age. A total of 699 children (367 females and 332 males) completed these scales, and also measures of depression and empathy. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for an oblique two-factor model, with the originally proposed shame and guilt items comprising shame and guilt factors, respectively. There was good internal consistency reliability for the shame and guilt scales, with omega coefficient values of 0.77 and 0.81 for shame and guilt, respectively. Also, shame correlated with depression symptoms positively (0.34, p empathy (-0.07, ns). Guilt correlated with depression symptoms negatively (-0.28, p empathy positively (0.13. p children with a separate group of adolescents (320 females and 242 males), based on the chi-square difference test, supported full metric invariance, the intercept invariance of 17 of the 30 shame and guilt items, and higher latent mean scores among children for both shame and guilt. The non-equivalency for intercepts and mean scores were of small effect sizes. Comparisons based on the difference in root mean squared error of approximation values supported full measurement invariance and no group difference for latent mean scores. The findings in the current study support the use of the TOSCA-A in children and the valid comparison of scores between children and adolescents, thereby opening up the possibility of evaluating change in the TOSCA-A shame and guilt factors over these developmental age groups. PMID:27242573

  4. Behavioral Profiles of Affected and Unaffected Siblings of Children with Autism: Contribution of Measures of Mother–Infant Interaction and Nonverbal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rozga, Agata; Hutman, Ted; Gregory S. Young; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Sigman, Marian

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether deficits in social gaze and affect and in joint attention behaviors are evident within the first year of life among siblings of children with autism who go on to be diagnosed with autism or ASD (ASD) and siblings who are non-diagnosed (NoASD-sib) compared to low-risk controls. The ASD group did not differ from the other two groups at 6 months of age in the frequency of gaze, smiles, and vocalizations directed toward the caregiver, nor in their sensitivity to her withdr...

  5. Morbidity indicators in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident attended in Cuba between 1990 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work evaluates morbidity indicators in 3121 children of 421 Ukrainian regions, classifying them and relating the behavior of their illness according to sex, age and density of superficial pollution of the grounds (kBq/m2), like: 185, emptied and unknown. The most frequent illness in the children resulted be the endocrinology (62%) prevailing in this group the pathologies of the glands goitre (99%), the hematology (37%) and the respiratory that has like point of parting the infectious chronic processes (88%). The morbidity has its high expression in almost all the illness for the feminine sex and the ages of 10 to 15 years. The morbidity prevails for the majority of the illness in the groups of high density of superficial pollution of the grounds, although a tendency does not exist to direct relationships with the levels of pollution density, with exception of the endocrinology, that fulfills this condition significantly. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  6. How Can Interdisciplinarity Of food, Design, Architecture, Engineering And Pedagogy Affect Children's Eating Habits And Food Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Meals in day-care centers have for many children a crucial influence on the total experience of the stay. Research already suggests, that the meal situation should not be delimited to the nutritional meaning only, but has to be seen in a broad holistic perspective (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001).In our research, regarding children’s eating habits and food preferences, we collaborated interdisciplinary, working holistically, involving appropriate disciplines, where knowledge from different fields ...

  7. Plantarflexor training affects propulsive force generation during gait in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi; Yonetsu, Ryo; Kitajima, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints after plantarflexor training in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Three boys aged 9, 10, and 13 years with spastic hemiplegic CP participated in the study. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis device and a floor reaction force detection device before and after plantarflexor training. Data on gait s...

  8. Do Attitudes About Spoiling Children Affect Attitudes Regarding What Infants Need for Early Social-Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Westover, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Secure infant attachment is important for the positive social-emotional development of children. Many parents have limited understanding of social-emotional development and the influence of appropriate responsive parenting behaviors to their infants’ cues. For example, many parents believe you can spoil an infant if you pick them up every time they cry. Researchers study the impact of positive responses to infants’ cues. Infants form a more secure attachment and learn to interpret the world a...

  9. A search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of proximally and distally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 289,868 locus tests based on 28 different protein phenotypes, employing one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of 'proximally exposed' parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure dose of between 31 and 39 rem from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of 'distally exposed' parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure. (author)

  10. Re-thinking children’s agency in extreme hardship: Zimbabwean children’s draw-and-write about their HIV-affected peers.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We compare two analyses of the same ‘draw-and-write’ exercises in which 128 Zimbabwean children represented their HIV-affected peers. The first, informed by the ‘New Social Studies of Childhood’, easily identified examples of independent reflection and action by children. The second, informed by Sen’s understandings of agency, drew attention to the negative consequences of many of the choices available to children, and the contextual limits on outcomes children themselves would value: the sup...

  11. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J S; Hjorth, M F; Andersen, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Lack of sleep and increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have all been suggested as factors contributing to the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity.Objective:To evaluate whether objectively measured sleep duration (average and day......, apparently healthy children by an objective measure (actigraphy) for 8 nights, and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was filled out by the parents. Diet was recorded using a web-based food record for 7 consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were obtained for measurements of plasma leptin and...

