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Sample records for affect lipid oxidation

  1. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Milk proteins are often used by the food industry because of their good emulsifying properties. In addition, they can also provide oxidative stability to foods. However, different milk proteins or protein components have been shown to differ in their antioxidative properties, and their localisation...... in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk...

  2. Protein and lipid oxidation affect the viscoelasticity of whey protein layers at the oil-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Schroder, Anja; Rovalino-Cordova, Ana; Schroën, Karin; Sagis, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Protein and lipid oxidation are prevailing issues that negatively affect the nutritional and sensory quality of food emulsions. It is probable that such oxidative modifications affect the functional properties of proteins, and in particular their ability to form densely packed, interconnected viscoe

  3. Protein and lipid oxidation in Longissimus dorsi and dry cured loin from Iberian pigs as affected by crossbreeding and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Estevez, Mario; Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Ruiz, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation in Longissimus dorsi (LD) and dry-cured loins from pigs with different genetic (pure Iberian (IBP), Iberian female×Duroc male (IB×D) and Duroc female×Iberian male (D×IB)) and feeding backgrounds (free rearing on acorn and pasture (MON), concentrates high in oleic acid and supplemented with 250ppm of vitamin E(HOVE) and control concentrates (CON)) were investigated. Diet influenced the fatty acids profile from PL and α- and γ-tocopherol contents of LD. IBP-MON pigs showed the lowest malonaldehyde (MDA) values at 200min of iron induced muscle oxidation. Dry-cured loins from IBP-HOVE pigs had significantly (p<0.05) higher values of TBARS than those from the other batches. Neither the diet nor crossbreeding affected hexanal counts in dry-cured loins. Protein carbonyl content showed a similar trend to that observed for MDA values in LD, suggesting a protective role of tocopherol against lipid and protein oxidation. The positive and significant correlations between iron induced lipid oxidation in LD (200 min) and carbonyl content in LD and dry-cured loin (R(2): 0.55 and R(2): 0.52, respectively, p<0.01) support the relationship between lipid and protein oxidation.

  4. Sex Hormones Affect Aging Process by Influencing Lipid Profiles,Cellular Immunological Function and Lipid Peroxides and Oxidation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赛珠; 谭家余; 周忠江; 周可祥; 容志毅

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the correlation between sex hormones(SH) and aging. Methods Through epidemiological investigation in our country, the levels of SH were measured by radioimmunoassy; lipid profile, glucose and apolipoprotein by automatic biochemic analytical instrument; T cell subsets by flow cytometer; and MDA, SOD were evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test and the nitrite method modified by Oyanagui respectively using spectrophotometry. Results In men, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)、 luteinizing hormone(LH) increased significantly with aging, but serum prolactin(PRL) and progesterone(P) levels remained unchanged in all life; Both testosterone (T)and free testosterone (FT) all decreased greatly with aging, but 173 - estradiol( 17β - E2) was reverse; E2 was negatively correlated with T and E2/T increased with aging. The level of serum total cholesterol (TC) increased with aging, but triglycerides ( TG ) remain unchanged; compared with young group, high -density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C); HDL - C/TC of other groups decreased significantly, but low - density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL - C ) changed inversely;HDL- C/LDL- C reduced slightly with aging and showed no difference between groups. Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apoB all enhanced greatly with aging;meanwhile the ratio of apoAl/apoB decreased. The concentration of serum glucose (GLU) was unchanged in all life. To compare with those in the young group,CD3 + , CD4 + in other groups reduced greatly, CD4 + remained unchanged. Meanwhile, CD8 + increased significantly with aging. Compared with the young group, serum malondialdehyde(MDA) value of the old ones increased obviously, but the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) was reverse. By partial correlation analysis (controlling BMI, FSH, LH and PRL), TC、LDL- C、apoA1 、apoB、CD8 + 、MDA of men all presented a positive correlation with E2/T respectively,their correlation coefficients (γ) were 0.262、0

  5. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms. PMID:25650525

  6. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1 of...... antioxidant, and overall peroxide values and volatiles were reduced by approximately 70 and 77-86%, respectively. Conversely, prooxidant effects were observed with a high concentration of ascorbyl palmitate (300 µg g-1 of fish oil), whereas a low concentration was slightly antioxidative (50 µg/g of fish oil......). Finally, a combination of all three antioxidants completely inhibited oxidation during storage, indicating that the prooxidant effects of ascorbyl palmitate were reverted or overshadowed by EDTA and γ-tocopherol....

  7. Lipid Oxidation Promotes Acrylamide Formation in Fat-Rich Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from model systems suggests that lipid oxidation can contribute to acrylamide (AA) formation through the generation of secondary lipid oxidation carbonyl products, mainly aldehydes, which are able to degrade asparagine to AA. In this respect, factors affecting the extent of lipid oxidati

  8. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...

  9. Impact of lipid content and composition on lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in experimental fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid content (∼4%, ∼10% and ∼15%) and composition (different lipid sources; animal fat and sunflower oil) on the oxidative stability of proteins and lipids in experimental fermented sausages. Increasing the lipid content of sausages enhanced the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation whereas the effect on the formation of specific carbonyls from protein oxidation was not so evident. Sausages manufactured with different lipid sources affected the susceptibility of lipids and proteins to oxidation as a likely result of the modifications in the fatty acid profile, as well as to the presence of antioxidant compounds. While the fatty acid profile had a major effect on the occurrence and extent of lipid oxidation, the presence of compounds with potential antioxidant activity may be more influential on the extent of protein carbonylation.

  10. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism. PMID:22300436

  11. Myoglobin-induced lipid oxidation : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Andersen, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of myoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation in simple model systems, muscle, and muscle-based foods is presented. The potential role of myoglobin spin and redox states in initiating lipid oxidation is reviewed. Proposed mechanisms for myoglobin- initiated lipid oxidation in muscle tissue (...

  12. Oxidative stability, lipid composition and nutritional value of ruminant meat as affected by animal feeding system, sex and common household treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Boe, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Ruminant meats have been suffered from a negative health image related to the nature of their lipid fraction, mainly due to the higher content in SFA. Even so, ruminant edible fats are the major natural source of CLA, provide proteins of high biological value and important micronutrients, such as A, group B, D and E vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids all these components are associated with potential health benefits. Oxidation of lipids in foods is the major biochemical process that...

  13. Exposure to oxidized nitrogen: lipid peroxidation and neonatal health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacova, S; Baird, D D; Balabaeva, L

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant women exposed to extensive environmental contamination by oxidized nitrogen compounds were studied at parturition, their neonatal health status was assessed and the involvement of oxidative stress in pathology was evaluated. Methemoglobin in maternal and cord blood was measured as a biomarker of individual exposure. Blood lipid peroxides and glutathione (reduced and total) were determined as oxidative stress biomarkers. Birthweight, Apgar scores, and clinical diagnosis at birth were used as neonatal health endpoints. Elevated exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in both maternal and cord blood. Poor birth outcome was associated with high blood lipid peroxides. Controlling for maternal age, parity, and smoking did not affect the relationships materially. The results showed that maternal/fetal exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcome and suggest a role of oxidative damage in the pathogenic pathway.

  14. Lipid oxidation induced oxidative degradation of cereal beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2016-04-15

    In food systems, lipid oxidation can cause oxidation of other molecules. This research for the first time investigated oxidative degradation of β-glucan induced by lipid oxidation using an oil-in-water emulsion system which simulated a multi-phased aqueous food system containing oil and β-glucan. Lipid oxidation was monitored using peroxide value and hexanal production while β-glucan degradation was evaluated by viscosity and molecular weight measurements. The study showed that while lipid oxidation proceeded, β-glucan degradation occurred. Emulsions containing β-glucan, oil and ferrous ion showed significant viscosity and molecular weight decrease after 1 week of oxidation at room temperature. Elevated temperature (40°C) enhanced the oxidation reactions causing higher viscosity drop. In addition, the presence of β-glucan appeared to retard the hexanal production in lipid oxidation. The study revealed that lipid oxidation may induce the degradation of β-glucan in aqueous food systems where β-glucan and lipids co-exist.

  15. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf;

    It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... fish oil or a fish oil-in-water delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein isolate, sodium caseinate or a commercially available emulsifier that consisted of ~20% milk phospholipids and ~50% milk proteins. Results showed that simple emulsions prepared with a combination of milk proteins...

