WorldWideScience

Sample records for affect shoulder muscle

  1. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees...... subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects...

  2. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees...... that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation...

  3. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  4. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  5. The Effect of Fatigued External Rotator Muscles of the Shoulder on the Shoulder Position Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Iida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue in shoulder external rotator muscles on position sense of shoulder abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. The study included 10 healthy subjects. Shoulder position sense was measured before and after a fatigue task involving shoulder external rotator muscles. The fatigue task was performed using an isokinetic machine. To confirm the muscle fatigue, electromyography (EMG was recorded, and an integrated EMG and median power frequency (MDF during 3 sec performed target torque were calculated. After the fatigue task, the MDF of the infraspinatus muscle significantly decreased. This indicates that the infraspinatus muscle was involved in the fatigue task. In addition, the shoulder position sense of internal and external rotation significantly decreased after the fatigue task. These results suggest that the fatigue reduced the accuracy of sensory input from muscle spindles. However, no significant difference was observed in shoulder position sense of abduction before and after the fatigue task. This may be due to the fact that infraspinatus muscle did not act as prime movers in shoulder abduction. These results suggest that muscle fatigue decreased position sense during movements in which the affected muscles acted as prime movers.

  6. Atrophy of muscles surrounding the shoulder in hemiplegia. Analysis with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrease of range of motion and subluxation of shoulders are common secondary dysfunctions after the stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the atrophy of muscles surrounding shoulders in hemiplegic patients and to delineate the correlations between those atrophies and shoulder functions. MRI studies were done on bilateral shoulders in 13 hemiplegic patients with shoulder pain. The cross sectional areas of muscles surrounding shoulder, i.e., subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and deltoid muscle were measured on those images obtained. The degree of atrophies were evaluated by dividing cross-sectional area of the muscle on affected shoulder by that of non-affected shoulder, that is muscle atrophy ratio [MAR], for each muscle in every case. Also, the range of movements [ROM], the degree of subluxation and muscle strength of shoulder flexion were evaluated. All muscle cross-sectional areas on the affected side were significantly smaller than those of muscles on the unaffected side (p<0.01). The means of MARs were 0.68, 0.69, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.69 for subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and deltoid muscle. The pattern of muscle atrophies, however, varies from case to case. Both correlations of ROM versus supraspinatus MAR and degree of shoulder subluxation versus deltoid MAR were statistically significant (p<0.05). These results indicate the contribution of muscle atrophy to the shoulder dysfunction in hemiplegic patients. (author)

  7. Does preoperative abduction value affect functional outcome of combined muscle transfer and release procedures in obstetrical palsy patients with shoulder involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onel Defne

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb function because of functional limitations, bony deformities and joint contractures. Shoulder is the most frequently affected joint with internal rotation contracture causing limitation of abduction, external rotation. The treatment comprises muscle release procedures such as posterior subscapularis sliding or anterior subscapularis tendon lengtening and muscle transfers to restore the missing external rotation and abduction function. Methods We evaluated whether the preoperative abduction degree affects functional outcome. Between 1998 and 2002, 46 children were operated on to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation. The average age at surgery was 7.6 years and average follow up was 40.8 months. We compared the postoperative results of the patients who had preoperative abduction less than 90° (Group I: n = 37 with the patients who had preoperative abduction greater than 90° (Group II: n = 9, in terms of abduction and external rotation function with angle measurements and Mallet classification. We inquired whether patients in Group I needed another muscle transfer along with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfers. Results In Group I the average abduction improved from 62.5° to 131.4° (a 68.9° ± 22.9°gain and the average external rotation improved from 21.4° to 82.6° (a 61.1° ± 23°gain. In Group II the average abduction improved from 99.4°to 140°(a40.5° ± 16°gain and the average external rotation improved from 33.2°to 82.7° (a 49.5° ± 23.9° gain. Although there was a significant difference between Group I and II for preoperative abduction (p = 0.000 and abduction gain in degrees (p = 0.001, the difference between postoperative values of both groups was not significant (p = 0.268. There was

  8. Correlation between shoulder muscle strength and shoulder impingement in baseball players

    OpenAIRE

    嘉手川, 啓; 上里, 智美; 高良,宏明; 金谷, 文則; Kadekawa, Kei; Uesato, Tomomi; TAKARA,HIROAKI; Kanaya, Fuminori; 琉球大学医学部整形外科学講座; 浦添総合病院整形外科; 琉球大学保健管理センター

    1998-01-01

    The shoulder impingement syndrome may occur through the imbalance of the muscle strength around the shoulder of baseball players. Our previous study suggested that latissimus dorsi (LD), the back muscle which is the adductor and internal rotator of the shoulder, would possibly prevent shoulder impingement. The purposes of this study were to clarify the correlation between the muscle strength around shoulder and impingement signs in baseball players and to identify the influence of LD on impin...

  9. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 children with unilateral OBPL, who had internal rotation contractures of the shoulder (mean age 3.3 years, range 14.7 months to 7.3 years. Using MR imaging from both shoulders the following parameters were assessed: glenoid form, glenoscapular angle, subluxation of the humeral head, thickness and segmental volume of the subscapularis, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles. Shoulder function was assessed measuring passive external rotation of the shoulder and using the Mallet score for active function. Statistical tests used are t-tests, Spearman's rho, Pearsons r and logistic regression. Results The affected shoulders showed significantly reduced muscle sizes, increased glenoid retroversion and posterior subluxation. Mean muscle size compared to the normal side was: subscapularis 51%, infraspinatus 61% and deltoid 76%. Glenoid form was related to infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Subluxation was related to both infraspinatus and subscapularis atrophy. There was no relation between atrophy of muscles and passive external rotation. Muscle atrophy was not related to the Mallet score or its dimensions. Conclusion Muscle atrophy was more severe in the subscapularis muscle than in infraspinatus and deltoid. As the muscle ratios are not related to passive external rotation nor to active function of the shoulder, there must be other muscle properties influencing shoulder function.

  10. Effect of the Push-up Plus (PUP) Exercise at Different Shoulder Rotation Angles on Shoulder Muscle Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Baek, Il-hun; Cheon, Ju Young; Cho, Min Jung; Choi, Mi Young; JUNG, DA HYE

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Although the Push-Up Plus is a useful exercise method for shoulder stabilization, few studies have examined its effects at different angles of shoulder rotation. Therefore, the present study investigated the most effective exercise method for shoulder stabilization by analyzing muscle activities of the rotator cuff muscles at different angles of shoulder rotation. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy university students in their 20s were the subjects of this study. [Methods] Changes in muscle...

  11. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F.; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  12. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  13. Influence of shoulder pain on muscle function: implications for the assessment and therapy of shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Filip; Lluch, Enrique; Falla, Deborah; Meeus, Mira; Noten, Suzie; Nijs, Jo

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder pain is often a challenging clinical phenomenon because of the potential mismatch between pathology and the perception of pain. Current evidence clearly emphasizes an incomplete understanding of the nature of shoulder pain. Indeed, the effective diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain should not only rely upon a detailed knowledge of the peripheral pathologies that may be present in the shoulder, but also on current knowledge of pain neurophysiology. To assess and treat shoulder pain, a comprehensive understanding of the way in which pain is processed is essential. This review reflects modern pain neurophysiology to the shoulder and aims to answer the following questions: why does my shoulder hurt? What is the impact of shoulder pain on muscle function? What are the implications for the clinical examination of the shoulder? And finally, what are the clinical implications for therapy? Despite the increasing amount of research in this area, an in-depth understanding of the bidirectional nociception-motor interaction is still far from being achieved. Many questions remain, especially related to the treatment of nociception-motor interactions.

  14. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72 for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active

  15. Shoulder skin and muscle hemodynamics during backpack carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Clifford P; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of loaded backpacks on shoulder muscle oxygenation, skin blood flow, and pain. We hypothesized that backpack load carriage is associated with lower shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. Near-infrared spectroscopy quantified shoulder tissue oxygenation and laser Doppler flow measured skin microvascular flow. Eight adult volunteers donned a standard backpack without added load, 5 kg load, and 10 kg load for 5 min while standing. An 8 min rest period before each backpack donning condition ensured that all measured parameters returned to baseline. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA and significance set at p backpack significantly reduced shoulder muscle oxygenation by 22 ± 23% as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.023). In addition, a 10 kg backpack load reduced skin microvascular flow by 82 ± 22%, as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.024). Perceived pain was significantly higher when wearing the 10 kg backpack (level 4 on a 10-maximal pain scale) as compared to the empty backpack (0, 0-no pain) (p backpack loads of 10 kg decrease shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. PMID:26154207

  16. Effects and predictors of shoulder muscle massage for patients with posterior shoulder tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jing-lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical approaches like mobilization, stretching, and/or massage may decrease shoulder tightness and improve symptoms in subjects with stiff shoulders. We investigated the effect and predictors of effectiveness of massage in the treatment of patients with posterior shoulder tightness. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a hospital-based outpatient practice (orthopedic and rehabilitation. Forty-three women and 17 men (mean age = 54 years, range 43-73 years with posterior shoulder tightness participated and were randomized into massage and control groups (n = 30 per group. A physical therapist provided the massage on the posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, and teres minor of the involved shoulder for 18 minutes [about 6 minutes for each muscle] two times a week for 4 weeks. For the control group, one therapist applied light hand touch on the muscles 10 minutes two times a week for 4 weeks. Glenohumeral internal rotation ROM, functional status, and muscle tightness were the main outcomes. Additionally, the potential factors on the effectiveness of massage were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. For this analysis, patients with functional score improvement at least 20% after massage were considered responsive, and the others were considered nonresponsive. Results Fifty-two patients completed the study (29 for the massage and 23 for the control. The overall mean internal rotation ROM increased significantly in the massage group compared to the control (54.9° v.s. 34.9°; P ≤ 0.001. There were 21 patients in the responsive group and 8 in the nonresponsive group. Among the factors, duration of symptoms, functional score, and posterior deltoid tightness were significant predictors of effectiveness of massage. Conclusions Massage was an effective treatment for patients with posterior shoulder tightness, but was less effective in patients with longer duration of symptoms, higher functional limitation

  17. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws. PMID:9167819

  18. Effects of experimental muscle pain on shoulder-abduction force steadiness and muscle activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per;

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the steadiness of shoulder abduction is reduced in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), which might be related to shoulder pain associated with the SIS. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of experimental shoulder muscle...... pain on shoulder motor function in healthy subjects. The fluctuations in exerted force (force steadiness) and electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight shoulder muscles were determined during sub-maximal isometric and dynamic contractions with the shoulder abductors in nine healthy subjects (27.......7 +/- 4.2 years, mean +/- 1 SD) before, during and after experimental pain induction. Experimental pain was induced by bolus injections of 6% hypertonic saline into the supraspinatus muscle. Experimental muscle pain reduced shoulder-abduction force steadiness on average by 21% during isometric...

  19. Movement and muscle activation patterns of the shoulder girdle after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    De Baets, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    A proper and pain free shoulder function is essential for accurate performance of daily activities and contributes to daily life autonomy and quality of life. The brain damage underlying a stroke results in several motor impairments such as muscle weakness, increased muscle tone, pathological muscle synergies and altered temporal muscle activity. At the level of the shoulder complex, these impairments may specifically hamper scapulohumeral control, i.e. the adaptation of scapular position and...

  20. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H; Mullender Margriet G; van Kooten Ed O; van Gelein Vitringa Valerie M; van der Sluijs Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 chi...

  1. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  2. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients’ shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients and group B (33 patients in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38±3.56 versus 94.24±3.60, P>0.05. Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function.

  3. Molecular signatures of age-associated chronic degeneration of shoulder muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Kolk, Arjen; Tatum, Zuotian; Groosjohan, Niels Kuipers; Verwey, Nisha E.; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Nagels, Jochem; Hoen, Peter A. C. 't; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Chronic muscle diseases are highly prevalent in the elderly causing severe mobility limitations, pain and frailty. The intrinsic molecular mechanisms are poorly understood due to multifactorial causes, slow progression with age and variations between individuals. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new treatment options which are currently limited. Shoulder complaints are highly common in the elderly, and therefore, muscles of the shoulder's rotator cuff could be considered as a model for chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. Diseased shoulder muscles were characterized by muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration compared with unaffected shoulder muscles. We confirmed fatty infiltration using histochemical analysis. Additionally, fibrosis and loss of contractile myosin expression were found in diseased muscles. Most cellular features, including proliferation rate, apoptosis and cell senescence, remained unchanged and genome-wide molecular signatures were predominantly similar between diseased and intact muscles. However, we found down-regulation of a small subset of muscle function genes, and up-regulation of extracellular region genes. Myogenesis was defected in muscle cell culture from diseased muscles but was restored by elevating MyoD levels. We suggest that impaired muscle functionality in a specific environment of thickened extra-cellular matrix is crucial for the development of chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:26885755

  4. Molecular signatures of age-associated chronic degeneration of shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Kolk, Arjen; Tatum, Zuotian; Groosjohan, Niels Kuipers; Verwey, Nisha E; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M; Nagels, Jochem; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Raz, Vered

    2016-02-23

    Chronic muscle diseases are highly prevalent in the elderly causing severe mobility limitations, pain and frailty. The intrinsic molecular mechanisms are poorly understood due to multifactorial causes, slow progression with age and variations between individuals. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new treatment options which are currently limited. Shoulder complaints are highly common in the elderly, and therefore, muscles of the shoulder's rotator cuff could be considered as a model for chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. Diseased shoulder muscles were characterized by muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration compared with unaffected shoulder muscles. We confirmed fatty infiltration using histochemical analysis. Additionally, fibrosis and loss of contractile myosin expression were found in diseased muscles. Most cellular features, including proliferation rate, apoptosis and cell senescence, remained unchanged and genome-wide molecular signatures were predominantly similar between diseased and intact muscles. However, we found down-regulation of a small subset of muscle function genes, and up-regulation of extracellular region genes. Myogenesis was defected in muscle cell culture from diseased muscles but was restored by elevating MyoD levels. We suggest that impaired muscle functionality in a specific environment of thickened extra-cellular matrix is crucial for the development of chronic age-associated muscle degeneration. PMID:26885755

  5. The effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on cervical multifidus muscle dimensions in healthy office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Khalkhali Zavieh, Minoo; Noori Kochi, Farhang; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    It is argued that cervical multifidus muscles (CMM) are responsible for providing neck stability. However, whether they are actually activated during the tasks performed by the upper extremities to the neck is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on the dimensions of CMM. Twenty three healthy males voluntarily participated in this study. Ultrasonography imaging of CMM was conducted at rest and at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction of shoulder muscles in 6 directions of shoulder movements. Anterior-posterior dimension (APD), lateral dimension (LD), shape ratio and multiplied linear dimension (MLD) of cervical multifidus were measured. The APD of CMM was increased while LD and shape ratio were decreased by shoulder muscles contraction (P < 0.01).

  6. Reflexes in the shoulder muscles elicited from the human coracoacromial ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Krogsgaard, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Morphological studies have demonstrated mechanoreceptors in the capsuloligamentous structures of the shoulder joint, however knowledge of the role these joint receptors play in the control of shoulder stability is limited. We therefore investigated the effect of electrically induced afferent...... activity from mechanoreceptors in the coracoacromial ligament (CAL) on the activity of voluntary activated shoulder muscles in healthy humans. In study I, wire electrodes, for electrical stimulation, were inserted into the CAL in eight normal shoulders. In study II, a needle electrode was inserted......) and 73+/-5 ms (stim-2) during isometric extension. In study II the average latency (mean+/-SE) of the response was 66+/-4 ms (stim-1) during isometric flexion. Our results demonstrated a response, probably of reflex origin, from mechanoreceptors in the CAL to the shoulder muscles. The existence...

  7. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles' activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation.

  8. Neck and shoulder muscle strength in patients with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tension-type headache (TTH) is highly prevalent in the general population, and it is characterized by increased muscle tenderness with increasing headache frequency and intensity. AIM: The aim of this case-control study was to compare muscle strength in neck and shoulder muscles in...... TTH patients and healthy controls by examining maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) during shoulder abduction, neck flexion and extension as well as the extension/flexion strength ratio of the neck. METHODS: Sixty TTH patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included....... Patients were included if they had TTH ≥8 days per month. The MVC neck extensor and flexor muscles were tested with the participant seated upright. MVC shoulder abduction was tested with the individual lying supine. RESULTS: Compared to controls TTH patients had significantly weaker muscle strength in neck...

  9. Shoulder muscle endurance: the development of a standardized and reliable protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder muscle fatigue has been proposed as a possible link to explain the association between repetitive arm use and the development of rotator cuff disorders. To our knowledge, no standardized clinical endurance protocol has been developed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder function. Such a test could improve clinical examination of individuals with shoulder disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable protocol for objective assessment of shoulder muscle endurance. Methods An endurance protocol was developed on a stationary dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The endurance protocol was performed in isotonic mode with the resistance set at 50% of each subject's peak torque as measured for shoulder external (ER and internal rotation (IR. Each subject performed 60 continuous repetitions of IR/ER rotation. The endurance protocol was performed by 36 healthy individuals on two separate occasions at least two days apart. Maximal isometric shoulder strength tests were performed before and after the fatigue protocol to evaluate the effects of the endurance protocol and its reliability. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the reduction in shoulder strength due to the protocol, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and minimal detectable change (MDC were used to evaluate its reliability. Results Maximal isometric strength was significantly decreased after the endurance protocol (P 0.84. Conclusions Changes in muscular performance observed during and after the muscular endurance protocol suggests that the protocol did result in muscular fatigue. Furthermore, this study established that the resultant effects of fatigue of the proposed isotonic protocol were reproducible over time. The protocol was performed without difficulty by all volunteers and took less than 10 minutes to perform, suggesting that it might be feasible for clinical practice. This protocol could be used to induce

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic findings of the affected and unaffected shoulders in hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ali

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Hemiplegic stroke Results in injury to the affected shoulder and the shoulder on the unaffected side. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography is an essential method in the evaluation of poststroke painful hemiplegic shoulder. However, the US grades did not correlate with the stages of motor recovery.

  11. Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic findings of the affected and unaffected shoulders in hemiplegic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Ali; Mona Hamdy; Rasha A Abdel-Magied; Mostafa M Elian

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many sonographic changes in affected and unaffected shoulders in patients with established hemiplegia. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sonographic findings of hemiplegic shoulder in patients after acute stroke and the detection of the correlation between the physical or sonographic findings and early-onset hemiplegic shoulder pain. Patients and methods Shoulders of 30 patients with cerebrovascular stroke (six male and 24 female patients), 18...

  12. Physiological Evaluation of Childcare-Associated Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Region in Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Yoshinaga; Takuma Kiyokawa; Eriko Kuramoto; Hiroe Kinoshita; Seiji Nemoto

    2016-01-01

    The awkward movements and postures associated with childcare activities can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. “Dakko” is a method for carrying a child in Japan, and recently it has been reported to cause shoulder stiffness. To our knowledge, the relationship between childcare activities and the physical load on the neck and shoulders is poorly understood. The present study aims to clarify the muscle load on the neck and shoulder region through dakko simulations. Firs...

  13. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women...... relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Ppain. CONCLUSION: Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants...

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF FUNCTIONAL MUSCLE STIMULATION IN IMPROVING MOTOR CONTROL AROUND SHOULDER IN PATIENTS WITH HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Nekkanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of electrical stimulation on motor outcomes around shoulder in acute hemiplegia is elusive. We tested the effect of stimulation of specific muscles around shoulder on motor outcome in shoulder in patient with hemiplegia. Methods: 32 first time hemiplegic patient of stroke origin were randomly allocated to control and experimental group. Experimental group received electrical stimulation apart from exercises given to both the groups for 2 weeks. Deltoid, infraspinatus and upper trapezius were stimulated, along with attempt to contract the muscles. Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM upper components and manual muscle testing were used for evaluation of outcome. Wilcoxon sign rank test and chi-square tests were used for statistics. Results: Experimental group demonstrated greater recovery compared to control group. In both groups trapezius muscle work showed improvement in large number of patients followed by deltoid. STREAM score changes were seen a more number of patients in experimental group than control group. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation can be considered as an adjunct to exercises around shoulder in early stroke rehabilitation

  15. The effect of handedness on electromyographic activity of human shoulder muscles during movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the electromyographic (EMG) activity of human shoulder muscles between the dominant and nondominant side during movement and to explore whether a possible side-difference depends on the specific task. We compared the EMG ac...

  16. Effect of cycling on oxygenation of relaxed neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed;

    2010-01-01

    Work-related neck/shoulder muscle pain has been associated with increased anaerobic muscle metabolism. Thus, interventions to enhance oxygenation of painful muscles seem relevant. While cycling with relaxed shoulders has been shown to result in acute neck/shoulder muscle pain reduction, the effect...... on tissue oxygenation remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate tissue oxygenation of the passive trapezius muscle during and after cycling in female workers with (MYA) and without (CON) trapezius myalgia. Eligible participants (n = 17 MYA, n = 8 CON) performed 20 min sub......-maximal cycling in an upright position with relaxed shoulders. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure trapezius muscle oxygenation during and 2 min after the cycling period. For both MYA and CON, oxygenation of the passive trapezius increased in a linear fashion over time, to values approximately 5 micro...

  17. Obtaining maximum muscle excitation for normalizing shoulder electromyography in dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Joanne N; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle specific maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are commonly used to elicit reference amplitudes to normalize electromyographic signals (EMG). It has been questioned whether this is appropriate for normalizing EMG from dynamic contractions. This study compares EMG amplitude when shoulder muscle activity from dynamic contractions is normalized to isometric and isokinetic maximal excitation as well as a hybrid approach currently used in our laboratory. Anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, upper and lower trapezius, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and infraspinatus were monitored during (1) manually resisted MVICs, and (2) maximum voluntary dynamic concentric contractions (MVDC) on an isokinetic dynamometer. Dynamic contractions were performed (a) at 30°/s about the longitudinal, frontal and sagittal axes of the shoulder, and (b) during manual bi-rotation of a tilted wheel at 120°/s. EMG from the wheel task was normalized to the maximum excitation from (i) the muscle specific MVIC, (ii) from any MVIC (MVICALL), (iii) for any MVDC, (iv) from any exertion (maximum experimental excitation, MEE). Mean EMG from the wheel task was up to 45% greater when normalized to muscle specific isometric contractions (method i) than when normalized to MEE (method iv). Seventy-five percent of MEE's occurred during MVDCs. This study presents an 20 useful and effective process for obtaining the greatest excitation from the shoulder muscles when normalizing dynamic efforts.

  18. [Extreme atrophy of the shoulder muscles in juvenile ankylosing spondylitis as a (misleading) main symptom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, M; Schmidt, K L

    1989-01-01

    An extreme unilateral muscular atrophy of the shoulder and upper arm region was a symptom of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis in a 20-year-old female patient. No pathological patterns were found in electromyographic, bioptic, and tomographic (CT, NMR) investigations. The muscular atrophy was caused by a shoulder arthritis with severe erosive damage. The false assumption of a neurological disorder and the disregard of anamnesis and low back pain delayed for several years an accurate diagnosis. After the onset of an arthritis of hip joints a collagen disease with myositis was supposed falsely in spite of normal electromyographic results. The unusual muscular atrophy around the shoulder joint probably must be interpreted as a consequence of reflex inhibition and partly due to inactivity. A real myositis seems to not be probable, because newer investigations in contrast to earlier findings show no evidence for inflammatory muscle disease in ankylosing spondylitis.

  19. Changes in EMG Activities of Upper Arm Muscles and in Shoulder Joint Angles in Post-stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rositsa Raikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the electromyographic signals (EMGs and the joint angles of the affected upper limb muscles of stroke survivors to those of their non-affected limb as well as to those of the dominant and the non-dominant limbs of healthy volunteers. Twenty five volunteers, ten post-stroke survivors and fifteen healthy subjects as control group, participated in the experiments. EMGs of muscles of the upper limbs and two angles in the shoulder joint were registered and processed during three static and two dynamic tasks. The results showed a big variability of all investigated parameters (mean and median frequencies, ranges of motions, maximal normalized EMGs both for the patients and for the healthy subjects, for right and for left hand. This makes difficult a deduction of definitive conclusions about the changes in motor control of the upper limbs due to stroke. Moreover, natural differences in motor control exist for dominant and non-dominant limb. On the whole, the power-frequency analysis and the relevant statistical analysis indicated that the muscles of the affected limb had lower median frequencies than those of the healthy limb. Examination of full elbow flexions in the sagittal plane showed that the range of the motion in the shoulder joint of both limbs of the patients increased when compared to the healthy subjects and that this increase was larger for the affected limb. The post-stroke survivors used more of their muscle power although no increased co-contraction was observed.

  20. Limits of the manipulative-fixed method for measurement of shoulder joint horizontal adduction muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the limit of isometric muscle strength of shoulder joint horizontal adduction using handheld dynamometer (HHD) manipulated by hand (referred to as the manipulative-fixed method). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The examiner was a healthy college student. Shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength was measured using HHD with the subject in the supine position. The belt-fixed and manipulative-fixed metho...

  1. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After...

  2. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Kenneth; schraefel, m.c.; Andersen, CH; Ebessen, FH; Christiansen, DH; Skotte, J; Zebis, MK; Andersen, LL

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. Methods: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43·1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly informati...

  3. Absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The measurements were made three times with the HHD fixed using a belt (BFHHD) or with the examiner’s hand (conventional method; HFHHD). The absolute reliability of measurements was verified using Bland-Altman analysis, both in the all subjects group an...

  4. Interrater Reliability of Palpation of Myofascial Trigger Points in Three Shoulder Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Bron, Carel; Franssen, Jo; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A.B.

    2007-01-01

    This observational study included both asymptomatic subjects (n=8) and patients with unilateral or bilateral shoulder pain (n=32). Patient diagnoses provided by the referring medical physicians included subacromial impingement, rotator cuff disease, tendonitis, tendinopathy, and chronic subdeltoid-subacromial bursitis. Three raters bilaterally palpated the infraspinatus, the anterior deltoid, and the biceps brachii muscles for clinical characteristics of a total of 12 myofascial trigger point...

  5. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. PMID:27475714

  6. Relationship between humeral geometry and shoulder muscle power among suspensory, knuckle-walking, and digitigrade/palmigrade quadrupedal primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Hironori; Kuraoka, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder morphology is functionally related to different patterns of locomotion in primates. To investigate this we performed a quantitative analysis of the relationship between cortical bone thickness (Cbt) of the muscle/tendon attachment site on the humerus and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of the shoulder muscle in primates with different locomotory habits. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus were investigated. A chimpanzee, a gibbon, a baboon, two species of macaque, a lutong, a capuchin, and a squirrel monkey were included in the study. The total length of the humerus was measured and the values were converted into three-dimensional reconstructed data on a computer by computed tomography. The Cbt values were obtained from the volumes divided by the areas of the muscle/tendon attachment sites of the humerus by computer analysis. Muscle mass, muscle fascicle length, and muscle pennation angle were measured and PCSA was calculated using these parameters. A relatively high Cbt and small PCSA were characteristic of the gibbon. The gibbon's high Cbt suggests that passive tension in the muscle/tendon attachment site of suspensory primates (brachiators) may be greater than that of quadrupedal primates, whereas the relatively small PCSA indicates an association with a large amount of internal muscle fascia to endure the passive stress of brachiation. Although chimpanzees undertake some suspensory locomotion, the results for this species resemble those of the digitigrade/palmigrade quadrupedal primates rather than those of the suspensory primate. However, the deltoid and subscapularis in chimpanzee differ from those of the other primates and appear to be affected by the peculiar locomotion of knuckle-walking, i.e. the moment arm of forelimb in chimpanzees is relatively longer than that of digitigrade/palmigrade quadrupedal primates. Hence, a large PCSA in the deltoid and subscapularis may contribute to sustaining the body weight

  7. Repetitive arm motion-induced fatigue affects shoulder but not endpoint position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Kim; Côté, Julie N

    2012-02-01

    Neck/shoulder pain has previously been linked to repetitive work and muscle fatigue. We have shown that asymptomatic people performing repetitive upper limb tasks display signs of shoulder fatigue and of whole-body compensatory strategies. However, the role played by the proprioceptive system in the production of these compensatory strategies has not been studied. A group of asymptomatic adults (n = 18) performed a repetitive pointing task at shoulder height to fatigue. Before and after fatigue, they performed two position sense tasks, eyes closed: a single-joint task where they abducted their shoulder to the perceived horizontal and a multi-joint task, where they stood and placed their finger at the perceived location of a target in front of them at shoulder height. After fatigue, subjects made larger shoulder errors by raising their elbow higher above the horizontal (~ +1.3 cm) than before fatigue; however, their finger position accuracy was not changed, despite all subjects performing the movement in less time (~ -0.18 s) while fatigued. There were no gender differences in shoulder or finger position accuracy before or after fatigue; however, there were gender differences in the perceived finger-target location and in the temporal characteristics of the finger movement toward the target. Results suggest that healthy individuals are able to develop strategies to compensate for fatigue-induced deficits at one joint to maintain the endpoint accuracy of a multi-joint task constant. Gender differences in movement strategies and perception of endpoint location may play parts in the previously reported gender differences in work-related neck/shoulder symptoms. PMID:22124803

  8. Effect of velocity on shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during wheelchair propulsion in nondisabled individuals: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Qi, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how the recruitment patterns of shoulder muscles were influenced by wheelchair propulsion speed. Electromyography (EMG activity of seven muscles was recorded with surface electrodes on 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer. Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. EMG total intensities were calculated to describe the muscle activation level, while the angles formed by first principal component and second principal component loading scores were calculated to describe the spectral content of EMG signals. Significant differences were observed in kinetic variables between the two testing speeds (p < 0.05. The EMG intensity of the tested muscles increased significantly with increased speed (p < 0.05. The push muscles showed a longer EMG duration, whereas the recovery muscles exhibited significantly earlier EMG onset and peak activities at the fast speed. The smaller angle values in the fast propulsion speed indicated that faster motor units were recruited to match the mechanical requirement for the faster motion. Pushing a manual wheelchair at a faster speed not only requires a higher level of propulsive muscle activity but also a higher level of recovery muscle activation.

  9. Physical Workload On Neck And Shoulder Muscles During Military Helicopter Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Olsen, Henrik Baare;

    , Odense University Hospital, DK E-mail: mmurray@health.sdu.dk AIM: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is common among military helicopter pilots and crew members. During flight, the flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) pose a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study......PHYSICAL WORKLOAD ON NECK AND SHOULDER MUSCLES DURING MILITARY HELICOPTER FLIGHT Murray M, 1, Lange B, 2, Olsen H.B, 1, Søgaard K, 1, Sjøgaard G, 1 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, DK 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine...... was normalized using Maximal Voluntary Contractions (MVC) and analyzed for changes in amplitude and distribution of muscle activity by an Amplitude Probability Distribution Function (APDF). RESULTS: MVC for shoulder elevation (right/left) was: 136.8±41.3 / 120.6±47.0 Nm, and for cervical-flexion and extension...

  10. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontaga Inese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to: 1 compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2 determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15- year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg. The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external- concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles

  11. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir;

    Introduction Work-related neck/shoulder pain is a common complaint among military helicopter pilots and crew members. The flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) place a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck....../shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force participated in a standardized representative flight sortie encompassing: Patient transportation (A-B flight......) and Search and Rescue (SAR flight). A standard helmet was used (1.85 kg). SAR flight was performed with NVG (1.1 kg) and A-B flight was performed +/- NVG. Before take-off, one pilot and one crew member were equipped with 6 wireless electromyography (EMG) sensors bilaterally above m. trapezius (TRA), upper...

  12. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2012-01-01

    Momentary fatigue is an important variable in resistance training periodization programs. Although several studies have examined neuromuscular activity during single repetitions of resistance training, information is lacking in regard to neuromuscular fatigue indices throughout a full resistance......, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior increased, and MPF decreased within each set-indicating momentary neuromuscular fatigue. By contrast, no such change was observed between the 3 sets. This indicates that momentary neuromuscular fatigue in shoulder resistance training is induced more efficiently within a set...... training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...

  13. Development and performance evaluation of a multi-PID muscle loading driven in vitro active-motion shoulder simulator and application to assessing reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Joshua William; Ferreira, Louis Miguel; Athwal, George Singh; Johnson, James Andrew

    2014-12-01

    In vitro active shoulder motion simulation can provide improved understanding of shoulder biomechanics; however, accurate simulators using advanced control theory have not been developed. Therefore, our objective was to develop and evaluate a simulator which uses real-time kinematic feedback and closed loop proportional integral differential (PID) control to produce motion. The simulator's ability to investigate a clinically relevant variable-namely muscle loading changes resulting from reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA)-was evaluated and compared to previous findings to further demonstrate its efficacy. Motion control of cadaveric shoulders was achieved by applying continuously variable forces to seven muscle groups. Muscle forces controlling each of the three glenohumeral rotational degrees of freedom (DOF) were modulated using three independent PID controllers running in parallel, each using measured Euler angles as their process variable. Each PID controller was configured and tuned to control the loading of a set of muscles which, from previous in vivo investigations, were found to be primarily responsible for movement in the PID's DOF. The simulator's ability to follow setpoint profiles for abduction, axial rotation, and horizontal extension was assessed using root mean squared error (RMSE) and average standard deviation (ASD) for multiple levels of arm mass replacement. A specimen was then implanted with an RTSA, and the effect of joint lateralization (0, 5, 10 mm) on the total deltoid force required to produce motion was assessed. Maximum profiling error was joint's center of rotation (CoR) increased total deltoid force by up to 8.5% body weight with the maximum early in abduction. This simulator, which is the first to use closed loop control, accurately controls the shoulder's three rotational DOF with high repeatability, and produces results that are in agreement with previous investigations. This simulator's improved performance, in comparison to

  14. Study of the scapular muscle latency and deactivation time in people with and without shoulder impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Vandana; Ludewig, Paula M

    2013-04-01

    Changes in muscle activities are commonly associated with shoulder impingement and theoretically caused by changes in motor program strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess for differences in latencies and deactivation times of scapular muscles between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. Twenty-five healthy subjects and 24 subjects with impingement symptoms were recruited. Glenohumeral kinematic data and myoelectric activities using surface electrodes from upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA) and anterior fibers of deltoid were collected as subjects raised and lowered their arm in response to a visual cue. Data were collected during unloaded, loaded and after repetitive arm raising motion conditions. The variables were analyzed using 2 or 3 way mixed model ANOVAs. Subjects with impingement demonstrated significantly earlier contraction of UT while raising in the unloaded condition and an earlier deactivation of SA across all conditions during lowering of the arm. All subjects exhibited an earlier activation and delayed deactivation of LT and SA in conditions with a weight held in hand. The subjects with impingement showed some significant differences to indicate possible differences in motor control strategies. Rehabilitation measures should consider appropriate training measures to improve movement patterns and muscle control. PMID:23137918

  15. Physiological Evaluation of Childcare-Associated Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Region in Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Saori; Kiyokawa, Takuma; Kuramoto, Eriko; Kinoshita, Hiroe; Nemoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The awkward movements and postures associated with childcare activities can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. "Dakko" is a method for carrying a child in Japan, and recently it has been reported to cause shoulder stiffness. To our knowledge, the relationship between childcare activities and the physical load on the neck and shoulders is poorly understood. The present study aims to clarify the muscle load on the neck and shoulder region through dakko simulations. First, the association between dakko movements and trapezius muscle activity is clarified by image and electromyogram analyses. Based on this clarification, the distributions and intensity of the muscle load from repetitive dakko movements are clarified using myogenic potential topography. During dakko movements, trapezius muscle activity was observed when lifting up and setting down the child, but not when holding the child. For the repetitive movements, myogenic electrical potentials were observed in the trapezius region after movement load, and individual characteristics of participants were revealed in both the load distributions and the recovery process. Repetitive dakko movements likely induced sustained muscle tonus in the trapezius, which may be a factor related to shoulder stiffness. PMID:27064421

  16. Physiological Evaluation of Childcare-Associated Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Region in Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Yoshinaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The awkward movements and postures associated with childcare activities can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. “Dakko” is a method for carrying a child in Japan, and recently it has been reported to cause shoulder stiffness. To our knowledge, the relationship between childcare activities and the physical load on the neck and shoulders is poorly understood. The present study aims to clarify the muscle load on the neck and shoulder region through dakko simulations. First, the association between dakko movements and trapezius muscle activity is clarified by image and electromyogram analyses. Based on this clarification, the distributions and intensity of the muscle load from repetitive dakko movements are clarified using myogenic potential topography. During dakko movements, trapezius muscle activity was observed when lifting up and setting down the child, but not when holding the child. For the repetitive movements, myogenic electrical potentials were observed in the trapezius region after movement load, and individual characteristics of participants were revealed in both the load distributions and the recovery process. Repetitive dakko movements likely induced sustained muscle tonus in the trapezius, which may be a factor related to shoulder stiffness.