  12. 'Independence' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR) This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005. The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  13. Study on the Factors Affecting the Ability of Independent Innovation of Equipment Manufacturing Industry in China%我国装备制造业自主创新能力影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段婕; 陈江龙

    2013-01-01

      随着我国参与国际竞争的深度和广度不断增加,发达国家及其跨国公司对我国的技术限制、技术封锁不断加剧,关键、核心技术受制于人的局面使我国难以掌握未来发展战略的主动权。强化提升自主创新能力,开发具有自主知识产权的核心技术,抢占竞争的战略制高点,已成为促进我国装备制造业发展的基本战略。本文基于我国装备制造业规模以上企业的耦合度和关联度,对我国装备制造业自主创新能力的影响因素进行分析,研究认为我国装备制造业行业技术创新产出能力与转化吸收能力的总耦合关联度较高,技术创新投入能力对创新能力影响作用非常显著。%With the growing depth and breadth of our participation in the international competition in developed countries and its technical limitations, technical embargo imposed by multinational corporations on China rising, key, core technology dominated the situation is difficult to grasp the initiative of future development strategy in China. Focusing on improving independent innovation ability, developing core technologies with independent intellectual property rights, to seize the strategic high ground of competition, is an essential strategy for the development of equipment manufacturing industry in China. This article is based on China's equipment manufacturing industry enterprises above designated size of coupling degrees and associate degrees, our analysis of the factors affecting the ability of independent innovation of equipment manufacturing, the study indicated that China's equipment manufacturing industry output capacity of technological innovation coupled with the total transforming absorption capacity of associate degrees higher, input capacity of innovation ability of technological innovation effects are significant.

  14. Qualitative options in political psychology and gender. Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Obando S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r: the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.

  15. Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

  16. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  17. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  18. Peripheral bone mass is not affected by winter vitamin D deficiency in children and young adults from Ushuaia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, M B; Wittich, A; Mautalen, C; Chaperon, A; Kizlansky, A

    2000-09-01

    Low vitamin D levels in elderly people are associated with reduced bone mass, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and increased fracture risk. Its effect on the growing skeleton is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of chronic winter vitamin D deficiency and higher winter parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on bone mass in prepubertal children and young adults. The study was carried out in male and female Caucasian subjects. A total of 163 prepubertal children (X age +/- 1 SD: 8.9 +/- 0.7 years) and 234 young adults (22.9 +/- 3.6 years) who had never received vitamin D supplementation were recruited from two areas in Argentina: (1)Ushuaia (55 degrees South latitude), where the population is known to have low winter 25OHD levels and higher levels of PTH in winter than in summer, and (2)Buenos Aires (34 degrees S), where ultraviolet (UV) radiation and vitamin D nutritional status in the population are adequate all year round. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the ultradistal and distal radius were measured in the young adults. Only distal radius measurements were taken in the children. Similar results were obtained in age-sex matched groups from both areas. The only results showing significant difference corresponded to comparison among the Ushuaian women: those whose calcium (Ca) intake was below 800 mg/day presented lower BMD and BMC values than those whose Ca intake was above that level (0.469 +/- 0.046 versus 0.498 +/- 0.041 g/cm(2), P Ushuaia and Buenos Aires in spite of the previously documented difference between both areas regarding UV radiation and winter vitamin D status. BMD of axial skeletal areas as well the concomitant effect of a low Ca diet and vitamin D deficiency on the growing skeleton should be studied further. PMID:10954776

  19. [Genome sensitivity and genotoxic effects features in children-teenagers affected by radon radiation in living and educational environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, V G; Akhmat'ianova, V R; Golovina, T A; Volkov, A N; Minina, V I; Larionov, A V; Makeeva, E A

    2009-01-01

    The results of chromosomal aberration level and spectrum study in 48-hours peripheral blood lymphocytes cultures of 10-19 years old children-teenagers (n = 132, mean 14.2 +/- 0.16 years old) living in the south part of Kemerovskaya area Gornaya Shoria are presented. Mean metaphases with aberrations were 4.74 +/- 0.21% in studied group that is significantly higher (p polycentric, ring chromosomes and multiple pair dot fragments. The reasons of chromosomal aberrations frequency increasing in this mountain area inhabitants are discussed (ultrahigh radon radiation doses influence are included). PMID:19947520

  20. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  1. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). PMID:24766354

  2. Factors Affecting Access to Healthcare: An Observational Study of Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Rural Gambian Primary Healthcare Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Moore, Sophie E.; Dondeh, Bai L.; Unger, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Main Objective Prompt access to primary healthcare before onset of severe illness is vital to improve morbidity and mortality rates. The Gambia has high rates of child mortality and research is needed to investigate contributing factors further. This study aimed to identify factors affecting access to primary healthcare for children <5 years (y) in rural Gambia focusing on delayed presentation and severe illness at presentation as indicators in a setting where primary healthcare is delivered free of charge. Methods Data were extracted from an electronic medical records system at a rural primary healthcare clinic in The Gambia for children (0–5y) between 2009 and 2012. First clinic attendances with malaria, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and diarrhoeal disease, the main contributors to mortality in this setting, were identified and categorized as delayed/non-delayed and severe/non-severe representing our two main outcome measures. Potential explanatory variables, identified through a comprehensive literature review were obtained from an ongoing demographic surveillance system for this population. Variables associated with either delayed/non-delayed and/or with severe/non-severe presentations identified by univariate analysis (p<0.1) were assessed in multivariate models using logistic regression (p<0.05). Results Out of 6554 clinic attendances, 571 relevant attendances were identified. Delayed presentation was common (45% of all presentations) and there was a significantly reduced risk associated with being from villages with free regular access to transport (OR 0.502, 95%CI[0.310, 0.814], p = 0.005). Children from villages with free regular transport were also less likely to present with severe illness (OR 0.557, 95%CI[0.325, 0.954], p = 0.033). Conclusions Transport availability rather than distance to health clinic is an important barrier to accessing healthcare for children in The Gambia, and public health interventions should aim to reduce this