  16. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  17. Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in pork samples irradiated at chilling temperatures and the ways to control the lipid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation dose, storage time, concentration of oxygen and antioxidants on lipid oxidation in pork samples irradiated at chilling temperatures were studied for seeking technical approaches to control the lipid oxidation. The result indicated that the correlation between the dose and peroxide value (PV) was extremely high (pE play an important part in controlling the lipid oxidation. (authors)

  18. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  19. Development of lipid oxidation during manufacturing of horse mackerel surimi

    OpenAIRE

    Eymard, Sylvie; Carcouet, Elodie; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Dumay, Justine; Chopin, Christine; Genot, Claude

    2005-01-01

    When fatty fish are transformed into surimi, lipid oxidation takes place, decreasing the quality of the product. This study was aimed to identify the critical stages of the process in terms of the development of lipid oxidation. Horse mackerels were transformed into surimi on a pilot line and samples taken (hand-skinned fillets = minced fillets, mince, washed and refined minces, paste, surimi and washing water). Most of the lipids were removed during the process and neutral lipids were lost i...

  20. Spastin binds to lipid droplets and affects lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisovalantis Papadopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87. We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs. A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP.

  1. Lipidic nanovesicles stabilize suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Lete, Marta G; Rojas, Elena; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Alonso, Alicia; Moya, Sergio E; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effect of adding lipid nanovesicles (liposomes) on the aggregation of commercial titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), or cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) suspensions in Hepes buffer. Liposomes were prepared with pure phospholipids or mixtures of phospholipids and/or cholesterol. Changes in turbidity were recorded as a function of time, either of metal nanoparticles alone, or for a mixture of nanoparticles and lipidic nanovesicles. Lipid nanovesicles markedly decrease the NPs tendency to sediment irrespective of size or lipid compositions, thus keeping the metal oxide NPs in suspension. Cryo-electron microscopy, fluorescence anisotropy of TMA-DPH and general polarization of laurdan failed to reveal any major effect of the NPs on the lipid bilayer structure or phase state of the lipids. The above data may help in developing studies of the interaction of inhaled particles with lung surfactant lipids and alveolar macrophages. PMID:26301898

  2. Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Voinova Marina; Kurczy Michael; Cans Ann-Sofie; Adams Kelly; Grzhibovskis Richards; Karlsson Roger; Ewing Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study we report a physical analysis of the membrane mechanics affecting the size of the highly curved region of a lipid nanotube (LNT) that is either connected between a lipid bilayer vesicle and the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (tube-only) or between a lipid bilayer vesicle and a vesicle that is attached to the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (two-vesicle). For the tube-only configuration (TOC), a micropipette is used to pull a LNT into the interior of a surfa...

  3. Low levels of lipid oxidation radically increase the passive permeability of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runas, Kristina A; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-01-21

    Oxidation of unsaturated lipids in cellular membranes has been shown to cause severe membrane damage and potentially cell death. The presence of oxidized lipid species in the membrane is known to cause changes in membrane properties, such as decreased fluidity. This study uses giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to measure passive transport across membranes containing defined concentrations of oxidized lipid species. GUVs consisting of a saturated phospholipid, an unsaturated phospholipid, and cholesterol were used as model membranes. By replacing defined amounts of the unsaturated lipid with a corresponding oxidized product, the oxidation process could be mimicked, yielding vesicles of varying oxidized lipid concentration. Oxidized lipid concentration was varied from 0 mol% to 18 mol% of the total lipid concentration. Passive transport of PEG12-NBD, an uncharged fluorescent molecule, was measured using a microfluidic trap to capture the GUVs and spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) to track the transport of a fluorescent species in the equatorial plane of each GUV. Membrane permeability was determined by fitting the resulting concentration profiles to a finite difference model of diffusion and permeation around and through the membrane. Experiments showed three permeability regimes. Without oxidation, transport was slow, with a measured permeability on the order of 1.5 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). At 2.5-10% oxidized species permeation was fast (1.5 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)). Above 12.5% oxidized species, the bilayer was disrupted by the formation of pore defects. As passive transport is an important mechanism for drug delivery, understanding the relationship between oxidation and permeation could provide insight into the pharmaceutical characteristics of tissues with oxidative damage. PMID:25415555

  4. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf;

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation....... The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great importance for oxidation in emulsions. This presentation will include results from mainly three different studies of lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins and protein...

  5. An overview of molecular dynamics simulations of oxidized lipid systems, with a comparison of ELBA and MARTINI force fields for coarse grained lipid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siani, P; de Souza, R M; Dias, L G;

    2016-01-01

    in cellular systems and also affect physical properties of both biological and model lipid bilayers. In this paper we (i) provide a perspective on the existing literature on simulations of lipid bilayer systems containing oxidized lipid species as well as the main related experimental results, (ii) describe...... to resolve previous conflicts between experiments and simulations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg....

  6. Buffers Affect the Bending Rigidity of Model Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvrais, H.; Duelund, L.; Ipsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant...... vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning...... to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules....

  7. The role of plasmalogen in the oxidative stability of neutral lipids and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Tong

    2010-02-24

    The role of ethanolamine plasmalogen extracted from bovine brain (BBEP) in maintaining oxidative stability of bulk soybean oil and liposome made with egg phospholipids (PL) was studied. In a purified soybean oil (PSO), the addition of 200 and 1000 ppm of BBEP promoted lipid oxidation at rates of 0.037 and 0.071 (all rates in ln (PV) h(-1), and PV stands for peroxide value), whereas soy lecithin (SL) added in the same amount showed a trend similar to the PSO blank, which had an oxidation rate of 0.025. The PSO with BBEP was susceptible to cupric ion catalyzed oxidation, in that the oil was oxidized much more quickly than the PSO with SL and cupric ion. In commercial soybean oil (CSO) with the presence of tocopherols, SL at 1000 ppm acted synergistically as an antioxidant with the natural tocopherols, but addition of BBEP accelerated lipid oxidation, as evidenced by the oxidative stability index (OSI) test. In the egg PL liposome, the BBEP caused a fast breakdown of the lipid hydroperoxides and consequently promoted more thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation. The PL oxidation in the presence of copper in the liposome was not affected by the BBEP, which indicates that the hypothesis of ethanolamine plasmalogen (EthPm) chelating cupric ion as the antioxidation mechanism was not supported. The addition of cumene hydroperoxide to the egg PL liposome promoted lipid oxidation, as indicated by a fast development of PV and TBARS. However, the result with cumene hydroperoxide failed to differentiate the effect of BBEP and SL and their concentration on lipid oxidation. On the basis of the observations from this study, we conclude that EthPm is not an antioxidant but rather a pro-oxidant in a bulk lipid system, and it has no significant antioxidant effect for PL oxidation in the liposome. PMID:20099826

  8. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  9. Oxidative stability of solid foods with dispersed lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Damerau, Annelie

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of whole grain foods high in fibre is of interest because of the health-promoting effects associated with dietary fibre. Therefore, there is interest in developing new fibre-rich cereal foods. However, these kinds of foods also contain polyunsaturated lipids, which are prone to oxidation. Further, lipids are dispersed in a heterogeneous matrix of starch, proteins and fibre, which increases their tendency to oxidize because of a large surface area and possible contact with proo...

  10. Herbs as antioxidants in oxidation of marine lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Janani, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Marine lipids have beneficial health effects due to the high content of long chain polyunsaturated omega-3-fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) and they aretherefore of interest to use in products for human consumption.Marine phospholipids are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, due to the high amount of n-3 PUFAs, which cause loss of sensory and nutritional value in foods.In order to prevent the oxidation reactions, it is important to fi...

  11. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  12. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  13. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    matrix, beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC). CHO catabolism may impair lipid oxidation by interfering with the transfer of LCFAs into mitochondria and by competing for mutual cofactors (i.e., nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and (or) coenzyme A (Co......A)). The different effect of energy state on the catabolism of CHO and lipids is likely to be of major importance in explaining the shift in fuel utilization during intensive exercise. Formation of acetyl-CoA from CHO is activated by a low energy state, and will lead to accumulation of products that are inhibitory...

  14. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Staples Aaron W; Andrews Richard; Holwerda Andrew M; Sherriffs Scott S; Josse Andrea R; Phillips Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3...

  15. Lipid-lipid interactions in aminated reduced graphene oxide interface for biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Kamil Reza, K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved Varun; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2014-04-15

    A label-free biosensor based on antiapolipoprotein B 100 functionalized-aminated reduced graphene oxide interface has been fabricated for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL or lipid) cholesterol. The aminated reduced graphene oxide (NH2-rGO) based electrode surface is covalently functionalized with antiapolipoprotein B 100 (AAB or lipid) using EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The lipid-lipid interactions at the NH2-rGO electrode surface have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopic technique. The structural and morphological investigations of NH2-rGO based immunosensor have been accomplished via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible, and electrochemical techniques. The impedimetric response of the proposed immunosensor shows excellent sensitivity (612 Ω mg(-1) dL cm(-2)), a response time of 250 s, and a low detection limit of 5 mg/dL of LDL molecules. The association, dissociation, and equilibrium rate constants for this immunoelectrode are found to be 1.66 M(-1) s(-1), 0.6 s(-1), and 2.77 M(-1), respectively. The long-term stability and excellent reproducibility of the proposed immunosensor indicates a suitable platform for detection of LDL or lipid molecules. This immunosensor provides an efficient platform for analysis of the antigen-antibody interactions of lipid molecules. PMID:24673363

  16. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    . The additivity of the packing parameters of cholesterol and PZPC explains their cohabitation in a planar bilayer. Oxidized lipids are ubiquitously present in significant amounts in high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) particles, diseased tissues, and in model phospholipid mixtures containing...