  17. Electromyographic analysis of shoulder muscles during press-up variations and progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Waterman, Rosemary; Smith, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Due to the versatility of the press-up it is a popular upper extremity strengthening and rehabilitation exercise. Press-up programmes are often progressed by increasing weight-bearing load and using unstable bases of support. Despite the popularity of the press-up research examining press-up variations is limited. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of common press-up exercises on serratus anterior, infraspinatus, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles overall EMG activity. Twenty-one healthy individuals participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, infraspinatus, serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi muscles. Participants were tested under 7 static press-up conditions that theoretically progressively increase weight-bearing load and proprioceptive challenge while surface electromyographic activity was recorded. There was a high correlation between increased weight-bearing load and increased EMG activity for all muscles in stable base conditions. The introduction of the unstable base conditions resulted in an activation decline in all muscles. Within the two-armed press-up the Swiss ball resulted in decreased activation in all muscles except pectoralis major. Serratus anterior demonstrated the greatest activation as a percentage of maximum isometric contraction across all exercises. The findings of this study indicate that by varying the weight-bearing load and base of support whilst in the press-up position results in significantly different demands on shoulder and scapula muscles.

  18. Effect of the Spacing of Backpack Shoulder Straps on Cervical Muscle Activity, Acromion and Scapular Position, and Upper Trapezius Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the spacing of backpack shoulder straps on cervical muscle activity, acromion and scapular position, and upper trapezius (UT) pain. [Subjects] Fourteen males aged 20–32 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the MPS (midcervical paraspinal) activity, acromial angle, scapular distance, and UT pain after gait carrying a backpack with different shoulder strap spacings. [Results] The MPS, scapular inferior distance, and UT pressure pain thresh...

  19. Effect of a Multi-Air-Cushion Biofeedback Device (MABD) on Shoulder Muscles during the Dynamic Hug Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] We developed a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device (MABD) to assist the dynamic hug exercise, and investigated the effects of MABD on the shoulder muscles during the dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the right side serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and upper trapezius muscle activities during the dynamic hug exercise with and without MABD. [Results] The serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscles activities sign...

  20. Absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the absolute reliability of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The measurements were made three times with the HHD fixed using a belt (BFHHD) or with the examiner's hand (conventional method; HFHHD). The absolute reliability of measurements was verified using Bland-Altman analysis, both in the all subjects group and a group of subjects showing measurements less than a fixed limit of 30 kgf. [Results] In the adductor muscle strength, single measurements obtained using an HFHHD in the case of a <30 kgf group and the maximum value of two measurements obtained using a BFHHD are reliable. PMID:26311938

  1. Comparison of an EMG-based and a stress-based method to predict shoulder muscle forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christoph; Malfroy Camine, Valérie; Ingram, David; Müllhaupt, Philippe; Farron, Alain; Pioletti, Dominique; Terrier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of muscle forces in musculoskeletal shoulder models is still controversial. Two different methods are widely used to solve the indeterminacy of the system: electromyography (EMG)-based methods and stress-based methods. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of these two methods on the prediction of muscle forces, glenohumeral load and joint stability after total shoulder arthroplasty. An EMG-based and a stress-based method were implemented into the same musculoskeletal shoulder model. The model replicated the glenohumeral joint after total shoulder arthroplasty. It contained the scapula, the humerus, the joint prosthesis, the rotator cuff muscles supraspinatus, subscapularis and infraspinatus and the middle, anterior and posterior deltoid muscles. A movement of abduction was simulated in the plane of the scapula. The EMG-based method replicated muscular activity of experimentally measured EMG. The stress-based method minimised a cost function based on muscle stresses. We compared muscle forces, joint reaction force, articular contact pressure and translation of the humeral head. The stress-based method predicted a lower force of the rotator cuff muscles. This was partly counter-balanced by a higher force of the middle part of the deltoid muscle. As a consequence, the stress-based method predicted a lower joint load (16% reduced) and a higher superior-inferior translation of the humeral head (increased by 1.2 mm). The EMG-based method has the advantage of replicating the observed cocontraction of stabilising muscles of the rotator cuff. This method is, however, limited to available EMG measurements. The stress-based method has thus an advantage of flexibility, but may overestimate glenohumeral subluxation.

  2. Dysfunction of endogenous pain inhibition during exercise with painful muscles in patients with shoulder myalgia and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannersten, Lisa; Kosek, Eva

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how exercise influenced endogenous pain modulation in healthy controls, shoulder myalgia patients and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Twenty-one healthy subjects, 20 shoulder myalgia patients and 20 FM patients, all females, participated. They performed standardized static contractions, that is, outward shoulder rotation (m. infraspinatus) and knee extension (m. quadriceps). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were determined bilaterally at m. infraspinatus and m. quadriceps. During contractions PPTs were assessed at the contracting muscle, the resting homologous contralateral muscle and contralaterally at a distant site (m. infraspinatus during contraction of m. quadriceps and vice versa). Myalgia patients had lower PPTs compared to healthy controls at m. infraspinatus bilaterally (ppain regulatory mechanisms in myalgia patients during contraction of the non-afflicted m. quadriceps, but a lack of pain inhibition during contraction of the painful m. infraspinatus. FM patients failed to activate their pain inhibitory mechanisms during all contractions.

  3. Effect of brief daily resistance training on occupational neck/shoulder muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Jensen, Rene B; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. METHODS: 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance trai...

  4. Electromyographic assessment of trunk and shoulder muscles during a Pilates pull-up exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C.N. Sacco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares surface electromyographic activity of the internal oblique, rectus abdominis, multifidus, iliocostalis, anterior deltoids during the pull-up on a lower and on a higher difficulty level. We assessed nine adults with previous experience in Pilates. The root mean square (RMS values were normalized by maximum isometric contraction for each participant. During the ascent phase, the low spring position showed a significantly higher RMS than the high spring position of 8.9% for deltoid, 17.2% for internal oblique, 22.3% for rectus abdominis, 4.1% for iliocostalis, and 5.6% for multifidus, and in the descent phase, the RMS in the lower spring exceeded significantly the high spring position in 1.6% for the deltoid, 10% for internal oblique, 31.4% for rectus abdominis and 11.4% for iliocostalis. There was no predominance of abdominal muscles over the shoulder muscle in any spring position. The pull-up exercise can be a useful choice for the core and anterior deltoid muscles strengthening.

  5. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzer, Isaac; Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50-100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors.

  6. Maximum lying bout duration affects the occurrence of shoulder lesions in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Rebecka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shoulder lesions are caused by tissue breakdown of the skin and/or underlying tissue as a result of long lasting pressure. The lesions are commonly seen in sows during the period of lactation and contribute to poor animal welfare as well as affecting the consumers' attitudes towards the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between prolonged recumbency during early lactation and development of shoulder lesions, in particular the lying bout time. Eighteen sows of Swedish Landrace were observed for 24 hours during the day of farrowing and day 2, 4, 9 and 11 after farrowing in May 2009. The data were analysed for correlations between the duration of the longest observed uninterrupted lying bout and the prevalence of shoulder lesions recorded at weaning (week 5. In the study, shoulder lesions were observed in eight of the eighteen sows at the time of weaning. The total lying time of the sows was highest on day 0 and day 2, when the proportion of time spent in lateral recumbency over the 24-hour period was on average 80 percent. The longest lying bout had an average duration of 6,3 hours (right side and 7,2 hours (left side. A significant correlation (Spearman rank coefficient = 0,88; P

  7. Role of Subscapularis Repair on Muscle Force Requirements with Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew L; Nayak, Aniruddh; Narayanan, Madusudanan Sathia; Worhacz, Kellen; Stowell, Richard; Jacofsky, Marc C; Roche, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Concomitant repair of the subscapularis with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) is controversial. To evaluate the biomechanical impact of subscapularis repair with rTSA, a cadaveric shoulder controller quantified the muscle forces required to elevate the arm during scapular abduction with the elbow flexed at 90°. The results of this study demonstrate that concomitant subscapularis repair with rTSA creates a biomechanically unfavorable condition during arm elevation. Specifically, repair of the subscapularis significantly increased the force required by the deltoid and posterior rotator cuff and also significantly increased the joint reaction force relative to when the subscapularis was not repaired. These results also demonstrated that both the 42 mm Grammont and 42 mm Equinoxe® rTSA prostheses significantly decreased the mean force required by the posterior rotator cuff and also significantly decreased the mean joint reaction force over the range of motion relative to the native joint with a rotator cuff tear (supraspinatus). As the posterior rotator cuff is often compromised in patients undergoing rTSA, patients may not be able to sustain these elevated forces in the infraspinatus and teres minor required to counteract the adduction and internal rotation moments generated by the subscapularis during activities of daily living. Similarly, the elevated posterior deltoid force and joint reaction loads could be deleterious to the long-term life of the prosthesis and can also increase the risk of loosening and fractures. For all these reasons, rTSA functional outcomes may be compromised if the subscapularis is repaired. PMID:26631191

  8. The impact of subacromial impingement syndrome on muscle activity patterns of the shoulder complex: a systematic review of electromyographic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Toby O

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS is a commonly reported cause of shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to examine whether a difference in electromyographic (EMG activity of the shoulder complex exists between people with SIS and healthy controls. Methods Medline, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, and grey literature databases were searched from their inception to November 2008. Inclusion, data extraction and trial quality were assessed in duplicate. Results Nine studies documented in eleven papers, eight comparing EMG intensity and three comparing EMG onset timing, representing 141 people with SIS and 138 controls were included. Between one and five studies investigated each muscle totalling between 20 and 182 participants. The two highest quality studies of five report a significant increase in EMG intensity in upper trapezius during scaption in subjects with SIS. There was evidence from 2 studies of a delayed activation of lower trapezius in patients with SIS. There was otherwise no evidence of a consistent difference in EMG activity between the shoulders of subjects with painful SIS and healthy controls. Conclusions A difference may exist in EMG activity within some muscles, in particular upper and lower trapezius, between people with SIS and healthy controls. These muscles may be targets for clinical interventions aiding rehabilitation for people with SIS. These differences should be investigated in a larger, high quality survey and the effects of therapeutically targeting these muscles in a randomised controlled trial.

  9. Limits of the manipulative-fixed method for measurement of shoulder joint horizontal adduction muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the limit of isometric muscle strength of shoulder joint horizontal adduction using handheld dynamometer (HHD) manipulated by hand (referred to as the manipulative-fixed method). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The examiner was a healthy college student. Shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength was measured using HHD with the subject in the supine position. The belt-fixed and manipulative-fixed methods were used to secure the HHD sensor unit. The limitations of the manipulative-fixed method were assessed by simple regression analysis, in which the participants were divided into 2 groups according to a branch point. The slope of the straight line of the graph was visualized. [Results] Single regression analysis of the 30 kgf group were not significant. [Conclusion] The manipulative-fixed method is simple to perform. However, there exists the possibility that the actual muscle strength is not measurable by this method. The measurement limit of the shoulder horizontal adduction strength with the manipulative-fixed method was 30 kgf in the case of the examiner in the present study. The fixed limit was also found to influence in the muscle strength of the upper limbs. PMID:25642081

  10. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a...

  11. Quantify work load and muscle functional activation patterns in neck-shoulder muscles of female sewing machine operators using surface electromyogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei-ruo; HE Li-hua; WU Shan-shan; LI Jing-yun; YE Kang-pin; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have high prevalence in sewing machine operators employed in the garment industry.Long work duration,sustained low level work and precise hand work are the main risk factors of neck-shoulder disorders for sewing machine operators.Surface electromyogram (sEMG) offers a valuable tool to determine muscle activity (internal exposure) and quantify muscular load (external exposure).During sustained and/or repetitive muscle contractions,typical changes of muscle fatigue in sEMG,as an increase in amplitude or a decrease as a shift in spectrum towards lower frequencies,can be observed.In this paper,we measured and quantified the muscle load and muscular activity patterns of neck-shoulder muscles in female sewing machine operators during sustained sewing machine operating tasks using sEMG.Methods A total of 18 healthy women sewing machine operators volunteered to participate in this study.Before their daily sewing machine operating task,we measured the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 20%MVC of bilateral cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT) respectively,then the sEMG signals of bilateral UT and CES were monitored and recorded continuously during 200 minutes of sustained sewing machine operating simultaneously which equals to 20 time windows with 10 minutes as one time window.After 200 minutes' work,we retest 20%MVC of four neck-shoulder muscles and recorded the sEMG signals.Linear analysis,including amplitude probability distribution frequency (APDF),amplitude analysis parameters such as roof mean square (RMS) and spectrum analysis parameter as median frequency (MF),were used to calculate and indicate muscle load and muscular activity of bilateral CES and UT.Results During 200 minutes of sewing machine operating,the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES),right cervical erector spinae (RCES),left upper trapezius (LUT) and right upper trapezius (RUT) were 6.78%MVE,6.94

  12. Shoulder and forearm oxygenation and myoelectric activity in patients with work-related muscle pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcadi, Guilherme H; Forsman, Mikael; Aasa, Ulrika; Fahlstrom, Martin; Crenshaw, Albert G

    2013-05-01

    We tested hypotheses of (a) reduced oxygen usage, oxygen recovery, blood flow and oxygen consumption; and (b) increased muscle activity for patients diagnosed with work-related muscle pain (WRMP) in comparison to healthy controls. Oxygenation was measured with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and muscle activity with EMG for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and trapezius descendens (TD) muscles. Eighteen patients with diffuse neck-shoulder-arm pain and 17 controls (matched in age and sex) were equipped with NIRS and EMG probes. After determining an individual's maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force, short-term (20 s) isometric contractions for the ECR and TD of 10, 30, 50 and 70 % MVC generated ∆StO₂ and StO₂% recovery (Rslope) from NIRS, and RMS%max from EMG signals. In addition, upper arm venous (VO) and arterial (AO) occlusions generated slopes of total hemoglobin (HbTslope) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHbslope) for the resting ECR as surrogates of blood flow and oxygen consumption, respectively. Mixed model analyses, t tests, and Mann-Whitney test were used to assess differences between groups. There was no significant difference in MVC between groups for either muscle. Also, ∆StO₂%, Rslope for either muscle, and ECR-HbTslope were not different between groups, thus our hypotheses of reduced oxygen use, recovery, and blood flow for patients were not confirmed. However, patients had a significantly lower ECR-HHbslope confirming our hypothesis of reduced consumption. Further, there was no difference in RMS%max during contractions meaning that the hypothesis of increased activity for patients was not confirmed. When taking into account the number of NIRS variables studied, differences we found between our patient group and healthy controls (i.e., in forearm oxygen consumption and shoulder oxygen saturation level) may be considered modest. Overall our findings may have been impacted by the fact that our patients and controls were similar in muscle strength

  13. Reduced Muscle Glycogen Differentially Affects Exercise Performance and Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lees; Williams, Jay H; Batts, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of reduced muscle glycogen on exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Male rats were assigned to a low glycogen group (LG) that participated in a protocol of exercise and fasting, a high glycogen group (HG) that exercised but were allowed free access to food, or control group (CON) that did not exercise but were allowed free access to food. Following the protocol, muscle glycogen content of the LG animals was reduced by 45%. The LG animals also perform...

  14. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir;

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB...... for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference...... between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from...

  15. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks.

  16. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the shoulder comes in is a group of muscles behind the shoulder. That group of muscles is known as the scapular stabilizers, and we ... time working very hard to get those shoulder muscles strong so that when that shoulder is in ...

  17. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  18. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  19. Effect of core muscle thickness and static or dynamic balance on prone bridge exercise with sling by shoulder joint angle in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi Hwa; Yu, Jae Ho; Hong, Ji Heon; Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sang Woo; Lee, Dong Yeop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To date, core muscle activity detected using ultrasonography during prone bridge exercises has not been reported. Here we investigated the effects of core muscle thickness and balance on sling exercise efficacy by shoulder joint angle in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three healthy university students were enrolled in this study. Ultrasonography thickness of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis during sling workouts was investigated. Muscl...

  20. Randomized Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Acupuncture, Massage, and Tachibana-Style-Method on Stiff Shoulders by Measuring Muscle Firmness, VAS, Pulse, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tachibana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture, massage, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu (one of Japanese traditional body balance therapy techniques (SEITAI, on stiff shoulders, the subjects’ muscle firmness, blood pressure, pulse, VAS, and body temperature were measured before and after the treatment. Forty-seven volunteer subjects gave written informed consent to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive acupuncture, massage, or Tachibana-Ryojutsu. Each therapy lasted for 90 seconds. The acupuncture treatment was applied by a retaining-needle at GB-21, massage was conducted softly on the shoulders, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu treated only the muscles and joints from the legs to buttocks without touching the shoulders or backs. The study indicated that the muscle firmness and VAS of the Tachibana-Ryojutsu group decreased significantly in comparison with the acupuncture and massage groups after treatment.

  1. Reliability of measuring pectoralis minor muscle resting length in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Dayana P.; Borstad, John D.; Pires, Elisa D.; Camargo, Paula R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pectoralis minor adaptive shortening may change scapula resting position and scapular kinematics during arm elevation. A reliable and clinically feasible method for measuring pectoralis minor length will be useful for clinical decision making when evaluating and treating individuals with shoulder pain and dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability of a pectoralis minor (PM) muscle length measurement in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement. Method: A convenience sample of 100 individuals (50 asymptomatic and 50 symptomatic) participated in this study. Intra- and interrater reliability of the measurement was estimated in 50 individuals (25 asymptomatic and 25 symptomatic), and between-day reliability of the measurement repeated over an interval of 7 days was estimated in an independent sample of 50 additional participants. Pectoralis minor length was measured using a flexible tape measure with subjects standing. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) for intrarater and interrater reliability ranged from 0.86-0.97 and 0.95 for between-day reliability in both groups. Standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged from 0.30-0.42 cm, 0.70-0.84 cm, and 0.40-0.41 cm for intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability, respectively, across the sample. The minimal detectable change (MDC) for between-day measurements ranged from 1.13-1.14 cm for both groups. Conclusions: In asymptomatic individuals and in those with signs of shoulder impingement, a single rater or pair of raters can measure pectoralis minor muscle length using a tape measure with very good reliability. This measurement can also be reliably used by the same rater over a seven day interval. PMID:26982455

  2. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

  3. Comparison of the Forward Head Posture on Scapular Muscle Contributions During Shoulder Flexion of Predominant Arm in Women with Forward Head Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the corrigibility of forward head posture (FHP, the recognition of the relationship between this deformity and scapular rotator muscles may be influential on scapular muscle activities in detection of better way to improve movement disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius muscle contributions during shoulder flexion without weight in women with and without FHP. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study was carried out on 18 women with FHP and 14 healthy subjects who were matched. EMG muscle activities were recorded during shoulder flexion and abduction. The value of each muscle divided on total muscle values to calculate contribution ratio and independent t-test was used to compare contributions between groups. Results: There was a significant decrease in serratus anterior muscle activity ratio (p=0.002 and a significant increase in upper trapezius muscle activity ratio (p=0.001 between subjects with and without FHP. There was not also significant difference in contribution of lower trapezius muscle. Conclusion: Contribution of the serratus anterior muscle in individuals with forward head posture is less than healthy subjects. The contribution of upper trapezius muscle also in individuals with FHP is greater than healthy subjects.

  4. Differences in Muscle Activities of the Infraspinatus and Posterior Deltoid during Shoulder External Rotation in Open Kinetic Chain and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop; Jang, Jun-Hyeok

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in electromyographic (EMG) activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation under open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise conditions. [Subjects] In total, 15 healthy males participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed shoulder external rotations under CKC and OKC conditions while standing with and without weight support provided by a height-adjustable table. Pressure biofeedback was used to ensure a constant amount of weight support. The activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation were measured using a wireless surface EMG system. The paired t-test was used to compare the EMG activities of the infraspinatus and the posterior deltoid muscles and the ratio of the infraspinatus to the posterior deltoid during shoulder external rotation under OKC and CKC conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the infraspinatus and the ratio of the infraspinatus to the posterior deltoid activities were significantly increased, whereas the posterior deltoid activity was significantly decreased under the CKC condition compared to the OKC condition. [Conclusion] Clinicians should consider the CKC shoulder external rotation exercise when they wish to selectively strengthen the infraspinatus. PMID:25013291

  5. Effect of a Home Based Exercise Program on Postmenopausal Women’s Shoulder Girdle Muscle Strength for Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akoochakian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Reducing in muscle strength of the shoulder girdle is a side effect of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of resistance and mobility training on the shoulder girdle strength of women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study twenty-seven postmenopausal women with breast cancer (mean age, 51±5.96 years, (mean height, 158.08±7.2 cm, (mean weight, 63.08±11.06 kg who underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, were purposefully selected and divided into two groups of intervention and control. Intervention group performed 4 weeks (4 sessions per week of resistance training with flex-band and stretch training at home, but the control group did not participate in any sports or physical program. Muscle strength before and after intervention was measured using a handheld dynamometer. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: Significant differences were seen between intervention and control groups in shoulder flexion, scapula abduction and upward rotation, shoulder internal rotation, shoulder external rotation, shoulder horizontal adduction and scapula depression and adduction strength, as all strength variables increased after 4 weeks exercise. Conclusion: Since strength plays an important role in ADL performance and shoulder girdle function in breast cancer survivors, it seems that muscle strength improvement following combined home based exercise program can help patients after treatment to easier and faster rehabilitation. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 185-195

  6. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  7. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2006-01-01

    the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus......-contractile components than the supraspinatus muscle, and that the muscle was coarser. The image analyses supplemented each other and gave a more complete description of the tissue composition in the muscle than the mean grey-scale value alone....

  8. Effects of push-up exercise on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation according to the grip thickness of the push-up bar

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jaemin; Cho, Woonik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of bar thickness on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twenty-six healthy male adults in their twenties. [Methods] The study had four experimental conditions (grip thicknesses of 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the subjects’ hand size). Measurements were conducted from the start to the end of push-up for deltoid anterior fiber, deltoid posterior fiber, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscle a...

  9. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a belt. The reliability was verified using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). [Results] ICC (1, 1) was >0.9. A systematic bias was not observed between the first and second measurement values except for the right side in N-SG. A systematic bias between the maximum value obtained during the first and second measurements and third measurement value was observed on the left side in N-SG, and on the non-paralyzed side in SG: the third measurement values were small in both cases. [Conclusion] Intrarater reliabilities were high for shoulder horizontal adductor strength measurements using an HHD with a belt for geriatric and stroke patients. Taking the systematic bias into consideration, these findings suggest that the required number of measurements is two. PMID:26957727

  10. Towards the development of a novel experimental shoulder simulator with rotating scapula and individually controlled muscle forces simulating the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Daniel; Tomas, Daniel; Gossweiler, Lukas; Siegl, Walter; Osterhoff, Georg; Heinlein, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    A preclinical analysis of novel implants used in shoulder surgery requires biomechanical testing conditions close to physiology. Existing shoulder experiments may only partially apply multiple cycles to simulate postoperative, repetitive loading tasks. The aim of the present study was therefore the development of an experimental shoulder simulator with rotating scapula able to perform multiple humeral movement cycles by simulating individual muscles attached to the rotator cuff. A free-hanging, metallic humerus pivoted in a polyethylene glenoid is activated by tension forces of linear electroactuators to simulate muscles of the deltoideus (DELT), supraspinatus (SSP), infraspinatus/teres minor and subscapularis. The abductors DELT and SSP apply forces with a ratio of 3:1 up to an abduction angle of 85°. The rotating scapular part driven by a rotative electro actuator provides one-third to the overall arm abduction. Resulting joint forces and moments are measured by a 6-axis load cell. A linear increase in the DELT and SSP motors is shown up to a maximum of 150 and 50 N for the DELT and SSP, respectively. The force vector in the glenoid resulted in 253 N at the maximum abduction. The present investigation shows the contribution of individual muscle forces attached to the moving humerus to perform active abduction in order to reproducibly test shoulder implants. PMID:24170552

  11. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power.......3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) and 5.2 (95% CI: 1.4-19.6) for each unit of decrease in VO2 max. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced neck-shoulder strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with TTH in girls. Future interventions should be directed towards health promoting patient...

  12. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Bouaicha

    Full Text Available To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI.Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2 of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position". The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated.The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167 and 841 mm2 (±191 for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 984 mm2 (±241 and 1568 mm2 (±338 for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129 and 438 mm2 (±128 for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 1953 mm2 (±553 and 2343 mm2 (±587 for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839 for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836 for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937 for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (p<0.0001 and a strong correlation when the CSA of the teres minor was added to the infraspinatus CSA (r = 0.665, p = 0.0008 and a strong positive

  13. Shoulder Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors Is shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation? No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you--weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...

  14. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles we

  15. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz;

    2015-01-01

    regions during sustained isometric contraction. Methods: Twelve healthy, right-handed judo competitors participated in the study. The SEMG signals from the dominant trapezius (upper, middle and lower part), deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscles were recorded during isometric...

  16. Increasing preoperative dislocations and total time of dislocation affect surgical management of anterior shoulder instability

    OpenAIRE

    Denard, Patrick J.; Xuesong Dai; Burkhart, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the relationship between number of preoperative shoulder dislocations and total dislocation time and the need to perform bone deficiency procedures at the time of primary anterior instability surgery. Our hypothesis was that need for bone deficiency procedures would increase with the total number and hours of dislocation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of primary instability surgeries performed by a single surgeon. Patient...

  17. Shoulder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  19. Frozen shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a frozen shoulder are: Decreased motion of the shoulder Pain Stiffness Frozen shoulder without any known cause starts ... If you have shoulder pain and stiffness and think you have a frozen shoulder, contact your health care provider for referral and treatment.

  20. Shoulder arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLAP repair; SLAP lesion; Acromioplasty; Bankart repair; Bankart lesion; Shoulder repair; Shoulder surgery; Rotator cuff repair ... the lower part of the shoulder joint. A SLAP lesion involves the labrum and the ligament on ...

  1. 颈肩肌劳损60例综合康复治疗体会%Experience of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment on 60 cases of muscle strain at neck and shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永莉

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:In treatment of muscle strain at neck and shoulder,dynamic balance disturbance must be dealed with and needle can detach adhesion,relax muscle,resume local blood circulation.Combined physiotherapy can improve local circulation and promote absortion of exudation.

  2. Increasing preoperative dislocations and total time of dislocation affect surgical management of anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denard, Patrick J.; Dai, Xuesong; Burkhart, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the relationship between number of preoperative shoulder dislocations and total dislocation time and the need to perform bone deficiency procedures at the time of primary anterior instability surgery. Our hypothesis was that need for bone deficiency procedures would increase with the total number and hours of dislocation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of primary instability surgeries performed by a single surgeon. Patients with 25% glenoid bone loss were treated with Latarjet reconstruction. Number of dislocations and total dislocation time were examined for their relationship with the treatment method. Results: Ten arthroscopic Bankart repairs, 13 arthroscopic Bankart plus remplissage procedures, and 9 Latarjet reconstructions were available for review. Total dislocations (P = 0.012) and total hours of dislocation (P = 0.019) increased from the Bankart, to the remplissage, to the Latarjet groups. Patients with a total dislocation time of 5 h or more were more likely to require a Latarjet reconstruction (P = 0.039). Patients with only 1 preoperative dislocation were treated with an isolated Bankart repair in 64% (7 of 11) of cases, whereas those with 2 or more dislocations required a bone loss procedure in 86% (18 of 21) of cases (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Increasing number of dislocations and total dislocation time are associated with the development of glenoid and humeral head bony lesions that alter surgical management of anterior shoulder instability. The necessity for the addition of a remplissage to an arthroscopic Bankart repair or the use of a Latarjet reconstruction increases with only 1 recurrent dislocation. Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. PMID:25709237

  3. [The Throwing Shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Karl; Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C

    2016-02-01

    Repetitive top-performance of overhead athletes induces a tremendous stress for the throwing shoulder. Throwers reach rotational speed of their arm of more than 7000°/s with joint compression and distraction forces of more than 1000 N. This performance is tributary to adaption of the shoulder muscles and the joint itself. These adaptions may, however lead to two specific problems of the throwing shoulder: 1. The posterosuperior internal impingement of the rotator cuff and labrum between glenoid and humeral head during late cooking phase; 2. A decreased internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint (GIRD) with compensatory problems of the scapula-stabilizing muscles. Precise analysis of kinematics and pathomechanics aims to improve understanding and treatment of those specific problems of the throwing shoulder. PMID:26837325

  4. Effect of Brief Daily Resistance Training on Occupational Neck/Shoulder Muscle Activity in Office Workers with Chronic Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lidegaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. Methods. 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance training for 2 minutes per day (n=15 or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n=15. Electromyography (EMG from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. Results. Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P<0.05 and decreased neck/shoulder pain intensity by 40% (P<0.01. The frequency of periods with complete motor unit relaxation (EMG gaps decreased acutely in the hours after training. By contrast, at 10-week follow-up, training increased average duration of EMG gaps by 71%, EMG gap frequency by 296% and percentage time below 0.5%, and 1.0% EMGmax by 578% and 242%, respectively, during the workday in m. splenius. Conclusion. While resistance training acutely generates a more tense muscle activity pattern, the longitudinal changes are beneficial in terms of longer and more frequent periods of complete muscular relaxation and reduced pain.

  5. The impact of subacromial impingement syndrome on muscle activity patterns of the shoulder complex: a systematic review of electromyographic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Toby O; Chester Rachel; Hooper Lee; Dixon John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a commonly reported cause of shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to examine whether a difference in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the shoulder complex exists between people with SIS and healthy controls. Methods Medline, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, and grey literature databases were searched from their inception to November 2008. Inclusion, data extraction and trial quality were asse...

  6. Whole transcriptome data analysis of zebrafish mutants affecting muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armant, Olivier; Gourain, Victor; Etard, Christelle; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Formation of the contractile myofibril of the skeletal muscle is a complex process which when perturbed leads to muscular dystrophy. Herein, we provide a mRNAseq dataset on three different zebrafish mutants affecting muscle organization during embryogenesis. These comprise the myosin folding chaperone unc45b (unc45b-/-), heat shock protein 90aa1.1 (hsp90aa1.1-/-) and the acetylcholine esterase (ache-/-) gene. The transcriptome analysis was performed in duplicate experiments at 72 h post-fertilization (hpf) for all three mutants, with two additional times of development (24 hpf and 48 hpf) for unc45b-/-. A total of 20 samples were analyzed by hierarchical clustering for differential gene expression. The data from this study support the observation made in Etard et al. (2015) [1] (http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-015-0825-8) that a failure to fold myosin activates a unique transcriptional program in the skeletal muscles that is different from that induced in stressed muscle cells. PMID:27274534

  7. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  8. Analysis of applied forces and electromyography of back and shoulders muscles when performing a simulated hand scaling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William; Gallagher, Sean; Torma-Krajewski, Janet

    2010-05-01

    Hand scaling is a physically demanding task responsible for numerous overexertion injuries in underground mining. Scaling requires the miner to use a long pry bar to remove loose rock, reducing the likelihood of rock fall injuries. The experiments described in this article simulated "rib" scaling (scaling a mine wall) from an elevated bucket to examine force generation and electromyographic responses using two types of scaling bars (steel and fiberglass-reinforced aluminum) at five target heights ranging from floor level to 176 cm. Ten male and six female subjects were tested in separate experiments. Peak and average force applied at the scaling bar tip and normalized electromyography (EMG) of the left and right pairs of the deltoid and erectores spinae muscles were obtained. Work height significantly affected peak prying force during scaling activities with highest force capacity at the lower levels. Bar type did not affect force generation. However, use of the lighter fiberglass bar required significantly more muscle activity to achieve the same force. Results of these studies suggest that miners scale points on the rock face that are below their knees, and reposition the bucket as often as necessary to do so. PMID:19800050

  9. Potassium and insulin affect the contractility of abomasal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türck, G; Leonhard-Marek, S

    2010-08-01

    Abomasal displacement is a frequent and important disease of high yielding dairy cows. Although several factors are related to its occurrence, the pathogenesis of the condition is still inadequately understood, particularly in regard to K(+) and insulin homeostasis. For this reason the aim was to investigate the effects of K(+) and insulin concentrations on in vitro motility of abomasal smooth muscle. The second aim was to determine whether the in vivo change in K(+) and insulin levels might be sufficient to induce reduced abomasal motility. Muscle strips were isolated from the abomasum of slaughtered cows and incubated in buffer solution under isometric conditions. Results show that a decrease in extracellular K(+) (between 5 and 1 mmol/L) or an increase in extracellular insulin concentrations (to 21 mU/L or higher) were able to affect the contraction activity of abomasal muscles. Contraction activity given as median (25th, 75th percentiles) changed from 28.1 mN/min (2.5, 49.9) at 5 mmol/L of K(+) to 9.4 mN/min (0.6, 35.7) at 1 mmol/L of K(+), and from 34.5 mN/min (10.8, 112.4) at 0 mU/L of insulin to 12.0 mN/min (7.6, 49.8) at 120 mU/L of insulin. Because the effect of insulin could be abolished by barium, glybenclamide, or ouabain, the underlying mechanisms of the insulin action could be an increased K(+) conductance or an increased Na/K-ATPase activity or both. Low K(+) or high insulin concentrations both reduced the activity of the circular muscle of the abomasal corpus (i.e., of the part that is responsible for the propulsion of abomasal chymus) and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement. PMID:20655424

  10. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation. PMID:11641701

  11. Shoulder Osteoarthritis Treatment (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shoulder to the point of tension but not pain. SHOULDER-STRENTGTHENING EXERCISES — Muscle-toning exercises should be performed ... diagnosis of rotator cuff tears Rotator cuff tendinopathy Shoulder impingement syndrome The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● ...

  12. Shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - shoulder ... changes around the rotator cuff can cause shoulder pain. You may have pain when lifting the arm above your head or ... The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons ... The tendons become inflamed or damaged. This condition ...

  13. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  14. Effects of chronic neck-shoulder pain on normalized mutual information analysis of surface electromyography during functional tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Xie, Yanfei; Szeto, Grace P. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects neck-shoulder pain on the connectivity of surface electromyography (SEMG) signals during functional tasks. METHODS: Twenty adults suffering from chronic neck-shoulder pain and 20 healthy controls were recruited. The SEMG signals from the left and right proximal...... mutual information (NMI) values were computed between homonymous proximal and distal muscle pairs as an index of the functional connectivity between muscles pairs. RESULTS: NMI among homonymous muscles pairs as well as among proximal and distal muscles pairs were lower among cases compared with controls....... Moreover, NMI values in homonymous proximal muscles were higher during texting compared with computer typing with both hands. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show for the first time that chronic neck-shoulder pain affects the functional connectivity of muscle pairs. SIGNIFICANCE: The study furnishes novel...

  15. State of the Art Priciples in Shoulder Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward R. Laskowski

    2003-01-01

    @@ The primary goal of shoulder rehabilitation is to restore optimal pain-free shoulder function. In general terms, shoulder rehabilitation involves control of pain and inflammation,early non-traumatic motion, muscle reactivation, strengthening of shoulder group muscles, and restoration of normal shoulder function within the kinetic-kinematic chain. Finally, sports and activity-specific rehabilitative exercise are essential to maximize function and return the patient to their prior sport or activity without deficit. This discussion will review recent research findings that have expanded our knowledge and understanding of shoulder function and which will serve as guidelines for a state-of-the-art shoulder rehabilitation program.