  3. Comments on the reviews of Kaplan, S. (2008. Children in genocide: Extreme traumatization and affect regulation. London: International Psychoanalytical Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kaplan, Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available My choice of grounded theory as research approach has been made against the background of three factors. The first and foremost is that my research interest evolved when I carried out two interviews with survivors who were children themselves during the Holocaust, i.e. from the data. The information that I obtained gave me a strong sense of urgency, a motivation, to try to understand the major concerns for child survivors, based on their own perspective. I decided to start doctoral studies after many years in clinical practice. My interest thus emerged from the interviews and not from an existing theory. Grounded theory is a method that sticks closely to the empirical and that aims to create theoretical models based on the development of concepts, of relationships between concepts and of theories concerning social and psychological processes from a certain aspect tied to a special context (Glaser, 1978.

  4. 学龄儿童出行方式特征及其影响因素%School-age Children Travel Mode Characteristics and Affecting Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 林霖; 杨静

    2014-01-01

    小学阶段学龄儿童处于出行有人陪伴与无人陪伴的过渡期,其上下学时间与城市交通高峰时段重叠,常引发区域性的交通拥堵或其他社会问题。基于北京市西城区5所不同类型小学的学生及家庭成员早高峰出行调查数据,分析表明步行是儿童最主要的出行方式,儿童出行方式选择与小学类型存在明显相关性。重点探讨儿童及家长出行方式选择的影响因素,包括儿童自身特征、家庭及其成员特征、城市交通与环境特征。结果显示,家庭及其成员特征对儿童出行方式选择具有决定性影响;现状城市公共交通无法满足儿童上下学的出行需求;家长对学校周边的交通环境满意度较低,导致儿童上下学以个体出行方式为主。%School-age children are in the transitional stage between traveling alone and being accompanied by adults. Due to the overlap with urban traffic peak hour, children commuting to school often cause re-gional traffic congestion or other related issues. Based on the survey on students and their family members in five different types of elementary schools of Xicheng District, Beijing during morning peak hours, this paper reveals that walking is the major travel mode for children and there exists a significant correlation be-tween children’s travel mode choice and the types of elementary school. This paper focuses on the affect-ing factors on travel mode choice of children and their parents, including the characteristics of children, family and family members, as well as urban traffic and environment. The results show that the characteris-tics of family and family members play a dominant role in children’s travel mode choice. Existing urban public transit cannot meet the demand of children commuting to school. The low satisfaction of parents on the surrounding traffic environment of school results in individual travel modes mostly used by children commuting to

  5. The Presence of Asthma, the Use of Inhaled Steroids, and Parental Education Level Affect School Performance in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.; E. Paraskakis; Tsalkidis, A.; Rigas, A.; Zimeras, S.; C. Katsardis; A. Chatzimichael

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point a...

  6. La familia como promotora de la independencia en niños y niñas con discapacidad motora / Family as the Promoter of Independence Skills in Children with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roxana Rodríguez Araya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 10 de noviembre de 2011 • Aceptado 23 de febrero 2012 • Corregido 14 de abril de 2012   Resumen. En el estudio se desarrolló una propuesta individualizada para promover desde el contexto familiar el desarrollo de la independencia en dos niños de cuatro años con discapacidad motora. La propuesta tiene como meta apoyar a la familia para que esta promueva destrezas en los niños y las niñas dentro del contexto familiar. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que cuando existe una guía para las familias de personas con discapacidad es más sencillo para estas iniciar procesos que de otra forma podrían verse pospuestos. A raíz de los resultados se recomienda crear propuestas de apoyo para padres  y madres que les permitan construir sus propios procesos de crecimiento familiar y de desarrollo de la independencia en sus niños o niñas con discapacidad motora.   Abstract. This study developed an individualized proposal to promote, from the family context, the independence of two four-year-old children with motor disabilities. The proposal aimed at helping mothers and fathers to promote different skills within the family context. The results of this study revealed that when the families of children with disabilities are oriented, it is easier for them to start processes that otherwise would be postponed. As a result, it is recommended to create proposals to support the parents and help them to build their own family-growth processes and develop independence living skills in their children with motor disabilities.

  7. Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: a Greek prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoula, Chryssa; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Veltsista, Alexandra; Gika, Artemis; Chrousos, George P

    2009-11-01

    Systematic research about the continuity of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence is limited, but necessary to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We used a population-based representative sample of Greek adolescents, followed-up from birth to the age of 18 years, to assess early influences on and the persistence of mental health problems in youth. We examined the role of peripartum, early development and parental characteristics in predicting mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Results suggest a strong relationship between behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence for both genders, while emotional problems were more likely to persist in boys. Age and sex-specific models revealed significant positive associations between higher scores on the behavioural and emotional problems scales and higher frequency of accidents in preschool years, physical punishment in early childhood, lack of parental interest in child's school and activities, and perceived maternal stress in all children. Perceived paternal stress was associated with higher scores on the Total and Internalizing problems scales in the total population. Our results suggest that early interventions are necessary as mental health problems strongly persist from childhood to late adolescence. The adverse effects of parental stress and poor care-giving practices on child's psychopathology need to be recognised and improved. PMID:19206015