  17. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Maheshkumar; B Sreedhar; B U Nair; A Dhathathreyan

    2012-09-01

    This work reports on the preparation of nanoclusters of manganese oxide using biotemplating techniques. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on quartz using cationic lipid [Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DOMA)] and mixed systems with neutral phospholipids dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a waterbased medium at room temperature. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show manganese oxide nanostructures that are composed of crystals or small clusters in the size range of 20-50 nm in diameter. Small angle XRD showed that template removal through calcining process results in nanostructures of the manganese oxide in sizes from 30 to 50 nm. Using these organized assemblies it is possible to control the nano and mesoscopic morphologies of particles and both rod-like and spherical particles can be synthesized.

  18. Use of antioxidants to reduce lipid oxidation and off-odor volatiles of irradiated pork homogenates and patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2003-01-01

    Pork homogenates and patties treated with antioxidants (200 μM, final) were irradiated with an electron beam. Lipid oxidation of the pork homogenates and patties were determined at day 0 and 5 and volatile compounds were analyzed soon after irradiation. Ionizing radiation accelerated lipid oxidation and produced S-containing volatiles in pork homogenates and patties. Addition of an antioxidant (sesamol, gallate, Trolox, or α-tocopherol) and their combinations decreased, but carnosine did not affect the production of off-odor volatiles and lipid oxidation of pork homogenates and patties by irradiation. Antioxidant combinations showed distinct beneficial reduction in lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged irradiated pork patties. The effect of antioxidant combinations in reducing sulfur volatiles of irradiated pork patties was clearer under vacuum than aerobic conditions. PMID:22061977

  19. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactof......The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect...

  20. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. PMID:27424306

  1. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Salil; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH.

  2. Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Roger; Kurczy, Michael; Grzhibovskis, Richards; Adams, Kelly L.; Ewing, Andrew G.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Voinova, Marina V.

    2011-06-01

    In this study we report a physical analysis of the membrane mechanics affecting the size of the highly curved region of a lipid nanotube (LNT) that is either connected between a lipid bilayer vesicle and the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (tube-only) or between a lipid bilayer vesicle and a vesicle that is attached to the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (two-vesicle). For the tube-only configuration (TOC), a micropipette is used to pull a LNT into the interior of a surface-immobilized vesicle, where the length of the tube L is determined by the distance of the micropipette to the vesicle wall. For the two-vesicle configuration (TVC), a small vesicle is inflated at the tip of the micropipette tip and the length of the tube L is in this case determined by the distance between the two interconnected vesicles. An electrochemical method monitoring diffusion of electroactive molecules through the nanotube has been used to determine the radius of the nanotube R as a function of nanotube length L for the two configurations. The data show that the LNT connected in the TVC constricts to a smaller radius in comparison to the tube-only mode and that tube radius shrinks at shorter tube lengths. To explain these electrochemical data, we developed a theoretical model taking into account the free energy of the membrane regions of the vesicles, the LNT and the high curvature junctions. In particular, this model allows us to estimate the surface tension coefficients from R( L) measurements.

  3. Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinova Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we report a physical analysis of the membrane mechanics affecting the size of the highly curved region of a lipid nanotube (LNT that is either connected between a lipid bilayer vesicle and the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (tube-only or between a lipid bilayer vesicle and a vesicle that is attached to the tip of a glass microinjection pipette (two-vesicle. For the tube-only configuration (TOC, a micropipette is used to pull a LNT into the interior of a surface-immobilized vesicle, where the length of the tube L is determined by the distance of the micropipette to the vesicle wall. For the two-vesicle configuration (TVC, a small vesicle is inflated at the tip of the micropipette tip and the length of the tube L is in this case determined by the distance between the two interconnected vesicles. An electrochemical method monitoring diffusion of electroactive molecules through the nanotube has been used to determine the radius of the nanotube R as a function of nanotube length L for the two configurations. The data show that the LNT connected in the TVC constricts to a smaller radius in comparison to the tube-only mode and that tube radius shrinks at shorter tube lengths. To explain these electrochemical data, we developed a theoretical model taking into account the free energy of the membrane regions of the vesicles, the LNT and the high curvature junctions. In particular, this model allows us to estimate the surface tension coefficients from R(L measurements.

  4. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  5. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver.

  6. Effect of irradiation and storage time on lipid oxidation of chilled pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Anwei; Wan, Fachun; Xu, Tongcheng; Du, Fangling; Wang, Wenliang; Zhu, Qingjun

    2011-03-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation with different doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy) and storage time (0-30 days) on the lipid oxidation of chilled pork and the combined effect of irradiation and antioxidant on the lipid oxidative stability during storage at 4 °C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment increased lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values. Lipid oxidation was increased with the increase in storage time. The addition of tea polyphenol (TP) was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation of chilled pork after irradiation during cold storage.

  7. Study and Prevention of Lipid Oxidation in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Cascone, Annunziata

    2006-01-01

    In according to the importance of meat in the diet and of its diffuse use in Western Countries, it’s necessary to give attention to a particular nutritional aspect of meat, concerning food safety, which is one of the most important goals in food science nowadays. It is well know that PUFA fatty acid and iron are among main factors improving lipid oxidation, so their reduction by animal diet may be an efficacy mean to improve oxidative stability in meat. However, this measure may not be a...

  8. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from le...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  9. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL.

  10. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL. PMID:25872426

  11. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  12. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  13. Acyl Chain Disorder and Azelaoyl Orientation in Lipid Membranes Containing Oxidized Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Ferreira, Tiago; Sood, Rohit; Bärenwald, Ruth; Carlström, Göran; Topgaard, Daniel; Saalwächter, Kay; Kinnunen, Paavo K J; Ollila, O H Samuli

    2016-06-28

    Oxidized phospholipids occur naturally in conditions of oxidative stress and have been suggested to play an important role in a number of pathological conditions due to their effects on a lipid membrane acyl chain orientation, ordering, and permeability. Here we investigate the effect of the oxidized phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC) on a model membrane of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) using a combination of (13)C-(1)H dipolar-recoupling nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and united-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The obtained experimental order parameter SCH profiles show that the presence of 30 mol % PazePC in the bilayer significantly increases the gauche content of the POPC acyl chains, therefore decreasing the thickness of the bilayer, although with no stable bilayer pore formation. The MD simulations reproduce the disordering effect and indicate that the orientation of the azelaoyl chain is highly dependent on its protonation state with acyl chain reversal for fully deprotonated states and a parallel orientation along the interfacial plane for fully protonated states, deprotonated and protonated azelaoyl chains having negative and positive SCH profiles, respectively. Only fully or nearly fully protonated azelaoyl chain are observed in the (13)C-(1)H dipolar-recoupling NMR experiments. The experiments show positive SCH values for the azelaoyl segments confirming for the first time that oxidized chains with polar termini adopt a parallel orientation to the bilayer plane as predicted in MD simulations. PMID:27260273

  14. Lipid and protein oxidation in charqui meat and jerked beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A. A. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in the lipid (Lox and protein oxidation (Pox were measured quantitatively by TBARS and carbonyl methods, respectively, throughout the salting and drying steps of charqui meat (CH and jerked beef (JB preparation and their storage up to 60 days. The experiment was carried out on CH samples treated with brine (20.0% and JB with same brine solution added with sodium nitrite (0.02%. After 60 days of storage, the carbonyl substances in CH were 2.77nmol mg-1 while in the JB samples, there was 61.0% oxidation inhibition. The TBARS determination revealed a Lox inhibition by approximately 5-fold in the latter samples. These results indicated that in the metmyoglobin molecule, the nitrite kept the Fe in the Fe2+ state in JB samples whereas in CH, the Fe was oxidized to Fe3+, which catalyzed the oxidation reactions more efficiently, leading to the higher development of Lox and Pox.

  15. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafizzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004. Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003 and rosemary (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2001. Their use as additives for animal feeding may be a valid alternative to synthetic antioxidants since they show beneficial effects also on animal welfare and other physiological functions (Tedesco, 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether garlic and rosemary dietary supplementation as compared with vitamin E affects lamb meat colour and lipid stability during storage.