  16. Effects of push-up exercise on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation according to the grip thickness of the push-up bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaemin; Cho, Woonik

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of bar thickness on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twenty-six healthy male adults in their twenties. [Methods] The study had four experimental conditions (grip thicknesses of 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the subjects' hand size). Measurements were conducted from the start to the end of push-up for deltoid anterior fiber, deltoid posterior fiber, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscle activation. [Results] The deltoid anterior fiber muscle activity was 4,852.6 ± 975.2 in the 0%, 5,787.3 ± 1,514.1 in the 50%, 5,635.3 ± 1,220.1 in the 75%, and 5,032.9 ± 841.0 in the 100% condition. The infraspinatus muscle activity was 1,877.2 ± 451.3 in the 0%, 2,310.9 ± 765.4 in the 50%, 2,353.6 ± 761.9 in the 75%, and 2,016.8 ± 347.7 in the 100% condition. The pectoralis major muscle activity was 1,675.8 ± 355.1 in the 0%, 2,365.5 ± 1,287.3 in the 50%, 2,125.3 ± 382.5 in the 75%, and 1,878.8 ± 419.7 in the 100% condition, showing significant differences respectively. [Conclusion] The use of push-up bars with different thicknesses customized to personal characteristics, rather than the conventional standard, could be more effective for training and rehabilitation. PMID:26504343

  17. An Application of the Multivariate Linear Mixed Model to the Analysis of Shoulder Complexity in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Oskrochi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four major muscles acting on the scapula were investigated in patients who had been treated in the last six years for unilateral carcinoma of the breast. Muscle activity was assessed by electromyography during abduction and adduction of the affected and unaffected arms. The main principal aim of the study was to compare shoulder muscle activity in the affected and unaffected shoulder during elevation of the arm. A multivariate linear mixed model was introduced and applied to address the principal aims. The result of fitting this model to the data shows a huge improvement as compared to the alternatives.

  18. Posttraumatic focal dystonia of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadis, Georgios I; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Zoubos, Aristeides B

    2012-06-01

    Focal posttraumatic shoulder dystonia is a rare and not easily identifiable entity. Its true pathophysiologic nature, predisposing factors, and disease course remain debatable.This article describes a rare case of a 40-year-old man with late symptoms of focal shoulder dystonia after peripheral trauma of his left shoulder girdle. The shoulder was indirectly injured from the impact of a fall off his motorbike 3 years earlier. He was referred to the authors' institution because remarkable reduction of arm abduction, muscle spasms, and circumscribed hypertrophy of the trapezius muscle were noted while his head and neck were in neutral position and had a full range of motion. The left shoulder had a fixed elevated posture compared with the contralateral shoulder. A continuous burning pain was localized over the area of the hypertrophied trapezius muscle, radiating to the ipsilateral side of the head and neck. Dystonic movements of the trapezius, rhomboid, and supraspinatus muscles were observed. The abduction of the shoulder was significantly decreased, and any repetitive effort for arm abduction induced an exaggeration of his movement disorder, leading to a more pronounced shoulder elevation.Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed a suprascapular tendinitis with no other abnormalities. Repeated needle electromyography of the left trapezius muscle and neurography of the accessory nerve on both sides were normal. Injections of botulinum toxin A were effective in the resolution of muscle hypertrophy and abnormal posture. PMID:22691679

  19. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K.; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary...... computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high intensity shoulder elevations can...... contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...

  20. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-01

    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running.

  1. Strenght training and anabolic steroids : a comparative study of the trapezius, a shoulder muscle and the vastus lateralis, a thigh muscle, of strength trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Strength training is widely used to increase performance in sports with high physical demands. The use of drugs such as anabolic steroids among athletes is a wellknown phenomenon, and the effects of these drugs on physical performance documented. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the mechanisms of muscle fiber hypertrophy in the vastus lateralis and the trapezius muscles of strength trained elite athletes. The main hypothesis was that the muscle adaptations to strength training ...

  2. Increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles in recent-onset Graves' disease caused primarily by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn 3 patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia. The affected muscles were found to be very stiff when the other eye looked straight ahead. It was expected that these stiff muscles would be able to s

  3. Shoulder Arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflamed tissue or loose cartilage • Repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation Less common procedures such as nerve release, fracture repair, and cyst excision can also be performed using an arthroscope. ... as shoulder replacement, still require open surgery with more extensive ...

  4. Shoulder reflexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise; Krogsgaard, Michael; Voigt, Michael;

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic shoulder stability is dependent on muscular coordination and sensory inputs. In the shoulder, mechanoreceptors are found in the coracoacromial ligament, the rotator cuff tendons, the musculotendinous junctions of the rotator cuff and in the capsule. The number of receptors in the capsule...

  5. Shoulder Pain After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten R; Andersen, Claus; Ørding, Helle;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the time course of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery with respect to incidence, pain intensity, type of pain (referred versus musculoskeletal), and surgical approach. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Odense University Hospital, Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients for major lung resection. INTERVENTIONS: Postoperative observation of ipsilateral shoulder pain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Postoperative numeric rating scale score of shoulder pain and thoracic pain and postoperative examination of the sites of shoulder pain...... for musculoskeletal involvement (muscle tenderness on palpation and movement) with follow-up 12 months after surgery. Clinically relevant pain was defined as a numeric rating scale score>3. Of the 60 patients included, 47 (78%) experienced ipsilateral shoulder pain, but only 25 (42%) reported clinically relevant...

  6. Computational reverse shoulder prosthesis model: Experimental data and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, A; Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J; Sarmento, M

    2015-09-18

    The reverse shoulder prosthesis aims to restore the stability and function of pathological shoulders, but the biomechanical aspects of the geometrical changes induced by the implant are yet to be fully understood. Considering a large-scale musculoskeletal model of the upper limb, the aim of this study is to evaluate how the Delta reverse shoulder prosthesis influences the biomechanical behavior of the shoulder joint. In this study, the kinematic data of an unloaded abduction in the frontal plane and an unloaded forward flexion in the sagittal plane were experimentally acquired through video-imaging for a control group, composed of 10 healthy shoulders, and a reverse shoulder group, composed of 3 reverse shoulders. Synchronously, the EMG data of 7 superficial muscles were also collected. The muscle force sharing problem was solved through the minimization of the metabolic energy consumption. The evaluation of the shoulder kinematics shows an increase in the lateral rotation of the scapula in the reverse shoulder group, and an increase in the contribution of the scapulothoracic joint to the shoulder joint. Regarding the muscle force sharing problem, the musculoskeletal model estimates an increased activity of the deltoid, teres minor, clavicular fibers of the pectoralis major, and coracobrachialis muscles in the reverse shoulder group. The comparison between the muscle forces predicted and the EMG data acquired revealed a good correlation, which provides further confidence in the model. Overall, the shoulder joint reaction force was lower in the reverse shoulder group than in the control group. PMID:26206550

  7. Shoulder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  8. Shoulder replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are able to return to sports such as golf, swimming, gardening, bowling, and others. Your new shoulder ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  9. Shoulder Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ibuprofen, for pain. No 11. Do you feel pain when you move your shoulder but there's no swelling or redness? Yes You may have BURSITIS or ROTATOR CUFF SYNDROME. Use an anti-inflammatory medicine, such as ibuprofen, ...

  10. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  11. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT. PMID:27445844

  12. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  13. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cockett Noelle E; Smit Maria A; Bidwell Christopher A; Segers Karin; Hadfield Tracy L; Snowder Gary D; Georges Michel; Charlier Carole

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic l...

  14. Solitary cysticercosis affecting deltoid muscle: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Purohit; Sarita Mohapatra; Sonam Sharma; Manorama Deb

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in developing countries involving the central nervous system (CNS), eye, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous tissue. Solitary intramuscular cysticercosis without CNS involvement is a rare entity. Here, we present a case of solitary cysticercosis involving a rare muscular site without any neurologic or systemic manifestation.

  15. Solitary cysticercosis affecting deltoid muscle: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in developing countries involving the central nervous system (CNS, eye, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous tissue. Solitary intramuscular cysticercosis without CNS involvement is a rare entity. Here, we present a case of solitary cysticercosis involving a rare muscular site without any neurologic or systemic manifestation.

  16. Factors affecting isokinetic muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Halil Yalçin; Erkan, Serkan; Uzun, Macit

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting muscle strength of ACL-deficient knees before and after ACL reconstruction. The study included 122 male patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Preoperative loss and change in muscle strength in both extensor and flexor muscle groups after ACL reconstruction were calculated separately at 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec angular velocities. We evaluated the effect of surgical delay on the preoperative deficit and on its change after surgery. Muscle strength change after ACL reconstruction was also evaluated in relation to patient compliance to treatment. The longer the delay of ACL reconstruction the more the muscle strength deficit of flexor and extensor muscles increased. In the ACL deficient knees with high strength deficit, improvement in muscle strength was higher after ACL reconstruction for both muscle groups. When delay of ACL reconstruction was short and the patient was compliant to treatment, flexor muscle strength recovery was early. Shortening the delay to reconstruction had a positive influence on muscle strength after ACL reconstruction when preoperative muscle strength deficit was high. PMID:21846002

  17. Lithium dampens neurotransmitter response in smooth muscle: relevance to action in affective illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Menkes, H A; Baraban, J M; Freed, A N; Snyder, S H

    1986-01-01

    Lithium, by inhibiting inositol phosphate metabolism, interferes with the phosphatidylinositol ("phosphoinositide") cycle, which is stimulated by numerous hormones and neurotransmitters. To examine the relevance of this action to neurotransmission, we evaluated effects of lithium treatment on smooth muscle responses to transmitters. In lithium-pretreated tracheal muscle, the relaxation following carbachol or histamine contractions is retarded. Lithium does not affect relaxation following cont...

  18. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilator

  19. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking down any muscles in front of the shoulder, and I think yielding less pain for the patient pos-top, potentially less scar ... that he had an open shift. Now the shoulder is maybe too tight and leading to pain, but if you could talk about that issue ...

  20. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1,2,5,6 Lars L Andersen,3 Jørgen H Skotte,3 Rigmor Jensen,4 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström1 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Scania, Sweden; 2Children's Headache Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark Background: Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods: Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max. The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland

  1. Hyperspectral deep ultraviolet autofluorescence of muscle fibers is affected by postmortem changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnot, Caroline; Vénien, Annie; Jamme, Frédéric; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Desvaux, Mickaël; Astruc, Thierry

    2015-05-20

    After slaughter, muscle cells undergo biochemical and physicochemical changes that may affect their autofluorescence characteristics. The autofluorescent response of different rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle fiber types was investigated by deep ultraviolet (UV) synchrotron microspectroscopy immediately after animal sacrifice and after 24 h of storage in a moist chamber at 20 °C. The glycogen content decreased from 23 to 18 μmol/g of fresh muscle in 24 h postmortem. Following a 275 nm excitation wavelength, the spectral muscle fiber autofluorescence response showed discrimination depending upon postmortem time (t0 versus t24 h) on both muscles at 346 and 302 nm and, to a lesser extent, at 408 and 325 nm. Taken individually, all fiber types were discriminated but with variable accuracy, with type IIA showing better separation of t0/t24 h than other fiber types. These results suggest the usefulness of the autofluorescent response of muscle cells for rapid meat-aging characterization.

  2. Do Changes in Muscle Architecture Affect Post-Activation Potentiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Reardon, Jay R. Hoffman, Gerald T. Mangine, Adam J. Wells, Adam M. Gonzalez, Adam R. Jajtner, Jeremy R. Townsend, William P. McCormack, Jeffrey R. Stout, Maren S. Fragala, David H. Fukuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized, cross-over design study was to examine the effect of three different muscle potentiation protocols on acute changes in muscle architecture and vertical jump performance. Eleven experienced, resistance trained men (25.2±3.6y completed three potentiation squat protocols using moderate intensity (MI; 75%, 3 sets x 10 repetitions, high intensity (HI; 90%, 3 sets x 3 repetitions and 100% (1RM; 1 set x 1repetition of their 1RM. In addition, all participants completed a control session (CTL in which no protocol was performed. During each testing session, muscle architecture and vertical jump testing were assessed at baseline (BL, 8min post (8P and 20min post (20P workout. Ultrasound measures included cross sectional area (CSA and pennation angle (PANG of both the rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL. Following each ultrasound measure, peak vertical jump power (PVJP and mean (MVJP power was assessed using an accelerometer. Magnitude based inferences were used to make comparisons between trials. The MI trial resulted in a likely greater increase from BL to 8P and 20P in RF-CSA and VL-CSA, while the HI trial resulted in a likely greater change from BL to 20P in both RF-CSA and VL-CSA. Meanwhile, changes in PVJP and MVJP for the MI trial was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P, while the HI trial was shown to result in a likely or possible decrease compared to CTL at BL-8P and BL–20P, respectively. A likely negative relationship was observed between changes in VL-PANG and MVJP (r = -0.35; p , 0.018 at BL-8P, and between changes in PVJP and RF-CSA (r = -0.37; p , 0.014 at BL–20P. Results of this study were unable to demonstrate any potentiation response from the trials employed, however these protocols did result in acute muscle architectural changes.

  3. Kinesio Tape and Shoulder-Joint Position Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Lindsay M.; Suprak, David N.; Chalmers, Gordon R.; Lyon, Lonnie; Dahlquist, Dylan T.

    2015-01-01

    Context Joint position sense (JPS) is a key neuromuscular factor for developing and maintaining control of muscles around a joint. It is important when performing specialized tasks, especially at the shoulder. No researchers have studied how Kinesio Tape (KT) application affects JPS. Objective To investigate the effects of KT application and no tape on shoulder JPS at increasing shoulder elevations in athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 healthy athletes who did not participate in overhead sports (age = 20.44 ± 1.05 years, height = 175.02 ± 11.67 cm, mass = 70.74 ± 9.65 kg) with no previous pathologic shoulder conditions volunteered for the study. All participants were from 1 university. Intervention(s) Shoulder JPS was assessed at increasing elevations with and without KT application. Participants attempted to actively replicate 3 target positions with and without the KT and without visual guidance. Main Outcome Measure(s) We examined absolute and variable repositioning errors at increasing shoulder-elevation levels with and without KT application. Results Data revealed an interaction between tape and position for absolute error (F2,52 = 4.07, P = .02); simple effects revealed an increase in error, with KT demonstrating a 2.65° increase in error at 90° of elevation compared with no tape (t26 = 2.65, P = .01). The effect size was medium (ω2 = .135). Variable error showed no interaction of tape and position (F2,52 = .709, P = .50). Further analysis of simple effects was not needed. However, we still calculated the effect size and observed small effect sizes for tape (ω2 = .002), position (ω2 = .072), and tape by position (ω2 = .027). Conclusions At 90° of elevation, shoulder JPS was impaired by the application of KT. PMID:26090707

  4. The primer for sports medicine professionals on imaging: the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Jain Palrecha, Sapna; Farshad, Mazda

    2013-01-01

    Because of its inherent superior soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly suited to study the complex anatomy of the shoulder joint, particularly when assessing the relatively high incidence of shoulder injuries in young, athletic patients. This review aims to serve as a primer for understanding shoulder MRI in an algorithmical approach, including MRI protocol and technique, normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the shoulder, pathologic conditions of the rotator cuff tendons and muscles, the long head of the biceps tendon, shoulder impingement, labral and glenohumeral ligament pathology, MR findings in shoulder instability, adhesive capsulitis, and osteoarthritis. PMID:24381700

  5. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  6. Biomechanics of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtol, C O

    1980-01-01

    Man's shoulder girdle is of the general pattern of his tree-swinging ancestors. With assumption of the upright posture, man's thorax has flattened from anterior-posterior. This results in a rotation of the scapula to a position of 45 degrees with the sagittal plane. In addition to this, man's forearm is habitually used in a position of approximately 45 degrees of internal rotation. This places the biceps tendon "off its trolley" and leads to biceps tinosynovitis. Motions of the glenohumeral joints result from the force couple of the deltoid muscle plus the rotator cuff muscles. The rotator cuff alone can abduct the arm with 50% force throughout the full range of its motion. In the absence of the supraspinatus muscle, however, the force couple is disrupted. Although initiation of abduction is with full force, the force rapidly falls off to 90 degrees. Above 90 degrees the arm can barely support its own weight. Although the shoulder undergoes progressive degenerative changes with age, the necessity for a joint implant, either partial or total--although successful--is rare.

  7. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L P; Müller, L A; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic and clinical features of the frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are similar in many aspects. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in affected areas in both diseases, while native radiographs show a progressive demineralisation. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative digital radiography objectified these local decalcification processes in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome; 10 of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder had BMD decreases greater 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the non-affected side. In the immobilised control group with degenerative changes of the rotator cuff, calcifying tendinitis and shoulder instability (n = 12) and in the group of healthy probands (n = 20), the difference between the affected and non-affected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was only more than 21% in one case each. There are several references in the literature that assume frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process; our observations support this hypothesis, possibly leading to earlier diagnoses and extended therapeutic management. PMID:10653111

  8. Listening to music affects diurnal variation in muscle power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, H; Chaouachi, A; Hammouda, O; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music while warming-up on the diurnal variations of power output during the Wingate test. 12 physical education students underwent four Wingate tests at 07:00 and 17:00 h, after 10 min of warm-up with and without listening to music. The warm-up consisted of 10 min of pedalling at a constant pace of 60 rpm against a light load of 1 kg. During the Wingate test, peak and mean power were measured. The main finding was that peak and mean power improved from morning to afternoon after no music warm-up (pmusic warm-up. Moreover, peak and mean power were significantly higher after music than no music warm-up during the two times of testing. Thus, as it is a legal method and an additional aid, music should be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions, especially in the morning competitive events. PMID:22134883

  9. MRI of the posttraumatic shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    functional discomfort during the joint loading. Compression on the rotator cuff from the overlying acromion and the subsequent tissue reaction in the subacromial bursa causes suffering tendons of these muscles. Unrated its diagnostic leads to deepen the ‘subacromial conflict’ and reach rotator cuff initially partial and later progressed. The shoulder stiffness is a condition in which the passive motion restriction is combined with pain in their final phase as well as during sleep. This also affects the active movements which are also reduced. ‘The shoulder hardening’ is at the organic component expense and it must be distinguished from the functional disorders such as muscle contracture and ‘subacromial conflict’. Restoration of work capacity in patients with idiopathic ‘frozen shoulder’ is faster than in post-traumatic shoulder. Diagnostic estimated joint capsule fibrosis more quickly gives a way to the treatment, which shortens the patient’s suffering. MRI imaging is a method of choice for the diagnosis of these conditions. MRI shows not only broken integrity of the rotator cuff tendons, but also the fluid in the subacromial bursa, which means that, must have a lesion. MRI provides information about fatty degeneration of the tendon. MRI registers the distance of the torn tendon retraction, the rupture size, may advise the surgeon on its mobility, and hence the expected forecast. However in the impingement indicative are only local areas with increased signal on T 2 images and data about severe osteophytosis in the area of the acromioclavicular joint. Outlined are the areas of present calcification in the subacromial bursa and, what is more important for the process of treatment, - their density. In shoulder instability MRI demonstrates the presence of lesions type Bankart, partial rotator cuff lesions, lesions of the ligament apparatus in combination with SLAP lesions, lesions of the posterior labrum and refers to the type of instability and the choice of

  10. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.;

    2002-01-01

    force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...

  11. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  12. Characteristics of Elite Male Swimmer Shoulder Joint Isokinetic Muscle Strength%优秀男子游泳运动员肩关节等速肌力特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢澎涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The paper is to investigate the characteristics of elite male swimmers’ shoulder joint muscle strength. Methods:IsoMed 2000 isokinetic muscle strength test system( made in Germany) is used to conduct quantita-tive test of 46 elite male swimmers’ left, and right shoulder joints for their flexion and extension, adduction, outreach, and internal rotation, external rotation movement mode (slow motion mode ,60./ S and fast ,240./ S). Results:(1) the 60./s muscle strength test indicates that the relative peak torques of adduction and internal rotation on both sides are significant difference ( P<0 . 05 ) . The 240./s muscle strength test shows that the relative peak torques of external rota-tion on both sides demonstrate significant difference (P<0. 01). (2) The peak torque of adduction/abduction at angular velocities 60./s and 180./s in shoulder joints exhibits significant difference between the left and right side ( P<0 . 05 ) , and the peak torque of internal rotation/external rotation between left and right sides just follows suit (P<0. 05). (3) Shoulder joint flexor/extensor PTR is 0. 50-0. 60, adduction/abduction muscle PTR, 0. 80-0. 99, and the internal /external rotation PTR, 1. 60 -1. 78. Conclusion: Many subjects`left shoulder adduction, internal rotation of absolute power, the explosive force, and shoulder extortor endurance should be strengthened, so it is recommended that attention should be paid to the exercise intensity in strength training to reduce the chances of injuries.%目的::探讨优秀男子游泳运动员肩关节肌群力量的特点。方法:采用德国产IsoMed 2000等速肌力测试系统,对46名优秀男子游泳运动员,进行双侧肩关节屈、伸,内收、外展和内旋、外旋(慢速、60。/S,快速、240。/S)定量测试。结果:(1)60。/S测试,双侧内收和内旋相对峰力矩值差异显著(P<0.05)。240。/S测试,双侧外旋相对峰力矩值差异非常显著(P<0.001);(2)肩关节(60

  13. Limitation of motion and shoulder disabilities in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Gulin; Yildiz, Bekir S; Sanlialp, Musa; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Kilic, Ismail D; Evregul, Harun; Senol, Hande

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of limitations in the shoulder range of motion (ROM) or the loss of upper extremity function on the affected side in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) with respect to the implantation time. Forty-nine patients (30 men and 19 women), mean age 64.84±11.18 years, who had been living with a CIED for less than 3 months were included in the short-term recipient (STR) group and 127 patients (85 men and 42 women), mean age 64.91±14.70 years, and with the device for longer than 3 months were included in the long-term recipients group. Shoulder ROMs were measured using a digital goniometer. The other arm was used as the control. The Constant-Murler Score, Shoulder Pain Disability Index, and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire were used to assess the functional status. Limitations of ROM for flexion, abduction, and internal rotation were found to be significantly lower in the arm on the side of CIED compared with the control arm. Significant differences in shoulder flexion, abduction, and external rotation in STRs were found compared with long-term recipient (P<0.05). However, the functional comparison of groups by the Constant-Murler Score was not significant. A low to moderate amount of shoulder disability measured by Shoulder Pain Disability Index and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire was found in patients with CIEDs, which was more prominent in STRs (P<0.05). Pain, association of CIED with pectoral muscles, a possible subtle ongoing capsular pathology, and avoidance behaviors of patients to minimize the risk of lead dislodgement might be related to restriction of motion and function in the shoulder joint in patients with CIEDs. PMID:26164799

  14. Dislocated shoulder - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulder dislocation - aftercare; Shoulder subluxation - aftercare; Shoulder reduction - aftercare ... Horn AE, Ufberg JW. Management of common dislocations. In: ... Extremity 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ElsevierMosby; 2011:chap 92.

  15. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by almost ten years, is shoulders. So by definition, the average shoulder-replacement patient is almost ten ... DOUGLAS BOARDMAN III, MD: Exactly. Choices -- selection of primary versus reverse shoulder arthroplasty. 00:51:24 GERALD ...

  16. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  17. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of many common problems. They include sprains, strains, dislocations, separations, tendinitis, bursitis, torn rotator cuffs, frozen shoulder, fractures and arthritis. Usually shoulder problems are treated ...

  18. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: a review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement Atividade dos músculos escapulares e do manguito rotator durante a elevação do braço: uma revisão da função normal e das alterações na síndrome do impacto

    OpenAIRE

    V Phadke; PR Camargo; PM Ludewig

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. RESULTS: The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius a...

  19. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Conti

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  20. Annexin A1 Deficiency does not Affect Myofiber Repair but Delays Regeneration of Injured Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikina, Evgenia; Defour, Aurelia; Melikov, Kamran; Van der Meulen, Jack H; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Gebert, Claudia; Pfeifer, Karl; Chernomordik, Leonid V; Jaiswal, Jyoti K

    2015-01-01

    Repair and regeneration of the injured skeletal myofiber involves fusion of intracellular vesicles with sarcolemma and fusion of the muscle progenitor cells respectively. In vitro experiments have identified involvement of Annexin A1 (Anx A1) in both these fusion processes. To determine if Anx A1 contributes to these processes during muscle repair in vivo, we have assessed muscle growth and repair in Anx A1-deficient mouse (AnxA1-/-). We found that the lack of Anx A1 does not affect the muscle size and repair of myofibers following focal sarcolemmal injury and lengthening contraction injury. However, the lack of Anx A1 delayed muscle regeneration after notexin-induced injury. This delay in muscle regeneration was not caused by a slowdown in proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Instead, lack of Anx A1 lowered the proportion of differentiating myoblasts that managed to fuse with the injured myofibers by days 5 and 7 after notexin injury as compared to the wild type (w.t.) mice. Despite this early slowdown in fusion of Anx A1-/- myoblasts, regeneration caught up at later times post injury. These results establish in vivo role of Anx A1 in cell fusion required for myofiber regeneration and not in intracellular vesicle fusion needed for repair of myofiber sarcolemma. PMID:26667898

  1. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (Pchickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (Pchickens (Pchickens.

  2. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  3. Shoulder impairments and their association with symptomatic rotator cuff disease in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaugh, David; Spinelli, Bryan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2011-10-01

    Over 2.6 million breast cancer survivors currently reside in the United States. While improvements in the medical management of women diagnosed with breast cancer have resulted in a 5-year survival rate of 89%, curative treatments are associated with a high prevalence of shoulder and arm morbidity, which, in turn, can negatively impact a woman's quality of life. Breast cancer survivors frequently experience shoulder and arm pain, decreased range of motion, muscle weakness, and lymphedema. These symptoms can lead to difficulties with daily activities ranging from overhead reaching and carrying objects to caring for family and returning to work. Despite health care professionals awareness of these problems, a significant number of breast cancer survivors are confronted with long-term, restricted use of their affected shoulder and upper extremity. This problem may partially be explained by: (1) an incomplete understanding of relevant impairments and diagnoses associated with shoulder/arm pain and limited upper extremity use, and (2) the limited effectiveness of current rehabilitation interventions for managing shoulder pain and decreased upper extremity function in breast cancer survivors. Because breast cancer treatment directly involves the neuromusculoskeletal tissues of the shoulder girdle, it is understandable why breast cancer survivors are likely to develop shoulder girdle muscle weakness and fatigue, decreased shoulder motion, altered shoulder girdle alignment, and lymphedema. These impairments can be associated with diagnoses such as post-mastectomy syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, myofascial dysfunction, and brachial plexopathy, all of which have been reported among breast cancer survivors. It is our belief that these impairments also put women at risk for developing symptomatic rotator cuff disease. In this paper we set forth the rationale for our belief that breast cancer treatments and subsequent impairments of shoulder girdle neuromusculoskeletal tissues

  4. Postoperative pectoral swelling after shoulder arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL

    2015-01-01

    Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473

  5. Increased palpation tenderness and muscle strength deficit in the prediction of tendon hypertrophy in symptomatic unilateral shoulder tendinopathy: an ultrasonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, J.; Couppe, C.; Bjordal, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In asymptomatic, normal tendons, the difference in tendon thickness between sides is less than 15%. In this Study, three tests were used to examine differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders. Design Cross-sectional study. The three tests were performed in sequence. The o...

  6. Diagnosing patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Krogsgaard, M R; Lorenzen, T;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the interobserver agreement of commonly used clinical tests and diagnoses in patients with shoulder pain, and the accuracy of these tests and ultrasonographic findings in comparison with arthroscopic findings. METHODS: Eighty six patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain...... lesion also showed poor agreement. Pain during muscle contraction showed moderate agreement. The agreement of clinical diagnoses was poor and the accuracy was low in comparison with arthroscopy. Ultrasonography was accurate in full thickness supraspinatus tendon tears, but inaccurate for partial tears...

  7. Floating shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Pablo Márquez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La fractura concomitante de clavícula y escápula es una entidad poco frecuente que puede ser una de las causas de afectación del complejo suspensorio del hombro también denominado hombro flotante (floating shoulder. Se relaciona frecuentemente con traumatismos de alta energía. Presentamos un caso de esta patología en un paciente varón de 28 años que consultó por caída en bicicleta con contusión sobre hombro izquierdo. Se describen las diferentes opciones terapéuticas planteadas, las imágenes radiológicas y una revisión de la literatura.

  8. Nerve Transfers to Restore Shoulder Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Malungpaishorpe, Kanchai; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Ng, Chye Yew; Witoonchart, Kiat

    2016-05-01

    The restoration of shoulder function after brachial plexus injury represents a significant challenge facing the peripheral nerve surgeons. This is owing to a combination of the complex biomechanics of the shoulder girdle, the multitude of muscles and nerves that could be potentially injured, and a limited number of donor options. In general, nerve transfer is favored over tendon transfer, because the biomechanics of the musculotendinous units are not altered. This article summarizes the surgical techniques and clinical results of nerve transfers for restoration of shoulder function. PMID:27094888

  9. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  10. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941

  11. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Aagaard, Per;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In relation to Myofascial Triggerpoints (MFTrPs) of the upper Trapezius, this study explored muscle contractility characteristics, the occurrence of post-intervention muscle soreness and the effect of dry needling on muscle contractile characteristics and clinical outcomes...

  12. Concept of healing of recurrent shoulder dislocation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O’Dell and others. The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases. Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical–pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions. The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique. Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles. PMID:26229839

  13. Concept of healing of recurrent shoulder dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O'Dell and others. The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases. Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical-pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions. The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique. Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles. PMID:26229839

  14. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Pascal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. Methods 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. Results The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p Conclusion Since a preceding high intensity shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a

  15. Evaluating shoulder instability treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder instability common occurs. When treated nonoperatively, the resulting societal costs based on health care utilization and productivity losses are significant. Shoulder function can be evaluated using patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs). For shoulder instability, these include the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI) and the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS). When translated and validated for the dutch population, both have good measurment properties. Sco...

  16. Frozen shoulder--an algoneurodystrophic process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L P; Rittmeister, M; John, J; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    1998-12-01

    The frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are clinically in many aspects similar. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in the affected areas in both diseases, while standard radiographs show a progressive demineralization. With measurement of bone-mineral density by quantitative digital radiography these local decalcification processes were diagnosed in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome: of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder 10 had a bone-mineral density decrease of more than 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the unaffected side. In the control groups (n = 32) the difference between affected and unaffected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was in only one case each above 21%. There are several indications in the literature assuming the frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process. Our observation supports this hypothesis, and may possibly lead to earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic management. PMID:9922549

  17. MRI of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.

    2000-02-01

    Shoulder imaging is one of the major applications in musculoskeletal MRI. In order to analyze the images it is important to keep informed about anatomical and pathological findings and publications. In this article MRI technique, anatomy and pathology is reviewed. Technical considerations about MR sequences and examination strategy are only shortly discussed with emphasis on turbo spin echo and short T1 inversion recovery imaging. Basic anatomy as well as recent findings, including macroscopic aspects of the supraspinatus fat pad, composition of the supraspinatus muscle belly, and variability of the glenohumeral ligaments or coracoid ligament, are presented. Basic pathological conditions are described in detail, e. g. instability particularly problems in differentiating the various subtypes of labral pathology. Rotator cuff diseases are elucidated with emphasis on some rarer entities such as subscapularis calcifying tendinitis, coracoid impingement, chronic bursitis producing the double-line sign, prominent coraco-acromial ligament and the impingement due to an inflamed os acromiale. (orig.)

  18. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  19. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Mallanagouda N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand). He complained of...

  20. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  1. Meat quality traits in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) as affected by muscle type and animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, P; Lepetit, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C

    1997-02-01

    Meat quality traits were determined in the major muscles of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) at different slaughter ages (6, 10, 14, 17 or ≥20 months). A mean ultimate pH value of 5.5 was reached within around 3 h post mortem, but this value was 6.1 in animals that had suffered a preslaughter stress (transportation and fasting). The collagen and pigment contents varied widely among the muscles. The protein and pigment contents increased with animal age, but this effect was perceptible only between 6 and 14 months. The other chemical constituents were little affected by muscle type or animal age. The intense red colour of emu meat, due to a high pigment content, was very sensitive to oxidation, thus limiting the storage of fresh meat under aerobic conditions to short periods of time. Despite a rapid post-mortem tenderization (≤24 h), the residual myofibrillar strength obtained after extended ageing remained intermediate between those reported for chicken and beef. The tenderness of meat, cooked to 60 °C, differed between muscles and decreased with increasing age, thus reflecting the changes occuring in the concentration and in the heat stability of the intramuscular connective tissue.

  2. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  3. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  4. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P.; Langberg, Henning;

    2011-01-01

    Unaccustomed exercise leads to satellite cell proliferation and increased skeletal muscle protein turnover. Several growth factors and cytokines may be involved in the adaptive responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) negatively affect muscle regeneration and adaptation in animal...

  5. UnconStrained ShoUlder arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of 36unconstrained shoulder arthroplasties. Methods: In the series, 24 total and 12 hemiarthroplasties of the shoulders were performed with unconstrained shoulder prostheses in 29 patients who suffered from glenohumeral degenerative arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis and proximal fracture of humerus, respectively. Follow-up averaged 6.2years. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively using the rating system of the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons which assesses the severity of pain,strength of muscles around shoulder, stability, range of motion and functional activities of daily living. Radiolucent line and migration of prostheses were observed postoperatively on X-rays. Results: Postoperatively, the rate of pain relief was 91.3%, and active range of motion increased by 47° inforward flexion, 43° in abduction , 30° in external rotation,and 4 segments in internal rotation. Preoperatively the average points of 6 functional activities patients could perform was 0.8, and postoperatively 3.1. On postoperative X-ray, proximal migration of the humerus was seen in 8 shoulders, 6 of which had either a torn or absent rotator cuff. Radiolucent lines were seen around 1humeral component and 9 glenoid components. Onehumeral and 2 glenoid components loosened. Conclusions: These results suggest that unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty is a satisfactory and safe technique.

  6. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  7. 9. Painful shoulder complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Patijn, Jacob; Rohof, Olav; Lataster, Arno; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Van Zundert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Painful shoulder complaints have a high incidence and prevalence. The etiology is not always clear. Clinical history and the active and passive motion examination of the shoulder are the cornerstones of the diagnostic process. Three shoulder tests are important for the examination of shoulder complaints: shoulder abduction, shoulder external rotation, and horizontal shoulder adduction. These tests can guide the examiner to the correct diagnosis. Based on this diagnosis, in most cases, primarily a conservative treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possibly in combination with manual and/or exercise therapy can be started. When conservative treatment fails, injection with local anesthetics and corticosteroids can be considered. In the case of frozen shoulder, a continuous cervical epidural infusion of local anesthetic and small doses of opioids or a pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the nervus suprascapularis can be considered.

  8. What Are Shoulder Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tears are severe. Rotator Cuff Disease: Tendinitis and Bursitis In tendinitis of the shoulder, tendons become inflamed ( ... from being pinched by parts around the shoulder. Bursitis occurs when the bursa—a small fluid-filled ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, ... by almost ten years, is shoulders. So by definition, the average shoulder-replacement patient is almost ten ...

  10. Frozen shoulder - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shoulder level. Store food in cupboards, drawers, and refrigerator shelves that are between your waist and shoulder level. Get help with housecleaning, taking out the garbage, gardening, and other household tasks.

  11. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... case of reverse shoulder arthroplasty for cuff deficient arthritis. You should be aware that I helped design ... in the last decade for cuff deficient shoulder arthritis in the United States. The indications are a ...

  12. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  13. The nerves around the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alain, E-mail: alain.blum@gmail.com [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan.