  8. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P < 0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  9. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P <0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  10. How Can Interdisciplinarity Of food, Design, Architecture, Engineering And Pedagogy Affect Children's Eating Habits And Food Preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    our research, regarding children’s eating habits and food preferences, we collaborated interdisciplinary, working holistically, involving appropriate disciplines, where knowledge from different fields was involved. The importance of working interdisciplinary in food innovation can be seen in the...... not to miss out any relevant angles and opportunities regarding the task to be solved (Fisker et al., 2011). This leads to the purpose of this study, which is to explore if and how interdisciplinary approach involving the disciplines of food, design, engineering, architecture and pedagogy can create...... solutions, that affect children’s eating habits and food preferences. In order to make evidence in the field, an interdisciplinary team consisting of food specialists, designers, engineers, architects and pedagogues, created a carrot pavilion and appurtenant carrot activities. The aim was to influence the...

  11. Independence Logic and Abstract Independence Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    We continue the work on the relations between independence logic and the model-theoretic analysis of independence, generalizing the results of [15] and [16] to the framework of abstract independence relations for an arbitrary AEC. We give a model-theoretic interpretation of the independence atom and characterize under which conditions we can prove a completeness result with respect to the deductive system that axiomatizes independence in team semantics and statistics.

  12. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported. PMID:23544403

  13. Legislation for Independent-Living Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Independent-Living Initiative (Section 477, Title IV-E of the Social Security Act) which provides services to IV-E foster children ages 16 to 18 to help them make an easier transition to life on their own. Emphasizes the continued need for independent-living programs. (RJC)

  14. Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 μg/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

  15. Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households

    OpenAIRE

    Serchuck, Leslie K.; Williams, Paige L.; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6–17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV+ and 256 HIV− children) were enrol...

  16. Perceptions of the Built Environment and Active Travel in Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Gahan, Rose-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Overview: Active transport is on the decline in children and young people. Research suggests that people‟s perceptions of the neighbourhood and built environment can affect this. The purpose of this study was to investigate children, young people and their parents opinions of barriers to walking and cycling, their freedom to travel independently, on foot or by bike and how their perceptions of their neighbourhood affected this. Methodology: This is a mixed methods study that uses questionn...

  17. Sleep in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Are Measures of Parent Report and Actigraphy Related and Affected by Sleep Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Reynolds, Ann; Katz, Terry; Weiss, Shelly K; Loh, Alvin; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in children with autism, resulting in a great need for effective treatments. To evaluate treatments for sleep disturbance in this population, it is critical to understand the relationship between measures of sleep captured by parent report and objective measures. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and actigraphy-measured data from 80 children with autism and sleep-onset delay were evaluated. Reported problems with sleep-onset delay were concurrent with sleep duration problems in 66% of children, night wakings in 72% of children, and bedtime resistance in 66% of children; 38% of children were reported to have problems with all CSHQ insomnia domains. Actigraphy-measured sleep duration was correlated with estimates using CSHQ-reported bed and wake times. PMID:26619899

  18. Non-Audit Service and Audit Independence: Evidences from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi

    2009-01-01

    From recent years on, because of several reasons independence of auditor became undermined, so far some factors recognized that which impair independence, especially non-audit service so, in this condition may appear to affect to independence. The results of this study show that shareholders strongly agree that providing NAS by external auditors to the same clients strongly negatively affect to audit independence.

  19. Comparison of serum creatine kinase estimation with short tandem repeats based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive lethal, genetic disorder characterised by progressive weakness of skeletal muscles which is untreatable and transmitted to males by carrier females. Advances in laboratory techniques now focus direct mutational analysis as the most reliable and indirect analysis based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) based linkage analysis as feasible, inexpensive, and efficient method for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic efficiency of Serum Creatine Kinase (SCK) with Short Tandem Repeats (STR based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Methods: The study was carried out from Dec 2006 to Dec 2007 in families having index clinical cases of DMD who were referred from different hospitals for evaluation/workup of DMD. SCK was done as a preliminary investigation in all index cases. The PCR assay with STR based linkage analysis with Intron 44, 45, 49 and 50 of DMD gene were performed in all families. Six families were informative with Intron 44 of DMD gene and one family was non-informative with all four intronic markers of DMD. SCK analyses were done in all the family members and compared with PCR analysis in informative families. SCK was not performed on Chorionic villous sample (CVS) done for prenatal diagnosis of DMD, and CVS and non-informative family members were excluded from the study. Results: In carriers of DMD, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 33.3%, and specificity and positive predictive were 100% with diagnostic efficiency of 50%. In affected cases of DMD the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 100%, and specificity and positive predictive were 91% and 88.8% respectively and diagnostic efficiency of 94.1%. Conclusion: The SCK is an excellent screening test for

  20. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  1. EMF: An issue for independents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the controversy over the environmental and biological effects of electromagnetic fields and how it is affecting project cost and schedule. The topics addresses in the article include science and the law, a case study of public reaction to a three mile transmission line proposed as part of an independent power project, prudent avoidance, and lessons from utility experiences