  16. Vascular lipid accumulation, lipoprotein oxidation and macrophage lipid uptake in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F.; Hall, Chris; Pattison, Jennifer; Juliano, Joseph; Miller, Elizabeth R.; Almazan, Felicidad; Crosier, Phil; Witztum, Joseph L.; Klemke, Richard L.; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in arteries induces vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, the major cause of heart attack and stroke in humans. Extreme hyperlipidemia induced in mice and rabbits enables modeling many aspects of human atherosclerosis, but microscopic examination of plaques is possible only postmortem. Here we report that feeding adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) resulted in hypercholesterolemia, remarkable lipoprotein oxidation and fatty streak formation in the arteries. Feeding an HCD supplemented with a fluorescent cholesteryl ester to optically transparent fli1:EGFP zebrafish larvae in which endothelial cells (EC) express GFP, and using confocal microscopy enabled monitoring vascular lipid accumulation and the EC layer disorganization and thickening in a live animal. The HCD feeding also increased leakage of a fluorescent dextran from the blood vessels. Administering ezetimibe significantly diminished the HCD-induced EC layer thickening and improved its barrier function. Feeding HCD to lyz:DsRed2 larvae in which macrophages and granulocytes express DsRed, resulted in the accumulation of fluorescent myeloid cells in the vascular wall. Using a fluorogenic substrate for phospholipase A2 (PLA2), we observed an increased vascular PLA2 activity in live HCD-fed larvae compared to control larvae. Furthermore, by transplanting genetically modified murine cells into HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was required for efficient in vivo lipid uptake by macrophages. These results suggest that the novel zebrafish model is suitable for studying temporal characteristics of certain inflammatory processes of early atherogenesis and the in vivo function of vascular cells. PMID:19265037

  17. Hypoxia and oxidation levels of DNA and lipids in humans and animal experimental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Risom, Lotte; Lundby, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the association between hypoxia and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Evaluation criteria encompassed specificity and validation status of the biomarkers, study design, strength of the association, dose-response relationship, biological plausibility......, analogous exposures, and effect modification by intervention. The collective interpretation indicates persuasive evidence from the studies in humans for an association between hypoxia and elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. The levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions and lipid...... in subjects at high altitude. Most of the animal experimental models should be interpreted with caution because the assays for assessment of lipid peroxidation products have suboptimal validity....

  18. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile related to broiler breast meat color abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Lourenço Soares; Denis Fabrício Marchi; Makoto Matsushita; Paulo Donizeti Guarnieri; Adriana Aparecida Droval; Elza Iouko Ida; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of lipid oxidation on broiler breast meat (Pectoralis major m) color abnormalities. There were 27.0 % more lipid oxidation in PSE in relation to normal meat and 41.0 % more in relation to DFD-like meat (p

  19. Lipid oxidation promotes acrylamide formation in fat-rich model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Oliviero, T.; Açar, Ö.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the major chemical reactions occurring during food processing or storage and may have a strong impact on the final quality of foods. A significant role of carbonyl compounds derived from lipid oxidation in acrylamide formation has been recently proposed. In this work, the e

  20. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  1. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk. PMID:26927981

  2. Lipid peroxides as endogenous oxidants forming 8-oxo-guanosine and lipid-soluble antioxidants as suppressing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Miku; Kanazawa, Ko; Ishigaki, Yoriko; Aihara, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    The oxidation of guanosine to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in DNA is closely associated with induction of various diseases, but the endogenous oxidant species involved remains unclear. Hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) have been considered to be the oxidant, while lipid peroxides are another possible oxidant because generated easily in bio-membranes surrounding DNA. The oxidant potency was compared between lipid peroxides and H2O2. Linoleic acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) formed 8-oxo-dG at a higher level than H2O2 in guanosine or double-stranded DNA. In the presence of a physiological concentration of Fe(2+) to produce hydroxyl radicals, LOOH was also a stronger oxidant. In a lipid micelle, LOOH markedly produced 8-oxo-dG at a concentration one-tenth of that of H2O2. Upon adding to rat hepatic mitochondria, phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides produced 8-oxo-dG abundantly. Employing HepG2 cells after pretreated with glutathione peroxidase inhibitor, LOOH formed 8-oxo-dG more abundantly than H2O2. Then, antioxidants to suppress the 8-oxo-dG formation were examined, when the nuclei of pre-incubated HepG2 with antioxidants were exposed to LOOH. Water-soluble ascorbic acid, trolox, and N-acetyl cysteine showed no or weak antioxidant potency, while lipid-soluble 2,6-dipalmitoyl ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and lipid-soluble phytochemicals exhibited stronger potency. The present study shows preferential formation of 8-oxo-dG upon LOOH and the inhibition by lipid-soluble antioxidants. PMID:27499574

  3. The hydroperoxide moiety of aliphatic lipid hydroperoxides is not affected by hypochlorous acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zschaler, Josefin; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxide by plant and animal lipoxygenases is an important step for the generation of bioactive lipid mediators. Thereby fatty acid hydroperoxide represent a common intermediate, also in human innate immune cells, like neutrophil granulocytes. In these cells a further key component is the heme protein myeloperoxidase producing HOCl as a reactive oxidant. On the basis of different investigation a reaction of the fatty ac...

  4. Temperature induced modulation of lipid oxidation and lipid accumulation in palmitate-mediated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofen; Li, Yi; Leung, Polly Hangmei; Li, Jiashen; Hu, Junyan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Human skin temperature can vary widely depending on anatomical location and ambient temperature. It is also known that local changes in skin and subcutaneous temperature can affect fat metabolism. This study aimed to explore the potential effects of surrounding thermal environment on fat by investigating cell viability, lipid oxidation, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and palmitate-treated adipocytes after 4h incubation. No significant differences of viability in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were detected under different temperature conditions. Despite no significant increase being observed under warm temperature (39°C) conditions, a similarly significant suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and palmitate-treated adipocytes under 4h exposure to cooler temperatures of 31-33°C (Psize of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Padipocytes. In the palmitate-induced adiposity model, although excessive ROS and lipid peroxidation has been attenuated by temperature decrease (Psize (P>0.05) and remedy the palmitate damage induced cell death (Padipocytes. PMID:27157327

  5. Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Jansen, F.J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hex

  6. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  7. Factors Affection Cr(Ⅲ) Oxidation by Manganese Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYINGXU; CHENYIYI; 等

    1997-01-01

    The high oxidation ability of manganese oxides or soils was used to study effects of PH and coating on Cr(Ⅲ) oxidation,The results indicated that Cr(Ⅲ) oxidation peaked in PH 4.0-6.5,The amount and rate of Cr(Ⅲ) being oxidized by uncoated δ-MnO2 were larger than those by Fe oxide- of CaCo3-coated one.Inorganic Cr(Ⅲ) wa more easily oxidzed by MnO2 than organic complex Cr(Ⅲ) due to different surface affinities. Precipitated Cr(Ⅲ) and adsorbed Cr(Ⅲ) might be transferred onto MnO2 surface and then oxidized to Cr(Ⅵ)

  8. An Onion Byproduct Affects Plasma Lipids in Healthy Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, E.; Jensen, R. I.; Krath, Britta;

    2010-01-01

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate...... the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma...

  9. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  10. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  11. Oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to exert health effects through oxidative stress, which causes damage to DNA and lipids. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether levels of oxidatively damaged DNA and lipid peroxidation products in cells or bodily fluids from humans are useful biomarkers...... of biologically effective dose in studies of the health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes. DATA SOURCES: We identified publications that reported estimated associations between environmental exposure to PM and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in PubMed and EMBASE. We also...

  12. The role of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat G.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the role of nitric oxide metabolism and lipid peroxidation in patients with P. vivax malaria. The levels of nitrite and nitrate were analyzed using a procedure based on the Griess reaction and malondialdehyde levels which index of lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. The levels of nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde in patients were higher than controls and found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001. We performed this study to determine whether nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation is produced during blood-stage P. vivax malaria. This present study shows that lipid peroxidation occurs in P. vivax malaria. The levels of nitric oxide are associated with lipid peroxidation in this disease.

  13. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions is affected by the type of surfactant used as emulsifier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of real food emulsifiers as well as metal chelation by EDTA and pH on the oxidative stability of a 10% n-3...... to their ability to chelate iron, scavenge free radicals, interfere with interactions between the lipid hydroperoxides and iron as well as to form a physical harrier around the oil droplets....

  14. Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Cancer Progression and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppina Barrera

    2012-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status are common biochemical aspects in cancer cells. ROS can react with the polyunsaturated fatty acids of lipid membranes and induce lipid peroxidation. The end products of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), have been considered to be a second messenger of oxidative stress. Beyond ROS involvement in carcinogenesis, increased ROS level can inhibit tumor cell growth. Indeed, in tumors in advanced stages, a further ...