  14. The nerves around the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan

  15. BTX-A administration to the target muscle affects forces of all muscles within an intact compartment and epimuscular myofascial force transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Can A; Emre Arıkan, Önder; Ateş, Filiz

    2012-11-01

    Measurement of forces of mono- and bi-articular muscles of an entire intact muscle compartment can allow for a comprehensive assessment of the effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) both at and beyond the injection site, and in conditions close to those in vivo. The goal was to test the hypotheses that BTX-A affects (1) the forces of not only the injected but also the noninjected muscles of the compartment, and (2) epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: Control (no BTX-A injected) and BTX (0.1 units of BTX-A were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA). Isometric forces were measured simultaneously at the distal tendons of the tibialis anterior (TA) at different lengths, the restrained extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles and at the proximal tendon of EDL. Five days post-injection, BTX-A did affect the total forces of all muscles significantly: (1) The TA force decreased differentially (by 46.6%-55.9%) for most lengths such that a significant negative correlation was found between force reductions and increased muscle length. The maximum TA force decreased by 47.3%. However, the muscle's length range of force production did not change significantly. (2) Distal and proximal EDL forces decreased (on average by 67.8% and 62.9%, respectively). (3) The EHL force also decreased (on average by 9.2%). The passive forces of only the TA showed a significant increase at higher lengths. EMFT effects were shown for the control group: (1) at the shortest TA lengths, the EDL proximo-distal force differences were in favor of the distal force, which was reversed at higher lengths. (2) the EHL force measured at the shortest TA length decreased (by 34%) as a function of TA lengthening. After BTX-A exposure, such EMFT effects disappeared for the EDL, whereas they remained as profound for the EHL. Exposure to BTX-A does affect forces of all muscles operating in an intact compartment. For

  16. Shoulder Problems in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, William G., Jr.

    A description is given of typical sport-related injuries to the shoulder area. These include: (1) brachial plexus injuries; (2) peripheral nerve injuries about the shoulder; (3) acromioclavicular injuries; (4) sternoclavicular injuries; (5) shoulder dislocations; (6) recurrent traumatic subluxation/dislocations; and (7) overuse injuries.…

  17. Shoulder instability; Schultergelenkinstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, J.; Imhof, H. [Abteilung Osteoradiologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria)

    2004-06-01

    Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.) [German] Die Schultergelenkinstabilitaet ist haeufig fuer wiederholt auftretende Schmerzen sowie eine eingeschraenkte Beweglichkeit im Glenohumeralgelenk verantwortlich. Sie kann als Folge eines vorangegangenen Traumas, einer generellen Hyperlaxitaet oder infolge wiederholter Mikrotraumen entstehen. Die Differenzierung zwischen traumatischer und atraumatischer Form der Gelenkinstabilitaet erfordert eine sorgfaeltige Anamnese und eine genaue klinische Untersuchung. Die Gelelenklaxitaet als Differenzialdiagnose muss von der echten Instabilitaet unterschieden werden, die Instabilitaet wird dann im Rahmen des klinischen Status nach Grad und Richtung der glenohumeralen Translation unterteilt. Zur Diagnose knoecherner Laesionen werden das konventionelle Roentgen sowie die CT herangezogen. MRT sowie MR-Arthrographie dienen zur Detektion

  18. [A strong man with a weak shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'. PMID:24326139

  19. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H;

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children.......Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...

  20. Rehabilitation of shoulder paresis caused by herpes zoster according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Gao; Yonghong Yang; Chengqi He; Shaxin Liu

    2011-01-01

    We describe the case of a 73-year-old man with left shoulder paresis caused by a herpes zoster infection of the left C5 dermatomes. The patient had been affected by pain for 10 days, a skin rash on his left shoulder and back for 5 days, and weakness of his left shoulder for 2 days before admission. Electromyography revealed denervation discharges from the left supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles, which was compatible with radiculopathy showing after zoster infection. The patient was examined in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and treated with range-of-movement and strengthening exercises as well as activities of daily living and social participation. At 14 months after the onset of the condition, muscle strength had returned to normal. Electromyography revealed that motor unit action potentials were largely normal. These results indicate that the rehabilitation of paresis caused by herpes zoster can obtain positive results with suitable movement training.

  1. Shoulder joint tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that joint tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, it is a disease entity that is very rare in Poland (less than 100 cases a year in the last 10 years). The symptoms are non-specific, and thus the disease is rarely taken into account in preliminary differential diagnosis. A 68-year-old female patient was admitted to the Internal Diseases Clinic due to oedema and pain of the right shoulder joint. The pain has been increasing for about 8 months. Physical examination revealed increased circumference and elevated temperature of the right shoulder joint. Limb function was retained. The full range of radiological and laboratory diagnostic examinations was performed, including the biopsy of the affected tissue which revealed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the bacterial culture. Clinical improvement was obtained after introduction of TB drugs. Radiological diagnostic methods (X-ray, CT scans, MRI scans) provide high precision monitoring of articular lesions. However, the decisive diagnosis requires additional laboratory tests as well as histopathological and bacteriological assays

  2. The painful shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The painful shoulder syndrome is very common. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis may be difficult. Shoulder pain may be caused by local processes or systemic diseases or can be referred. Periarthritis humeroscapularis (frozen shoulder) is the most common cause of painful shoulder syndrome. Biomechanical factors concerning the rotator cuff are involved in the etiopathogenesis of these pain syndromes. The therapy of frozen shoulder includes physical treatment, antirheumatic drugs, or X-ray treatment. Surgical measures may become necessary. In the course of rheumatoid arthritis the shoulder may be involved. Milwaukee-shoulder-syndrome has been described recently in crystal deposit diseases. Shoulder pain may be referred by mechanical irritations of nerve roots in the course of degenerative lesions of the cervical spine and also in the course of internal diseases of the heart, the lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract. In cases of shoulder pain without pathological data from arthrological, radiological or laboratory studies, one should always consider localized fibromyalgia in the shoulder-neck-region. The precise diagnosis of shoulder pain is an important prerequisite for treatment, the success of which should not be judged as pessimistic as it has been commonly done in the past. (orig.)

  3. Shoulder pain in primary care: frozen shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Angela; Mohammed, Khalid D

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that follows a protracted clinical course. We aim to review the management of patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder who are referred for specialist orthopaedic evaluation against existing guidelines in primary care. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Referrals and clinical records were reviewed for all patients referred for orthopaedic specialist assessment who received a specialist diagnosis of frozen shoulder. Diagnostic, investigation and management practices from a regional primary health care setting in New Zealand were compared with guideline-recommended management. RESULTS Eighty patients with frozen shoulder were referred for orthopaedic evaluation in the 13 month study period, mostly from general practice. Fifteen patients (19%) were identified as having a frozen shoulder in their medical referral. Most (99%) had received previous imaging. Seven patients (12%) had received guideline recommended treatment. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Education of all clinicians involved in patient management is important to ensure an understanding of the long natural history of frozen shoulder and provide reassurance that outcomes are generally excellent. HealthPathways now include more information regarding diagnosis, imaging and evidence-based management for frozen shoulder. LESSONS Frozen shoulder may be under-diagnosed among patients referred for orthopaedic review. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used and may identify occult and unrelated pathology in this age-group. When managed according to clinical guidelines, patients report significant clinical and functional improvement with most reporting 80% function compared with normal after 1 year. KEYWORDS Adhesive capsulitis; bursitis; injections; practice guideline; primary health care; ultrasound. PMID:27477374

  4. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  5. Acute Shoulder Injuries in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, James; Vredenburgh, Zachary; Korsh, Jeremy; Gatt, Charles

    2016-07-15

    Acute shoulder injuries in adults are often initially managed by family physicians. Common acute shoulder injuries include acromioclavicular joint injuries, clavicle fractures, glenohumeral dislocations, proximal humerus fractures, and rotator cuff tears. Acromioclavicular joint injuries and clavicle fractures mostly occur in young adults as the result of a sports injury or direct trauma. Most nondisplaced or minimally displaced injuries can be treated conservatively. Treatment includes pain management, short-term use of a sling for comfort, and physical therapy as needed. Glenohumeral dislocations can result from contact sports, falls, bicycle accidents, and similar high-impact trauma. Patients will usually hold the affected arm in their contralateral hand and have pain with motion and decreased motion at the shoulder. Physical findings may include a palpable humeral head in the axilla or a dimple inferior to the acromion laterally. Reduction maneuvers usually require intra-articular lidocaine or intravenous analgesia. Proximal humerus fractures often occur in older patients after a low-energy fall. Radiography of the shoulder should include a true anteroposterior view of the glenoid, scapular Y view, and axillary view. Most of these fractures can be managed nonoperatively, using a sling, early range-of-motion exercises, and strength training. Rotator cuff tears can cause difficulty with overhead activities or pain that awakens the patient from sleep. On physical examination, patients may be unable to hold the affected arm in an elevated position. It is important to recognize the sometimes subtle signs and symptoms of acute shoulder injuries to ensure proper management and timely referral if necessary. PMID:27419328

  6. Concept of healing of recurrent shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato D'Angelo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O'Dell and others.The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases.Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical–pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions.The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique.Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles.

  7. Movement training of shoulder after radical clearance of cervical lymph nodes on malignant tumor of maxillofacial region%颌面部恶性肿瘤根治性颈清扫术后肩部的运动训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪霞

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Radical clearance of cervical lymph nodes is an effective method to treat malignant tumor of maxillofacial region and prevent diffusion and relapses. But postoperative contour and dysfunction of shoulder due to dysfunction of trapezius muscle that is caused by injury of accessory nerve affect patients' living quality.

  8. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions...... training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training...... including jobs characterized by intensive computer work. The first 100 positive replies entered the study. Among these inclusion criteria were pain intensity in the neck/shoulder of at least 3 on a 0-9 scale. Exclusion criteria were cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease...

  9. Functional MR imaging study of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a functional MR study of the shoulder performed with the positioning in which patients were about to complain of shoulder pain. A 0.064-T permanent MR system was used. The effectiveness of this study was evaluated in the diagnosis of rotator cuff impingement syndrome. Thirteen patients (11 males and two female) were examined prospectively. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation coronal images were obtained with patients' arms at the maximal abduction. They were compared with images obtained while patients' arms were at their sides, chiefly from the viewpoint of severity of impingement and intensity change of the supraspinatus muscle

  10. Protein Turnover and Cellular Stress in Mildly and Severely Affected Muscles from Patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Vissing, John;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal...... stress were highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy....

  11. US of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty five healty people and 25 patients with shoulder pain underwent US control over a 12-month period: 24 patients with shoulder pain had rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon lesions. The US findings on rotator cuff and biceps tendon lesions are compared with those of arthrography and/or surgery (96% sensitivity). US is rapid, safe, non invasive, inexpensive and often more accurate, and its use is recommended for the routine examination of the shoulder joint insteat of arthrography

  12. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training with training supervision or to a reference group receiving advice to stay physically active. Shoulder function training primarily focuses on the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle with only minimal activation the upper trapezius. An announcement was sent to the administrative section of the university including jobs characterized by intensive computer work. The first 100 positive replies entered the study. Among these inclusion criteria were pain intensity in the neck/shoulder of at least 3 on a 0-9 scale. Exclusion criteria were cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease. Before and after the intervention period the participants replied to a questionnaire about musculoskeletal disorders and work disability, and underwent a standardized clinical examination of the neck and shoulder girdle. Further, on a weekly basis the participants log pain intensity of the neck and shoulder during the previous week. The primary outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 10 based on the weekly pain registration and results

  13. IL-6 signaling blockade increases inflammation but does not affect muscle function in the mdx mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostek Matthew C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates inflammatory responses and plays critical roles in muscle maintenance and remodeling. In the mouse model (mdx of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, IL-6 and muscle inflammation are elevated, which is believed to contribute to the chronic inflammation and failure of muscle regeneration in DMD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of blocking IL-6 signaling on the muscle phenotype including muscle weakness and pathology in the mdx mouse. Methods A monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor (IL-6r mAb that blocks local and systemic IL-6 signaling was administered to mdx and BL-10 mice for 5 weeks and muscle function, histology, and inflammation were examined. Results IL-6r mAb treatment increased mdx muscle inflammation including total inflammation score and ICAM-1 positive lumens in muscles. There was no significant improvement in muscle strength nor muscle pathology due to IL-6r mAb treatment in mdx mice. Conclusions These results showed that instead of reducing inflammation, IL-6 signaling blockade for 5 weeks caused an increase in muscle inflammation, with no significant change in indices related to muscle regeneration and muscle function. The results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory instead of the original hypothesized pro-inflammatory role of IL-6 signaling in the mdx mice.

  14. Using your shoulder after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder pain Patient Instructions Rotator cuff exercises Rotator cuff - self-care Shoulder surgery - discharge Update Date 11/26/2014 Updated ...

  15. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  16. Effect of exercise at light loads with manipulative resistance on infraspinatus, trapezius (upper fiber) and deltoid (middle fiber) muscle activities in shoulder joint elevation

    OpenAIRE

    Nanba, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Shigenori; Takemasa, Seiichi; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Ootani, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Shun; Hirotsu, Takaaki; Tanaka, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify rotator cuff muscular activity in the raised position of the closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise. [Subjects] Twenty-nine cases were studied, 19 men and 10 women (average age 21.5 ±4.7 years old, average body weight 60.1 kg ±11.4). [Methods] To determine the effects of the closed kinetic chain exercise on the upper limb, we measured the surface EMG of the infraspinatus muscle, the trapezius (upper fiber) and the deltoid (middle fiber) with the arm elevated. [Results] Our r...

  17. Reducing Shoulder by Vertical Traction: A One-Man Method for Shoulder Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of joint dislocations reported to the emergency department are of shoulder joint. Various techniques are used to reduce the shoulder and Spaso technique is the least known to the orthopaedic residents which is a simple one-man vertical traction method of shoulder reduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of vertical traction method for anterior shoulder dislocation by orthopaedic residents. Sixty consecutive patients of anterior glenohumeral dislocation attending the emergency department of our hospital were taken up for the study. The reduction was done using Spaso technique. Right shoulder was dislocated in 40 patients and 31 patients had recurrent shoulder dislocation. In 55 patients, shoulder was reduced without the use of any anaesthesia. In patients where no anaesthesia was used, the time of traction ranged from 45 seconds to 5 minutes, while under anaesthesia the time of traction ranged from 1 to 4 minutes. Twenty-one patients had associated greater tuberosity fracture which did not affect the method of reduction and all of them were reducible. No complication was reported, and all the patients were satisfied with the method. In conclusion vertical traction method is a good technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocation with an easy learning curve among the residents and no complication has been reported so far.

  18. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallanagouda N Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand. He complained of pain and difficulty in moving both the shoulders. On clinical examination, patient’s both upper limbs were abducted and externally rotated. Bilaterally shoulder contour was lost with flattening. Other classical signs of shoulder dislocation viz, Bryants test, Callway sign, Hamilton’s ruler test were positive. Diagnosis was confirmed on X rays. Both shoulders were reduced in emergency operation theater under general anaesthesia by Kocher’s method and were immobilised in sling. Conclusion: Though bilateral shoulder dislocations are commonly posterior, usually either secondary to convulsions or electric shock, anterior dislocation has to be kept in mind , especially in post traumatic injuries. This bilateral dislocation also presents with practical problems immobilization and day to day care of patients. Keywords: Simultaneous, bilateral, shoulder dislocation, traumatic.

  19. Testing procedures for SLAP lesions of the shoulder involving contraction and torsion of biceps long head and glenohumeral glides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sumeer; Watson, Lyn; Taylor, Nicholas F; Green, Rodney A; Hairodin, Zaki

    2011-11-01

    Testing procedures for SLAP lesions of the shoulder can combine resisted elbow flexion, forearm pronation and supination, and glenohumeral glides. These procedures reproduce symptoms by increasing biceps long head active tension or passive torsion, and by placing the shoulder in an unstable position. We compared activation of biceps long head and pain intensity, between supinated and pronated forearm positions, between different glides, and between individuals with and without shoulder impairment. A case control study. Twelve participants with suspected SLAP lesions and twelve with no history of shoulder injury volunteered. Electromyography measured muscle activity in biceps long head, normalised against maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Subjective pain intensity scores were recorded. Biceps long head activity was greater in forearm supination (mean 39% MVIC) than pronation (mean 24% MVIC), but pain was higher in pronation (mean 4.5/10) than supination (3.2/10). Biceps long head activity was greater when testing without a glide, but there was no difference in pain comparing the glide conditions. The impaired group experienced more pain (mean 3.9/10) than controls (mean 0.3/10) but there was no difference in shoulder muscle activity. No one combination of testing procedures appeared to be diagnostic of SLAP lesions in our sample. This study supports the theory that biceps long head acts as a stabiliser of the shoulder, and suggests that clinical testing procedures for SLAP lesions may need to inhibit biceps long head activity. The addition of glides to SLAP testing procedures did not affect the reproduction of pain.

  20. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  1. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (Putilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  2. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik; Jensen, Line;

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2......-4 days) of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1a and PGC-1ß (1-4 days) and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days). Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days) of immobilization. In contrast...

  3. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  4. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  5. Work related shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.;

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three.......39) for supraspinatus tendinitis, 1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.24) for shoulder pain with disability, and 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.13) for shoulder pain without disability. The outcomes were not related to duration of employment in one of the three trades. Conclusions: Quantitative exposure-response relations were established...... between current work with highly elevated arms and clinically verified shoulder disorders. Substantial long term cumulative effects were not shown. A potential for primary prevention was revealed....

  6. MRI of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become available at a time in which shoulder pathology is more frequently seen. It is a noninvasive procedure that does not use ionizing radiation. It provides detailed visualization of soft-tissue structures that is not possible with other imaging modalities. Though not as widely available as conventional radiographs or computed tomography scanning, the number of MRI units worldwide is increasing steadily. The main features of the present book are as follows: The physical basis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), normal shoulder anatomy and MRI, diagnosis of shoulder disorders, MRI of patients with shoulder pain or instability, case studies as well as treatment of shoulder disorders. (orig./MG) With 145 figs

  7. Has the management of shoulder dislocation changed over time?

    OpenAIRE

    Chalidis, Byron; Sachinis, Nick; Dimitriou, Christos; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Samoladas, Efthimios; Pournaras, John

    2006-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocation is a disabling injury affecting all ages, young and old alike. Recently, the treatment of traumatic shoulder dislocation has included immobilisation for varying periods of time followed by physiotherapy. This study is the first in this country to address the demographic data and recurrence rates of shoulder dislocation. Three hundred and eight patients (170 men and 138 women) were followed up for an average of 5.9 years. The most frequent mechanism of injury was ...

  8. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-01-01

    Background In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. Objective The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. Method This study is a retrospective analysis set a...

  9. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  10. Cyclosporin-A does not affect skeletal muscle mass during disuse and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Aoki

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressive drug that acts as an inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium phosphatase that has been suggested to play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of CsA administration (25 mg kg-1 day-1 on skeletal muscle mass and phenotype during disuse and recovery. Male Wistar rats received vehicle (N = 8 or CsA (N = 8 during hind limb immobilization (N = 8 and recovery (N = 8. Muscle weight (dry/wet and cross-sectional area were evaluated to verify the effect of CsA treatment on muscle mass. Muscle phenotype was assessed by histochemistry of myosin ATPase. CsA administration during immobilization and recovery did not change muscle/body weight ratio in the soleus (SOL or plantaris (PL. Regarding muscle phenotype, we observed a consistent slow-to-fast shift in all experimental groups (immobilized only, receiving CsA only, and immobilized receiving CsA as compared to control in both SOL and PL (P < 0.05. During recovery, no difference was observed in SOL or PL fiber type composition between the experimental recovered group and recovered group receiving CsA compared to their respective controls. Considering the muscle/body weight ratio, CsA administration does not maximize muscle mass loss induced by immobilization. Our results also indicate that CsA fails to block skeletal muscle regrowth after disuse. The present data suggest that calcineurin inhibition by CsA modulates muscle phenotype rather than muscle mass.

  11. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Suetta

    Full Text Available Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2-4 days of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days. Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days of immobilization. In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was unchanged in old muscle after 2 days and increased after 4 days of immobilization. Further, an age-specific down-regulation of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 expression levels was observed following 2 weeks of immobilization, along with a slowing atrophy response in aged skeletal muscle. Neither the immediate loss of muscle mass, nor the subsequent age-differentiated signaling responses could be explained by changes in inflammatory mediators, apoptosis markers or autophagy indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that the time-course and regulation of human skeletal muscle atrophy is age dependent, leading to an attenuated loss in aging skeletal muscle when exposed to longer periods of immobility-induced disuse.

  12. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks in the management of shoulder dislocations.

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, T J; Wan, A; Morrice, M

    1989-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block is a simple and effective alternative to intravenous benzodiazepines or general anaesthesia for manipulation of the dislocated shoulder. Thirty interscalene brachial plexus blocks were performed on 29 patients with dislocations of the shoulder to provide regional anaesthesia for reduction. Pain was abolished by 14 out of the 30 blocks performed, improved by 13 and unchanged by three. Muscle relaxation (MRC grade 3 or less) occurred in 21 patients. In 26 case...

  13. Shoulder instability; Schulterinstabilitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Mainiz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-06-15

    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  14. Folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affects the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    Full Text Available Folate deficiency (FD during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying

  15. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways. PMID:26019234

  16. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, P.; Deidda, M.A.; Iamundo de Curtis, I.; Deiana, E.; Farigu, R.; Lay, G.; Porru, S. [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radio-Oncology

    2013-11-15

    Background and purpose: A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. Patients and methods: A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20 medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. Results: PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 {+-} 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 {+-} 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 {+-} 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. Conclusion: The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease. (orig.)

  17. Bi-tangential hybrid IMRT for sparing the shoulder in whole breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A bi-tangential technique is proposed to reduce undesired doses to the shoulder produced by standard tangential irradiation. Patients and methods: A total of 6 patients affected by shoulder pain and reduced functional capacity after whole-breast irradiation were retrospectively analysed. The standard tangential plan used for treatment was compared with (1) a single bi-tangential plan where, to spare the shoulder, the lateral open tangent was split into two half-beams at isocentre, with the superior portion rotated by 10-20 medially with respect to the standard lateral beam; (2) a double bi-tangential plan, where both the tangential open beams were split. The planning target volume (PTV) coverage and the dose to the portion of muscles and axilla included in the standard tangential beams were compared. Results: PTV95 % of standard plan (91.9 ± 3.8) was not significantly different from single bi-tangential plan (91.8 ± 3.4); a small but significant (p < 0.01) decrease was observed with the double bi-tangential plan (90.1 ± 3.7). A marked dose reduction to the muscle was produced by the single bi-tangential plan around 30-40 Gy. The application of the double bi-tangential technique further reduced the volume receiving around 20 Gy, but did not markedly affect the higher doses. The dose to the axilla was reduced both in the single and the double bi-tangential plans. Conclusion: The single bi-tangential technique would have been able to reduce the dose to shoulder and axilla, without compromising target coverage. This simple technique is valuable for irradiation after axillary lymph node dissection or in patients without dissection due to negative or low-volume sentinel lymph node disease. (orig.)

  18. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) deficiency affects energy metabolism pattern in murine oxidative skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momken, Iman; Fortin, Dominique; Serrurier, Bernard; Bigard, Xavier; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Veksler, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative capacity of muscles correlates with capillary density and with microcirculation, which in turn depend on various regulatory factors, including NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To determine the role of eNOS in patterns of regulation of energy metabolism in various muscles, we studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in saponin-permeabilized fibres as well as the energy metabolism enzyme profile in the cardiac, soleus (oxidative) and gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles isolated from mice lacking eNOS (eNOS(-/-)). In soleus muscle, the absence of eNOS induced a marked decrease in both basal mitochondrial respiration without ADP (-32%; P <0.05) and maximal respiration in the presence of ADP (-29%; P <0.05). Furthermore, the eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle showed a decrease in total creatine kinase (-29%; P <0.05), citrate synthase (-31%; P <0.01), adenylate kinase (-27%; P <0.05), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (-43%; P <0.01) and pyruvate kinase (-26%; P <0.05) activities. The percentage of myosin heavy chains I (slow isoform) was significantly increased from 24.3+/-1.5% in control to 30.1+/-1.1% in eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle ( P <0.05) at the expense of a slight non-significant decrease in the three other (fast) isoforms. Besides, eNOS(-/-) soleus showed a 28% loss of weight. Interestingly, we did not find differences in any parameters in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscles compared with respective controls. These results show that eNOS knockout has an important effect on muscle oxidative capacity as well on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes in oxidative (soleus) muscle. The absence of such effects in cardiac and glycolytic (gastrocnemius) muscle suggests a specific role for eNOS-produced NO in oxidative skeletal muscle. PMID:12123418

  19. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis affects myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in meat-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestun, Yogev; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of 39.5°C applied during mid-embryogenesis (embryonic d 7 to 16) has been proven to promote muscle development and enhance muscle growth and meat production in meat-type chickens. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular basis for this effect. Continuous TM or intermittent TM (for 12 h/d) increased myoblast proliferation manifested by higher (25 to 48%) myoblast number in the pectoral muscles during embryonic development but also during the first week posthatch. Proliferation ability of the pectoral-muscle-derived myoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in the TM treatments until embryonic d 15 (intermittent TM) or 13 (continuous TM) compared to that of controls, suggesting increased myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle. However, the proliferation ability of myoblasts was lower in the TM treatments vs. control during the last days of incubation. This coincided with higher levels of myogenin expression in the muscle, indicating enhanced cell differentiation in the TM muscle. A similar pattern was observed posthatch: Myoblast proliferation was significantly higher in the TM chicks relative to controls during the peak of posthatch cell proliferation until d 6, followed by lower cell number 2 wk posthatch as myoblast number sharply decreases. Higher myogenin expression was observed in the TM chicks on d 6. This resulted in increased muscle growth, manifested by significantly higher relative weight of breast muscle in the embryo and posthatch. It can be concluded that temperature elevation during mid-term embryogenesis promotes myoblast proliferation, thus increasing myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle, resulting in enhanced muscle growth in the embryo and posthatch.

  20. Changing the demand on specific muscle groups affects the walk-run transition speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jamie L; Kram, Rodger

    2008-04-01

    It has been proposed that muscle-specific factors trigger the human walk-run transition. We investigated if changing the demand on trigger muscles alters the preferred walk-run transition speed. We hypothesized that (1) reducing the demand on trigger muscles would increase the transition speed and (2) increasing the demand on trigger muscles would decrease the transition speed. We first determined the normal preferred walk-run transition speed (PTS) using a step-wise protocol with a randomized speed order. We then determined PTS while subjects walked with external devices that decreased or increased the demand on specific muscle groups. We concurrently measured the electromyographic activity of five leg muscles (tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) at each speed and condition. For this study, we developed a dorsiflexor assist device that aids the dorsiflexor muscles. A leg swing assist device applied forward pulling forces at the feet thus aiding the hip flexors during swing. A third device applied a horizontal force near the center of mass, which impedes or aids forward progression thus overloading or unloading the plantarflexor muscles. We found that when demand was decreased in the muscles measured, the PTS significantly increased. Conversely, when muscle demand was increased in the plantar flexors, the PTS decreased. However, combining assistive devices did not produce an even faster PTS. We conclude that altering the demand on specific muscles can change the preferred walk-run transition speed. However, the lack of a summation effect with multiple external devices, suggests that another underlying factor ultimately determines the preferred walk-run transition speed.

  1. Motor physical therapy affects muscle collagen type I and decreases gait speed in dystrophin-deficient dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P Gaiad

    Full Text Available Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre and t1 (post-physical therapy, collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy, mediolateral (Fz and craniocaudal (Fx ground reaction forces (GRF were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000. The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function.

  2. Painful/unstable shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography of the painful/unstable shoulder that was evaluated in more than 300 patients. We have encountered a great variety of painful shoulder pathology, including impingement syndrome, cuff tear arthropathy, lesions of the long head of the biceps tendon, calcifying tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, dead arm syndrome, and degenerative joint disease. Lesions related to instability include cases of capsular avulsions, disruption of the glenohumeral ligaments, labral pathology, glenoid fractures, Hill-Sachs lesions, and changes in glenoid angulation. CT-arthrography is an accurate exploration for both unstable and painful shoulders

  3. Percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (P-NMES) for treating shoulder pain in chronic hemiplegia. Effects on shoulder pain and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (P-NMES) of the shoulder muscles on shoulder pain intensity and health-related quality of life in chronic hemiplegia. Design: Prospective, open label design. Setting: The outpatient services of a large teachin

  4. Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder to Investigate the Mechanical Responses and Injuries in Side Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Yang, King H.

    Previous studies in both fields of automotive safety and orthopedic surgery have hypothesized that immobilization of the shoulder caused by the shoulder injury could be related to multiple rib fractures, which are frequently life threatening. Therefore, for more effective occupant protection, it is important to understand the relationship between shoulder injury and multiple rib fractures in side impact. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to understand this relationship. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder. The model also included approaches to represent bone fractures and joint dislocations. The relationships between shoulder injury and immobilization of the shoulder are discussed using model responses for lateral shoulder impact. It is also discussed how the injury can be related to multiple rib fractures.

  5. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  6. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per;

    2008-01-01

    6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N.m). No...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis was...... increased in the previously immobilized leg. Thus 2 wk of immobilization are sufficient to induce significant changes in muscle tissue, whereas tendon tissue seems to be more resistant to short-term immobilization....

  7. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per;

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remain...

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... N. DOUGLAS BOARDMAN III, MD: That's an occupational hazard of shoulder surgery. 00:50:53 GERALD WILLIAMS, MD: That's an occupational hazard. I'm going to become disabled at some ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  10. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to longevity of total shoulders versus hips and knees. 00:46:20 GERALD WILLIAMS, MD: Well, obviously, ... ten years younger than the average hip or knee replacement patient. But if you look at the ...

  11. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en because of implant loosening, wear, infection, and dislocation. When this occurs, a second joint replacement surgery — called a revision surgery — may be necessary. Is Shoulder Joint Replacement for You? The decision to have ...

  12. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you can use for reverse shoulder replacement. The standard delto-pectoral approach, or the superior approach, which ... that are different between a reverse and a standard total is, first of all, we don't ...

  13. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is tight, in terms of tension? What's your thinking on that? Well, when we originally started doing ... learn about shoulder replacement. You can do a skills course at the learning center that the academy ...

  14. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We had a question with regard to physical therapy after total shoulder arthroplasty: expectations and limitations. 00: ... opposite. We don't -- we do hardly any therapy at all to reverse. With reverse patients, they ...

  15. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here in New York to bring you a video of a recent case of reverse shoulder arthroplasty ... helped design the system that's shown in this video, so I receive royalties and therefore have a ...

  16. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shoulder arthroplasty. Before we go to Dr. Williams, I'd like to encourage viewers to feel free ... utilizing the buttons on your screen. And now I'll turn it over to Dr. Williams. 00: ...

  17. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with an intact cuff, we would consider a traditional shoulder replacement. There are two basic approaches you ... less limited with the superior reverse versus the traditional. And I assume the question means the approach: ...

  18. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., a shoulder specialist from the Rothman ... That might help. Could you raise the O.R. table, please? 00:28:35 WOMAN: Can you ...

  19. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD: This is Doug Boardman from Richmond, Virginia. We're here at Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia, where ... will be performing a total shoulder arthroplasty. Before we go to Dr. Williams, I'd like to ...

  20. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient is a 78-year-old male who has osteoarthritis of his left shoulder. If you look ... does not have a really big inferior osteophyte. Has a little bit of proximal migration and even ...

  1. SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Geraldo Motta; Galvão, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Cohen, Marcio; Brandão, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The study's objective is to evaluate the characteristics and problems of patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasties between July 2004 and November 2006. Methodology: During the period of the study, 145 shoulder arthroplasties were performed. A prospective protocol was used for every patient; demographic, clinical and surgical procedure data were collected. All gathered data were included in the data base. The patients were divided in three major groups: fractures, degenerative diseases and trauma sequels. Information obtained from the data base was correlated in order to determine patients' epidemiologic, injuries, and surgical procedure profiles. Results: Of the 145 shoulder arthroplasties performed, 37% presented trauma sequels, 30% degenerative diseases, and 33% proximal humerus fracture. 12% of the cases required total arthroplasties and 88% partial arthroplasties. Five major complications were observed on early postoperative period. Conclusion: Shoulder arthroplasties have become a common procedure in orthopaedic practice. Surgical records are important in evidencing progressive evolution and in enabling future clinical outcomes evaluation. PMID:26998463

  2. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be performing a total shoulder arthroplasty. Before we go to Dr. Williams, I'd like to encourage ... It's always a question about how deep we go with this osteotomy. I tend to go almost ...

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  4. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... WILLIAMS, MD: The patients that have a total shoulder replacement will come in on their first postoperative visit and tell you their pain's gone. The hemi arthroplasty without interposition will come ...

  5. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... option in the last decade for cuff deficient shoulder arthritis in the United States. The indications are a patient with painful arthritis, absent rotator cuff, a less demanding occupation ...

  6. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail

  7. Radiotherapy for shoulder impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: Up to now, degenerative shoulder diseases were summarized by the term ''periarthritis humeroscapularis''. Actual shoulder diseases can be differentiated etiopathologically according to a primary and secondary impingement syndrome. Narrowing of the subacromial space, which is caused by an osseous shape variant, leads to primary impingement. Secondary impingement develops, when the subacromial space is reduced by swelling tissue below the osseous shoulder roof. This study aimed for the exact diagnosis to indicate therapy and to classify the results according to the Constant score. Patients and Methods: From August 1999 to September 2002, 102 patients with 115 shoulder joint conditions underwent radiation therapy (RT). All joints received two RT series (6 x 0.5 Gy/series) applied in two to three weekly fractions, totaling a dosage of 6.0 Gy (250 kV, 15 mAs, 1-mm Cu filter). The second RT course started 6 weeks after the end of the first. 115 shoulders were examined before RT, 6 weeks after the second RT course and, finally, during the follow-up from January to May 2003. Results: Pain relief was achieved in 94/115 shoulder joints (82%) after 18-month follow-up (median). A significant difference existed between secondary impingement and primary/non-impingement according to response. Tendinosis calcarea, bursitis subdeltoidea, tendovaginitis of the long biceps tendon, and capsulitis adhaesiva responded well to therapy. Conclusion: Shoulder diseases of secondary impingement demonstrate a good response to RT. Less or no benefit was found in primary impingement syndrome or complete rotator cuff disruption and acute shoulder injuries, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Pulsed Ultrasound Does Not Affect Recovery From Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of pulsed Ultrasound (US in recovery from Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy male athletes (mean age 23.83±1.697 year performed an eccentric exercise protocol of non-dominant elbow flexors to induce muscle soreness on 2 occasions separated by 3 weeks. Subjects in experimental group received pulsed US (1 MHz, intensity 0.8 W/cm2, mark space ratio 1:10, whereas control group received sham US after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Perception of muscle soreness, active ROM and muscle strength were the parameters measured at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h with the help of VAS, manual goniometer and JONEX muscles master instrument respectively. Results: Post hoc t test analysis revealed significant differences (p <0.05 between 0 h and 72 h in the parameter of ROM (t = 6.18 and muscle power (t = 2.54 as well as between 24 h and 48 h in the parameter of muscle soreness (t = 3.13 in control group. Similar differences were also observed in the experimental group. No significant inter-group differences at α level of 0.05 was observed in any parameter at any level. Conclusion: The pattern of recovery from DOMS was not influenced by the application of pulsed Ultrasound at the parameters discussed here.

  9. Effect of Gender, Disease Duration and Treatment on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirak, Gülsenay; Cejvanovic, Sanja; Andersen, Henning; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study was to quantify the potential presence of muscle weakness among patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG). The influence of gender, treatment intensity and disease duration on muscle strength and disease progression was also assessed. Methods Muscle strength was tested in 8 muscle groups by manual muscle testing and by hand-held dynamometry in 107 patients with gMG and 89 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Disease duration, severity and treatment history were reviewed and compared with muscle strength. Results Patients had reduced strength in all tested muscle group compared to control subjects (p<0.05). Women with gMG were stronger than men (decrease in strength 22.6% vs. 32.7% in men, P<0.05). Regional differences in muscle weakness were also evident, with proximal muscles being more affected. Interestingly, muscle strength did not correlate with disease duration and treatment intensity. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with gMG; 1) there is significant muscle weakness, 2) muscle weakness is more pronounced in men than women, 3) shoulder abductors, hip flexors, and neck muscles are the most affected muscle groups and 4) disease duration or treatment intensity alone are not predictors of loss of muscle strength in gMG. PMID:27741232

  10. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P;

    2009-01-01

    of either rhTNF-alpha (700 ng.m(-2).h(-1)) or 20% human albumin (Control) which was the vehicle of rhTNF-alpha. Systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover were estimated by a combination of tracer dilution methodology (primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(15)N......-leucine], with prime of L-[ring-(2)H4]tyrosine), femoral arterial-venous differences over the leg and muscle biopsies. Results: Plasma TNF-alpha concentration rapidly increased from basal levels of approximately 0.7 to 17 pg.mL(-1) with rhTNF-alpha infusion. Whole body protein synthesis, breakdown and net degradation...... with the phenylalanine 3-compartment model showed similar muscle synthesis, breakdown and net muscle degradation after 2 hours basal and after 4 hours Control or rhTNF-alpha infusion. Conclusion: This study is the first to show in humans that TNF-alpha does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, when...

  11. The Painful Shoulder: Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Yousaf; Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Malal, Joby; Waseem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff disorders are considered to be among the most common causes of shoulder pain and disability encountered in both primary and secondary care. The general pathology of subacromial impingment generally relates to a chronic repetitive process in which the conjoint tendon of the rotator cuff undergoes repetitive compression and micro trauma as it passes under the coracoacromial arch. However acute traumatic injuries may also lead to this condition. Diagnosis remains a clinical one, how...