  2. Analysis of changes in traumatic symptoms and daily life activity of children affected by the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused tremendous damage and traumatized a number of people, including children. This study aimed to compare traumatic symptoms and daily life activity among children 20 months after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami with those observed after 8 months. METHODS: The study comprised two groups. The first comprised 12,524 kindergarten, elementary school, and junior high school children in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, who were evaluated 8 months after the disaster. The second comprised 10,597 children from the same place who were evaluated 20 months after the disaster. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a questionnaire on children's daily life were distributed to the children. An effective response was obtained from 11,639 (92.9%, 8 months after and 10,597 (86.9%, 20 months after children. RESULTS: The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in junior high school girls than in boys. The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in 4th-6th grade girls than in boys after 8 months. Elementary and junior high school children evaluated after 20 months had a significantly lower PTSSC-15 score than those evaluated after 8 months. The number of children having breakfast was significantly higher after 8 months than that after 20 months. In both the groups, children of all grades who had breakfast had a significantly lower PTSSC-15 score than those who did not have breakfast. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that traumatic symptoms and daily life activity of children who survived the earthquake and tsunami improved over time.

  3. Cancer and non-cancer diseases of the thyroid gland and their dose dependence in children and adolescents affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 30,000 children and adolescents from four rayons of Brayansk oblast and from three rayons of Kaluga oblast have been examined. The cohort is being followed up dynamically. An age dependence of the radiation doses to the thyroid was clearly detected. The largest doses were found to be in children under 3 years old. Three per cent of children received doses above 200 cGy. 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    OpenAIRE

    KG Makade; SB Padhyegurjar; RN Kulkarni; MS Padhyegurjar

    2013-01-01

    Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive ag...

  5. Clinical significance of HLA-DR+, CD19+, CD10+ immature B-cell phenotype and CD34+ cell detection in bone marrow lymphocytes from children affected with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callea, V; Comis, M; Iaria, G; Sculli, G; Morabito, F; Lombardo, V T

    1997-01-01

    In children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), bone marrow lymphocytes can express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) pattern with no evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. Bone marrow lymphocytes from 23 children and 20 adults affected with ITP were studied to determine the incidence and the clinical impact of lymphocytes with the immature B-cell phenotype and CD34+ cell expression. In this investigation we identified a group consisting of 52% of the children who showed the immature B phenotype, while the remaining 48%, similarly to adult ITP displayed an increase of T-cell antigens. CD34 was positive in 53% of children, but it was present in only half of the patients with the immature B phenotype and it was always absent in adults. IgH genes disclosed a germline configuration in all six patients in the immature B phenotype group. No difference was found in the two groups of children in terms of age, presentation of the disease or final outcome. Finally, no patient in either children's group has developed an acute lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:9299867

  6. 美联储独立性的影响因素分析——政治系统论的视角%Analysis of Factors Affecting the Independence of Federal Reserve Board: a Political Systems Theory Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世坤

    2012-01-01

    To some extent, the prosperity of the U. S. financial markets is due to the independence of the Federal Reserve Board. It was praised by many scholars. But in the perspective of the political system, Congress, the president, courts, interest groups, and other participants in the political system influence on its independence in their own unique ways. And Federal Reserve Board also timely adjust their behavior in response. American ex- perience tells us that political system made a tremendous impact on central bank independence. When we disscuss the independence of People's Bank of China , it would be better strengthen coordination of the agencies within the framework of the existing system, rather than reconstruct the independence of the People's Bank of China.%美国金融市场的繁荣一定程度上归功于关联储的超凡独立性,这一点被诸多学者所推崇。但是从政治系统论的角度来审视美联储的法律地位,国会、总统、法院、利益集团等都以自己独特的方式对美联储的独立性问题提出了挑战与制约,而美联储亦适时地调整自己的行为做以应对。美国经验告诉我们,一国政治体制对该国中央银行独立性的影响是深刻的,中国在对中国人民银行独立性进行探讨时,与其从法律角度来重构中国人民银行的独立性,倒不如在既有制度框架内实现各机构的协调。

  7. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  8. Puede afectar la instruccion en musica el desarrollo cognitivo de los ninos? ERIC Digest. (Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  9. Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder, attention deficit with hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder in Palestinian children affected by war on Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Vostanis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of war on children and comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder, attention deficit with hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder in Palestinian children. Methods: The study was conducted in the entire Gaza Strip 6 months after the end of the war on Gaza that lasted for 23 days. The study sample included 410 children aged 6 to 17 years. Children completed measures of experience of traumatic events (Gaza Traumatic Checklist-War on Gaza, post traumatic stress disorder index, attention deficit with hyperactivity scale for parents and self, conduct disorder scale, and oppositional defiant disorder. Results: Palestinians children investigated 6 months after the war on Gaza still reported traumatic experiences: 94.6% heard the sonic sounds of the jet fighters, 91.7% heard shelling of the area by artillery, 92% watched mutilated bodies on television, 80% were deprived from water or electricity during the war, 50.7% said they left home for safer place. Using Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV criteria for post traumatic stress disorder, 25.1% of children reported no psychological reactions, 25.9% of children reported one criteria, 39.3% of children reported partial post traumatic stress disorder and 9.8% of children reported full criteria for post traumatic stress disorder. According to the parents’ report, the results showed 31.3% of children met the criteria for inattentive type, 36.3% of children were impulsive and 29% met criteria for combined type. According to the children’s report, the results showed 28.8% of children met the criteria for inattentive type, 37.3% of children were impulsive and 28.3% met criteria for combined type. Using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, the study showed that 38.1% of parents reported conduct disorder in their children and 46.3% reported oppositional defiant disorder

  10. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  11. Powerful Independent Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy Fogel; Liping Ma; Randall Morck

    2014-01-01

    Shareholder valuations are economically and statistically positively correlated with independent directors’ power, gauged by social network power centrality. Powerful independent directors’ sudden deaths reduce shareholder value significantly; other independent directors’ deaths do not. More powerful independent directors Granger cause higher valuations; the converse is not true. Further tests associate more powerful independent directors with less value-destroying M&A, less free cash flow re...