  15. Lipid oxidation and peroxidation in CNS health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at low levels in mammalian cells by various metabolic processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain, NAD(P)H oxidases, and arachidonic acid oxidative metabolism. To maintain physiological redox balance, cells have endogenous antioxidant defenses regulated at the transcriptional level by Nrf2/ARE. Oxidative stress results when ROS production exceeds the cell's ability to detoxify ROS. Overproduction of ROS damages cellular components, including lipids, leading to decline in physiological function and cell death. Reaction of ROS with lipids produces oxidized phospholipids, which give rise to 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal, and acrolein. The brain is susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high lipid content and oxygen consumption. Neurodegenerative diseases (AD, ALS, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, Friedreich's ataxia, HD, MS, NBIA, NPC, PD, peroxisomal disorders, schizophrenia, Wallerian degeneration, Zellweger syndrome) and CNS traumas (stroke, TBI, SCI) are problems of vast clinical importance. Free iron can react with H(2)O(2) via the Fenton reaction, a primary cause of lipid peroxidation, and may be of particular importance for these CNS injuries and disorders. Cholesterol is an important regulator of lipid organization and the precursor for neurosteroid biosynthesis. Atherosclerosis, the major risk factor for ischemic stroke, involves accumulation of oxidized LDL in the arteries, leading to foam cell formation and plaque development. This review will discuss the role of lipid oxidation/peroxidation in various CNS injuries/disorders. PMID:19624272

  16. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...

  17. Tyrosine administration decreases glutathione and stimulates lipid and protein oxidation in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaravatti, Angela M; Magnusson, Alessandra S; de Oliveira, Amanda S; Rosa, Andréa P; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Zanin, Fernanda R; Pederzolli, Carolina D; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2009-09-01

    Tyrosine levels are abnormally elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of patients with inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism especially in tyrosinemia type II which is caused by deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and provokes eyes, skin and central nervous system disturbances. We have recently reported that tyrosine promoted oxidative stress in vitro but the exact mechanisms of brain damage in these disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effect of L-tyrosine (500 mg/Kg) on oxidative stress indices in cerebral cortex homogenates of 14-day-old Wistar rats. A single injection of L-tyrosine decreased glutathione (GSH) and thiol-disulfide redox state (SH/SS ratio) while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were enhanced. In contrast, the treatment did not affect ascorbic acid content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results indicate that acute administration of L-tyrosine may impair antioxidant defenses and stimulate oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in cerebral cortex of young rats in vivo. This suggests that oxidative stress may represent a pathophysiological mechanism in hypetyrosinemic patients.

  18. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  19. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... was attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  20. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  1. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective: To assess the content ...

  2. Effect of Glazing and Storage Time on Lipid Oxidation of Frozen Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    SOYER, Ayla; ŞAHİN, M. Ekin

    1999-01-01

    The effect of glazing with the solutions contained ascorbic acid (AA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), BHT/BHA combination and only water, and storage time on lipid oxidation of chub mackerel were determined during frozen storage at -18°C for 10 months. Glazing with some antioxidants or water of the fish retarded lipid oxidation when compared to control samples during frozen storage. The results of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide v...

  3. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  4. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    n den Hil, E.F. Hoek-va; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, A.; Vervoort, J.J.; Stankova, B.; Bekkenkamp, M.; Herreman, L.; Venema, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Tvrzicka, E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Schothorst, E.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)

  5. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  6. Dietary Protein Affects Gene Expression and Prevents Lipid Accumulation in the Liver in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.G.; Baars, A.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Müller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: High protein (HP) diets are suggested to positively modulate obesity and associated increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease in humans and rodents. The aim of our study was to detect mechanisms by which a HP diet affects hepatic lipid accumulation. Metho

  7. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P; Bakke, Siril S;

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are related to both enlarged intramyocellular triacylglycerol stores and accumulation of lipid intermediates. We investigated how lipid overflow can change the oxidation of intramyocellular lipids (ICL(OX)) and intramyocellular lipid storage (ICL). These experiments...... were extended by comparing these processes in primary cultured myotubes established from healthy lean and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, two extremes in a range of metabolic phenotypes. ICLs were prelabeled for 2 days with 100 microM [(14)C]oleic acid (OA). ICL(OX) was studied using a (14)CO...

  9. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K; Arredouani, Mohamed;

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression ...... in lungs of ozone-resistant mice suggested an additional role protecting against inhaled oxidants. After ozone exposure, MARCO-/- mice showed greater lung injury than did MARCO+/+ mice. Ozone is known to generate oxidized, proinflammatory lipids in lung lining fluid, such as 5beta,6beta...

  10. Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed.

  11. Conformations of double-headed, triple-tailed phospholipid oxidation lipid products in model membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermetter, Albin; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Products of phospholipid oxidation can produce lipids with a carbonyl moiety at the end of a shortened lipid acyl tail, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC). The carbonyl tail of POVPC can covalently bond to the free tertiary amine of a phosphatidylethanolamin...... work provides the first detailed structural model of this unique new class of lipids that may have important roles to play in modulating membrane properties and cell physiology....... lipid in a Schiff base reaction to form a conjugate lipid (SCH) with two head groups, and three acyl tails. We investigate the conformations and properties of this unique class of adduct lipids using molecular dynamics simulations, and show that their insertion into lipid bilayers of POPC increases...... the average cross-sectional area per lipid and decreases bilayer thickness. Significant increase in acyl tail fluidity is only observed at 25% SCH concentration. The SCH occupies a larger area per lipid than expected for a lipid with three acyl tails, owing to the interfacial location of the long spacer...

  12. Individual whey protein components influence lipid oxidation dependent on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    In emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the composition at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for the resulting oxidation. Previous studies have shown that individual whey protein...

  13. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; ARAKAWA, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-ste...

  14. The results of the lipids peroxidation products on the DNA bases as biological markers of the oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ways of DNA damages have been studied, among these ones the direct way of DNA damages formation by the reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). This way leads to the formation of oxidative DNA damages. In 1990, works have suggested an indirect way of DNA damages formation, the lipids peroxidation. Instead of oxidizing directly DNA, the R.O.S. oxide the lipids present in the cells and their membranes; The products coming from this degradation are able to provoke DNA damages. This way has not been studied very much. The work of this thesis is axed on this DNA theme and lipids peroxidation. In the first chapter, we begin by presenting DNA and the direct way of oxidative damages formation by the R.O.S.Then, we speak about the cell lipids suffering oxidation reactions and the different ways of lipids oxidation. Then, we present how the lipid peroxidation is a source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  15. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  16. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  17. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  18. Oxidative stability of the lipid fraction in cookies – the EPR study

    OpenAIRE

    Zawada Katarzyna; Kozłowska Mariola; Żbikowska Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subj...

  19. Effect of phenolic-rich plant materials on protein and lipid oxidation reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of natural plant materials rich in phenolic compounds is being widely investigated for protection of food products sensitive to oxidative reactions. In this thesis plant materials rich in phenolic compounds were studied as possible antioxidants to prevent protein and lipid oxidation reactions in different food matrixes such as pork meat patties and corn oil-in water emulsions. Loss of anthocyanins was also measured during oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions. In a...

  20. Individual whey protein components influence lipid oxidation dependent on pH

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the composition at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for the resulting oxidation. Previous studies have shown that individual whey protein components (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) adsorb differently to the interface depending on pH. In addition, differences has been shown to exists between the oxidative stability provided by α-lactal...

  1. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  2. Lipid synthesis and secretion in HepG2 cells is not affected by ACTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson-Ehle Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apolipoprotein B (apoB containing lipoproteins, i.e. VLDL, LDL and Lp(a, are consequently lowered by ACTH treatment in humans. This is also seen as reduced plasma apoB by 20-30% and total cholesterol by 30-40%, mostly accounted for by a decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Studies in hepatic cell line (HepG2 cells showed that apoB mRNA expression is reduced in response to ACTH incubation and is followed by a reduced apoB secretion, which may hypothesize that ACTH lowering apoB containing lipoproteins in humans may be mediated by the inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis. This was recently confirmed in vivo in a human postprandial study, where ACTH reduced transient apoB48 elevation from the small intestine, however, the exogenic lipid turnover seemed unimpaired. In the present study we investigated if lipid synthesis and/or secretion in HepG2 cells were also affected by pharmacological levels of ACTH to accompany the reduced apoB output. HepG2 cells were incubated with radiolabelled precursors ([14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol either before or during ACTH stimuli. Cellular and secreted lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol and separated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC, and [14C]labelled cholesterol and cholesteryl ester and [3H]labelled triglycerides and phospholipids were quantitated by the liquid scintillation counting. It demonstrated that ACTH administration did not result in any significant change in neither synthesis nor secretion of the studied lipids, this regardless of presence or absence of oleic acid, which is known to stabilize apoB and enhance apoB production. The present study suggests that ACTH lowers plasma lipids in humans mainly mediated by the inhibition of apoB synthesis and did not via the reduced lipid synthesis.