  12. Diagnosis of shoulder instability in dogs and cats: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glenohumeral joint is a remarkable articulation providing the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body. Glenohumeral stabilityresults from several mechanisms, including those that do not require expenditure of energy by muscle ('''passive mechanisms'') and those that do (''active mechanisms''). Glenohumeral instability has been recognized in 47 shoulders of 45 dogs and one cat. Cases are presented because of chronic foreleg lameness. Shoulder joint pain is obviated by theorthopedic examination. Only 57% of the involved shoulders presented with degenerative joint disease. Signs of instability are recognized under anesthesia using a craniocaudal or mediolateral drawer sign or both. This report describes the radiographic and arthroscopic findings of shoulder instability. Arthroscopy of the shoulder joint allows identification of all intra-articular pathologies. Shoulder instability notfully recognized in the past, appears to be the most common cause of shoulder lameness in the dog

  13. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B;

    2001-01-01

    three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf...... muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of...... leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect....

  14. Feeding modality affects muscle protein deposition by influencing protein synthesis, but not degradation in muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs can serve as dual-use models for nutrition research in animal agriculture and biomedical fields. To determine how feeding modality by either intermittent bolus or continuous schedule affects protein anabolism and catabolism, neonatal pigs (n = 6/group, 9-d-old) were overnight fasted (F...

  15. 缝纫女工颈肩部肌肉的表面肌电研究%A field study on the work load and muscle fatigue at neck-shoulder in female sewing machine operators by using surface electromyography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张非若; 王生; 何丽华; 张颖; 武珊珊; 李静芸; 胡广义; 叶康平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study neck and shoulder work-related muscle fatigue of female sewing machine operators. Methods 18 health female sewing machine operators without musculoskeletal disorders work in Beijing garment industry factory as volunteers in participate of this study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 20% MVC of bilateral upper trapezium and cervical erectors spinae was tested before sewing operations, then the whole 20 time windows (ltime window=10 min) sewing machine operations was monitored and the surface electromyography( sEMG ) signals simultaneously was recorded after monitoring the 20%MVC was tested. Use amplitude analysis method to reduction recorded EMG signals. Results During work,the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezium(LUT) and right upper trapezium(RUT) respectively was 6.78±1.05, 6.94±1.12, 5.68±2.56 and 6.47±3.22, work load of right is higher than the left; static load analysis indicated the value of RMS20%MVC before work was higher than that value after work, the increase of right CES and UT RMS20%MVC was more; the largest 20%MVE of bilateral CES occurred at 20th time window, and that of bilateral UT happened at 16th. Conclusions The work load of female sewing machine operators is sustained "static" load, and work load of right neck-shoulder is higher than left, right neck-shoulder muscle is more fatigable and much serious once fatigued.%目的 研究缝纫女工颈肩部工作负荷和肌肉疲劳情况.方法 使用表面肌电图技术现场测量并记录18名健康的无肌肉骨骼疾患的缝纫机操作女工日常工作期间200 min(每时段10 min,20个时段)双侧颈竖脊肌(CES)和斜方肌上支(UT)的肌电信号.现场测定之前,分别测定被测试者双侧CES和UT的最大随意自主收缩和20%最大随意自主收缩(the maximal voluntary contraction,MVC)时的肌电信号;被测试者工作结束后测量其双侧CES和UT的20

  16. Increased uncoupling protein 3 content does not affect mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.K.C.; Greenhaff, P L; Constantin-Teodosu, D.; Hultman, E; Saris, W. H. M.; Nieuwlaat, R.; Schaart, G.; Kornips, C.F.P.; P. Schrauwen

    2003-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensitive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle PCr stores. Exercise was performed following 7 days consumption of low-fat (L...

  17. Deletion of Dicer in smooth muscle affects voiding pattern and reduces detrusor contractility and neuroeffector transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjaneh Karbalaei Sadegh

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of smooth muscle phenotype and may play important roles in pathogenesis of various smooth muscle related disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs for urinary bladder function. We used an inducible and smooth muscle specific Dicer knockout (KO mouse which resulted in significantly reduced levels of miRNAs, including miR-145, miR-143, miR-22, miR125b-5p and miR-27a, from detrusor preparations without mucosa. Deletion of Dicer resulted in a disturbed micturition pattern in vivo and reduced depolarization-induced pressure development in the isolated detrusor. Furthermore, electrical field stimulation revealed a decreased cholinergic but maintained purinergic component of neurogenic activation in Dicer KO bladder strips. The ultrastructure of detrusor smooth muscle cells was well maintained, and the density of nerve terminals was similar. Western blotting demonstrated reduced contents of calponin and desmin. Smooth muscle α-actin, SM22α and myocardin were unchanged. Activation of strips with exogenous agonists showed that depolarization-induced contraction was preferentially reduced; ATP- and calyculin A-induced contractions were unchanged. Quantitative real time PCR and western blotting demonstrated reduced expression of Cav1.2 (Cacna1c. It is concluded that smooth muscle miRNAs play an important role for detrusor contractility and voiding pattern of unrestrained mice. This is mediated in part via effects on expression of smooth muscle differentiation markers and L-type Ca(2+ channels in the detrusor.

  18. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Longissimus dorsi Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Jeon, Young-Joo; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Kim, Seok-Ho; Jeong, Jin Young; Kang, Hyun-sung; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S.; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat

  19. Skeletal muscle strength in older adults. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE genotype affects: an UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PEREIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement : Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with variability inthe skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations.Approach: The purpose of this study was to review the most important studies that have been exanimate thepossible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and femaleathletes involved in elderly populations. This research is needed because the possibility that the DD genotypemay be associated with a greater proportion of fast twitch fibers could explain the influence of the ACE D alleleupon strength/ power, particularly at high velocities, but this evidence remains equivocal in older people becausemore studies are necessary.Results: Thus, according to scientific evidence, changes in muscle strength with exercise training in olderindividuals may be dependent on ACE I/D genotype. Of note, the results provide a novel insight that thesegenetic variations may interact to determine muscle mass in older women specially. The determination of thispredisposition in this population, highlighting the interest of study, for the prophylactic attitude on the factorsand causes of aging (sarcopenia, osteoporosis, risk of falls, reduction of functional physical go through thisanalysis.Conclusions/Recommendations: In this work, the state of the art related to the influence of the ACE genotypeon skeletal muscle strength was presented and some important relations were reported

  20. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertius Abraham Kohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB (n = 9 or Vastus lateralis (VL (n = 8 were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10. All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%. Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%. In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients.

  1. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham; Noakes, Timothy David; Rae, Dale Elizabeth; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Pinós, Tomas; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquin; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease) were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB) (n = 9) or Vastus lateralis (VL) (n = 8) were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10). All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%). Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%). In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients. PMID:25432515

  2. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin(-/-) mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7(+) muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  3. Myositis ossificans around shoulder following military training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa C Kir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The myositis ossificans around shoulder in military recruits are not reported yet. Three young male soldiers presented with complaints of palpable mass at the anterior aspect of shoulder; tenderness around the superior part of deltopectoral groove close to acromioclavicular joint; and restriction of shoulder motion. They also noticed ecchymosis and pain around the coracoid process and anterior shoulder region during regular firing exercises. Plain X-rays and computerized tomography showed extra-capsular, dense, irregular structure in the space between pectoralis and deltoid muscles which correlated with heterotopic bone. One patient refused surgical intervention because of the completion of his military serving period. Surgical excision was performed for the other two patients. During surgical exploration, both ossified masses were found in deltopectoral region and mostly in fibers of clavicular and acromial parts of deltoid muscle. Pathological reports confirmed the structure of masses as mature trabecular bone. Postoperatively indomethacin treatment and active shoulder exercises were started until the full range of motion was regained. Mini soft bag was used on the rifle contact area of the shoulder. No complications or recurrences were observed during the 24 months of followup period.

  4. Effect of Targeted Strength, Endurance, and Coordination Exercise on Neck and Shoulder Pain Among Fighter Pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Toft, Palle; Myburgh, Corrie;

    2013-01-01

    : To explore in Danish F-16 pilots: (1) the effect on neck and shoulder pain of a 24-week training intervention including targeted training of the deep neck muscles; (2) selected clinical signs and symptoms at baseline; (3) the prevalence and intensity of neck and shoulder pain....

  5. Physical capacity in relation to low back, neck, or shoulder pain in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg - Reenen, H.H. van; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between physical capacity (isokinetic lifting strength, static endurance of the back, neck, and shoulder muscles, and mobility of the spine) and low back, neck, and shoulder pain. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 1789 Dutch workers participate

  6. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma....... Maximal jump height increased by 7.8% ± 6.3% (P knee extension MVC (7.9% ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9% ± 9.6%) (both P ... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque...

  7. Androgens affect muscle, motor neuron, and survival in a mouse model of SOD1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Tanya; Polanco, Maria J; Scaramuzzino, Chiara; Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Emionite, Laura; Ognio, Emanuela; Sambataro, Fabio; Galbiati, Mariarita; Poletti, Angelo; Pennuto, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest the involvement of androgens in ALS pathogenesis, but the mechanism through which androgens modify the ALS phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that androgen ablation by surgical castration extends survival and disease duration of a transgenic mouse model of ALS expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1-G93A). Furthermore, long-term treatment of orchiectomized hSOD1-G93A mice with nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid, worsened disease manifestations. ND treatment induced muscle fiber hypertrophy but caused motor neuron death. ND negatively affected survival, thereby dissociating skeletal muscle pathology from life span in this ALS mouse model. Interestingly, orchiectomy decreased androgen receptor levels in the spinal cord and muscle, whereas ND treatment had the opposite effect. Notably, stimulation with ND promoted the recruitment of endogenous androgen receptor into biochemical complexes that were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, a finding consistent with protein aggregation. Overall, our results shed light on the role of androgens as modifiers of ALS pathogenesis via dysregulation of androgen receptor homeostasis.

  8. [Leading symptom shoulder pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, R

    2003-09-25

    Pain in the shoulder should prompt a systematic clinical examination that adheres closely to the functional anatomy. The basic examination of the shoulder joint comprises active and passive movements and isometric resistance tests with the aid of which external and internal rotation and abduction/adduction can be investigated. The results of these tests provide the physician with a "pattern of findings" which unequivocally identifies the pain-triggering structure. Accordingly, shoulder pain can be classified into four categories as proposed by Cyriax. As treatment, intra-articular injections of corticoids or local anesthetics as determined by findings, where necessary supported by physiotherapeutic measures. Rupture of a tendon, in particular in the case of an active patient, is an indication for surgery.

  9. Prevalence of shoulder pain after stroke and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hadianfar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Shoulder pain is a common complication from stroke that may cause some rehabilitation limits to achieve functional goals. The information regarding its prevalence and associated factors is limited. This study was conducted to investigate further details pertaining to its associated factors.Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 191 stroke patients at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Ward at Shiraz-Medical School from 2001 to 2004. Each patient was followed up for one year. A questionnaire was prepared containing information about shoulder pain compliant, thorough history and physical examination, previous history of open heart surgery, scoliosis, limited neck range of motion, type of stroke (based on MRI and brain CT, osteoporosis (based on bone mineral density and X ray, shoulder adductor muscles and biceps spasticity (based on ashworth scale. In follow-up visits bi-monthly for one year, the questionnaire was filled out again and if present, shoulder pain was recorded.Results: Most patients developed shoulder pain between 2 and 6 months following their stroke. Forty-nine patients (32.2% developed shoulder pain, 39(79.6% of whom had spastic tone and 8 (16.3% had flaccid tone. In both groups, with shoulder pain and without shoulder pain respectively, 6.7% and 1.9% had a history of open heart surgery, 6.1% and 1% had scoliosis, 67.3% and 35.1% had Intracranial hemorrhage, 73.5% and 23.3% had limited neck range of motion, and 24.5% and 35% had osteopenia.Conclusion: Spasticity was significantly more common in the shoulder pain group, which can be due to capsulitis, soft tissue inflammation (especially ligament and rotator cuff muscle and anteroinferior subluxation of the shoulder. There was a significant statistical correlation between intracranial hemorrhage, reduced neck range of motion, and hemiplegic shoulder pain. It appears that treatment and rehabilitation of spasticity and underlying

  10. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen Ole S; Andersen Lars L; Andersen Christoffer H; Zebis Mette K; Sjøgaard Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have of...

  11. Spinal muscle activity in simulated rugby union scrummaging is affected by different engagement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, D; Stone, B; Holsgrove, T P; Trewartha, G; Preatoni, E

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of rugby union scrummaging have focused on kinetic and kinematic analyses, while muscle activation strategies employed by front-row players during scrummaging are still unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the activity of spinal muscles during machine and live scrums. Nine male front-row forwards scrummaged as individuals against a scrum machine under "crouch-touch-set" and "crouch-bind-set" conditions, and against a two-player opposition in a simulated live condition. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and erector spinae were measured over the pre-engagement, engagement, and sustained-push phases. The "crouch-bind-set" condition increased muscle activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid before and during the engagement phase in machine scrummaging. During the sustained-push phase, live scrummaging generated higher activities of the erector spinae than either machine conditions. These results suggest that the pre-bind, prior to engagement, may effectively prepare the cervical spine by stiffening joints before the impact phase. Additionally, machine scrummaging does not replicate the muscular demands of live scrummaging for the erector spinae, and for this reason, we advise rugby union forwards to ensure scrummaging is practiced in live situations to improve the specificity of their neuromuscular activation strategies in relation to resisting external loads. PMID:25818526

  12. Changes in muscle force-length properties affect the early rise of force in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Cannavan, Dale; Horne, Sara;

    2009-01-01

    Changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD), measured within a short time interval from contraction initiation, were measured after a period of strength training that led to increases in muscle fascicle length but no measurable change in neuromuscular activity. The relationship between...

  13. Muscle structure and innervation are affected by loss of Dorsal in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, R; Kozlova, T; Barillas-Mury, C; Kafatos, F C

    1999-02-01

    In Drosophila, the Rel-protein Dorsal and its inhibitor, Cactus, act in signal transduction pathways that control the establishment of dorsoventral polarity during embryogenesis and the immune response during postembryonic life. Here we present data indicating that Dorsal is also involved in the control of development and maintenance of innervation in somatic muscles. Dorsal and Cactus are colocalized in all somatic muscles during postembryonic development. In larvae and adults, these proteins are distributed at low levels in the cytoplasm and nuclei and at much higher levels in the postsynaptic component of glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions. Absence of Dorsal, in homozygous dorsal mutant larvae results in muscle misinsertions, duplications, nuclear hypotrophy, disorganization of actin bundles, and altered subcellular distribution of Cactus. Some muscles show very abnormal neuromuscular junctions, and some motor axon terminals are transformed into growth cone-like structures embedded in synaptotagmin-enriched vesicles. The detailed phenotype suggests a role of Dorsal signalling in the maintenance and plasticity of the NMJ. PMID:10192771

  14. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Aagaard, Per; Masiulis, Nerijus; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance. PMID:22158097

  15. Sleep position and shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, John

    2010-04-01

    The overuse theory for musculoskeletal joint pain cannot explain adequately the occurrence of shoulder pain in those who do not engage in activities that involve repeated and stressful use of the shoulder since the percentage of the painful right shoulders usually does not match the percentage of dominant right arms in such individuals. An alternative hypothesis is presented to propose that shoulder pain is caused by postural immobility in the decubitus or side position during sleep. Prolonged pressure on the shoulder caused by the weight of the thorax can produce enough damage to cause subsequent shoulder pain. In order to test this hypothesis, a preliminary study was carried out to compare the laterality of shoulder pain with the laterality of sleep position. The calculated laterality ratios for sleep position and shoulder pain were found to be strikingly similar, suggesting a causal relationship between the two phenomena. However, the prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population was found to be smaller than the percentage of the time people would spend sleeping in the decubitus position. This discrepancy could be explained by the idea that in order for shoulder pain to develop subjects may have to spend longer times in the same decubitus position before changing to another position than the average person would. Additional evidence from published clinical studies also supports the postural theory of shoulder pain. More studies can be done to test this hypothesis by focusing on the sleep habits of patients with shoulder pain. According to the present hypothesis shoulder pain should for the most part occur on the side that the patient preferred to sleep on before the onset of shoulder pain. The postural theory of shoulder pain provides the possibility for a new and noninvasive method to treat shoulder pain by the modification of posture during sleep.

  16. Arthroscopic findings after shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Medenica Ivica; Radunović Aleksandar; Madžarac Dragan; Zorić Miodrag; Bokonjić Dubravko; Stojković Bratislav

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. Recurrent instability of the shoulder joint is frequently difficult to differentiate from diseased or injured rotator cuff or tendon of the forearm flexor (m. biceps brachii). Shoulder joint arthroscopy has been only recently introduced into instable shoulder joint lesion examination. The aim of this study was to present and analyze an arthroscopic finding on instable shoulder joint in order to determine causes and mechanisms of instability, as well as principles of surgical t...

  17. MRI of rotator cuff muscle atrophy in relation to glenohumeral joint incongruence in brachial plexus birth injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Nietosvaara, Yrjaenae A.; Peltonen, Jari I. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Remes, Ville M. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Surgical Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland); Lamminen, Antti E. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate rotator cuff muscles and the glenohumeral (GH) joint in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) using MRI and to determine whether any correlation exists between muscular abnormality and the development of glenoid dysplasia and GH joint incongruity. Thirty-nine consecutive BPBI patients with internal rotation contracture or absent active external rotation of the shoulder joint were examined clinically and imaged with MRI. In the physical examination, passive external rotation was measured to evaluate internal rotation contracture. Both shoulders were imaged and the glenoscapular angle, percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the greatest thickness of the subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous muscles were measured. The muscle ratio between the affected side and the normal side was calculated to exclude age variation in the assessment of muscle atrophy. All muscles of the rotator cuff were atrophic, with the subscapular and infraspinous muscles being most severely affected. A correlation was found between the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the extent of subscapular muscle atrophy (r{sub s}=0.45, P=0.01), as well as between its ratio (r{sub s}=0.5, P P=0.01). Severity of rotator cuff muscle atrophy correlated with increased glenoid retroversion and the degree of internal rotation contracture. Glenoid retroversion and subluxation of the humeral head are common in patients with BPBI. All rotator cuff muscles are atrophic, especially the subscapular muscle. Muscle atrophy due to neurogenic damage apparently results in an imbalance of the shoulder muscles and progressive retroversion and subluxation of the GH joint, which in turn lead to internal rotation contracture and deformation of the joint. (orig.)

  18. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  19. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R Claflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH and oxidized (NAD+ forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD+ does not, allowing NADH/NAD+ to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type (WT mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old WT mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult WT mice, muscles from the 28 mo WT mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice.

  20. Silver nanoparticles administered to chicken affect VEGFA and FGF2 gene expression in breast muscle and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane Manalili;

    2012-01-01

    of these genes may lead to histological changes, but this needs to be proven using histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues. In general, we showed that AgNano application in poultry feeding can influence the expression of FGF2 and VEGFA genes on the mRNA and protein levels in growing chicken.......Nanoparticles of colloidal silver (AgNano) can influence gene expression. Concerning trials of AgNano application in poultry as antimicrobial and metabolic agents, it is useful to reveal whether they affect the expression of genes crucial for bird development. AgNano were administered to broiler...... chickens as a water solution in two concentrations (10 and 20 ppm). After dissection of the birds, breast muscles and hearts were collected. Gene expression of FGF2 and VEGF on the mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using qPCR and ELISA methods. The results for gene expression in breast muscle revealed...

  1. Assessment of work-related muscle strain by using surface EMG during test contractions interposed between work periods of simulateted mushroom picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed;

    2010-01-01

    and low-back were reported during TCs. The work increased RPE of all the parts. AEMG and RPE were increased and MPF was decreased by W1, W2 and W3 in the neck and shoulder muscles. MPF of the erector spinae was increased by the work. The results were not affected by the duration of TCs and the parts...

  2. Epinephrine-enhanced computed tomographic arthrography of the canine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rycke, Lieve; van Bree, Henri; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Polis, Ingeborgh; Duchateau, Luc; Gielen, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epinephrine-enhanced computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) on the image sharpness of the lateral and medial glenohumeral ligaments (LGHL and MGHL, respectively), biceps tendon (BT) and joint cartilage (JC) in the canine shoulder. The shoulders of eight normal dogs were examined using a 4-slice helical CT scanner. The right shoulders were injected with Iohexol and the left shoulders with a mixture of Iohexol and epinephrine. CTA images were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 20 and 30 min and the image sharpness of the intra-articular structures in both shoulders was graded for visibility. The attenuation values were measured to examine the persistence of contrast appearance. Admixture of epinephrine and Iohexol significantly improved the image sharpness of the LGHL and the BT, especially on delayed CTA images. The use of epinephrine did not negatively affect post-CTA recovery.

  3. The influence of application of complexes of power exercises on indicators of special force of muscles of a shoulder-girdle of sportsmen of the Paralympic national team of Ukraine on cross-country skiing and biathlon during the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V’yacheslav Mulik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of dynamics of power indicators of Paralympic sportsmen in the preparatory period of a year macrocycle when using complexes of power exercises in the training process which are aimed at the development of muscles of a shoulder-girdle. Material and Methods: members of the national Paralympic team of Ukraine on cross-country skiing and biathlon of two nosology (musculoskeletal device and visual impairment in number of 12 sportsmen (6 men, 6 women took part in the research. The age of sportsmen is 17–29 years old, the sports qualification is CMS (2, MS (4, MSIC (3, and MMS (3. Results: the technique of application of complexes of power exercises of high-speed and power character for muscles of a shoulder-girdle depending on stages of the preparatory period is developed and proved. The results of testing testify to the positive dynamics of indicators, especially at the end of the preparatory period. Conclusions: authors offer the technique of power training of Paralympic sportsmen on the basis of the conducted research, which is based on the use of complexes of special power exercises.

  4. Pain in the neck and shoulder joint in a rheumatologist's practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Aleksandrovich Olyunin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases accompanied by pain in the neck and shoulder joint are rather numerous, frequently result in permanent functional failure, and are encountered in a considerable number of patients followed up by rheumatologists, neurologists, orthopedics, and therapists. The frequency of these impairments may vary from 7 to 47% according to the characteristics of the study population and used definition. The list of nosological entities to be excluded in the differential diagnosis includes diseases caused by lesions in the cervical spinal area, its muscles, ligaments, and tendons, neurological changes, systemic inflammatory diseases, myofascial pain syndrome, as well as diseases that can induce referred pain in the neck and shoulder joint (pneumonia, coronary heart disease, gastroduodenal ulcer disease. To follow a sparing regimen plays a large role in the treatment of soft tissue diseases in the shoulder joint. The use of analgesics, primarily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as nimesulide (nayz, is an important component of therapy. The drug has been successfully used for back pain, osteoarthrosis, and extraarticular soft tissue diseases. The local administration of glucocorticoids is worth consideration if a reduced load on the affected area and the use of NSAIDs produce no desirable effect.

  5. Pain in the neck and shoulder joint in a rheumatologist's practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Aleksandrovich Olyunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases accompanied by pain in the neck and shoulder joint are rather numerous, frequently result in permanent functional failure, and are encountered in a considerable number of patients followed up by rheumatologists, neurologists, orthopedics, and therapists. The frequency of these impairments may vary from 7 to 47% according to the characteristics of the study population and used definition. The list of nosological entities to be excluded in the differential diagnosis includes diseases caused by lesions in the cervical spinal area, its muscles, ligaments, and tendons, neurological changes, systemic inflammatory diseases, myofascial pain syndrome, as well as diseases that can induce referred pain in the neck and shoulder joint (pneumonia, coronary heart disease, gastroduodenal ulcer disease. To follow a sparing regimen plays a large role in the treatment of soft tissue diseases in the shoulder joint. The use of analgesics, primarily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as nimesulide (nayz, is an important component of therapy. The drug has been successfully used for back pain, osteoarthrosis, and extraarticular soft tissue diseases. The local administration of glucocorticoids is worth consideration if a reduced load on the affected area and the use of NSAIDs produce no desirable effect.

  6. Exercise and Shoulder Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disability • Fractures: A break in a bone • Dislocations/subluxations: Complete or partial separation of bones within the joint • Sprains: Stretch/damage to ligaments and connective tissue within the joint • Frozen Shoulder: Stiffness & loss of movement; a tight connective joint ...

  7. Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reaching: Put things you use every day (shoes, coffee cup, toothbrush) on a high shelf. This way you have to reach up for things more often. The reaching is a good stretch for your shoulder. Do the exercises once or twice a day even after your ...

  8. Mortality after shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Alexander; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to quantify the 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality rates after primary shoulder replacement. The secondary aims were to assess the association between mortality and diagnoses and to compare the mortality rate with that of the general population. METHODS: The stud...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Erika, she must've left. She got scared. Kevin from DePuy. And we have Dr. Song visiting us from South Korea. This patient is a 78-year-old male who has osteoarthritis of his left shoulder. If you look at his AP view here, what we can see is that he doesn't have quite the ...

  10. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Zimmer, Inc. New York City, New York March 17, 2010 Welcome to this OR Live presentation, brought to you by Zimmer. Hi. I'm ... my partner, Brad Parsons. We're here in New York to bring you a video of a ...

  11. Atraumatic Bilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: Case Report of a Jehovah’s Witness 28-Year-Old Male Affected by Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Treated with Bilateral Latarjet Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggetti, Andrea; Castellini, Iacopo; Neri, Elisabetta; Marchettil, Stefano; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a very rare condition, often related to seizures or major trauma. Open reduction is recommended whenever Hill-Sachs lesion is >25% of the joint and the dislocation is elder than 3 weeks. Case Report: We describe a case report of a 28-year-old man left handed Jehovah’s Witness laborer assessed 12 weeks after bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. The patient was evaluated with clinical examination, and it was observed an asymptomatic intrarotation of both shoulders with a mild left circumflex nerve deficit. He was able to perform flexion and abduction of both arms up to 60° and 10° of extrarotation. Pre-operative constant scores were 49 in left and 55 in right shoulder, pre-operative disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores were 57 in left and 53 in right shoulder, and visual analogue scales (VAS) was 2. Radiological examination were bilateral anteroposterior shoulder X-rays and computer tomography scan. The surgeon treated both shoulder (not simultaneously) by open reduction and Bristow-Latarjet coracoids transfer procedure. A 1 year after operations, left flexion was 180° while right was 160, bilateral abduction was 180. He was able to return to his pre-injury activities, the constant score was 89 left and 83 right, DASH score was 17 left and 13 right and VAS was 0. Conclusion: Atraumatic bilateral neglected anterior shoulder dislocation can be treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure to provide a stable glenohumeral joint in laborer patient and permit a return to the pre-injury activities, to create a greater extension of the glenoid arc and to avoid future dislocation. PMID:27299079

  12. Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; van Hall, Gerrit; Rose, Adam;

    2010-01-01

    Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intrasubject design......]leucine, and vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained bilaterally at rest as well as 0.5, 3, and 5.5 h after RE. Western blots were run on muscle lysates and phosphospecific antibodies used to detect phosphorylation status of targets involved in regulation of FSR. The intramuscular collagen FSR was evenly increased...... and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylations in correspondence with the observed changes in myofibrillar FSR, whereas 4E-BP1 remained to respond only to the HL contraction intensity. Thus the study design allows us to conclude that the MAPk- and mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent signaling responds...

  13. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P ... forbrain (pyruvate and 3-hydroxybutyrate). Thus, long-term HF diet was associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, andsignificantly altered mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Yet, brain mitochondria were unaffected. We suggest that therelative isolation of the brain due to the blood...

  14. Neural crest does not contribute to the neck and shoulder in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Epperlein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major step during the evolution of tetrapods was their transition from water to land. This process involved the reduction or complete loss of the dermal bones that made up connections to the skull and a concomitant enlargement of the endochondral shoulder girdle. In the mouse the latter is derived from three separate embryonic sources: lateral plate mesoderm, somites, and neural crest. The neural crest was suggested to sustain the muscle attachments. How this complex composition of the endochondral shoulder girdle arose during evolution and whether it is shared by all tetrapods is unknown. Salamanders that lack dermal bone within their shoulder girdle were of special interest for a possible contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral elements and muscle attachment sites, and we therefore studied them in this context. RESULTS: We grafted neural crest from GFP+ fluorescent transgenic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum donor embryos into white (d/d axolotl hosts and followed the presence of neural crest cells within the cartilage of the shoulder girdle and the connective tissue of muscle attachment sites of the neck-shoulder region. Strikingly, neural crest cells did not contribute to any part of the endochondral shoulder girdle or to the connective tissue at muscle attachment sites in axolotl. CONCLUSIONS: Our results in axolotl suggest that neural crest does not serve a general function in vertebrate shoulder muscle attachment sites as predicted by the "muscle scaffold theory," and that it is not necessary to maintain connectivity of the endochondral shoulder girdle to the skull. Our data support the possibility that the contribution of the neural crest to the endochondral shoulder girdle, which is observed in the mouse, arose de novo in mammals as a developmental basis for their skeletal synapomorphies. This further supports the hypothesis of an increased neural crest diversification during vertebrate evolution.

  15. Age and Diet Affect Gene Expression Profile in Canine Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Middelbos, Ingmar S.; Brittany M Vester; Lisa K Karr-Lilienthal; Schook, Lawrence B; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris) using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds) and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB), whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB). Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridiz...

  16. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...

  17. Identification of Common Regulators of Genes in Co-Expression Networks Affecting Muscle and Meat Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Siriluck Ponsuksili; Puntita Siengdee; Yang Du; Nares Trakooljul; Eduard Murani; Manfred Schwerin; Klaus Wimmers

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic contributions behind skeletal muscle composition and metabolism is of great interest in medicine and agriculture. Attempts to dissect these complex traits combine genome-wide genotyping, expression data analyses and network analyses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) groups genes into modules based on patterns of co-expression, which can be linked to phenotypes by correlation analysis of trait values and the module eigengenes, i.e. the first princi...

  18. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  19. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  20. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDRanimals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  1. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  2. The hypobaric hypoxia affects the oxidant balance in skeletal muscle regeneration of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mancinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells in young women.Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia and after (POST-Hypoxia the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid damage, mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non oxidized cells.Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the Vastus Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects.

  3. Comparative Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mildly versus Severely Affected mdx Mouse Skeletal Muscles Identifies Annexin, Lamin, and Vimentin as Universal Dystrophic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashling Holland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in complex changes in dystrophic muscles. In order to compare the degree of secondary alterations in differently affected subtypes of skeletal muscles, we have conducted a global analysis of proteome-wide changes in various dystrophin-deficient muscles. In contrast to the highly degenerative mdx diaphragm muscle, which showed considerable alterations in 35 distinct proteins, the spectrum of mildly to moderately dystrophic skeletal muscles, including interosseus, flexor digitorum brevis, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscle, exhibited a smaller number of changed proteins. Compensatory mechanisms and/or cellular variances may be responsible for differing secondary changes in individual mdx muscles. Label-free mass spectrometry established altered expression levels for diaphragm proteins associated with contraction, energy metabolism, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and the cellular stress response. Comparative immunoblotting verified the differences in the degree of secondary changes in dystrophin-deficient muscles and showed that the up-regulation of molecular chaperones, the compensatory increase in proteins of the intermediate filaments, the fibrosis-related increase in collagen levels and the pathophysiological decrease in calcium binding proteins is more pronounced in mdx diaphragm as compared to the less severely affected mdx leg muscles. Annexin, lamin, and vimentin were identified as universal dystrophic markers.

  4. Influence of frequency and duration of strength training for effective management of neck and shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars Louis; Gram, Bibi;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific strength training can reduce neck and shoulder pain in office workers, but the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration remains unknown. This study investigates how one weekly hour of strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles is most effectively...... distributed. METHODS: A total of 447 office workers with and without neck and/or shoulder pain were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to one of four groups; 1×60 (1WS), 3×20 (3WS) or 9×7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without...... training (REF). Primary outcome was self-reported neck and shoulder pain (scale 0-9) and secondary outcome work disability (Disability in Arms, Shoulders and Hands (DASH)). RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced neck and right shoulder pain in the training groups after 20 weeks compared...

  5. REPETITIVE PERIPHERAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (15 HZ RPMS OF THE HUMAN SOLEUS MUSCLE DID NOT AFFECT SPINAL EXCITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Behrens

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The electric field induced by repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS is able to activate muscles artificially due to the stimulation of deep intramuscular motor axons. RPMS applied to the muscle induces proprioceptive input to the central nervous system in different ways. Firstly, the indirect activation of mechanoreceptors and secondly, direct activation of afferent nerve fibers. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of RPMS applied to the soleus. Thirteen male subjects received RPMS once and were investigated before and after the treatment regarding the parameters maximal M wave (Mmax, maximal H-reflex (Hmax, Hmax/Mmax-ratio, Hmax and Mmax onset latencies and plantar flexor peak twitch torque associated with Hmax (PTH. Eleven male subjects served as controls. No significant changes were observed for Hmax and PTH of the treatment group but the Hmax/Mmax-ratio increased significantly (p = 0.015 on account of a significantly decreased Mmax (p = 0.027. Hmax onset latencies were increased for the treatment group (p = 0.003 as well as for the control group (p = 0.011 while Mmax onset latencies did not change. It is concluded that the RPMS protocol did not affect spinal excitability but acted on the muscle fibres which are part of fast twitch units and mainly responsible for the generation of the maximal M wave. RPMS probably modified the integrity of neuromuscular propagation.

  6. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  7. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects skeletal muscle strength in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100(®) and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key pointsDD homozygote's and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength.Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier's female endurance group.Female's D allele carriers exhibited the higher

  9. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate affects directional migration of aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bartolini

    Full Text Available Aortic smooth muscle cells produce chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans that regulate extracellular matrix organization and cell behavior in normal and pathological conditions. A unique feature of CS/DS proteoglycans is the presence of iduronic acid (IdoA, catalyzed by two DS epimerases. Functional ablation of DS-epi1, the main epimerase in these cells, resulted in a major reduction of IdoA both on cell surface and in secreted CS/DS proteoglycans. Downregulation of IdoA led to delayed ability to re-populate wounded areas due to loss of directional persistence of migration. DS-epi1-/- aortic smooth muscle cells, however, had not lost the general property of migration showing even increased speed of movement compared to wild type cells. Where the cell membrane adheres to the substratum, stress fibers were denser whereas focal adhesion sites were fewer. Total cellular expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and phospho-FAK (pFAK was decreased in mutant cells compared to control cells. As many pathological conditions are dependent on migration, modulation of IdoA content may point to therapeutic strategies for diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis.

  10. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  11. Swimmer's Shoulder: Painful Shoulder in the Competitive Swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Suslavich, Kaytelin; Wes, David

    2016-08-01

    Swimmer's shoulder is a broad term often used to diagnose shoulder injury in swimmers. However, research has elucidated several specific shoulder injuries that often are incurred by the competitive swimmer. Hyperlaxity, scapular dyskinesis, subacromial impingement, labral damage, os acromiale, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and glenohumeral rotational imbalances all may be included within a differential diagnosis for shoulder pain in the competitive swimmer. An understanding of the mechanics of the swim stroke, in combination with the complex static and dynamic properties of the shoulder, is essential to the comprehension and identification of the painful swimmer's shoulder. It is important for the athlete, coach, and clinician to be aware of the discerning characteristics among these different injuries to ensure a proper diagnosis and treatment plan to aid the swimmer in his or her return to competition.

  12. Does surgery followed by physiotherapy improve short and long term outcome for patients with atraumatic shoulder instability compared with physiotherapy alone? - protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jaggi, Anju; Alexander, Susan; Herbert, Robert; Funk, Lennard; Ginn, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Background Shoulder instability is a common problem affecting young adults. Stabilization surgery followed by physiotherapy rehabilitation has been shown to reduce the chance of further episodes of shoulder dislocation and to improve quality of life in patients who sustain a shoulder dislocation as a result of a high collision trauma, but it is unclear if surgical intervention is beneficial for patients with atraumatic shoulder instability who have structural damage at the shoulder. The aim o...

  13. Metastatic gastric cancer presenting with shoulder-hand syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Massarotti Marco; Ciocia Gianluigi; Ceriani Roberto; Chiti Arturo; Marasini Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Shoulder-hand syndrome is a relatively rare clinical entity classified as a complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and consisting essentially of a painful 'frozen shoulder' with disability, swelling, vasomotor or dystrophic changes in the homolateral hand. The pathophysiology is not completely clear but a predominant 'sympathetic' factor affecting the neural and vascular supply to the affected parts seems to be involved. Shoulder-hand syndrome has been related to many sur...