  12. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  13. The affect structure revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Elefant-Yanni, Véronique Rica; Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia

    2005-01-01

    In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the affect structure dimensions. Responding to the methodological criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex we found three bipolar independent dimensions and using only the PANAS semantic items, we found two uni...

  14. 北京市3~6岁儿童生活方式对体质影响的研究%Study on lifestyle affecting physical fitness of 3 ~6-year-old children in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一辰; 潘迎; 赵娟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究北京市3~6岁儿童生活方式对体质的影响,改善并提高儿童体质.[方法]以幼儿园为单位按照分层整群抽样原则抽取36所幼儿园的6 405名儿童进行家长问卷调查,调查儿童的生活方式对儿童体质综合评级的影响.[结果]睡眠时间、上幼儿园情况、户外活动时间及室内娱乐时间4个指标对儿童体质评级的影响具有显著性.其中儿童在园所的时间越长其体质综合评级的优秀率就越高,具有8~10 h睡眠时间、1~2 h户外活动时间以及30 min~1 h室内娱乐时间的儿童其体质综合评级优秀率是最高的.[结论]生活方式是影响儿童体质综合评级的因素,改变儿童的生活方式对提高儿童体质起到积极的作用.%[Objective] To study the effect of lifestyle on the physique health of 3~6-year-old children in order to improve the children physical fitness. [Methods] 6 405 parents selected from 36 kindergartens by stratified cluster sampling. By Chi-square test were questionnaired, The relation was tried to find between physique and the indicators. [Results] Four indicators including children's sleeping time, time staying in the kindergarten, the outdoor activity time and the indoor entertainment time were significantly affect children's physique. The longer the time in kindergarten, the higher the children's physique was. The highest children's physique were found among children with 8~10 hours sleeping time, 1~2 hours outdoor activities and 30 minutes~ 1 hour indoor entertainment as well. [Conclusions] Lifestyle is the affecting factor to the children's physical fitness which plays active role in children physical fitness improvement.

  15. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J.; Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Browne, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children’s independent mobility with li...

  16. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  17. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768

  18. Children as Art Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

  19. 受艾滋病影响儿童的身心问题及干预对策%Study on Physical and Psychological Problems and the Intervention of Children Affectted by HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解受艾滋病影响儿童的生活及心理现状,并根据他们生活中存在的各种困难以及因父母身患艾滋病而产生的心理问题找到合理有效的对策.方法:综述近五年米针对受艾滋病影响的儿童的生活情况,如膳食营养,生长发育,学习情况等方面的调查研究,及心理方面的问题,如抑郁,自卑,受歧视等方面的调查结果,综合分析国家和地方所采取的措施,找出对改善受艾滋病影响的儿童牛活环境最有利的举措.结论:父/母患艾滋病或死于艾滋病后,儿童多身处贫困,学习成绩发生变化,甚至辍学,心理方面也比正常儿童存在更多的问题.因此,受艾滋病影响儿童需要经济和更多心理社会支持.%Objective: To understand the living and psychological conditions of the children affected by HIV/AIDS, and fmd reasonable and effective solutions to the various difficulties in their daily life and their psychological problems due to their HIV infected parents.Methods:Summarise the investigations and researches aiming at the life conditions of the children affected by HIV/AIDS, such as aspects of food and nutritions, growth, studying, and also about psychological problems , like depression , self-abasement, being discriminated, and so on.Synthetically analysethe measures taken by the national and local govemment, and find the most effective measures to improve the living conditions of the children affected by HIV/AIDS.Conclusions: After their mother or father, or even both infected or died from HIV/AIDS, the children ofien live in poverty, change in their studying grade, and some even dropped school.They also tend to have more psychological problems than normal children.To solve this, we must give more economical and social psychological support to the children affected by HIV/AIDS.

  20. Exploring children's cognitive and affective skills related to conservation of mass using Fischer's dynamic skills model: What goes on in their minds and hearts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Anila

    I conducted a mixed method study to examine: How, if at all, does middle school students' understanding of the conservation of mass develop as they engage in two different chemistry curricula (an interactive chemistry curriculum, DESIGNS, aimed at helping them to understand the conservation of mass and another presenting the same concepts from a traditional approach)? How do they feel about participating in the science activities, and how, if at all, do their feelings relate to their learning? I used the framework of the Dynamic Skills theory (Fischer, 1980) as a lens through which to understand their thinking and feelings and any changes in them. The study was conducted in two Massachusetts public schools. In each school, one class followed the DESIGNS curriculum (DESIGNS II, in press), while the other followed a traditional chemistry curriculum. Each teacher in the study taught two science classes and used the DESIGNS curriculum in one class and the traditional curriculum in the other. Seventy three middle school students from the two schools participated in this study. The data was gathered through (a) a concept assessment questionnaire and (b) affective response survey (both were administered before, during, and at the end of the curriculum). Additionally, qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 selected students (four from each class) twice (before and after the curriculum). The quantitative analysis revealed that students in the DESIGNS group demonstrated greater conceptual change, on average, as compared to the traditional group. In addition, pretest score and mother's education were also found to be associated with students' learning. The pretest score was negatively associated with the conceptual gain (the lower the pretest score the higher the gain), whereas mother's education had a positive relationship with conceptual understanding. A comparison of students' affective response to their respective curriculum showed that students felt more positive

  1. Independent Peer Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-16

    Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.