  3. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Protein and lipid oxidation was followed during processing and storage of mince and washed minces prepared from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachunts). Briefly horse mackerel mince (MO) was washed with three volumes of water, mimicking the surimi production and different washed products were obtained......: M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised (i.e. lipid content, protein, water, iron, fatty acid profile and tocopherol content) and analysed for protein and lipid oxidation in order to investigate the impact of the washing steps...... on oxidation. Subsequently the different products were stored for up to 96 h at 5 degrees C and samples were taken out regularly for analysis. Lipid oxidation was investigated by measuring primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (volatiles). Protein oxidation...

  4. Natural Antioxidants Dietary and Lipid Oxidation Analysis in Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    ARDIANSYAH; INDRAYANI

    2007-01-01

    Autoxidation of lipids is related to flesh deterioration and discoloration, as well as unpleasant flavors produced during processing and storage. This becomes a major factor determining fresh and frozen seafood products price. The aims of this research were to investigate the effect of two novel dietary supplementation antioxidants Vinlife® grape seed extract and Herbalox® rosemary extract on lipid oxidation during post-mortem storage of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) and the relationships bet...

  5. Clinical presentation, lipid peroxidation intensity, and features of nitric oxide production in patients with erysipelas

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. Ratnikova; S. A. Ship

    2014-01-01

    65 patients with a diagnosis of erysipelas. Examination of the patients included an analysis of lipid peroxidation products (common polyene, diene conjugates, and conjugate ketodieny trieny, Schiff bases), antioxidant defense system (enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase) and nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates and nitrites). It was established that imbalance between excess activated lipid peroxidation and inadequate functioning of antioxidant defense system was remained during the entire...

  6. Influence of ammonia oxidation rate on thaumarchaeal lipid composition and the TEX86 temperature proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Sarah J; Elling, Felix J; Könneke, Martin; Buchwald, Carolyn; Wankel, Scott D; Santoro, Alyson E; Lipp, Julius Sebastian; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Pearson, Ann

    2016-07-12

    Archaeal membrane lipids known as glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the basis of the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy. Because GDGTs preserved in marine sediments are thought to originate mainly from planktonic, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, the basis of the correlation between TEX86 and sea surface temperature (SST) remains unresolved: How does TEX86 predict surface temperatures, when maximum thaumarchaeal activity occurs below the surface mixed layer and TEX86 does not covary with in situ growth temperatures? Here we used isothermal studies of the model thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to investigate how GDGT composition changes in response to ammonia oxidation rate. We used continuous culture methods to avoid potential confounding variables that can be associated with experiments in batch cultures. The results show that the ring index scales inversely (R(2) = 0.82) with ammonia oxidation rate (ϕ), indicating that GDGT cyclization depends on available reducing power. Correspondingly, the TEX86 ratio decreases by an equivalent of 5.4 °C of calculated temperature over a 5.5 fmol·cell(-1)·d(-1) increase in ϕ. This finding reconciles other recent experiments that have identified growth stage and oxygen availability as variables affecting TEX86 Depth profiles from the marine water column show minimum TEX86 values at the depth of maximum nitrification rates, consistent with our chemostat results. Our findings suggest that the TEX86 signal exported from the water column is influenced by the dynamics of ammonia oxidation. Thus, the global TEX86-SST calibration potentially represents a composite of regional correlations based on nutrient dynamics and global correlations based on archaeal community composition and temperature. PMID:27357675

  7. Changes and Effects of Dietary Oxidized Lipids in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the present state-of-the art of modifications and effects of dietary oxidized lipids during their transit along the gastrointestinal tract. A survey of the literature reporting changes and effects of oxidized lipids before absorption, first in the stomach and then during enzymatic lipolysis in the small intestine, are addressed. Also, the fate of non-absorbed compounds and their potential implications at the colorectal level are discussed. Among the results found, it is shown that acidic gastric conditions and the influence of other dietary components may lead to either further oxidation or antioxidative effects in the stomach. Also, changes in oxidized functions, especially of hydroperoxy and epoxy groups, seem likely to occur. Enzymatic hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase is not effective for triacylglycerol polymers, and hence they can be found as non-absorbed oxidized lipids in the large intestine. Interactions of oxidized lipids with cholesterol absorption in the small intestine and with microflora metabolism have been also observed.

  8. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (PSensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. PMID:26878610

  9. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Dopamine by Ferrocene in Lipid Film Cast on a Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jian-Guo(王建国); WU,Zheng-Yan(吴正岩); TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); TENG,Ren-Rui(滕人瑞); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The ferrocene-lipid film electrode was successfully prepared by means of casting the solution of ferrocene and lipid in chloroform onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. Ferrocene saved in the biological membrane gave a couple of quasi-reversble peaks of cyclic voltammmogram. The electrode displays a preferential electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine (DA).The effect of electrocatalytic oxidation of DA depends on the solution pH and the negative charge lipid is in favor of catalytic oxidation of DA. The charistic was employed for separating the electrochemical responses of DA and ascorbic acid (AA). The electrode was assessed for the voltammtric differentiation of DA and AA. The measurement of DA can be achieved with differential pulse voltammetry in the presence of high conentration of AA. The catalytic peak current was proportional to the concentration of DA in the range of 1 ×10- 4-3 × 10-3 mol/L.

  10. EFFECTS OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON LIPID OXIDATION OF MENHADEN OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Naerin

    2013-01-01

    Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods and oils to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. The goal of the study is to investigate the activity of novel antioxidants in menhaden oil and to develop optimum formulations containing mixed tocopherols to control oxidation of menhaden oil. Alpha tocopherol, gamma tocopherol, and delta tocopherol in menhaden oil were found at 0.18mg/g, ...

  11. Oxidation of Lipids and Proteins in Lens and Blood Plasma of Rats in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova I.P.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the intensity of oxidation of lipids and proteins in lens and blood plasma of Wistar rats in ageing. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on 25 Wistar male rats of four age groups: 5, 12, 24 and 36 months. Materials for study were lens and blood plasma. Lipids were extracted using Folch partition. The content of diene and triene conjugates was assessed by means of spectrophotometry. The level of Schiff’s bases was studied according to fluorescence intensity, malon dialdehyde concentration — according to the intensity of interaction with thiobarbituric acid. Potentiality of substrate oxidation in specimen was assessed using the method of induced chemoluminescence, and the degree of protein oxidative modification was assessed according to the level of carbonyl derivatives with 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrasine. The investigation of the content of total lipids and total proteins were carried out using “Bio-Test Total Lipids” and “Total Protein-Vital”. Results. The processes of lipid peroxidation of lens membranes are increasing in animals aged 5—12 months and decreasing in the period of 12—24 months. The level of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma has an expressed tendency for increasing in ageing. Over the years, there is the level decrease of carbonyl derivatives of aminoacids of lens proteins and the tendency for the increase of oxidative modification of proteins in blood plasma.

  12. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

  13. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. PMID:21248346

  14. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...

  15. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...

  16. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...

  17. Effect of emulsifiers and physical structure on lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The body of evidence supporting health beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has increased over the last decades. Consequently, the interest in fish oil-enriched foods has also increased. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty acids to foods also adds...... the challenge of lipid oxidation. In order to limit lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours, the manner in which the fish oil is introduced to the food product should be carefully considered, e.g. an emulsion could be used as delivery system for the omega-3s. The aim...

  18. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan;

    2002-01-01

    Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid m...

  19. Nifedipine does not affect free radical induced lipid peroxidation following renal allograft reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A; Hopton, M; Bolton, C

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively measured lipid peroxidation following reperfusion during 44 renal allograft transplant operations. Twenty-four (55%) recipients were taking nifedipine pre- and then postoperatively, and 20 (45%) were not. There were no differences between the groups in terms of recipient or donor status. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), mean 2.2 (0.2) mumol/L (SEM) vs. 1.73 (0.1) was greater in the group not prescribed nifedipine, p nifedipine group to 0.38 (0.02) at 30 min after reperfusion and 0.38 (0.03) at 60 min, p nifedipine and no-nifedipine groups, respectively. There was no difference in postoperative renal function between the groups. This study suggests that the oral administration of nifedipine may not prevent the production of lipid peroxides, as measured by changes in plasma malondialdehyde, following renal allograft reperfusion and that it does not affect renal function in the early postoperative period.