  14. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, A.; Kurita, Y.; Inoue, K.; Okuno, K.; Hortobagyi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder jo

  15. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    .3%) groups. All groups significantly increased HR strength pre- to posttraining (33%: 7.5 +/- 6.1%; 66%: 6.6 +/- 3.7%; 100%: 12.2 +/- 1.8%; 138%: 11.0 +/- 6.4%) except for the 0% (4.9 +/- 9.1%) group. There were no differences between groups. LLM increased significantly pre- to post-training in only the 138% group; there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eight wks of lower body resistive exercise training with eccentric overload resulted in greater increases in LP strength than training with eccentric loads of 66% or less. Post-training HR strength was not affected by eccentric training load, perhaps because of the predominance of Type I fibers typical in the gastrocnemius. Only 138% eccentric training significantly increased LLM. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For athletes or others desiring to maximize muscle strength and hypertrophy gains, training with eccentric loads greater than 100% of concentric resistance will provide greater increases in muscle strength and lean tissue mass in some muscle groups. In a rehabilitation or geriatric exercise setting that places primary emphasis on program adherence and moderate strength gains, training with an eccentric underload may provide strength increases comparable to those of traditional 1:1 training but with less muscle soreness and physiologic insult to the patient, but this has yet to be proven.

  16. Freshwater environment affects growth rate and muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian A; Manthri, Sujatha; Alderson, Richard; Smart, Alistair; Campbell, Patrick; Nickell, David; Robertson, Billy; Paxton, Charles G M; Burt, M Louise

    2003-04-01

    The influence of freshwater environment on muscle growth in seawater was investigated in an inbred population of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The offspring from a minimum of 64 families per group were incubated at either ambient temperature (ambient treatment) or in heated water (heated treatment). Growth was investigated using a mixed-effect statistical model with repeated measures, which included terms for treatment effect and random fish effects for individual growth rate (alpha) and the instantaneous growth rate per unit change in temperature (gamma). Prior to seawater transfer, fish were heavier in the heated (61.6+/-1.0 g; N=298) than in the ambient (34.1+/-0.4 g; N=206) treatments, reflecting their greater growth opportunity: 4872 degree-days and 4281 degree-days, respectively. However, the subsequent growth rate of the heated group was lower, such that treatments had a similar body mass (3.7-3.9 kg) after approximately 450 days in seawater. The total cross-sectional area of fast muscle and the number (FN) and size distribution of the fibres was determined in a subset of the fish. We tested the hypothesis that freshwater temperature regime affected the rate of recruitment and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. There were differences in FN between treatments and a significant age x treatment interaction but no significant cage effect (ANOVA). Cessation of fibre recruitment was identified by the absence of fibres of <10 micro m diameter. The maximum fibre number was 22.4% more in the ambient (9.3 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(4) than in the heated (7.6 x 10(5)+/-1.5 x 10(4)) treatments (N=44 and 40 fish, respectively; P<0.001). For fish that had completed fibre recruitment, there was a significant correlation between FN and individual growth rate, explaining 35% of the total variation. The density of myogenic progenitor cells was quantified using an antibody to c-met and was approximately 2-fold higher in the ambient than in the heated group, equivalent to 2-3% of

  17. Identification of common regulators of genes in co-expression networks affecting muscle and meat properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriluck Ponsuksili

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic contributions behind skeletal muscle composition and metabolism is of great interest in medicine and agriculture. Attempts to dissect these complex traits combine genome-wide genotyping, expression data analyses and network analyses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA groups genes into modules based on patterns of co-expression, which can be linked to phenotypes by correlation analysis of trait values and the module eigengenes, i.e. the first principal component of a given module. Network hub genes and regulators of the genes in the modules are likely to play an important role in the emergence of respective traits. In order to detect common regulators of genes in modules showing association with meat quality traits, we identified eQTL for each of these genes, including the highly connected hub genes. Additionally, the module eigengene values were used for association analyses in order to derive a joint eQTL for the respective module. Thereby major sites of orchestrated regulation of genes within trait-associated modules were detected as hotspots of eQTL of many genes of a module and of its eigengene. These sites harbor likely common regulators of genes in the modules. We exemplarily showed the consistent impact of candidate common regulators on the expression of members of respective modules by RNAi knockdown experiments. In fact, Cxcr7 was identified and validated as a regulator of genes in a module, which is involved in the function of defense response in muscle cells. Zfp36l2 was confirmed as a regulator of genes of a module related to cell death or apoptosis pathways. The integration of eQTL in module networks enabled to interpret the differentially-regulated genes from a systems perspective. By integrating genome-wide genomic and transcriptomic data, employing co-expression and eQTL analyses, the study revealed likely regulators that are involved in the fine-tuning and synchronization of genes with

  18. Identification of common regulators of genes in co-expression networks affecting muscle and meat properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Siengdee, Puntita; Du, Yang; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic contributions behind skeletal muscle composition and metabolism is of great interest in medicine and agriculture. Attempts to dissect these complex traits combine genome-wide genotyping, expression data analyses and network analyses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) groups genes into modules based on patterns of co-expression, which can be linked to phenotypes by correlation analysis of trait values and the module eigengenes, i.e. the first principal component of a given module. Network hub genes and regulators of the genes in the modules are likely to play an important role in the emergence of respective traits. In order to detect common regulators of genes in modules showing association with meat quality traits, we identified eQTL for each of these genes, including the highly connected hub genes. Additionally, the module eigengene values were used for association analyses in order to derive a joint eQTL for the respective module. Thereby major sites of orchestrated regulation of genes within trait-associated modules were detected as hotspots of eQTL of many genes of a module and of its eigengene. These sites harbor likely common regulators of genes in the modules. We exemplarily showed the consistent impact of candidate common regulators on the expression of members of respective modules by RNAi knockdown experiments. In fact, Cxcr7 was identified and validated as a regulator of genes in a module, which is involved in the function of defense response in muscle cells. Zfp36l2 was confirmed as a regulator of genes of a module related to cell death or apoptosis pathways. The integration of eQTL in module networks enabled to interpret the differentially-regulated genes from a systems perspective. By integrating genome-wide genomic and transcriptomic data, employing co-expression and eQTL analyses, the study revealed likely regulators that are involved in the fine-tuning and synchronization of genes with trait

  19. Acupuncture Treatment of Shoulder Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Wen Senting, an Italian of 41 years old, paid his first visit on Mar. 17, 2004, with a chief complaint of the left shoulder pain for over a year. The patient stated that the pain resulted from an injury in his left shoulder one year before while playing the tennis. It was then diagnosed as soft tissue injury of the shoulder. The pain had been alleviated by massage treatment, but it would appear upon tiredness or exposure to cold, and had gradually impaired the shoulder movement. In recent half a year, the pain had gone worse, with obvious motor impairment.

  20. Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Michael E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2013-08-01

    findings provide an improved understanding of the spine and shoulder positions at which the force-generating capacity of this muscle can become jeopardized, and consequently how this may affect its spine-stabilizing ability.

  1. Regional thermal specialisation in a mammal: temperature affects power output of core muscle more than that of peripheral muscle in adult mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rob S; Tallis, Jason; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In endotherms, such as mammals and birds, internal organs can specialise to function within a narrow thermal range. Consequently, these organs should become more sensitive to changes in body temperature. Yet, organs at the periphery of the body still experience considerable fluctuations in temperature, which could select for lower thermal sensitivity. We hypothesised that the performance of soleus muscle taken from the leg would depend less on temperature than would the performance of diaphragm muscle taken from the body core. Soleus and diaphragm muscles were isolated from mice and subjected to isometric and work-loop studies to analyse mechanical performance at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Across this thermal range, soleus muscle took longer to generate isometric force and longer to relax, and tended to produce greater normalised maximal force (stress) than did diaphragm muscle. The time required to produce half of maximal force during isometric tetanus and the time required to relax half of maximal force were both more sensitive to temperature in soleus than they were in diaphragm. However, thermal sensitivities of maximal force during isometric tetani were similar for both muscles. Consistent with our hypothesis, power output (the product of speed and force) was greater in magnitude and more thermally sensitive in diaphragm than it was in soleus. Our findings, when combined with previous observations of muscles from regionally endothermic fish, suggest that endothermy influences the thermal sensitivities of power output in core and peripheral muscles.

  2. On the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Takechi, Masaki; Sato, Noboru; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    The shoulder girdle in turtles is encapsulated in the shell and has a triradiate morphology. Due to its unique configuration among amniotes, many theories have been proposed about the skeletal identities of the projections for the past two centuries. Although the dorsal ramus represents the scapular blade, the ventral two rami remain uncertain. In particular, the ventrorostral process has been compared to a clavicle, an acromion, and a procoracoid based on its morphology, its connectivity to the rest of the skeleton and to muscles, as well as with its ossification center, cell lineage, and gene expression. In making these comparisons, the shoulder girdle skeleton of anurans has often been used as a reference. This review traces the history of the debate on the homology of the shoulder girdle in turtles. And based on the integrative aspects of developmental biology, comparative morphology, and paleontology, we suggest acromion and procoracoid identities for the two ventral processes.

  3. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegenga Boudewijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Methods A single-assessor, blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. The intervention group received comprehensive treatment once weekly consisting of manual compression of the MTrPs, manual stretching of the muscles and intermittent cold application with stretching. Patients were instructed to perform muscle-stretching and relaxation exercises at home and received ergonomic recommendations and advice to assume and maintain good posture. The control group remained on the waiting list for 3 months. The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire score (primary outcome, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P, Global Perceived Effect (GPE scale and the number of muscles with MTrPs were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks in the intervention group and compared with those of a control group. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement (P Conclusions The results of this study show that 12-week comprehensive treatment of MTrPs in shoulder muscles reduces the number of muscles with active MTrPs and is effective in reducing symptoms and improving shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN75722066

  4. Give Someone the Cold Shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炜

    2002-01-01

    The snowman in this illustration is happy to allow a bird to rest on its cold shoulder.., but that's not what this idiom means.To give someone the cold shoulder is to be un-friendly, usually by ignoring them.

  5. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal...... muscle, liver and pancreas. The main findings of these diseases are necrosis and inflammatory cells infiltrates affecting different regions of the heart. In order to better characterize the cardiac pathology, study of the inflammatory cell characteristics and cell cycle protein expression was undertaken...

  6. Isobaric Tagging-Based Quantification for Proteomic Analysis: A Comparative Study of Spared and Affected Muscles from mdx Mice at the Early Phase of Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Yuri Matsumura

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common childhood myopathy, characterized by muscle loss and cardiorespiratory failure. While the genetic basis of DMD is well established, secondary mechanisms associated with dystrophic pathophysiology are not fully clarified yet. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms of muscle dystrophy during earlier stages of the disease, we performed a comparative proteomic profile of the spared extraocular muscles (EOM vs. affected diaphragm from the mdx mice, using a label based shotgun proteomic approach. Out of the 857 identified proteins, 42 to 62 proteins had differential abundance of peptide ions. The calcium-handling proteins sarcalumenin and calsequestrin-1 were increased in control EOM compared with control DIA, reinforcing the view that constitutional properties of EOM are important for their protection against myonecrosis. The finding that galectin-1 (muscle regeneration, annexin A1 (anti-inflammatory and HSP 47 (fibrosis were increased in dystrophic diaphragm provides novel insights into the mechanisms through which mdx affected muscles are able to counteract dystrophy, during the early stage of the disease. Overall, the shotgun technique proved to be suitable to perform quantitative comparisons between distinct dystrophic muscles and allowed the suggestion of new potential biomarkers and drug targets for dystrophinopaties.

  7. [Myofascial pain syndrome--fascial muscle pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Juhani; Ojala, Tuula; Arokoski, Jari P A

    2010-01-01

    Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome, i.e. fascial muscle pain may occur in several areas of the body, particularly in the neck-shoulder region. The muscle pain symptom in the neck-shoulder region is commonly termed tension neck pain or nonspecific neck pain, but myofascial pain syndrome can also be distinguished into its own diagnosis. This review deals with the clinical picture of myofascial pain syndrome along with pathophysiological hypotheses and treatment options.

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can't do this operation without a Cobb elevator. That gives our flex-- that gives us nice ... going to go through those muscle fibers. Cobb elevator, large. So now we're going to peel ...

  9. Effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 38 office workers who were randomly divided into two groups: a manual therapy group of 19 subjects and a shoulder stabilization exercise group of 19 subjects. All subjects underwent evaluation of the pressure pain threshold in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy used in the study was designed to include soft-tissue mobilization, prone thoracic mobilization, prone selected thoracic mobilization, cervical mobilization, and thoracic manipulation. Both groups underwent training of two 40-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly increased pressure pain thresholds in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy group showed greater improvements than did the shoulder stabilization exercise group in the splenius capitis on both sides, left upper trapezius, middle trapezius on both sides, and right lower trapezius. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual therapy for shoulder pain is feasible and suitable for office workers and may be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:27799661

  10. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used.

  11. Hemiplegic shoulder pain: evidence of a neuropathic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Gabi; Rivel, Michal; Weingarden, Harold; Gaidoukov, Evgeni; Defrin, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) is common after stroke. Whereas most studies have concentrated on the possible musculoskeletal factors underlying HSP, neuropathic aspects have hardly been studied. Our aim was to explore the possible neuropathic components in HSP, and if identified, whether they are specific to the shoulder or characteristic of the entire affected side. Participants included 30 poststroke patients, 16 with and 14 without HSP, and 15 healthy controls. The thresholds of warmth, cold, heat-pain, touch, and graphesthesia were measured in the intact and affected shoulder and in the affected lower leg. They were also assessed for the presence of allodynia and hyperpathia, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were reviewed. In addition, chronic pain was characterized. Participants with HSP exhibited higher rates of parietal lobe damage (P<0.05) compared to those without HSP. Both poststroke groups exhibited higher sensory thresholds than healthy controls. Those with HSP had higher heat-pain thresholds in both the affected shoulder (P<0.001) and leg (P<0.01), exhibited higher rates of hyperpathia in both these regions (each P<0.001), and more often reported chronic pain throughout the affected side (P<0.001) than those without HSP. The more prominent sensory alterations in the shoulder region suggest that neuropathic factors play a role in HSP. The clinical evidence of damage to the spinothalamic-thalamocortical system in the affected shoulder and leg, the presence of chronic pain throughout the affected side, and the more frequent involvement of the parietal cortex all suggest that the neuropathic component is of central origin.

  12. Denervation syndromes of the shoulder girdle: MR imaging with electrophysiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To investigate the use of MR imaging in the characterization of denervated muscle of the shoulder correlated with electrophysiologic studies.Design and patients. We studied with MR imaging five patients who presented with shoulder weakness and pain and who underwent electrophysiologic studies. On MR imaging the distribution of muscle edema and fatty infiltration was recorded, as was the presence of masses impinging on a regional nerve.Results. Acute/subacute denervation was best seen on T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with fat saturation, showing increased SI related to neurogenic edema. Chronic denervation was best seen on T1-weighted spin-echo images, demonstrating loss of muscle bulk and diffuse areas of increased signal intensity within the muscle. Three patients showed MR imaging and electrophysiologic findings of Parsonage Turner syndrome. One patient demonstrated an arteriovenous malformation within the spinoglenoid notch, impinging on the suprascapular nerve with associated atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle. The fifth patient demonstrated fatty atrophy of the teres minor muscle caused by compression by a cyst of the axillary nerve and electrophysiologic findings of an incomplete axillary nerve block.Conclusion. MR imaging is useful in detecting and characterizing denervation atrophy and neurogenic edema in shoulder muscles. MR imaging can provide additional information to electrophysiologic studies by estimating the age (acute/chronic) and identifying morphologic causes for shoulder pain and atrophy. (orig.)

  13. MRI of the shoulder joint with surface coils at 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance images of the shoulder were obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal orientations using a 1.5 T imaging system and anatomically shaped, wrap-around surface coils. Variations in scapular position induced by patient positioning change the relationship of the planes to the shoulder anatomy and make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal planes difficult. We, therefore, use - after axial orientation - image-oblique planes perpendicular and parallel to the glenoid fossa. In this manner MRI can visualise the anatomic structures of the shoulder including rotator cuff, long biceps tendon, articular capsule, articular cartilage, muscles and bones due to the high soft tissue contrast of MRI. (orig.)

  14. Shoulder Stiffness : Current Concepts and Concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itoi, Eiji; Arce, Guillermo; Bain, Gregory I.; Diercks, Ronald L.; Guttmann, Dan; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Yon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder stiffness can be caused by various etiologies such as immobilization, trauma, or surgical interventions. The Upper Extremity Committee of ISAKOS defined the term "frozen shoulder" as idiopathic stiff shoulder, that is, without a known cause. Secondary stiff shoulder is a term that should be

  15. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  16. Ultrasonography of the painful shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy was applied in the study of 132 patients with painful shoulder to establish the ultrasonographic findings that indicate the diagnosis of lesions of the rotator cuff of the shoulder (tendentious, tendons degeneration and the different types of fracture) as well as bursitis, lesions of the tendon of the long head of the biceps, joint effusions, lesions of the humeral head, etc. As an initial method of studying painful shoulder using standard plain radiography, this techniques is considered a reliable diagnostic procedure. (Author)

  17. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this stud), was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) (lu...

  18. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) duri...

  19. Shoulder impingement syndrome : evaluation of the causes with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Song, In Sup; Chung, Hun Young; Yoon, Sang Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Young Hee; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang [Chungang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    Various mechanical causes which induce shoulder impingement syndrome have been identified with the help of MRI. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of such causes. A total of 54 patients with clinically confirmed shoulder impingement syndrome and a normal control group(n=20) without symptoms were included. We evaluated the incidence of hook shaped acromion, low lying acromion, downward slope of the acromion, subacromial spur, acromioclavicular joint hypertrophy, coracoacromial ligament hypertrophy, high cuff muscle bulk, and os acromiale. Among the 54 patients, the following conditions were present: acromioclavicular joint hypertrophy(n=36), coracoacromial ligament hypertrophy(n=20), subacromial spur(n=18), downward sloping of the acromion(n=16), hook shaped acromion(n=11), relatively high cuff muscle bulk(n=6), low lying acromion relative to the clavicle(n=3), and os acromiale(n=1). In the normal control group there were nine cases of acromioclavicular joint hypertrophy, nine of coracoacromial ligament hypertrophy, nine of downward sloping acromion, and three of low lying acromion, but hook shaped acromion, high cuff muscle bulk, and os acromiale were not found. Among 54 patients, the syndrome was due to five simultancous causes in one patient, four causes in two, three causes in 12, two causes in 22, and one cause in 17. Hook shaped acromion and subacromial spur are the statistically significant causes of shoulder impingement syndrome. In 69% of patients, the condition was due to more than one cause.

  20. Atrogin-1 Affects Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation When Energy Metabolism Is Impaired by the Antidiabetes Drug Berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiling; Liu, Dajun; Cao, Peirang; Lecker, Stewart; Hu, Zhaoyong

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Defects in insulin/IGF-1 signaling stimulate muscle protein loss by suppressing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Since an herbal compound, berberine, lowers blood levels of glucose and lipids, we proposed that it would improve insulin/IGF-1 signaling, blocking muscle protein losses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated whether berberine ameliorates muscle atrophy in db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes, by measuring protein synthesis and degradation in mus...

  1. Metastatic gastric cancer presenting with shoulder-hand syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massarotti Marco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Shoulder-hand syndrome is a relatively rare clinical entity classified as a complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and consisting essentially of a painful 'frozen shoulder' with disability, swelling, vasomotor or dystrophic changes in the homolateral hand. The pathophysiology is not completely clear but a predominant 'sympathetic' factor affecting the neural and vascular supply to the affected parts seems to be involved. Shoulder-hand syndrome has been related to many surgical, orthopedic, neurological and medical conditions; it is more often seen after myocardial infarction, hemiplegia and painful conditions of neck and shoulder, such as trauma, tumors, cervical discogenic or intraforaminal diseases and shoulder calcific tendinopathy, but has also been associated with herpetic infections, brain and lung tumors, thoracoplasty and drugs including phenobarbitone and isoniazid. The diagnosis of shoulder-hand syndrome is primarily clinical, but imaging studies, particularly bone scintigraphy, may be useful to exclude other disorders. Case presentation We report the case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with shoulder-hand syndrome as the initial manifestation of gastric cancer which had metastasized to bone. Conclusion Wider investigations are advisable in patients with atypical shoulder-hand syndrome. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case of shoulder-hand syndrome associated with metastatic gastric cancer.

  2. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  3. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05). The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  4. Effect of shoulder taping on maximum shoulder external and internal rotation range in uninjured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jenny; Donnelly, Cyril; Hamner, Samuel; Dunne, James; Besier, Thor

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether shoulder taping affects shoulder kinematics in injured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw. Twenty-six overhead college athletes threw a handball three times with and without tape, while seated on a chair. An 8-camera Vicon Motion Capture system recorded markers placed on the upper limb and trunk during each of the throwing conditions. Scaled musculoskeletal models of the upper limb were created using OpenSim and inverse kinematics used to obtain relevant joint angles. Shoulder taping had no main effect on external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation range (ROM) of the shoulder, but a significant interaction effect was found (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively), depending on previous injury status, whereby both the ER and IR ROM of the shoulder in the group of previously injured athletes decreased when taped (143-138° and 54-51°, respectively), but increased in the group who had never been injured (131-135° and 42-44°, respectively). Maximum abduction range and ball velocity were not affected by the application of shoulder taping, regardless of previous injury status. Thus, application of shoulder taping has a differential effect on maximum shoulder ER and IR ROM during throwing depending on previous injury status. These findings have implications for returning athletes to sport after injury and for screening athletes at risk of injury. PMID:21437968

  5. FORWARD HEAD POSTURE CORRECTION VERSUS SHOULDER STABILIZATION EXERCISES EFFECT ON SCAPULAR DYSKINESIA AND SHOULDER PROPRIOCEPTION IN ATHLETES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepmala Thakur, Basavraj Motimath, Raghavendra M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Forward head posture (FHP), the most common deviation from the normal curvature in cervical spine. Craniocervical flexor muscle strengthening is frequently used treatment for FHP. Scapular dykinesia (SD) is the alteration in the normal static or dynamic motion of the scapula during coupled scapulohumeral movements. Shoulder stabilization exercises are an effective treatment for SD. As both FHP and SD are related to each other, the objective of the study was to find and compare the...

  6. Shoulder disorders in the elderly (a hospital study).

    OpenAIRE

    Chard, M D; Hazleman, B L

    1987-01-01

    One hundred acute geriatric inpatients were assessed to investigate the prevalence of shoulder disorders; 21 had symptoms due to shoulder disease. Conditions included supraspinatus tendinitis (five), chronic rotator cuff rupture (seven), frozen shoulder (two), glenohumeral osteoarthritis (two), apatite related shoulder arthritis (one), stroke related shoulder disease (six). (Some patients had more than one shoulder condition.) The last group included painful stiff shoulders (three), glenohume...

  7. Shoulder injuries in overhead sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overhead sport places great demands on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes and throwers can in the majority of cases be attributed to lesions resulting from chronic overuse of tendons and capsuloligamentous structures or to sequels of microinstability and secondary impingement. Due to its great impact on therapeutic decisions, imaging in athletes with unclear shoulder pain is a challenge. In this connection, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography represents the cross-sectional imaging modality of first choice, as it allows depiction and exclusion of pathologic alterations of all relevant joint structures with sufficient confidence. This article reviews the biomechanical and clinical aspects and MR arthrographic features of the most common shoulder pathologies in overhead athletes, including biceps tendinopathy, superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions, rotator cuff lesions, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic impingement syndromes. (orig.)

  8. Shoulder Joint For Protective Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder joint allows full range of natural motion: wearer senses little or no resisting force or torque. Developed for space suit, joint offers advantages in protective garments for underwater work, firefighting, or cleanup of hazardous materials.

  9. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Marini

    Full Text Available Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20 on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L, and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  10. Arthroscopic findings after shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medenica Ivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recurrent instability of the shoulder joint is frequently difficult to differentiate from diseased or injured rotator cuff or tendon of the forearm flexor (m. biceps brachii. Shoulder joint arthroscopy has been only recently introduced into instable shoulder joint lesion examination. The aim of this study was to present and analyze an arthroscopic finding on instable shoulder joint in order to determine causes and mechanisms of instability, as well as principles of surgical treatment. Methods. Arthroscopy of the shoulder joint was performed in 158 patients with at least one documented shoulder joint dislocation. These patients were divided into two groups. The group I included the patients with one to three dislocations, while the group II those with more than three dislocations. Preoperative diagnosis was based on anamnestic data and clinical examination using specific tests, and on the diagnosis of shoulder joint using radiography or computed tomography. Results. Out of the total number of the patients 138 (87.34% had injury of the anterior patellar brim, 119 (75.32% had failure of the anterior capsule, 126 (79.75% had compressive cartilage injury of the posterior part of the head of the upper arm bone (Hill-Sachs lesion, 102 (64.56% had insufficiency of glenohumeral tendon, 11 (6.96 had complete cut of the rotator cuff, 23 (14.56% had injury of the posterior patellar brim, 12 (7.59% had injury of the upper anterior-posterior patellar brim (SLAP. Conclusion. According to the obtained results it could be concluded that there is no a unique injury that leads to shoulder joint instability. It is necessary to point out to the significance of anamnesis and clinical examination in making diagnosis. Arthroscopic diagnostics is indicated in clinically unreliable findings as an additional method for determining operative treatment.

  11. Simultaneous shoulder and elbow dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Çobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; KARATAŞ, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to...

  12. Management of the frozen shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    van de Laar SM; van der Zwaal P

    2014-01-01

    Suzanne Margaretha van de Laar, Peer van der Zwaal Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague, the Netherlands Abstract: Frozen shoulder is a very common condition with a prevalence of 2%–5% in the general population. Decrease in joint volume as a result of fibrosis and hyperplasia of the joint capsule leads to painful and restricted glenohumeral motion. Frozen shoulder is a self-limiting disease with a chronic character, and is mostly treated in...

  13. Management of the frozen shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Suzanne Margaretha van de Laar, Peer van der Zwaal Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague, the Netherlands Abstract: Frozen shoulder is a very common condition with a prevalence of 2%–5% in the general population. Decrease in joint volume as a result of fibrosis and hyperplasia of the joint capsule leads to painful and restricted glenohumeral motion. Frozen shoulder is a self-limiting disease with a chronic character, and is mostly treate...

  14. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  15. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wide osteotome so you don't make a bunch of small passes at the lesser tuberosity and make it a bunch of small pieces. And I think it's important ... externally rotate it to bring the subscap muscle fibers out to see us. Let me see a ...

  16. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wide osteotome so you don't make a bunch of small passes at the lesser tuberosity and make it a bunch of small pieces. And I think it's important ... externally rotate it to bring the subscap muscle fibers out to see us. Let me see a ...

  17. New concepts in restoring shoulder elevation in a stiff and painful shoulder patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Robert; Ruivo, R M; Thurner, Michael; Ibrahim, Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2014-02-01

    The treatment and evaluation of a stiff and painful shoulder, characteristic of adhesive capsulitis and "frozen" shoulders, is a dilemma for orthopedic rehabilitation specialists. A stiff and painful shoulder is all-inclusive of Adhesive capsulitis and Frozen Shoulder diagnoses. Adhesive capsulitis and frozen shoulder will be referred to as a stiff and painful shoulder, throughout this paper. Shoulder motion occurs in multiple planes of movement. Loss of shoulder mobility can result in significant functional impairment. The traditional treatment approach to restore shoulder mobility emphasizes mobilization of the shoulder overhead. Forced elevation in a stiff and painful shoulder can be painful and potentially destructive to the glenohumeral joint. This manuscript will introduce a new biomechanical approach to evaluate and treat patients with stiff and painful shoulders.

  18. JOINT KINETICS TO ASSESS THE INFLUENCE OF THE RACKET ON A TENNIS PLAYER'S SHOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Creveaux

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the influence of three rackets on shoulder net joint moments, power and muscle activity during the flat tennis serve under field- conditions. A 6-camera Eagle® motion analysis system, operating at 256 Hz, captured racket and dominant upper limb kinematics of the serve in five tennis players under three racket conditions (A: low mass, high balance and polar moment, B: low three moments of inertia, and C: high mass, swingweight and twistweight. The electromyographic activity of six trunk and arm muscles was simultaneously recorded. Shoulder net joint moments and power were computed by 3D inverse dynamics. The results showed that greater shoulder joint power and internal/external rotation peak moments were found to accelerate and decelerate racket A in comparison with the racket C. Moreover, serving with the racket A resulted in less activity in latissimus dorsi muscle during the acceleration phase, and biceps brachii muscle during the follow-through phase when compared with racket C. These initial findings encourage studying the biomechanical measurements to quantify the loads on the body during play in order to reduce them, and then prevent shoulder injuries. Racket specifications may be a critical point for coaches who train players suffering from shoulder pain and chronic upper limb injuries should be considered in relation to the racket specifications of the players

  19. Prospective, double-blind comparison of shoulder MR imaging, US, arthrography, and arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the efficacy of diagnostic imaging modalities in the evaluation of shoulder pain, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) and arthrography were prospectively compared in a double-blind experimental protocol. Thirty consecutive patients were studied by these modalities, which received separate, blinded interpretations. The images and interpretations were sealed in an envelope and blinded from the arthroscopist for initial arthroscopy, but second-look arthroscopy, and in some cases open surgery, was performed after the envelopes were unsealed. To avoid selection bias, negative MR and/or US examinations never affected confirmation by arthrography and/or arthroscopy, so negatives and positives were equivalently tested. To date, MR imaging and US are equally sensitive in the detection of rotator cuff tears, but the combination is more sensitive. Both MR imaging and US demonstrated tears not diagnosed by means of arthrography, and MR imaging distinguished hemorrhagic muscle tears from rotator cuff tears, which arthrography and arthroscopy did not. Both MR imaging and US showed characteristic appearances of biceps tendonitis, but neither demonstrated adhesive capsulitis. The authors conclude that all three imaging modalities have a role in shoulder diagnosis

  20. Knockout of the predominant conventional PKC isoform, PKCalpha, in mouse skeletal muscle does not affect contraction-stimulated glucose uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas E; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Rose, Adam J;

    2009-01-01

    for approximately 97% of total cPKC protein expression in skeletal muscle. However, in muscles from PKCalpha knockout (KO) mice, neither contraction- nor phorbol ester-stimulated glucose uptake ex vivo differed compared with the wild type. Furthermore, the effects of calphostin C and Gö-6983 on contraction...

  1. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja; Holm, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue.......In skeletal muscle and tendon the extracellular matrix confers important tensile properties and is crucially important for tissue regeneration after injury. Musculoskeletal tissue adaptation is influenced by mechanical loading, which modulates the availability of growth factors, including growth...... young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P muscle collagen I m...

  2. Correlation between lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid contents in the shoulder of castrated and non-castrated Santa Inês lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz; Christian Albert Carvalho da Cruz; Thiago Ramos Lima; Juan Ramon Olalquiaga Pérez; Rodrigo Soares Junqueira; Braulio Crisanto Carvalho da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a correlation between the content of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acid profile of the edible portion of the shoulders of 12 castrated and 12 non-castrated Santa Ines lambs, slaughtered at different ages (84, 168, 210, 252 days). Shoulders and the edible portion (muscle and fat) were weighed and stored at -5 °C. Castrated and uncastrated lambs increased their body weight and half carcass weight, respectively. The shoulder weight increased in ...

  3. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, M; Giardina, S; Marzani, B; Marzatico, F

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1980's there has been high interest in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by sports nutrition scientists. The metabolism of BCAA is involved in some specific biochemical muscle processes and many studies have been carried out to understand whether sports performance can be enhanced by a BCAA supplementation. However, many of these researches have failed to confirm this hypothesis. Thus, in recent years investigators have changed their research target and focused on the effects of BCAA on the muscle protein matrix and the immune system. Data show that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis. Muscle damage develops delayed onset muscle soreness: a syndrome that occurs 24-48 h after intensive physical activity that can inhibit athletic performance. Other recent works indicate that BCAA supplementation recovers peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The BCAA also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events. PMID:18974721

  4. Driving Simulator Study of Effect of Inside Shoulder on Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Design Specification for Highway Alignment (JTG D20-2006, eight-lane expressways should be paved with an inside shoulder of 2.5 m; however, this regulation is rarely obeyed in engineering practice. On the basis of driving simulator experiment, this research examined the impacts of inside shoulder on vehicle operation with and without the speed limitation. A virtual scenario, consisting of five expressways with different inside shoulder widths, was created and displayed in driving simulator, and vehicle operational data—speed and lane position—were recorded. Authors used analysis of variance (ANOVA and contrast analysis to examine whether inside shoulder width had statistically significant effects on travel speed and lane position. Analytical results indicated that there is a kind of quadratic relationship between inside shoulder width and driver's speed choice, while driver's speed choice is not significantly affected by inside shoulder width. What is more, inside shoulder width has statistically significant effects on vehicle's lane positions, and vehicle's lane position is negatively correlated to inside shoulder width. Specifically, the vehicle can be maintained at the center of lane when the inside shoulder width is 2.5 m.

  5. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio). PMID:26289460

  6. The effect of fear of movement on muscle activation in posttraumatic neck pain disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marc J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Groothuis, Karin G.M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies using surface electromyography have demonstrated a reorganization of muscle activation patterns of the neck and shoulder muscles in patients with posttraumatic neck pain disability. The neurophysiologically oriented "pain adaptation" model explains this reorganization as a useful adaptation

  7. Experimental Study of 103Pd Stent Affecting Dynamic Equilibrium Between Proliferation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingmei; Fu Yuewu; Wei Yulin; Wu Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objectives By observing γ radioactive 103Pd stent affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to explore the mechanism of radioactive stent preventing in-stent restenosis. Methods Fifty male New Zealand rabbits were randomized into stent group and 103Pd stent group. Control group was set up. The materials were harvested on 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 days after operation and the following investigations were carried out, including pathomorphology, immunohistochemistry, apoptosis (TUNEL) and in situs hybridization studies. Results ①The severity of the stenosis in 103Pd stent group was less than that of stent group.It was the most obvious on 56th day (P < 0.01).②The expression of PCNA of 103Pd stent group was lower than that of stent group on 3 to 28 days. It was the most obvious on 7th day, 16.35%±0.79% vs 24.36%±0.55% (P< 0.01 ). ③TUNEL method showed that the 103Pd stent group had much more apoptosis of VSMCs than that of stent group. The highest rate of apoptosis appeared on day 7, 14.72%±0.53% vs 12.42%±1.13% (P<0.01). ④ By calculating the ratio of PCNA/apoptosis (P:A), a much lower ratio was seen in 103Pd-stent group than that of stent group at 3 to 28 days. There was significant statistic difference between two groups (P<0.05). ⑤For bcl-2/bax ratio, the result in 103Pd-stent group was lower than that of stent group at 3 to 28 days. It had significant statistic difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions γ radioactive stent can inhibit the proliferation and accelerate apoptosis of injured media VSMCs. Also it can decrease the ratio of proliferation to apoptosis and relieve the severity of restenosis.

  8. Can shoulder joint reaction forces be estimated by neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W H K; Veeger, H E J; Baten, C T M; van der Helm, F C T

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the development of future shoulder endoprostheses, a long term load profile of the shoulder joint is desired. A musculoskeletal model using 3D kinematics and external forces as input can estimate the mechanical load on the glenohumeral joint, in terms of joint reaction forces. For long term ambulatory measurements, these 3D kinematics can be measured by means of Inertial Magnetic Measurement Systems. Recording of external forces under daily conditions is not feasible; estimations of joint loading should preferably be independent of this input. EMG signals reflect the musculoskeletal response and can easily be measured under daily conditions. This study presents the use of a neural network for the prediction of glenohumeral joint reaction forces based upon arm kinematics and shoulder muscle EMG. Several setups were examined for NN training, with varying combinations of type of input, type of motion, and handled weights. When joint reaction forces are predicted by a trained NN, for motion data independent of the training data, results show a high intraclass correlation (ICC up to 0.98) and relative SEM as low as 3%, compared to similar output of a musculoskeletal model. A convenient setup in which kinematics and only one channel of EMG were used as input for the NN׳s showed comparable predictive power as more complex setups. These results are promising and enable long term estimation of shoulder joint reaction forces outside the motion lab, independent of external forces. PMID:26654109

  9. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Silvestri, Enzo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an established modality for shoulder evaluation, being accurate, low cost and radiation free. Different pathological conditions can be diagnosed using ultrasound and can be treated using ultrasound guidance, such as degenerative, traumatic or inflammatory diseases. Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis is the most common finding on ultrasound evaluation for painful shoulder. Therapeutic injections of corticosteroids are helpful to reduce inflammation and pain. Calcific tendinopathy of rotator cuff affects up to 20% of painful shoulders. Ultrasound-guided treatment may be performed with both single- and double-needle approach. Calcific enthesopathy, a peculiar form of degenerative tendinopathy, is a common and mostly asymptomatic ultrasound finding; dry needling has been proposed in symptomatic patients. An alternative is represented by autologous platelet-rich plasma injections. Intra-articular injections of the shoulder can be performed in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory and degenerative diseases with corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid respectively. Steroid injections around the long head of the biceps brachii tendon are indicated in patients with biceps tendinopathy, reducing pain and humeral tenderness. The most common indication for acromion-clavicular joint injection is degenerative osteoarthritis, with ultrasound representing a useful tool in localizing the joint space and properly injecting various types of drugs (steroids, lidocaine or hyaluronic acid). Suprascapular nerve block is an approved treatment for chronic shoulder pain non-responsive to conventional treatments as well as candidate patients for shoulder arthroscopy. This review provides an overview of these different ultrasonography-guided procedures that can be performed around the shoulder. PMID:26313499

  10. Echographic and kinetic changes in the shoulder joint after manual wheelchair propulsion under two different workload settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; Del-Ama Eng, Antonio J; Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high prevalence of shoulder pain due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers, and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with SCI while they performed high- and low-intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental). Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high-intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics. PMID:25566539

  11. ECHOGRAPHIC AND KINETIC CHANGES IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AFTER MANUAL WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION UNDER TWO DIFFERENT WORKLOAD SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel eGil-Agudo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractManual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury have a high prevalence of shoulder pain, due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury while they performed high and low intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental. Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics.