  2. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff...

  3. A Study on Affective Cognition of Children with Different Aggression/Victim Groups%不同攻击/受欺儿童的情感认知特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚真; 桑标

    2012-01-01

    The study made an inquiry on affective cognition differences among different aggression/victim groups, with five kinds of emotions as cheer, rage, sad, fear and awkward mood, including three indices such as facial expression recognition, affective attribution and sensitivity to affective perception. The results indicated that scores of non-involved children's were the best or second best. There were specific characteristics in sad and rage affective cognition of pure aggressive children and victims' The overal perfor- mance of aggressive victim children was poor, especially their sensitivity to affective perception was the worst. In addition, they consistently had low level of fear and rage affective cognition in facial expression recognition, affective attribution.%本研究以喜怒哀惧尴五种情绪为代表,从表情识别、情绪归因能力、情感觉知敏感性三个方面考察不同攻击/受欺类型儿童的情感认知特征。结果表明:未卷入儿童在各类情绪的表情识别、归因和觉知上都是次高或最高的;单纯攻击和受欺负儿童对愤怒和悲伤的情感认知呈现特殊性;攻击—受欺儿童的情感认知整体表现较差,尤其是该群体的情感觉知敏感性最差,在表情识别和情绪归因上则一致地表现出对愤怒和害怕情感的低水平认知。

  4. Dependence and Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Grädel, E.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an atomic formula intuitively saying that given variables are independent from given other variables if a third set of variables is kept constant. We contrast this with dependence logic. We show that our independence atom gives rise to a natural logic capable of formalizing basic intuitions about independence and dependence.

  5. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  6. Cognitively Engaging Chronic Physical Activity, But Not Aerobic Exercise, Affects Executive Functions in Primary School Children: A Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Jäger, Katja; Egger, Fabienne; Roebers, Claudia M; Conzelmann, Achim

    2015-12-01

    Although the positive effects of different kinds of physical activity (PA) on cognitive functioning have already been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the role of cognitive engagement in promoting children's executive functions is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the effects of two qualitatively different chronic PA interventions on executive functions in primary school children. Children (N = 181) aged between 10 and 12 years were assigned to either a 6-week physical education program with a high level of physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (team games), a physical education program with high physical exertion but low cognitive engagement (aerobic exercise), or to a physical education program with both low physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (control condition). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and aerobic fitness (multistage 20-m shuttle run test) were measured before and after the respective condition. Results revealed that both interventions (team games and aerobic exercise) have a positive impact on children's aerobic fitness (4-5% increase in estimated VO2max). Importantly, an improvement in shifting performance was found only in the team games and not in the aerobic exercise or control condition. Thus, the inclusion of cognitive engagement in PA seems to be the most promising type of chronic intervention to enhance executive functions in children, providing further evidence for the importance of the qualitative aspects of PA. PMID:26866766

  7. Parental separation: a risk for the psychomotor development of children aged 28 to 32 months? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kacenelenbogen, Nadine; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Schetgen, M; Roland, M; Godin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background In Western countries, about a quarter of children are affected by parental separation and a number of authors have previously investigated how familial structure impacts children’s health. The purpose of the work: to analyze the psychomotor development of children aged 28 to 32 months based on family structure (parents together or separated), independently of the influence of socio-economic environment that is well documented. To analyse the psychomotor development of children youn...

  8. Healthy eating at schools:How does a school food programme affect the quality of dietary intake at lunch among children aged 7-13 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Tetens, Inge; Toft, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Background and aimIn 2007, the Danish Food Industry Agency announced a project where Danish schools could apply for funds to establish a school food programme to provide the school children with free school meals for two months during 2008. This school food programme should be tested and evaluated. The present PhD thesis is based on evaluation of the dietary effect of this project.There is room for improvement of the dietary habits of Danish children. Dietary habits are influenced by multiple...

  9. Independence of children with Down syndrome: the experiences of families Independencia del niño con síndrome de Down: la experiencia de la familia Independência da criança com síndrome de Down: a experiência da família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Darezzo Rodrigues Nunes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a theoretical model concerning the experience of families of children with Down syndrome in preschool and school age. The frameworks used were Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory. Semi-structured interviews were used as the instrument of investigation and ten families participated in the study. The Theoretical Model "Seeking the child's independence and autonomy through constant stimulation" was identified, which shows the family's efforts to enable the child to develop the best s/he can through stimulation in order to become less dependent in the future. This model can be used to facilitate interaction with the family and can be further expanded. Nurses should use spaces dedicated to care delivery to establish bonds with the family, and seek other spaces families frequent, to better meet their needs, since there are significant gaps in care and research addressing this population. Instead, they should be welcomed and seen as a partner in care delivery.El objetivo del trabajo fue desarrollar un Modelo Teórico sobre la experiencia de familias de niños con síndrome de Down en edad pre escolar y escolar. Los marcos utilizados fueron el Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Utilizamos la entrevista semiestructurada como instrumento de investigación, siendo que diez familias participaron del estudio. Se identificó el Modelo Teórico: "Buscando la independencia y autonomía del niño a través de la estimulación constante", que muestra el esfuerzo por obtener el mejor desarrollo del niño a través de estimulaciones, para un futuro menos dependiente. Esto puede ser tomado como facilitador de la interacción con la familia, con perspectivas de ser ampliado. El enfermero debe aprovechar espacios de actuación para establecer vínculos con la familia, buscar los escenarios predominantemente frecuentados por ella, para atender mejor sus demandas, ya que existen lagunas significativas de atenci