  20. Oxidative Stress Attenuates Lipid Synthesis and Increases Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Hepatoma Cells Infected with Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Donna N; Pu, Christopher Hao; Lewis, Jamie T; Bhat, Rakesh; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Logan, Michael; Lund, Garry; Addison, William R; Lehner, Richard; Kneteman, Norman M

    2016-01-22

    Cytopathic effects are currently believed to contribute to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver injury and are readily observed in Huh7.5 cells infected with the JFH-1 HCV strain, manifesting as apoptosis highly correlated with growth arrest. Reactive oxygen species, which are induced by HCV infection, have recently emerged as activators of AMP-activated protein kinase. The net effect is ATP conservation via on/off switching of metabolic pathways that produce/consume ATP. Depending on the scenario, this can have either pro-survival or pro-apoptotic effects. We demonstrate reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of AMP-activated kinase in Huh7.5 cells during HCV (JFH-1)-induced growth arrest. Metabolic labeling experiments provided direct evidence that lipid synthesis is attenuated, and β-oxidation is enhanced in these cells. A striking increase in nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which plays a dominant role in the expression of β-oxidation genes after ligand-induced activation, was also observed, and we provide evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α is constitutively activated in these cells. The combination of attenuated lipid synthesis and enhanced β-oxidation is not conducive to lipid accumulation, yet cellular lipids still accumulated during this stage of infection. Notably, the serum in the culture media was the only available source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which were elevated (2-fold) in the infected cells, implicating altered lipid import/export pathways in these cells. This study also provided the first in vivo evidence for enhanced β-oxidation during HCV infection because HCV-infected SCID/Alb-uPA mice accumulated higher plasma ketones while fasting than did control mice. Overall, this study highlights the reprogramming of hepatocellular lipid metabolism and bioenergetics during HCV infection, which are predicted to impact both the HCV life cycle and pathogenesis. PMID:26627833

  1. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension. - Highlights: • Marinated anchovies were γ-irradiated at 2, 3 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 °C (10 months). • Irradiation slightly hardened the texture and reduced its softening during storage. • Irradiated marinades had good sensory acceptability without differences with controls. • Irradiation improved the quality by reducing texture softening and color changes

  2. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  3. Caveolin-1 Is Necessary for Hepatic Oxidative Lipid Metabolism: Evidence for Crosstalk between Caveolin-1 and Bile Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Fernández-Rojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caveolae and caveolin-1 (CAV1 have been linked to several cellular functions. However, a model explaining their roles in mammalian tissues in vivo is lacking. Unbiased expression profiling in several tissues and cell types identified lipid metabolism as the main target affected by CAV1 deficiency. CAV1−/− mice exhibited impaired hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα-dependent oxidative fatty acid metabolism and ketogenesis. Similar results were recapitulated in CAV1-deficient AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting at least a partial cell-autonomous role of hepatocyte CAV1 in metabolic adaptation to fasting. Finally, our experiments suggest that the hepatic phenotypes observed in CAV1−/− mice involve impaired PPARα ligand signaling and attenuated bile acid and FXRα signaling. These results demonstrate the significance of CAV1 in (1 hepatic lipid homeostasis and (2 nuclear hormone receptor (PPARα, FXRα, and SHP and bile acid signaling.

  4. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  5. ω-3 in meat products: benefits and effects on lipid oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniela Miotto; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Pflanzer, Sérgio Bertelli; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Although ω-3 intake has been associated with numerous health benefits, its addition to certain food matrices, and in particular meat products, may involve various technological barriers influencing the final quality of the products. Lipid oxidation must be highlighted due to the modification of both the sensory characteristics and the shelf-life of meat products. In order to reduce the impact of chemical changes and promote oxidative stability, the use of natural antioxidants has gained ground owing to the health and safety advantages linked to its effectiveness at reducing lipid oxidation. Many natural compounds have also been successfully tested in animal feed, in order to protect the raw meat materials and reduce the risk of lipid oxidation in processed products. This review aims to address the challenges and advantages of the incorporation of ω-3 fatty acids in raw meat materials and processed meat products, and to describe the use of different compounds to enhance lipid oxidative stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26676414

  6. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shama V; Jacques, Hélène; Plourde, Mélanie; Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hypercholesterolemic [LDL-cholesterol (C) ≥ 2.5 mmol/L] men aged 18-60 y. During three 8-wk phases, each separated by a 4-wk washout period, 27 participants consumed under supervision in random order 3.5 g/d of safflower oil (control), a 50:50 mixture of trans 10, cis 12 and cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11) CLA:Clarinol G-80, and c9, t11 isomer:c9, t11 CLA. At baseline and endpoint of each phase, body weight, body fat mass, and lean body mass were measured by DXA. Blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers, including insulin sensitivity, blood concentrations of adiponectin, and inflammatory (high sensitive-C-reactive protein, TNFα, and IL-6) and oxidative (oxidized-LDL) molecules, were measured. The effect of CLA consumption on fatty acid oxidation was also assessed. Compared with the control treatment, the CLA treatments did not affect changes in body weight, body composition, or blood lipids. In addition, CLA did not affect the β-oxidation rate of fatty acids or induce significant alterations in the safety markers tested. In conclusion, although no detrimental effects were caused by supplementation, these results do not confirm a role for CLA in either body weight or blood lipid regulation in humans.

  8. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  9. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Caroline P; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-05-27

    Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4) vegetable oil/canthaxanthin; (5) fish oil/no pigment; and (6) vegetable oil/no pigment. The fish were slaughtered and stored in polyethylene bags individually as butterfly fillets for up to 22 months at -20 °C. The composition of the fish muscle at slaughter and during frozen storage was evaluated by sampling after 4, 8, 13, 18, and 22 months. The carotenoid content in the muscle was found to be approximately 9-10 mg/kg of fish for both carotenoids. Primary oxidation lipid products (peroxides) as well as secondary oxidation products (volatiles) were measured. In addition, the level of protein carbonyl groups and the content of tocopherols and carotenoids in the muscle were also measured. To estimate the overall changes in sensory properties of the different samples during storage, a trained sensory panel also evaluated the samples. Both the sensory panel and the chemical analysis revealed that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated that the feed composition influenced the fish muscle composition and subsequently the oxidative stability of the fish during frozen storage. Besides, other constituents in the feed might influence deposition of antioxidants in the tissue and consequently affect the oxidative stability of the muscle.

  10. Characterization of lipid oxidation in plant oils by micro-calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Wafa; Toutain, Jean; Sommier, Alain; Essafi, Wafa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Cansell, Maud

    2016-04-15

    A new experimental device was developed, based on the measurement of the heat flux dissipated during chemical reactions. The technique was exploited for real time monitoring of lipid oxidation in plant oils. The thermopiles were used in adiabatic configuration in order to measure the entire heat flux and improve sensitivity. Measurements were operated with a resolution of few μW as required to follow low exothermic reactions like oxidation. The validation of the device was performed by correlating conjugated diene concentrations measured by spectrophotometry and the heat flux dissipated by oxidation reactions. Our experimental approach involved several plant oils analyzed in isothermal conditions. This novel technique provides a versatile, sensitive, solvent-free and yet low-cost method to assess lipid oxidation stability, particularly suitable for the fast screening of plant oils.

  11. Fluorescence monitoring of the effect of oxidized lipids on the process of protein fibrillization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vus, Kateryna; Sood, Rohit; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kinnunen, Paavo

    2016-09-01

    The kinetics of lysozyme and insulin amyloid formation in the presence of the oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) was investigated using Thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The kinetic parameters of fibrillization process (lag time and apparent rate constant) have been determined upon varying the following experimental parameters: the type of lipid assemblies (premicellar aggregates and lipid bilayer vesicles), pH, temperature and lipid-to-protein molar ratio. It was found that oxPLs premicellar aggregates induced the more pronounced increase of the maximum Thioflavin T fluorescence, which is proportional to the extent of fibril formation, compared to the vesicles composed of the oxidized and unoxidized lipids. In contrast, the oxPLs, used as dispersions or included into vesicles, inhibited fibril nucleation and elongation under near-physiological conditions in vitro compared to liposomes containing unoxidized lipids. The results obtained provide deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress-modulated conformational diseases, and could be employed for the anti-amyloid drug development.