  12. Muscle involvement during intermittent contraction patterns with different target force feedback modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, G; Jørgensen, L V; Ekner, D;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of different feedback modes during intermittent contractions on primary and assessory muscle activity. BACKGROUND: Intermittent contractions and physiological responses have been studied in laboratory settings. However, the feedback given to the subjects regarding...... the two different feedback modes. In line with this, EMG recorded from four shoulder/arm muscles analyzed for amplitude and frequency showed similar activity initially; but later, during the 30 min contraction larger amplitudes were attained during proprioceptive feedback than visual feedback. CONCLUSIONS......: Feedback mode significantly effects the muscle involvement and fatigue during intermittent contractions. RelevanceIntermittent contractions are common in many work places and various feedback modes are being given regarding work requirements. The choice of feedback may significantly affect the muscle load...

  13. Effect of aging on performance, muscle activation and perceived stress during mentally demanding computer tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Pilegaard, Marianne; Bakke, Merete;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of age on performance, muscle activation, and perceived stress during computer tasks with different levels of mental demand. METHODS: Fifteen young and thirteen elderly women performed two computer tasks [color word test and reference task] with different...... demands affect young and elderly women differently. Thus the mentally demanding computer task had a more pronounced effect on the elderly than on the young. In contrast to the results in the reference task, the same level of muscle activity for most muscles and the same level of self-reported difficulty...... levels of mental demand but similar physical demands. The performance (clicking frequency, percentage of correct answers, and response time for correct answers) and electromyography from the forearm, shoulder, and neck muscles were recorded. Visual analogue scales were used to measure the participants...

  14. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (pShoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (pshoulder pain.

  15. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. PMID:25584722

  16. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kovacevic

    Full Text Available The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy.Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks.The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed.This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy.

  17. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Terayama

    Full Text Available Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9, and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia.

  18. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Sujit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and almost always occur in the posterior direction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is even rarer and only a few cases are stated in the literature. The most interesting part of a bilateral shoulder dislocation is about its injury mechanism as a synchronous and simultaneous force is needed to result in it. In cases of epilepsy or electrocution, the mechanism is different and the forceful contractions of the selective group of muscles result in the dislocation. This article reports two cases of bilateral simultaneous anterior shoulder joint dislocation that occurred after a road side accident and after an episode of convulsion in an epileptic patient. The dislocations were diagnosed early and reduced immediately with a proper postreduction rehabilitation. During their follow-up, both patients had sa-tisfactory functional outcome. This article emphasizes on the importance of shoulder examination in road side accident victims and epileptic patients. All orthopedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such unusual possibilities to have an early diagnosis and treatment. An early reduction and appropriate rehabilitation can provide satisfactory functional outcome. This article also briefly discusses the injury mechanisms, diagnoses and treatments of bilateral shoulder dislocation as reported in the literature. Key words: Shoulder dislocation; Epilepsy; Accidents, traffic

  19. [New options in the treatment of painful shoulder syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza Miñana, J M; Londoño Parra, M; Villanueva Pérez, V L; De Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint in clinical practice in Primary Care and affects 20% of the general population. The usual form of treatment is based on NSAIDs, rest, rehabilitation and, as an alternative, a local injection into the joint. There are also radiofrequency techniques on the suprascapular nerve in the cases of refractory pain to these therapies. Radiofrequency can be used in two ways: Conventional Radiofrequency, using high temperatures to the target tissue with the aim of producing a thermal neurolysis and Pulsed Radiofrequency where the temperatures are lower and produces a temporary non-destructive blockage; the latter being the most common technique in the management of shoulder pain. Although the analgesic mechanism of action of Radiofrequency is unknown, recent studies have shown that it is safe, effective and Lasting. Radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve is a valid, effective and with few complications in the treatment of shoulder pain refractory to other therapies.

  20. MR imaging of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (1.5-T unit) was performed in over 600 shoulders to evaluate shoulder pain. Ultrasound (US) and arthrography were performed in over 100 patients. Surgery was performed in over 75 patients. MR imaging offers information not well evaluated with other modalities, including bony impingement, tendinitis, bursitis, and osseous abnormalities, such as primary arthritis, avascular necrosis, occult fractures, and tumors. US and MR findings correlate well with surgical findings for medium to large rotator cuff tears. MR imaging with T2 weighting is superior for differentiating small tears from associated tendinitis. An algorithm for cost-effective shoulder imaging integrating US, MR imaging, arthrography, and computed tomographic arthrography are presented

  1. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Sjøbjerg, J.O.;

    1989-01-01

    the glenohumeral and/or the glenoacromial space. There was no correlation between shoulder pain and the development of ossification. Shoulders with grade III heterotopic bone formation had a limited range of active elevation compared with shoulders without or with only a milder lesion. Men and patients......The incidence and location of heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty were evaluated in 58 Neer Mark-II total shoulder replacements. One year after surgery, 45% had developed some ectopic ossification. In six shoulders (10%) the ossifications roentgenographically bridged...... with osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint were significantly disposed to the development of heterotopic bone. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty is frequent, but disabling heterotopic ossifications seem to be rare....

  2. Painful Shoulder in Swimmers: A Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, William C.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of painful shoulder in swimmers, including: regional problems that can cause shoulder pain; physical, clinical, and laboratory tests for diagnostic use; and approaches to management of the problem. (Author/CB)

  3. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 13:23 Now we're moving into the space between that ball and cup that Joe so… ... glenoid socket for the shoulder. There's a wide space in this boy's shoulder, which is partially due ...

  4. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads.

  5. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  6. Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis Page ( 1 ) One of the most common physical complaints is shoulder pain. Your shoulder is made up of several ... is vulnerable to many different problems. The rotator cuff is a frequent source of pain in the ...

  7. 49 CFR 572.184 - Shoulder assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoulder assembly. 572.184 Section 572.184... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.184 Shoulder assembly. (a) The shoulder (175-3000) is part of the body assembly shown in drawing 175-0000. When subjected to impact tests specified in paragraph...

  8. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  9. Periarthritis of the shoulder-MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined MRI findings in patients with periarthritis of the shoulder. We excluded cuff tears, calcified tendinitis, instability of the shoulder, fracture and impingement syndrome of young patients. Subjects comprised 36 cases, 38 shoulders (25 men and 11 women), with an average age of 59.1 years (42-75). Scanning was performed on a Gyroscan T5-II 0.5-T (Philips). T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences in the coronal oblique plane, T2-weighted sequences in the coronal sagittal plane and horizontal plane were taken. Twelve shoulders showed some change in the humeral heads. Degeneration of the rotator cuff was observed in 15 shoulders. Joint fluid collection was observed in the gleno-humeral joints of 15 shoulders, in the subacromial bursa of 11 shoulders and in the acromio-clavicular joints of 7 shoulders. Twenty four shoulders had fluid collection in the sheath of the long head of the biceps long tendon. Localized high signal area was observed around the inferior pouch in 11 shoulders. We studied the relationship between MRI findings and clinical symptoms. There was no significant relationship but the shoulders with night pain and severe contractures had a higher positive rate of joint fluid collection on MRI than the shoulders without night pain and with less contractures. (author)

  10. A randomized controlled intervention trial to relieve and prevent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Blangsted, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE:: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different workplace interventions on long-term compliance, muscle strength gains, and neck/shoulder pain in office workers. METHODS:: A 1-yr randomized controlled intervention trial was done with three groups: specific...... in maximal muscle strength, and changes in intensity of neck/shoulder pain (scale 0-9) in those with and without pain at baseline. RESULTS:: Regular participation was achieved by 54%, 31%, and 16% of those of the participants who answered the questionnaire in SRT (78%), APE (81%), and REF (80%), respectively......, during the first half of the intervention period, and decreased to 35%, 28% and 9%, respectively, during the second half. Shoulder elevation strength increased 9-11% in SRT and APE (P

  11. The Origin and Implications of the Shoulder in Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Garvey, G T; Ibeling, Duligur; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, T; Mills, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    We analyze within a nuclear database framework the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra in current reactor experiments. We find that the ENDF/B-VII.1 database predicts that the antineutrino shoulder arises from an analogous shoulder in the aggregate fission beta spectra. In contrast, the JEFF-3.1.1 database does not predict a shoulder. We consider several possible origins of the shoulder, and find possible explanations. For example, there could be a problem with the measured aggregate beta spectra, or the harder neutron spectrum at a light-water power reactor could affect the distribution of beta-decaying isotopes. In addition to the fissile actinides, we find that $^{238}$U could also play a significant role in distorting the total antineutrino spectrum. Distinguishing these and quantifying whether there is an anomaly associated with measured reactor neutrino signals will require new short-baseline experiments, both at thermal reactors and at reactors with a sizable epithermal neutron component.

  12. MRI role in morphological and functional assessment of the levator ani muscle: Use in patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after pelvic floor rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vescovo, Riccardo, E-mail: r.delvescovo@unicampus.it; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia, E-mail: c.piccolo@unicampus.it; Vecchia, Nicoletta Della, E-mail: nico.dvecchia@libero.it; Giurazza, Francesco, E-mail: f.giurazza@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it

    2014-03-15

    Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunctions affect a very high proportion of female population. Magnetic resonance imaging is the only technique able to provide a multiplanar overview of pelvic organs and muscles without the use of ionizing radiation. The aim of our prospective study is to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of perineal re-education applying MR technique. Materials and methods: 22 patients affected by stress urinary incontinence were enrolled in our prospective study. They underwent urogynaecological, urodynamic examinations, and a questionnaire about symptoms (ICIQ-UI) to investigate the degree of their interference with daily activities. Then they underwent a morphological and dynamic MR exam. Results: The pre-perineal rehabilitation MR examinations showed an asymmetry of the levator ani muscle in 87% of patients; the remaining 13% showed a muscular bilateral volume reduction. In the group with unilateral defect, the muscle total volume had values between 15 and 21 cm{sup 3}. Its overall volume was 34.2% smaller on the defective side (9.28 ± 0.26 cm{sup 3}) compared to the normal side (12.64 ± 12.31 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001). In patients with a bilateral impairment, the muscle was replaced by fibro-fatty tissue, without a significant asymmetry between the two sides. The post-perineal rehabilitation MR tests showed three different degrees of response to therapy, with a “complete response” found in 67% of patients and no response in 13%. Conclusions: MR is an useful tool in the management of patients affected by stress urinary incontinence with indication for perineal rehabilitation. Its objective data allow to distinguish different types of response to therapy and, consequently, different outcomes in terms of additional treatments.

  13. A Rare unusual case presentation of the Tuberculosis of the Shoulder Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Deshmukh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Afflictions of shoulder by tuberculosis is rare and when it occurs its more commonly a dry lesion (caries sicca. Wet lesions in shoulder are rare and we report this case for the rarity of its occurrence. Case Report: A 55yrs old female patient presented with a painful swelling with restriction of movements of the right shoulder since six months. Patient had taken various treatments without any relief; there was no history of trauma, weight loss, recent infection in the past or any history of tuberculosis in family or contact with tubercular patient. Right shoulder revealed restricted movements with no local rise in temperature. Tenderness was present over anterior and posterior aspect of the right shoulder diffusely. External rotation and abduction movements were restricted while adduction and flexion were not restricted. Power of the muscles was unaffected with no neurological deficit. Antero-posterior and axial X-rays of the right shoulder showed no bony involvement however, ultrasonography showed lipoma. Serological investigations showed a markedly raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (73mm / hr and a positive C-reactive protein. Surgical excision of the mass revealed rice bodies. DNA PCR was positive for tuberculosis and patient was started on anti-tubercular treatment( Category I for six months. Conclusion: Any patient coming with the complaints of long standing painful restriction of the movements of the shoulder associated with or without complaints swelling, shall be evaluated to rule out skeletal tuberculosis along with other differential diagnosis of periarthritis of shoulder and adhesive capsulitis. Most of the patients with skeletal tuberculosis may not necessarily present with the constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss, etc and also because of the widespread prevalence of the organism in India. Keywords: Shoulder Tuberculosis, Caries Sicca, rice bodies.

  14. Shoulder pain in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Case scenario A 65 year old gentleman presented with a 1 week history of pain in the left shoulder. Pain started after spending 2 days painting his house. He was taking paracetamol regularly yet it only gave him minor relief. On examination he had a painful arch and was tender under the acromium.

  15. Goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Gribble, Paul L; Pruszynski, J Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that muscle activity 50-100 ms after a mechanical perturbation (i.e., the long-latency stretch response) can be modulated in a manner that reflects voluntary motor control. These previous studies typically assessed modulation of the long-latency stretch response from individual muscles rather than how this response is concurrently modulated across multiple muscles. Here we investigated such concurrent modulation by having participants execute goal-directed reaches to visual targets after mechanical perturbations of the shoulder, elbow, or wrist while measuring activity from six muscles that articulate these joints. We found that shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response, that the relative magnitude of participants' goal-dependent activity was similar across muscles, that the temporal onset of goal-dependent muscle activity was not reliably different across the three joints, and that shoulder muscles displayed goal-dependent activity appropriate for counteracting intersegmental dynamics. We also observed that the long-latency stretch response of wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after elbow perturbations and that the long-latency stretch response of elbow muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after wrist perturbations. This pattern likely arises because motion at either joint could bring the hand to the visual target and suggests that the nervous system rapidly exploits such simple kinematic redundancy when processing sensory feedback to support goal-directed actions.

  16. Progressive surgical dissection for tendon transposition affects length-force characteristics of rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulders, Mark J.C.; Kreulen, Michiel; Hage, J. Joris; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    Extramuscular connective tissue and muscular fascia have been suggested to form a myo-fascial pathway for transmission of forces over a joint that is additional to the generally accepted myo-tendinous pathway. The consequences of myo-fascial force transmission for the outcome of conventional muscle

  17. Skeletal muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates are affected differently by altitude-induced hypoxia in native lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Haslund, Mads Lyhne; Robach, Paul;

    2010-01-01

    and expired breath samples were collected hourly during the 4 hour trial and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained at 1 and 4 hours after tracer priming in the overnight fasted state. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rate was doubled; 0.041±0.018 at sea-level to 0.080±0.018%⋅hr(-1) (p

  18. A new autoreduction method for anterior shoulder dislocation: the GONAIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonai, Shiro; Kamio, Yoshito; Matsuoka, Tomoyuki; Harunari, Manabu; Saito, Yutaka; Takuma, Kiyotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Although techniques for autoreduction of anterior shoulder dislocation have been developed, no reports have detailed an autoreduction method using the zero position and traction on the affected arm. Therefore, we developed a new autoreduction technique using the zero position and gentle autotraction. The objective of this study is to present our experience with a new method for autoreduction of anterior shoulder dislocation called the GONAIS (a backronym for “Grasp a waist-high object, Opposite arm assists, Nonsedated, Autoreduction/autotraction, Immobilize the grasped object, and Squatting and stooping”) method. A 41-year-old healthy woman with a history of left shoulder dislocation presented to the emergency department with left shoulder pain while attaching her seatbelt. The X-ray examination revealed subcoracoid dislocation of the left shoulder. The patient tried the GONAIS method after simple guidance and demonstration. Although she felt pain once when weakening traction, she achieved autoreduction successfully in only 2 min and 50 s. Clinical examination after autoreduction revealed normal neurovascular findings and appearance of the shoulder. The X-ray revealed glenohumeral joint reduction and no fracture. Here, our patient using the GONAIS method achieved shoulder autoreduction in a short time. The GONAIS method does not require lying down or sitting on the ground, does not necessarily require the opposite arm, and is minimally invasive. This method would likely be helpful for those who cannot quickly reach a hospital for treatment of anterior shoulder dislocation. PMID:26168697

  19. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Hyldahl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells. To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC or concentric contractions (CON. Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n=7 or CON (n=7 of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p<0.05 but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (P<0.01 following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively. There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p<0.05, but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise.

  20. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rotator Cuff Tears in Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder joint is a common site of musculoskeletal pain caused, among other things, by rotator cuff tears due to narrowing of subacromial space, acute trauma or chronic shoulder overload. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent modality for imaging of soft tissues of the shoulder joint considering a possibility of multiplanar image acquisition and non-invasive nature of the study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of partial and complete rotator cuff tears in magnetic resonance images of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome and to review the literature on the causes and classification of rotator cuff tears. We retrospectively analyzed the results of 137 shoulder MRI examinations performed in 57 women and 72 men in Magnetic Resonance facility of the Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging at the St. Jadwiga the Queen Regional Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszow between June 2010 and February 2013. Examinations were performed using Philips Achieva 1.5T device, including spin echo and gradient echo sequences with T1-, T2- and PD-weighted as well as fat saturation sequences in transverse, frontal and sagittal oblique planes. Patients were referred from hospital wards as well as from outpatient clinics of the subcarpathian province. The most frequently reported injuries included partial supraspinatus tendon tear and complete tearing most commonly involved the supraspinatus muscle tendon. The smallest group comprised patients with complete tear of subscapularis muscle tendon. Among 137 patients in the study population, 129 patients suffered from shoulder pain, including 57 patients who reported a history of trauma. There was 44% women and 56% men in a group of patients with shoulder pain. Posttraumatic shoulder pain was predominantly reported by men, while women comprised a larger group of patients with shoulder pain not preceded by injury. Rotator cuff injury is a very common pathology in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome

  2. Management of the frozen shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Laar SM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Margaretha van de Laar, Peer van der Zwaal Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague, the Netherlands Abstract: Frozen shoulder is a very common condition with a prevalence of 2%–5% in the general population. Decrease in joint volume as a result of fibrosis and hyperplasia of the joint capsule leads to painful and restricted glenohumeral motion. Frozen shoulder is a self-limiting disease with a chronic character, and is mostly treated in a primary care setting. In this review, we set out to address the current evidence-based literature on management of this disabling disease using a PubMed search. Many non-surgical and surgical therapeutic options are described, including supervised neglect, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, manipulation under anesthesia, capsular distension, and arthroscopic capsular release. In the literature, the long-term outcome shows a significant decrease in pain and improvement of shoulder function for all treatment modalities without clear evidence of superiority of one over the other. This possibly indicates that a self-limiting character is the most important factor in the course of the disease. Management of frozen shoulder is primarily conservative. Supervised neglect is combined with analgesia and stretching exercises as the pain subsides. In the early painful phase, intra-articular corticosteroid injections are recommended for pain relief. When the patient has persistent pain and glenohumeral stiffness after adequate conservative treatment, invasive options can be considered, like arthroscopic capsular release, manipulation under anesthesia, or capsular distension. Keywords: frozen shoulder, adhesive capsulitis, treatment, pathophysiology

  3. [Classification of periprosthetic shoulder fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C; Kirchhoff, S; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    The key targets in the treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures (PHF) are the preservation of bone, successful bony consolidation and provision of a stable anchoring of the prosthesis with the major goal of restoring the shoulder-arm function. A substantial problem of periprosthetic shoulder fractures is the fact that treatment is determined not only by the fracture itself but also by the implanted prosthesis and its function. Consequently, the exact preoperative shoulder function and, in the case of an implanted anatomical prosthesis, the status and function of the rotator cuff need to be assessed in order to clarify the possibility of a secondarily occurring malfunction. Of equal importance in this context is the type of implanted prosthesis. The existing classification systems of Wright and Cofield, Campbell et al., Groh et al. and Worland et al. have several drawbacks from a shoulder surgeon's point of view, such as a missing reference to the great variability of the available prostheses and the lack of an evaluation of rotator cuff function. The presented 6‑stage classification for the evaluation of periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder can be considered just as simple or complex to understand as the classification of the working group for osteosynthesis problems (AO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), depending on the viewpoint. From our point of view the classification presented here encompasses the essential points of the existing classification systems and also covers the otherwise missing points, which should be considered in the assessment of such periprosthetic fractures. The classification presented here should provide helpful assistance in the daily routine to find the most convenient form of therapy. PMID:26992712

  4. Shoulder Mobility, Muscular Strength, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the shoulder mobility, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL among breast cancer survivors with and without Tai Chi (TC Qigong training to those of healthy individuals and to explore the associations between shoulder impairments and QOL in breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training. Methods. Eleven breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training, 12 sedentary breast cancer survivors, and 16 healthy participants completed the study. Shoulder mobility and rotator muscle strength were assessed by goniometry and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B questionnaire. Results. Goniometric measurements of the active range of motion in the flexion, abduction, and hand-behind-the-back directions were similar among the three groups. The TC Qigong-trained breast cancer survivors had significantly higher isokinetic peak torques of the shoulder rotator muscles (at than untrained survivors, and their isokinetic shoulder muscular strength reached the level of healthy individuals. Greater shoulder muscular strength was significantly associated with better functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors with TC Qigong training. However, no significant between-group difference was found in FACT-B total scores. Conclusions. TC Qigong training might improve shoulder muscular strength and functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors.

  5. Electromyogram-controlled assistive exercise for the motor recovery of shoulder in chronic hemiplegia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Heo, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Seok; Eom, Gwang-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Correct-active-repetitive exercise is important for the motor recovery in hemiplegics. The present study hypothesizes that the electromyogram (EMG)-controlled assistance of motion would be an effective implementation of the concept for the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic shoulder, even in chronic patients. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the suggested method. The motor intention is derived from the EMG of the shoulder muscles and the shoulder movement (flexion and abduction) is assisted by an electro-mechanical system only when the motor intention (EMG amplitude) exceeded the threshold. Twelve patients in the chronic stage of stroke participated in this pilot study. The EMG-controlled assistive exercise lasts for two weeks, 20 min per day and 5 days a week. The active range of motion in both abduction and flexion increases significantly after the intervention (p shoulder-related items (p shoulder-unrelated items of the upper extremity (p = 0.13) nor in the lower extremity items (p = 0.19). This pilot study demonstrates that EMG-controlled assistive exercise can improve shoulder motor functions related to selected muscles and the suggested method is promising for the motor recovery of the shoulder in chronic hemiplegia. PMID:26406084

  6. DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand) evaluation of QOL for carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questionnaire on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand is a region-specific, self-administered outcome instrument that is developed as a measure of self-rate upper extremity disability and symptoms. Last year, the Japanese version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) was cross-culturally adapted. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between DASH and clinical assessment (findings of MRI and electrodiagnostic parameters). The subjects comprised 41 patients (6 males and 35 females) with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), except for cases with other upper extremity disorders. These subjects prospectively completed DASH 1 (disability module), DASH 2 (symptom module), and DASH (disability and symptom module) before the release of the open carpal tunnel. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the symptom duration (A: shorter than 3 months, B: 4-11 months, C: longer than 12 months). All patients were preoperatively assessed with regard to sensory conduction velocity (SCV) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). In addition, all patients underwent MRI in order to evaluate the flexor tenosynovial swelling represented by palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum (PBFR). The relationships were estimated using the Spearman rank score, unpaired t tests, and Bonferroni tests. DASH 2 scores indicated greater responsiveness than DASH 1, which reflected the character of CTS. DASH 1 scores were higher in patients who were affected in their dominant hand than in those whose nondominant hand was affected. The DASH scores decreased significantly in groups A and B, with the exception of C. However, DASH did not show any correlation either with the parameters, age, or MRI assessment. DASH can be used for the research of preoperative outcomes related to CTS. It also has the advantage of being useful in assessing and comparing the outcome for various other hand disorders. (author)

  7. Relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain and the forward shift of the head and shoulder in female athletes from the youth category Relação entre o encurtamento de cadeia muscular posterior e a anteriorização da cabeça e ombros em atletas infanto-juvenis do gênero feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Maciel Rabello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain, mainly the hamstrings and the forward shift of the head and shoulder, as a possible adaptation in high level/performance athletes. The sample involved 59 female athletes from the youth category of different sports modalities. Group 1: 35 athletes with significant hamstrings’ shortening evaluated by the “bear’s position”; Control group: 24 athletes without hamstrings’ shortening, evaluated by the same position. Data collection was performed using digital analysis of pictures taken with the athlete standing (lateral vision in the “bear’s position”. Luminous markers were placed in the temporomandibular joint, lateral region of the acromio, femur great trochanter, external femoral condyle and lateral malleolus. Variables were measured by the computerized angular cinematic analysis, using the software for posture evaluation SAPO, 0.68 version, always performed by the same rater. Statistical analysis was performed with the Shapiro Wilk test, Unpaired t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at p?0.05. Group 1 showed 2.5 degrees (SD=1,12 of forward inclination in the lateral view and 43.15 degrees (SD=9,41 of knee flexion in the “bear’s position”. In group 2, there was 2.77 (DP=1.02 degrees in the lateral analysis and -2.19 (DP=4.05 degrees in the “bear’s position”. The statistical analysis between the two groups showed p=0.50 for the comparison of the anterior trunk imbalance in the lateral view and p=0,00 for the comparison of the “bear’s position”. The correlation analysis between the anterior trunk imbalance and the posterior muscle chain shortening, emphasizing the hamstrings, showed r=0.04 in the group with posterior chain shortening and r=0.1 in the control group. It can be concluded that the hamstrings’ muscle shortening did not show any relation with the

  8. Cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work...... was to characterize cardiac changes and inflammatory cell types associated with a clinical HSMI outbreak in Atlantic salmon using immunohistochemistry. Different immune cells and cardiac tissue responses associated with the disease were identified using different markers. The spectrum of inflammatory cells associated....... The recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antibody identified stained macrophage-like cells and endothelial cells around lesions in addition to eosinophilic granular cells (EGCs). These findings suggested that the inflammatory response in diseased hearts comprised of mostly CD3(+) T lymphocytes...

  9. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frida Dangardt; Yun Chen; Eva Gronowitz; Jovanna Dahlgren; Peter Friberg; Birgitta Strandvik

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 m...

  10. Skeletal muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates are affected differently by altitude-induced hypoxia in native lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Haslund, Mads Lyhne; Robach, Paul;

    2010-01-01

    and expired breath samples were collected hourly during the 4 hour trial and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained at 1 and 4 hours after tracer priming in the overnight fasted state. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rate was doubled; 0.041±0.018 at sea-level to 0.080±0.018%·hr(-1) (p0.05). Trends...

  11. Shoulder impingement syndrome: MR findings in 53 shoulders

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, LL; Gold, RH; Bassett, LW; Ellman, H

    1988-01-01

    The shoulder impingement syndrome refers to a condition in which the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursa are chronically entrapped between the humeral head inferiorly and either the anterior acromion itself, spurs of the anterior acromion or acromioclavicular joint, or the coracoacromial ligament superiorly. As a result, the space for the bursa and tendon is reduced, and repeated trauma to these structures leads to burstitis and rotator cuff injury. Although pain and limitation of moti...

  12. The Genomic Context and Corecruitment of SP1 Affect ERRα Coactivation by PGC-1α in Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Silvia; Kupr, Barbara; Baresic, Mario; van Nimwegen, Erik; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) coordinates the transcriptional network response to promote an improved endurance capacity in skeletal muscle, eg, by coactivating the estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) in the regulation of oxidative substrate metabolism. Despite a close functional relationship, the interaction between these 2 proteins has not been studied on a genomic level. We now mapped the genome-wide binding of ERRα to DNA in a skeletal muscle cell line with elevated PGC-1α and linked the DNA recruitment to global PGC-1α target gene regulation. We found that, surprisingly, ERRα coactivation by PGC-1α is only observed in the minority of all PGC-1α recruitment sites. Nevertheless, a majority of PGC-1α target gene expression is dependent on ERRα. Intriguingly, the interaction between these 2 proteins is controlled by the genomic context of response elements, in particular the relative GC and CpG content, monomeric and dimeric repeat-binding site configuration for ERRα, and adjacent recruitment of the transcription factor specificity protein 1. These findings thus not only reveal a novel insight into the regulatory network underlying muscle cell plasticity but also strongly link the genomic context of DNA-response elements to control transcription factor-coregulator interactions. PMID:27182621

  13. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy; Ramesh Kumar Sen; Sameer Aggarwal; Sarvdeep Singh Dhatt; Naveen Tahasildar

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and almost always occur in the posterior direction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is even rarer and only a few cases are stated in the literature. The most interesting part of a bilateral shoulder dislocation is about its injury mechanism as a synchronous and simultaneous force is needed to result in it. In cases of epilepsy or electrocution, the mechanism is different and the forceful contractions of the selective group of muscles result in the dislocation. This article reports two cases of bilateral simultaneous anterior shoulder joint dislocation that occurred after a road side accident and after an episode of convulsion in an epileptic patient. The dislocations were diagnosed early and reduced immediately with a proper postreduction rehabilitation. During their follow-up, both patients had satisfactory functional outcome. This article emphasizes on the importance of shoulder examination in road side accident victims and epileptic patients. All orthopedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such unusual possibilities to have an early diagnosis and treatment.An early reduction and appropriate rehabilitation can provide satisfactory functional outcome. This article also briefly discusses the injury mechanisms, diagnoses and treatments of bilateral shoulder dislocation as reported in the literature.

  14. A multi-modal treatment approach for the shoulder: A 4 patient case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the clinical management of four cases of shoulder impingement syndrome using a conservative multimodal treatment approach. Clinical Features Four patients presented to a chiropractic clinic with chronic shoulder pain, tenderness in the shoulder region and a limited range of motion with pain and catching. After physical and orthopaedic examination a clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome was reached. The four patients were admitted to a multi-modal treatment protocol including soft tissue therapy (ischaemic pressure and cross-friction massage, 7 minutes of phonophoresis (driving of medication into tissue with ultrasound with 1% cortisone cream, diversified spinal and peripheral joint manipulation and rotator cuff and shoulder girdle muscle exercises. The outcome measures for the study were subjective/objective visual analogue pain scales (VAS, range of motion (goniometer and return to normal daily, work and sporting activities. All four subjects at the end of the treatment protocol were symptom free with all outcome measures being normal. At 1 month follow up all patients continued to be symptom free with full range of motion and complete return to normal daily activities. Conclusion This case series demonstrates the potential benefit of a multimodal chiropractic protocol in resolving symptoms associated with a suspected clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome.

  15. Impingement syndrome of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impingement syndrome is a clinical entity characterized by shoulder pain due to primary or secondary mechanical irritation of the rotator cuff. The primary factors for the development of impingement are a curved or hook-shaped anterior acromion as well as subacromial osteophytes, which may lead to tearing of the supraspinatus tendon. Secondary impingement is mainly caused by calcific tendinopathy, glenohumeral instability, os acromiale and degenerative changes of the acromioclavicular joint. Conventional radiographs are initially obtained, mainly for evaluation of the bony structures of the shoulder. If available, sonography can be used for detection of lesions and tears of the rotator cuff. Finally, MR-imaging provides detailed information about the relationship of the acromion and the acromioclavicular joint to the rotator cuff itself. In many cases however, no morphologic cause for impingement syndrome can be found. While patients are initially treated conservatively, chronic disease usually requires surgical intervention. (orig.)

  16. Highly efficient EIAV-mediated in utero gene transfer and expression in the major muscle groups affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L G; Waddington, S N; Holder, M V; Mitrophanous, K A; Buckley, S M K; Mosley, K L; Bigger, B W; Ellard, F M; Walmsley, L E; Lawrence, L; Al-Allaf, F; Kingsman, S; Coutelle, C; Themis, M

    2004-07-01

    Gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has so far not been successful because of the difficulty in achieving efficient and permanent gene transfer to the large number of affected muscles and the development of immune reactions against vector and transgenic protein. In addition, the prenatal onset of disease complicates postnatal gene therapy. We have therefore proposed a fetal approach to overcome these barriers. We have applied beta-galactosidase expressing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) lentiviruses pseudotyped with VSV-G by single or combined injection via different routes to the MF1 mouse fetus on day 15 of gestation and describe substantial gene delivery to the musculature. Highly efficient gene transfer to skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, as well as to cardiac myocytes was observed and gene expression persisted for at least 15 months after administration of this integrating vector. These findings support the concept of in utero gene delivery for therapeutic and long-term prevention/correction of muscular dystrophies and pave the way for a future application in the clinic. PMID:15141156

  17. Diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical and imaging findings in shoulder impingement syndrome. Different stages of impingement syndrome are described. Stage I relates to edema and hemorrhage of the supraspinatus tendon. Stage II is characterized by bursal inflammation and fibrosis, as well as tendinopathy. In stage III there is a tear of the rotator cuff. Clinical signs many overlap. Moreover, calcifying tendinitis, fractures and pain originating from the cervical spine may mimic shoulder impingement syndrome. Imaging is important for the exact diagnosis. Standard radiographs are the basis of imaging in shoulder impingement syndrome. They may demonstrate subchondral sclerosis of the major tuberosity, subacromial spurs, and form anomalies of the acromion. They are also important in the differential diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome and demonstrate calcifying tendinitis, fractures and neoplasm. Ultrasonography has found acceptance as a screening tool and even as a final diagnostic method by many authors. However, there is a high interobserver variability in the demonstration of rotator cuff tears. Its usefulness has therefore been questioned. MR imaging is probably the method of choice in the evaluation of the rotator cuff and surrounding structures. Several investigations have demonstrated that differentiation of early findings, such as tendinopathy versus partial tears, may be difficult with MR imaging. However, reproducibility for fullthickness tears appears to be higher than for sonography. Moreover, specificity appears to be superior to sonography. MR arthrography is not universally accepted. However, it allows for more exact differentiation of discrete findings and may be indicated in preoperative planning. Standard arthrography and CT have a limited role in the current assessment of the rotator cuff. (orig.)

  18. [Recurrent instability and luxation of the shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedel, L

    1990-04-11

    Instability and recurrent dislocation of the shoulder result from injuries affecting the capsule, ligaments or bones. The positive diagnosis rests on careful clinical investigation where a well-oriented questioning plays an essential role. Paraclinical examinations, such as radiography, ultrasonography, CT and MRI, provide a very accurate assessment of the state of relevant structures. Surgical treatment consists of a stabilizing operation which may be Bankart operation (i.e. suture of the detached capsule onto the anterior part of the glenoid labrum), or a Latarget operation (i.e. screwing of a bony buttress) when the anterior part of the glenoid labrum is deformed by a fracture or worn out by frequent passages of the humeral head. When thoughtfully decided and well executed, these operations regularly give excellent results with resumption of previous activities at the same performance level.

  19. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  20. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  1. Lessons learnt from the painful shoulder; a case series of malignant shoulder girdle tumours misdiagnosed as frozen shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Gerald MY; Carr, Derek; Schlicht, Steven; Powell, Gerard; Choong, Peter FM

    2005-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is a common condition characterized by shoulder pain and stiffness. In patients in whom conservative measures have failed, more invasive interventions such as arthrographic or arthroscopic distension can be very effective in relieving symptoms and improving range of movement. However, absolute contraindications to these procedures include the presence of neoplasia around the shoulder girdle. We present five cases referred to our institution where the dia...