  10. The quantity of information which parents and their seven-year-old children have on the affects of nutrition, oral hygiene and fluoride prophylaxis on dental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Health education plays a crucial oral in maintaining good oral health of human population and, primarily, in reducing the incidence of caries as one of the most frequent oral diseases. This implies the need for a change in the behavior of individuals, groups or the society as a whole, in terms of the following: establishing a proper nutrition regime, establishing the habit of maintaining oral hygiene and the use of fluorides. The goal of the paper is to determine the quantity of information which parents and their seven year old children have on the effects of nutrition, oral hygiene and fluoride prophylaxis on dental health in rural and urban environment. Material and methods. The survey included 450 seven-year-old children and their parents in urban and rural environments. The quantity of information about proper nutrition, oral hygiene and fluoride prophylaxis was determined based on specific questionnaires for children and their parents. Results. The quantity of information about the effects of proper nutrition, oral hygiene and fluoride prophylaxis on dental health of seven year old children is significantly larger in urban, as compared to the rural environment. The quantity of information of parents about the effects of proper nutrition, oral hygiene and fluoride prophylaxis on dental health is larger in urban, as compared to the rural environment. Conclusion. This research suggests a need to intensify health education activities, especially in the rural environment.

  11. What is Stochastic Independence?

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    The notion of a tensor product with projections or with inclusions is defined. It is shown that the definition of stochastic independence relies on such a structure and that independence can be defined in an arbitrary category with a tensor product with inclusions or projections. In this context, the classifications of quantum stochastic independence by Muraki, Ben Ghorbal, and Sch\\"urmann become classifications of the tensor products with inclusions for the categories of algebraic probabilit...

  12. Board independence and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Mariana Campos Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Legislation introduced in the U.S. in 2002/2003 significantly changed board composition of public firms by imposing a 50% independent directors’ ratio. Research on the effect of independent directors is not consensual, implying that this exogenous shock is a unique opportunity to study their importance. This study answers the question of whether or not independent directors can effectively mitigate agency conflicts between shareholders and the management, having a positive impact on the choic...

  13. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  14. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  15. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as re...

  16. 论情感教育在幼儿音乐活动中的渗透%Affective education permeability in children music activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高英杰

    2013-01-01

      The music is the most direct expression of human feelings in art, it does not require any media, than the more direct language. Take music activities of preschool children as an example, discuss from the music activities and children's age characteristics, the penetration in emotional education of music activities.%  音乐是最能直接表达人类感情的艺术,它不需要任何媒介,比语言更为直接。本文以学龄前幼儿音乐活动为例,从音乐活动形式、幼儿年龄特点等方面对情感教育在幼儿音乐活动中的渗透进行论述。

  17. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenette Southwood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required.Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience.Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages.Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and

  18. Noma affected children from Niger have distinct oral microbial communities based on high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine L Whiteson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to understand the microbial ecology of noma (cancrum oris, a devastating ancient illness which causes severe facial disfigurement in>140,000 malnourished children every year. The cause of noma is still elusive. A chaotic mix of microbial infection, oral hygiene and weakened immune system likely contribute to the development of oral lesions. These lesions are a plausible entry point for unidentified microorganisms that trigger gangrenous facial infections. To catalog bacteria present in noma lesions and identify candidate noma-triggering organisms, we performed a cross-sectional sequencing study of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from sixty samples of gingival fluid from twelve healthy children, twelve children suffering from noma (lesion and healthy sites, and twelve children suffering from Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis (ANG (lesion and healthy sites. Relative to healthy individuals, samples taken from lesions in diseased mouths were enriched with Spirochaetes and depleted for Proteobacteria. Samples taken from healthy sites of diseased mouths had proportions of Spirochaetes and Proteobacteria that were similar to healthy control individuals. Samples from noma mouths did not have a higher abundance of Fusobacterium, casting doubt on its role as a causative agent of noma. Microbial communities sampled from noma and ANG lesions were dominated by the same Prevotella intermedia OTU, which was much less abundant in healthy sites sampled from the same mouths. Multivariate analysis confirmed that bacterial communities in healthy and lesion sites were significantly different. Several OTUs in the Orders Erysipelotrichales, Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, and Spirochaetales were identified as indicators of noma, suggesting that one or more microbes within these Orders is associated with the development of noma lesions. Future studies should include longitudinal sampling of viral and microbial components of this community, before and early in noma lesion

  19. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Emilo Franzoni; Morena Monti; Alessandro Pellicciari; Carlo Muratore; Alberto Verrotti; et al

    2009-01-01

    Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and ...

  20. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; CECCONI, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an inf...