  2. Shoulder dislocation in patients older than 60 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapariz Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in elderly patients is a little studied condition. The goal of this paper is to clarify the role of associated injuries with respect to loss of function and recurrence of dislocation. Materials and Methods: We have conducted a retrospective, descriptive study on 29 patients older than 60 years at the moment they suffered their first dislocation episode. All patients were assessed clinically (Constant test and by imaging testing (X-ray, MRI. Results: Nine (31.03% out of 29 patients had a recurrent dislocation. Four of them required reconstructive surgery to maintain joint stability. Injury to the anterior support (anterior labrum, anterior glenoid rim showed a statistically significant relation to the recurrence of dislocations. The occurrence or non-occurrence of a rotator cuff tear does have an impact on the shoulder function. The degree of rotator cuff involvement on the coronal plane does not significantly affect the shoulder′s functional outcome. The tear extension on the sagittal plane does cause impairment on the Constant test. Conclusions: Labrum and/or anterior glenoid involvement should be suspected in elderly patients presenting with recurrent shoulder dislocation. Recurrence is due to an injury in the anterior support or both (anterior and posterior, even though shoulder function gets impaired when a rotation cuff tear occurs with anterior extension on the sagittal plane. Evidence level: IV Case series.

  3. Raptor ablation in skeletal muscle decreases Cav1.1 expression and affects the function of the excitation–contraction coupling supramolecular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rubén J.; Mosca, Barbara; Treves, Susan; Maj, Marcin; Bergamelli, Leda; Calderon, Juan C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Romanino, Klaas; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Delbono, Osvaldo; Caputo, Carlo; Zorzato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating a number of biochemical pathways controlling cell growth. mTOR exists in two complexes termed mTORC1 and mTORC2. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) is associated with mTORC1 and is essential for its function. Ablation of raptor in skeletal muscle results in several phenotypic changes including decreased life expectancy, increased glycogen deposits and alterations of the twitch kinetics of slow fibres. In the present paper, we show that in muscle-specific raptor knockout (RamKO), the bulk of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is mainly associated in its cAMP-non-stimulated form with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. In addition, 3[H]–ryanodine and 3[H]–PN200-110 equilibrium binding show a ryanodine to dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) ratio of 0.79 and 1.35 for wild-type (WT) and raptor KO skeletal muscle membranes respectively. Peak amplitude and time to peak of the global calcium transients evoked by supramaximal field stimulation were not different between WT and raptor KO. However, the increase in the voltage sensor-uncoupled RyRs leads to an increase of both frequency and mass of elementary calcium release events (ECRE) induced by hyper-osmotic shock in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibres from raptor KO. The present study shows that the protein composition and function of the molecular machinery involved in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is affected by mTORC1 signalling. PMID:25431931

  4. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  5. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  6. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  7. Dietary Methionine Affect Meat Qulity and Myostatin Gene Exon 1 Region Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-qing; ZONG Kai; ZHANG Li-li; CAO Shu-qing

    2010-01-01

    Dietary amino acids imbalance will result in stunted broiler performance and deteriorated meat quality,which are involved in various biochemical cycles in vivo.In this study,the effects of dietary methionine on meat quality and methylation of myostatin exon 1 were investigated.Drip loss of the broilers fed with diet of high methionine levels(0.2%)increased from(6.3±0.1)%(control group)to(10.1±1.0)%,and the muscle shearing force increased from(22.8±1.9)N(control group)to(26.3±2.3)N.Moreover,many CpG sites were found at the myostatin exon 1 region(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp).To further understand the regulation of broiler myostatin expression,the methylation status of broiler myostatin exon 1 and its mRNA expression were analyzed.At the myostatin exon 1 region where CG enriches(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp),the percentages of methylation were 46 and 84% in low Met and high Met content groups after 55-d feeding,respectively.In skeletal muscle tissues,the exon 1 hypermethylation status of myostatin gene was found to be negatively correlated with the gene expression.These results suggested that methylation of this gene is a dynamic process,which plays a dominant role in regulating gene expression for development of individuals.

  8. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  9. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  10. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Cift; Salih Soylemez; Murat Demiroglu; Korhan Ozkan; Vahit Emre Ozden; Ozkut, Afsar T.

    2015-01-01

    Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients’ ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients’ reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitat...

  11. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  12. FROZEN SHOULDER TREATMENT: TRIAMCENALONE OR METHYLPREDNISOLONE INJECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjib; Prabin Ch

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] and Methylprednisolone acetate [40mg] in 210 patients attending the Outpatient Department of Orthopedics of FAAMCH Barpeta with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. METHODS: A total number o f 210 patients with frozen shoulder who attended the Outpatient clinic of Orthopedics at FAAMCH from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015 were enrolled in our study. The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made using...

  13. 卒中后肩痛周围神经电生理学研究%Peripheral Nerve Electrophysiological Studies of Post Stroke Shoulder Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青青; 李铁山; 阎文静; 王琳; 高正玉

    2012-01-01

    The motor nerve conduction velocity in axillaris nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, medianus nerve of shoulder-pain group were evaluated, we found that the compound muscle action potential(CMAP) amplitudes were significantly decreased compared with the without shoulder-pain group(P=0.000, 0.001, 0.000). The CMAP amplitude of ulnaris nerve was significantly lower on the affected side than that on the unaffected side in without shoulder-pain group(P=0.000). The sensory nerve action potential(SNAP) amplitude of ulnaris nerve was significantly smaller on the hemiplegic side in shoulder-pain group than that in without shoulder-pain group(P=0.000). The incidence of spontaneous electrical potential of the deltoid and biceps in shoulder-pain group were significantly higher than those in without shoulder-pain group(P=0.044,0.044). Conclusion Peripheral nerve damage was found in post stroke shoulder pain, injury to motor neuro may be important for development of neuropathic pain.%目的 通过对卒中后肩痛患者上肢进行神经传导速度检查及针极肌电图检查,观察卒中后肩痛患者周围神经电生理指标的变化.方法 选择符合入选标准的卒中住院患者40例,根据数字疼痛评分法(Numerical Pain Rating Scale,NPRS)分为肩痛组(26例)与无肩痛组(14例).分别进行双侧上肢神经传导速度检查和针极肌电图(electromyography,EMG)检查.结果 肩痛组惠侧腋神经、肌皮神经、正中神经复合肌肉动作电位(compound muscle action potentlal,CMAP)波幅较无肩痛组惠侧降低,差异有显著性(P=0.000,0.001,0.000);无肩痛组惠侧尺神经CMAP波幅较同组健侧降低,差异有显著性(P=0.00 0);肩痛组惠侧尺神经感觉神经动作电位(sensory nerve action potential,SNAP)波幅较无肩痛组患侧降低,差异有显著性(P=0.000).三角肌、肱二头肌自发电位出现率,肩痛组较无肩痛组增高,差异具有显著性(P=0.044,0.044).结论 卒中后肩痛患者伴有上肢周围

  14. Risk of shoulder tendinitis in relation to shoulder loads in monotonous repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.;

    2002-01-01

    in repetitive work and 782 referents. Shoulder loads were quantified at task level and measures of exposures were assigned based on task distribution. Symptoms in combination with clinical criteria defined shoulder tendinitis. RESULTS: The prevalence of shoulder tendinitis was higher among exposed workers...... risk slightly (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6 per unit). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that workers with repetitive tasks have increased risk of shoulder tendinitis, which partially can be attributed to force requirements...

  15. Reducing Shoulder by Vertical Traction: A One-Man Method for Shoulder Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat Ahmad Khan; Younis Kamal; Mohammad Ashraf Khan; Munir Farooq; Naseemul Gani; Nazia Hassan; Adil Bashir Shah; Mohammad Shahid Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Fifty percent of joint dislocations reported to the emergency department are of shoulder joint. Various techniques are used to reduce the shoulder and Spaso technique is the least known to the orthopaedic residents which is a simple one-man vertical traction method of shoulder reduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of vertical traction method for anterior shoulder dislocation by orthopaedic residents. Sixty consecutive patients of anterior glenohumeral dislocation attending the emergency d...

  16. Posterior shoulder tightness and rotator cuff strength assessments in painful shoulders of amateur tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes, Freddy B.; Julio F. Jesus; Flavio F. Bryk; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A.; Thiago Y. Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a relationship between shoulder posterior capsule tightness and shoulder pain in overhead athletes. However, this relationship has not been studied in tennis players. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength and posterior capsule tightness of skilled amateur tennis players who had complaints of dominant shoulder pain in comparison with tennis players without pain. METHOD: Forty-nine skilled amateur tennis players we...

  17. Strength of the Shoulder Rotators in Second-League Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popieluch Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main aim of the study was to assess the strength of the shoulder rotator muscles of a group of second-league volleyball players. These muscles are assumed to have a crucial impact on attack effectiveness in volleyball. Strength was assessed based on peak torque values obtained for the rotator muscles measured using the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC method. Torque was measured in both limbs and the differences between the two limbs were examined. The torque values obtained for the volleyball players were also compared against those measured in a group of students who had never trained any sports.

  18. Clinical Features Associated with Frozen Shoulder Syndrome in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frozen shoulder syndrome is a common musculoskeletal disease of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD that causes long-term pain and physical disability. A better understanding of the associated factors can help identify PD patients who will require prevention to improve their quality of life. Methodology. This prospective study evaluated 60 shoulders of 30 PD patients. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between clinical factors and shoulder sonography findings. Results. Frozen shoulder syndrome was found in 14 of 30 PD patients affecting 19 shoulders, including bilateral involvement in five and unilateral involvement in nine. There was a significant positive correlation between the parameters of sonography findings and frozen shoulder syndrome (i.e., thickness of bicipital effusion and tendon thickness of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and mean ipsilateral Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III and its subscores (tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia scores. Conclusions. Higher ipsilateral UPDRS and subscores are associated with increased effusion around the biceps tendon, with increased tendon thickness of subscapularis and supraspinatus. Preventing frozen shoulder syndrome in the high-risk PD group is an important safety issue and highly relevant for their quality of life.

  19. Somatotype variables related to muscle torque and power in judoists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Joanna; Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo. PMID:23487284

  20. FROZEN SHOULDER TREATMENT: TRIAMCENALONE OR METHYLPREDNISOLONE INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] and Methylprednisolone acetate [40mg] in 210 patients attending the Outpatient Department of Orthopedics of FAAMCH Barpeta with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. METHODS: A total number o f 210 patients with frozen shoulder who attended the Outpatient clinic of Orthopedics at FAAMCH from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015 were enrolled in our study. The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made using the guidelines for shoulder complain issued by the Dutch C ollege of General Practitioners. Intra - articular injections of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] was used in 110 patients [ M ale - 50, female - 60] and 40mg Methylprednisolone was given to 100 patients [M ale - 35, female 65]. Injection was repeated every 3 weeks [ N o t more than 3 injections] by the posterior route. RESULTS: Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective in diabetic patients with frozen shoulder in comparison to Methyprednisolone acetate. Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective i n those patients presenting with severe grades of frozen shoulder and also these patients required lesser number of injections compared to Methylprednisolone acetate. However both Triamcinolone acatonide and Methyprednisolone were equally effective in prim ary frozen shoulder. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Triamcinolone acetonide and Methylprednisolone acetate are effective in the treatment of painful stiff shoulder; however injection Triamcinolone acetonide is a superior alternative in the treatment of diabe tics with frozen shoulder & resistant cases, with less number of injections.

  1. Shoulder distention arthrography as a treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18 patients with painful stiff shoulder joint were underwent shoulder distension arthrography as a treatment modality, followed by physical therapy. Range of motion of shoulder joint was evaluated at 1 week and 4 weeks after arthrography. The results were as follows; 1. Arthrographic findings were decreased volume of joint cavity, obliteration of axillary recess, small subscapularis bursa, serrated capsular margin and non-filling of biceps tendon sheath. In 3 cases, rotator cuff tear was found. 2. Range of motion of shoulder joint was improved after distension arthrography. 3. In 3 patients have rotator cuff tear, range of motion was not improved

  2. 肱骨近端严重骨折半肩关节置换术后护理与康复治疗%Nursing and rehabilitation after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty for severe proximal humeral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    ):After operation,according to the fracture type and fracture fixation condition of the patients,upon disappearance of anaesthesia, allow the elbow joint and distal limbs to perform active motion,mainly allow the shoulder joint to perform passive motion;Except for the training time,it is necessary to wear special sling for shoulder joint.This stage can be divided into 5 procedures:(1 )After disappearance of anaesthesia,start the active exercise on fingers,wrist joint and elbow joint,the passive motion of shoulder joint,and on the postoperative 7d,increase pendulum exercise;(2 )In the 2nd week post operation,the affected shoulder joint and adjacent joint perform rear traction without load as well as internal and external rotation motion;(3)In the 3rd week post operation,use healthy hand to protect the affected side to perform low load rear traction of both shoulder joints as well as chest extension exercise;(4)Iin the 4th week post operation, perform gravity-assisted pendulum exercise and anteflexion exercise, shoulder abduction,external rotation and uplifting function exercise;(5 ) In the 6th week post operation,after the healing of rotator cuff and big/small tubercles has been verified through X-ray examination,start active function exercise and increase functional training on supraspinous muscle and musculus deltoideus as well as wall-climbing exercise.At this stage,it is necessary to pay special attention to the training on the range of joint motion and muscle strength.Training on range of joint motion:(1 )Pendulum exercise:Allow the patient to bend down,so that trunk is parallel with ground,relax and hang the affected side upper limb,allow the upper limb and the trunk to present an angle of 90°, use heath side hand to support the affected side forearm to make clockwise or counterclockwise circle moment;with 10 circles as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively.(2)Passive anteflexion and uplifting exercise on shoulder joint

  3. Nursing and rehabilitation after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty for severe proximal humeral fracture%肱骨近端严重骨折半肩关节置换术后护理与康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥燕

    2015-01-01

    adjacent joint perform rear traction without load as well as internal and external rotation motion;(3)In the 3rd week post operation,use healthy hand to protect the affected side to perform low load rear traction of both shoulder joints as well as chest extension exercise;(4)Iin the 4th week post operation, perform gravity-assisted pendulum exercise and anteflexion exercise, shoulder abduction,external rotation and uplifting function exercise;(5 ) In the 6th week post operation,after the healing of rotator cuff and big/small tubercles has been verified through X-ray examination,start active function exercise and increase functional training on supraspinous muscle and musculus deltoideus as well as wall-climbing exercise.At this stage,it is necessary to pay special attention to the training on the range of joint motion and muscle strength.Training on range of joint motion:(1 )Pendulum exercise:Allow the patient to bend down,so that trunk is parallel with ground,relax and hang the affected side upper limb,allow the upper limb and the trunk to present an angle of 90°, use heath side hand to support the affected side forearm to make clockwise or counterclockwise circle moment;with 10 circles as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively.(2)Passive anteflexion and uplifting exercise on shoulder joint:Remove pillow,allow the patient to lie on his/her back,allow the affected side arm to flex elbow by 90°and put arm on body side(rest position);The therapist use one hand to hold up the affected side upper arm and use another hand to hold the affected side forearm,make passive anteflexion and uplifting of shoulder joint in scapula plane (30 °-45 ° in front of coronal plane);If pain occurs or resistance is met when flexion motion has proceeded to a certain angle,stop movement for 5s,the gradually return to rest position;with repetition for 4 times as 1 group,respectively exercise for 1 group in the morning and at afternoon respectively

  4. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franssen Jo LM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis, but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle. It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. Methods/Design This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 – September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects

  5. Iliac crest allograft glenoid reconstruction for recurrent anterior shoulder instability in athletes: Surgical technique and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performing a labral repair alone in patients with recurrent anterior instability and a large glenoid defect has led to poor outcomes. We present a technique involving the use of the iliac crest allograft inserted into the glenoid defect in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and large bony defects of the glenoid (>25% of glenoid diameter. All athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and a large glenoid defect that underwent open anterior shoulder stabilization and glenoid reconstruction with the iliac crest allograft were followed over a 4-year period. Preoperatively, a detailed history and physical exam were obtained along with standard radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of the affected shoulder. All patients also completed the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES evaluation forms preoperatively. A computed tomography scan was obtained postoperatively to assess osseous union of the graft and the patient again went through a physical exam in addition to completing the SST, ASES, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI forms. 10 patients (9 males, 1 female were followed for an average of 16 months (4-36 months and had a mean age of 24.4 years. All patients exhibited a negative apprehension/relocation test and full shoulder strength at final follow-up. Eight of 10 patients had achieved osseous union at 6 months (80.0%. ASES scores improved from 64.3 to 97.8, and SST scores improved from 66.7 to 100. Average postoperative WOSI scores were 93.8%. The use of the iliac crest allograft provides a safe and clinically useful alternative compared to previously described procedures for recurrent shoulder instability in the face of glenoid deficiency.

  6. Effect of backpack shoulder straps length on cervical posture and upper trapezius pressure pain threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Hamada, Hamada Ahmed; Selim, Ali; Shendy, Wael; Zakaria, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effect of the length of backpack shoulder straps on upper trapezius muscle pain threshold and craniovertebral angle. [Subjects and Methods] There were 25 participants, with ages from 15 to 23 years old. Upper trapezius pain threshold and craniovertebral angle were measured for all subjects without the backpack then re-measured after walking on a treadmill for 15 min under 2 conditions: 1) wearing a backpack with short straps; and 2) wearing a backpack with long straps. [Results] there was a significant reduction in upper trapezius pain threshold and craniovertebral angle while carrying a backpack with long shoulder straps, compared to use of a backpack with short shoulder straps or no backpack. [Conclusion] A backpack with short straps is less harmful than a backpack with long straps. This result should be considered in ergonomic design of backpacks to reduce the incidence of various physiological and biomechanical disorders. PMID:27799665

  7. Segmental overgrowth syndrome due to an activating PIK3CA mutation identified in affected muscle tissue by exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Weigert, Karen Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA-associated......Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA...

  8. Range of motion and leg rotation affect electromyography activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen M; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-09-01

    Leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed 8 LE REP at their 8 repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP × ROM interaction was detected (p EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 (p ≤ 0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p EMG increased across REP (p EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO, the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  9. Thyroid status affects membranes susceptibility to free radicals and oxidative balance in skeletal muscle of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Romestaing, Caroline; Bodennec, Jacques; Dumet, Adeline; Fongy, Anaïs; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are major contributor to oxidative stress in mammals because they (1) stimulate reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), (2) impair antioxidant defenses, and (3) increase the susceptibility to free radicals of most tissues. Unlike mammals, THs seem to diminish mitochondrial ROS while they have limited effect on the antioxidant machinery in birds. However, how THs modify the susceptibility to ROS has never been explored in an avian model, and very little is known about their effect on oxidative balance in birds. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of chronic pharmacological hypo- and hyperthyroidism on (i) the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to ROS; and (ii) the level of oxidative stress assessed by measuring oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings. We show that hypothyroidism had no effect on the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to free radicals. Hypothyroid ducklings had lower oxidized lipids (-31%) and DNA (-25%) but a similar level of protein carbonylation relative to controls. Conversely, mitochondrial membranes of hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited higher unsaturation (+12%) and peroxidation (+31%) indexes than in controls indicating a greater susceptibility to free radicals. However, hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited more oxidative damages on proteins (+67%) only, whereas lipid damages remained unchanged, and there was a slight reduction (-15%) in damages to DNA compared to euthyroid controls. Our results indicate that birds and mammals present fundamental differences in their oxidative stress response to thyroid status.

  10. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  11. Distal Traditional Acupuncture Points of the Large Intestinal Meridian and the Stomach Meridian Differently Affect Heart Rate Variability and Oxygenation of the Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians in traditional Chinese medicine have found that acupoints and meridians have effects on specific parts of the body. The aim of this study was to see how acupressure at distal acupuncture points of a specific meridian affects heart rate variability (HRV and oxygenation of the trapezius muscle. Forty-one female participants were randomly allocated to three groups. Subjects in the Stomach Meridian acupuncture point (ST group received acupressure at ST 34, ST 36, and ST 41, subjects in the Large Intestinal Meridian acupuncture point (LI group received acupressure at LI 4, LI 10, and LI 11, and subjects in the control group did not receive any stimuli. HRV and oxygenation of the trapezius muscles were measured. The high frequency components of HRV in the control and LI groups tended to be higher than those in the ST group. Total hemoglobin in the control and LI groups eventually reached significantly higher levels than in the ST group. While oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb in the control and LI groups did not change, ΔO2Hb in the ST significantly decreased temporarily.

  12. Arthrography of the dog's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different volumes with varying concentrations of meglumine-sodium diatrizoate were injected to study positive contrast shoulder arthrograms in six experimental dogs weighing 23-37 kg. The best delineation of the articular cartilage was obtained following injection of 1.5 ml of a 25% solution (185 mg iodine/joint). To visualize the bicipital tendon sheet and the different pouches of the shoulder joint, 6 ml of a 25% solution (750 mg iodine/joint) should be used. If no definite lesions are previewed, 6 ml of a 19% solution (550 mg iodine/joint) offers an acceptable compromise since with this volume and concentration no pooling of contrast medium overlapping the caudal area of the humeral head was seen. Radiographs should be obtained within 5 minutes after injection of the contrast medium. After that period the delineation of the joint structures is vaguening by absorption of the contrast medium. Repeated contrast examination with meglumine-sodium diatrizoate should be avoided. After four procedures at weekly intervals, the necropsy performed on two dogs showed inflammatory changes of the synovial membrane

  13. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

  14. Meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat as affected by the sire breed, season, parity order and gender in an organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalle Zotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate some meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat when considering 2 sire breeds (SB: Vienna Blue [VB]; Burgundy Fawn [BF]; both coloured and slow-growing breeds, several parity orders (P: 1, 2, ≥3, gender (G, and 2 slaughter seasons (SS: spring, summer in an organic production system. The effect of storage time (ST at frozen state (2 mo at –20°C of Longissimus lumborum (LL meat was also evaluated. Animals were slaughtered when they reached 2.8 kg of live weight. Then, pH and L*a*b* colour values of Biceps femoris (BF and LL muscles, water loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force of LL and hind leg (HL meat, and the fibre typing and enzymatic activity of LL muscle were analysed. LL meat from females showed higher b* values than males (0.04 vs. –1.25; P<0.05. Significant (P<0.05 SB×P, SB×G and P×G interactions were observed for the b* value of LL: VB and BF crossbreds presented a higher b* value when born as P≥3 and P2 respectively, VB females showed higher b* value than VB males, and P2 and P≥3 produced males with a significantly lower b* value. HL thawing losses were significantly (P<0.05 higher in rabbits slaughtered in summer than in those slaughtered in spring, whereas the opposite result was obtained for LL meat (P<0.01. Cooking loss of LL meat was significantly lower in P2 group than P≥3 group (P<0.05. The lactate dehydrogenase activity in LL muscle was higher in VB than in BF crossbreds (930 vs. 830 IU; P<0.05, albeit not supported by differences in fibre type distribution. The ST significantly (P<0.01 reduced pH, a* and b* colour values, and increased lightness of LL meat. It was concluded that the crossbreeds derived from VB and BF genotypes and farmed organically did not show remarkable sexual dimorphism, considering their elder slaughter age than rabbits reared under intensive conditions. Physical quality of meat was mainly affected by slaughter season, indicating

  15. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  16. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  17. An electromyographic evaluation of elastic band exercises targeting neck and shoulder pain among helm bearing military helicopter crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Askær; Grøndberg, Thomas Stig; Murray, Mike;

    INTRODUCTION Flight related neck and shoulder pain is a frequent problem in helicopter pilots and crew [1]. Pain causes personnel suffering, reduces operational capabilities and incurs high financial cost due to the loss of manpower. Evidence suggests that the occupational loading such as posture...... adopted during flight and increased weight added to the mass of the head due to the helmet and night vision equipment contribute to the development of neck and shoulder pain. Strength training has among other occupational groups been found to reduce musculoskeletal pain [2]. A 20-week exercise program...... for the neck and shoulder muscles using elastic bands has been applied for helicopter pilots and crew in the Royal Danish Air Force to prevent and reduce pain. The exercise program had an initial loading of 20RM and was increased progressively towards 12RM in the final weeks. A muscle activity >60% MVE...

  18. Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2016-01-01

    Volleyball players performed numerous repetitions of spike actions, which uses and requires strong and explosive force, and control of the muscles of the shoulder, lower back, and legs. Muscle imbalance is one of the main causes of sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess isokinetic muscle functions in male volleyball players. We thus aim to accurately evaluate their muscle functions, and identify the best training strategy to achieve optimal muscle strength balance in future training programs. The participants in this study consisted of 14 male volleyball players. Muscle strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle strength was evaluated in terms of peak torque and average power, calculated from five repeated measurements at an angular speed of 60°/sec. Three players who were left attackers showed shoulder imbalance, four players showed trunk joint imbalance, nine players had knee joint of extension/flexion imbalance and four players showed left/right imbalance. The results showed that the number of volleyball players with differences between the strength of the bilateral knee muscles, and between the strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles was higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the shoulder internal and external rotation muscles, and higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the lower back extension and flexion muscles. PMID:27807521

  19. Interventional microadhesiolysis: A new nonsurgical release technique for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tae-Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nonsurgical intervention, interventional microadhesiolysis, was developed to release adhesions in joints and soft tissues. This paper introduces the procedure and evaluates the efficacy of the intervention for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Methods Ten patients (five men and five women with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were treated at a chronic pain management center in Korea. Three specially made needles are used in interventional microadhesiolysis: the Round, Flexed Round, and Ahn's needles. A Round Needle is inserted on the skin over middle of supraspinatus and advanced under the acromion and acromioclavicular joint (subacromial release. A Flexed Round Needle is inserted two-fingers caudal to the inferior border of the scapular spine and advanced over the capsule sliding on the surface of infraspinatus muscle-tendon fascia. The capsule is released while an assistant simultaneously passively abducts the shoulder to full abduction (posteroinferior capsule release. An Ahn's Needle is inserted on the skin over the lesser tubercle and advanced under the coracoid process sliding on the surface of the subscapularis muscle (subcoracoid release. Results After the patients underwent interventional microadhesiolysis, the self-rated pain score or severity declined significantly (p p Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventional microadhesiolysis is effective for managing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

  20. Posterior shoulder tightness and rotator cuff strength assessments in painful shoulders of amateur tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy B. Marcondes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a relationship between shoulder posterior capsule tightness and shoulder pain in overhead athletes. However, this relationship has not been studied in tennis players. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the shoulder range of motion (ROM, strength and posterior capsule tightness of skilled amateur tennis players who had complaints of dominant shoulder pain in comparison with tennis players without pain. METHOD: Forty-nine skilled amateur tennis players were distributed in 2 groups: Control Group (n=22 and Painful Group (n=27. The first group was composed of asymptomatic subjects, and the second was composed of subjects with shoulder pain on the dominant side. These groups were evaluated to determine the dominant and non-dominant shoulder ROM (internal and external rotation, isometric shoulder strength (internal and external rotation and posterior shoulder tightness by blind evaluators. RESULTS: The ANOVA results indicated significant differences between the groups in the dominant shoulder ROM, posterior capsule tightness, external rotation strength and strength ratio (p<0.05. The intragroup analysis (dominant versus non-dominant in the Painful Group displayed a significant difference for ROM, posterior capsule tightness and external rotation strength (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The tennis players with pain in the dominant shoulder presented greater posterior capsule tightness, internal rotation deficit (ROM, external rotation gain (ROM and deficits in external rotation strength than the tennis players without pain.

  1. SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohu...

  2. Changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lozano, Amparo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; González-Iglesias, Javier; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this case series was to investigate changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points (TrPs) in the shoulder muscles in individuals with unilateral shoulder impingement. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, age: 25 ± 9 years) diagnosed with unilateral shoulder impingement attended 4 sessions for 2 weeks (2 sessions/week). They received TrP pressure release and neuromuscular interventions over each active TrP that was found. The outcome measures were pain during arm elevation (visual analogue scale, VAS) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over levator scapulae, supraspinatus infraspinatus, pectoralis major, and tibialis anterior muscles. Pain was captured pre-intervention and at a 1-month follow-up, whereas PPT were assessed pre- and post-treatment, and at a 1-month follow-up. Patients experienced a significant (P  1). In addition, patients also experienced a significant increase in PPT immediate after the treatment (P  1).A significant negative association (r(s) = -0.525; P = 0.049) between the increase in PPT over the supraspinatus muscle and the decrease in pain was found: the greater the decrease in pain, the greater the increase in PPT. This case series has shown that manual treatment of active muscle TrPs can help to reduce shoulder pain and pressure sensitivity in shoulder impingement. Current findings suggest that active TrPs in the shoulder musculature may contribute directly to shoulder complaint and sensitization in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome, although future randomized controlled trials are required.

  3. Motion analysis of the shoulder in adults: kinematics and electromyography for the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Ilaria; Jaspers, Ellen; DE Baets, Liesbet; Amoresano, Amedeo; Cutti, Andrea G

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the principal aspects of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the shoulder and their potential for the every-day clinical practice are described. The text reports a brief description of standard recommendations for movement assessment, an overview of the main quantitative motion analysis protocols and a description of the most commonly investigated scapulothoracic muscles. To assess the possibility of using these protocols for clinical applications, reliability and repeatability of kinematic and EMG measures were investigated and reference data for scapulohumeral joint kinematics were provided. The last part of the manuscript reports the integration of the quantitative analysis of scapula dyskinesis within the widely accepted Constant-Murley clinical score. In addition, examples of assessment of muscles activity and recruitment patterns are discussed since they are crucial for the clinical evaluation of common shoulder pathologies.

  4. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity. PMID:26307457

  5. The results of arthroscopic anterior stabilisation of the shoulder using the bioknotless anchor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder instability is a common condition, particularly affecting a young, active population. Open capsulolabral repair is effective in the majority of cases, however arthroscopic techniques, particularly using suture anchors, are being used with increasing success. Methods 15 patients with shoulder instability were operated on by a single surgeon (VK using BioKnotless anchors (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA. The average length of follow-up was 21 months (17 to 31 with none lost to follow-up. Constant scores in both arms, patient satisfaction, activity levels and recurrence of instability was recorded. Results 80% of patients were satisfied with their surgery. 1 patient suffered a further dislocation and another had recurrent symptomatic instability. The average constant score returned to 84% of that measured in the opposite (unaffected shoulder. There were no specific post-operative complications encountered. Conclusion In terms of recurrence of symptoms, our results show success rates comparable to other methods of shoulder stabilisation. This technique is safe and surgeons familiar with shoulder arthroscopy will not encounter a steep learning curve. Shoulder function at approximately 2 years post repair was good or excellent in the majority of patients and it was observed that patient satisfaction was correlated more with return to usual activities than recurrence of symptoms.

  6. Navigating the Alphabet Soup of Labroligamentous Pathology of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Darren; Grubin, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    Because of the widespread use of eponyms and acronyms to describe labroligamentous findings in the shoulder, interpreting shoulder magnetic resonance imaging reports can be challenging. A summary of the appearance of these lesions on shoulder magnetic resonance images can help the orthopedic surgeon to understand these entities as imaging findings and to determine the appropriate treatment for patients with shoulder injuries. PMID:26866313

  7. Management of sequalae of neglected septic shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Uday

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex deformities following septic arthritis of the shoulder in infancy are mild and therefore rarely reported. A 12 year old girl presented with shortening of upper extremity right side, with dislocation of shoulder and with entire extremity rotated to 180 degrees. The palm faced posteriorly and the olecranon anteriorly. Arthrodesis of shoulder and unifocal lengthening of humerus was achieved with three 4 mm cannulated cancellous screws and an ilizarov frame. A lengthening of 9 centimeters was achieved and regenerate healed at 12 months. At 10 years follow-up she is able to perfom her activities of daily living.

  8. Imaging of bursae around the shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Hotel-Dieu de Montreal Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dussault, R.G. [Department of Radiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Keats, T.E. [Department of Radiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The authors present a review of the anatomy of the major bursae around the shoulder joint and discuss the use of the different imaging modalities which demonstrate their radiologic features. The calcified subacromial-subdeltoid bursa has a characteristic appearance on plain radiographs. When inflamed it can be visualized by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Calcific bursitis may involve the subcoracoid bursa. This bursa may mimic adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder or complete rotator cuff tear when injected inadvertently during shoulder arthrography. Less well known are three coracoclavicular ligament bursae. These are also subject to calcific bursitis and have a typical radiologic appearance. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  9. Soft Tissue Aspects of the Shoulder Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Khoschnau, Shwan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study different aspects of the soft tissues of the shoulder joint. The variation in the quality of the tendons and ligaments can be explained by genetic factors. To test the hypothesis that collagen 1 α1 Sp1 polymorphism is related to the occurrence of cruciate ligament ruptures and shoulder dislocations, a total of 358 patients (233 patients with cruciate ligament ruptures and 126 with shoulder dislocations) were included in the study. We found a decreased risk ...

  10. MRI findings in little leaguer's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress injury of the proximal humeral physis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent baseball player with shoulder pain, especially if the player is pitching regularly in a competitive environment. While roentgenographs may or may not be helpful, depending on the duration and severity of the injury, we report the MRI appearance of a case of little leaguer's shoulder. We found MRI helpful in diagnosing injury to the growth plate that was radiographically occult; furthermore, we were able to document the patient's progress with a follow-up MRI examination, which showed improvement with treatment. (orig.)

  11. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of im...

  12. Stemless shoulder prosthesis versus conventional anatomic shoulder prosthesis in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Berth, Alexander; Pap, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Background The stemless shoulder prosthesis is a new concept in shoulder arthroplasty. To date, only a few studies have investigated the results of this prosthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological midterm results of this implant in comparison with a standard anatomic stemmed shoulder prosthesis. Materials and methods The Constant score, the DASH score, the active range of motion (abduction, anteversion, external rotation), and the radiological results we...

  13. UNILATERAL AND COMPLETE AGENESIS OF RIGHT PECTORALIS MAJOR MUSCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali Paranjape; Amrita Bharti; Vasanti Arole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pectoralis major Myocutaneous flaps (PMMC) are extensively used for Head, Neck, Face and post mastectomy mammary gland reconstructive surgeries. Pectoralis major is responsible for flexion, adduction and medial rotation of shoulder joint. Its absence may obvious because of compromised movement of shoulder joint or as a part Poland’s syndrome or may be sporadic as seen in our case. Case study: Pectoralis major muscle was completely absent on right side of an adult female cada...

  14. Arthroscopic Release of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder Complicated With Shoulder Dislocation and Brachial Plexus Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Fiesky A; Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of brachial plexus injury after shoulder dislocation or arthroscopic shoulder surgery is low. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an uncommon but painful condition that can develop after nerve injury. Historically, CRPS has been difficult to treat and therapeutic efforts are sometimes limited to ameliorating symptoms. However, if a dystrophic focus can be identified, the condition can be addressed with surgical exploration for potential neurolysis or nerve repair. The present article reports on a case of type II CRPS that developed in the postoperative setting of arthroscopic shoulder surgery complicated with simple shoulder dislocation. PMID:27518297

  15. MRI findings in the painful hemiplegic shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavora, D.G.F., E-mail: danielgurgel@sarah.b [Department of Radiology, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil); Gama, R.L.; Bomfim, R.C. [Department of Radiology, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil); Nakayama, M. [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados (Brazil); Silva, C.E.P. [Department of Statistics, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in painful hemiplegic shoulder (PHS) in hemiplegic post-stroke patients. Materials and methods: Patients with hemiplegia following their first cerebrovascular accident who were admitted to the Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation were studied. Forty-five patients with pain in the hemiplegic shoulder and 23 post-stroke patients without shoulder pain were investigated. MRI and radiographic findings of the hemiplegic and contralateral asymptomatic shoulders were evaluated. Results: Some MRI findings were more frequent in PHS group, including synovial capsule thickening, synovial capsule enhancement, and enhancement in the rotator cuff interval. Conclusions: Adhesive capsulitis was found to be a possible cause of PHS.

  16. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 34:32 MEAGAN: At first I started doing gravity assisted exercises like Codman's which are…I laid ... hang off and just did circles with the gravity taking my shoulder, just to gain some of ...

  17. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cift

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients’ ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients’ reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitation of range of motion of their shoulder at their last control. Luxatio erecta is seen rarely, and these patients may have neurovascular injury. These patients should be carefully examined and treated by the orthopaedic and traumatology surgeons.

  18. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for perhaps some other things you do in life a stiff shoulder isn't so bad. But ... were interested in getting me back to normal life. I wouldn't go to anyplace different. I ...

  19. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of get some of their competitiveness and their energy into the rehabilitation and then a lot of ... JOE CONGENI, MD: ---are more forceful. There's more energy placed, more stress placed across that shoulder joint. ...

  20. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that comes under a lot of load and stress to it and is injured not infrequently. The ... are more forceful. There's more energy placed, more stress placed across that shoulder joint. And I know ...