  12. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  13. Effects of salts on oxidative stability of lipids in Tween-20 stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Leqi; Cho, Hyung Taek; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-15

    Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is an important factor determining the shelf life of food products. Salts are often present in many types of emulsion based food products. However, there is limited information on influence of salts on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sodium and potassium chloride on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Tween 20 stabilized corn O/W emulsions at pH 7.0 were prepared with different concentrations of sodium chloride with or without the metal chelators. NaCl did not cause any changes in emulsion droplet size. NaCl dose-dependently promoted lipid oxidation as measured by the lipid oxidation product, hexanal. Both deferoxamine (DFO) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced lipid oxidation in emulsions with NaCl, with EDTA being more effective. Potassium chloride showed similar impact on lipid oxidation as sodium chloride. These results suggest that salts are able to promote lipid oxidation in emulsions and this effect can be controlled by metal chelators. PMID:26675849

  14. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  15. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model*

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Shafaeizadeh; Jalal Jamalian; Ali Akbare Owji; Leila Azadbakht; Roghayeh Ramezani; Narges Karbalaei; Abdolreza Rajaeifard; Negar Tabatabai

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming thermally oxidized oil supplemented with pectin on liver glutathione peroxidase activity, serum malondialdehyde and lipid profiles in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Fifty growing male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into different groups. The diets differed only in their fat and pectin content. The diets had fresh sunflower oil or thermally oxidized sunflower oil. The diets were supplemented with pectin...

  16. Influence of Lipid Oxidization on Structures and Functions of Biological Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Korytowski, Agatha Anna

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis is to clarify how the structures and functions of biological membranes are influenced by the oxidative damage mediated by free radicals. As a precisely defined model systems, artificially reconstituted lipid membranes (Langmuir monolayers, vesicles, supported membranes, multilamellar membranes) incorporating two oxidized phospholipids bearing aldehyde or carboxyl groups at the end of truncated sn-2 acyl chains were fabricated. By the combination of various exper...

  17. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres; César Soria-Fregozo; Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez; José L. Moreno-Hernández-Duque

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-...

  18. Effect of nitric oxide and plant antioxidants on microsomal content of lipid radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveris, A D; Galatro, A; Puntarulo, S

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant ability of nitric oxide (NO) generated by a chemical donor and of commercially available antioxidant preparations was assayed. SNAP (S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicilamine) was used as the NO donor, and Ginkgo biloba, wheat and alfalfa preparations were tested. Lipid peroxidation was assayed by EPR employing a reaction system consisting of rat liver microsomes, ADP, FeCl3, NADPH and POBN in phosphate buffer, pH=7.4. In vitro NO exposure decreased microsomal lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The dose responsible for inhibiting the microsomal content of lipid radical adducts by 50% (LD50) for SNAP was 550 microM (NO generation rate 0.1 microM/min). The addition of 50 microM hemoglobin to the incubation media prevented NO effect on lipid peroxidation. The addition of an amount of the antioxidant preparations equivalent to the LD50 doses inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21, 15, and 33% for wheat, alfalfa, ginkgo biloba preparations respectively in the presence of 550 microM SNAP. We detected a decrease in the content of lipid radical adducts after simultaneous supplementation, although it was less than 50%, even when LD50 doses of the products were added. This suggests that NO and the natural antioxidants inhibit lipid peroxidation by a mechanism that has both common and non-shared features. PMID:15693283

  19. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPID PROF ILE IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major health burden and coexists o f with imbalance in antioxidants and lipid profile. This study is done to evaluate the total antioxidant status and oxidative stress like Malondialdehyde (MDA, catala se, superoxide dismutase (SOD, uric acid and correlate with lipid profile among hypertensive m en. Significant increase in MDA, uric acid and dyslipidemia was found among hypertensive men. Al so total antioxidant status and other antioxidants like SOD, catalase was found to be dec reased in hypertensive men. Hence it is concluded that lipid peroxidation occur in hypertensi on which leads to endothelial dysfunction, renal blood flow alteration and tissue damage. As a result of which dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and decrease in anti oxidants are seen. Hence decre ase in antioxidants is a useful marker for antioxidant therapy to prevent organ damage among hype rtensive.

  20. Clinical presentation, lipid peroxidation intensity, and features of nitric oxide production in patients with erysipelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Ratnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 65 patients with a diagnosis of erysipelas. Examination of the patients included an analysis of lipid peroxidation products (common polyene, diene conjugates, and conjugate ketodieny trieny, Schiff bases, antioxidant defense system (enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates and nitrites. It was established that imbalance between excess activated lipid peroxidation and inadequate functioning of antioxidant defense system was remained during the entire period of the disease. The relationships between nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were established. It was proved the advisability of developing and introducing new, improved schemes of pathogenetic therapy of erysipelas.

  1. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Danielsen, Pernille H; Folkmann, Janne K;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3h...... single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral...... exposure to 6.4mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because...

  2. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vidhi; Connor, Timothy; Sanigorski, Andrew; Martin, Sheree D; Bruce, Clinton R; Henstridge, Darren C; Bond, Simon T; McEwen, Kevin A; Kerr-Bayles, Lyndal; Ashton, Trent D; Fleming, Cassandra; Wu, Min; Pike Winer, Lisa S; Chen, Denise; Hudson, Gregg M; Schwabe, John W R; Baar, Keith; Febbraio, Mark A; Gregorevic, Paul; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Walder, Ken R; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L

    2016-09-13

    Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase) transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity. PMID:27626651

  3. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity.

  4. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  5. Collagen incorporation within electrospun conduits reduces lipid oxidation and impacts conduit mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birthare, Karamveer; Shojaee, Mozhgan; Jones, Carlos Gross; Brenner, James R; Bashur, Chris A

    2016-04-01

    Modulating the host response, including the accumulation of oxidized lipid species, is important for improving tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) viability. Accumulation of oxidized lipids promotes smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyper-proliferation and inhibits endothelial cell migration, which can lead to several of the current challenges for small-diameter TEVGs. Generating biomaterials that reduce lipid oxidation is important for graft survival and this assessment can provide a reliable correlation to clinical situations. In this study, we determined the collagen to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) ratio required to limit the production of pro-inflammatory species, while maintaining the required mechanical strength for the graft. Electrospun conduits were prepared from 0%, 10%, and 25% blends of collagen/PCL (w/w) and implanted in the rat peritoneal cavity for four weeks. The results showed that adding collagen to the PCL conduits reduced the accumulation of oxidized lipid species within the implanted conduits. In addition, the ratio of collagen had a significant impact on the recruited cell phenotype and construct mechanics. All conduits exhibited greater than 44% yield strain and sufficient tensile strength post-implantation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that incorporating collagen into synthetic electrospun scaffolds, both 10% and 25% blend conditions, appears to limit the pro-inflammatory characteristics after in vivo implantation. PMID:27099237

  6. Iron-mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil-in-ater emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of five different emulsifiers on iron‐mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions. The emulsifiers were either based on protein (whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate) or based on phospholipid (soy lecithin a...

  7. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  8. LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg; Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jordy, Andreas Børsting;

    2013-01-01

    exercise. LKB1 MKO mice also show decreased muscle SIK3 activity, increased histone deacetylase 4 expression, decreased NAD(+) concentration and SIRT1 activity, and decreased expression of genes involved in FA oxidation. In AMPKa2 KO mice, substrate use was similar to that in WT mice, which excluded...

  9. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter, E-mail: pemo@sund.ku.dk

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  10. Plant-derived phenolics inhibit the accrual of structurally characterised protein and lipid oxidative modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Soler-Cantero

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that plant-derived phenolics beneficial effects include an inhibition of LDL oxidation. After applying a screening method based on 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine-protein carbonyl reaction to 21 different plant-derived phenolic acids, we selected the most antioxidant ones. Their effect was assessed in 5 different oxidation systems, as well as in other model proteins. Mass-spectrometry was then used, evidencing a heterogeneous effect on the accumulation of the structurally characterized protein carbonyl glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes as well as for malondialdehyde-lysine in LDL apoprotein. After TOF based lipidomics, we identified the most abundant differential lipids in Cu(++-incubated LDL as 1-palmitoyllysophosphatidylcholine and 1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Most of selected phenolic compounds prevented the accumulation of those phospholipids and the cellular impairment induced by oxidized LDL. Finally, to validate these effects in vivo, we evaluated the effect of the intake of a phenolic-enriched extract in plasma protein and lipid modifications in a well-established model of atherosclerosis (diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in hamsters. This showed that a dietary supplement with a phenolic-enriched extract diminished plasma protein oxidative and lipid damage. Globally, these data show structural basis of antioxidant properties of plant-derived phenolic acids in protein oxidation that may be relevant for the health-promoting effects of its dietary intake.

  11. Profiling Metal Oxides with Lipids: Magnetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Displaying DNA and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yibo; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2016-09-19

    Metal oxides include many important materials with various surface properties. For biomedical and analytical applications, it is desirable to engineer their biocompatible interfaces. Herein, a phosphocholine liposome (DOPC) and its headgroup dipole flipped counterpart (DOCP) were mixed with ten common oxides. Using the calcein leakage assay, cryo-TEM, and ζ-potential measurement, these oxides were grouped into three types. The type 1 oxides (Fe3 O4 , TiO2 , ZrO2 , Y2 O3 , ITO, In2 O3 , and Mn2 O3 ) form supported bilayers only with DOCP. Type 2 (SiO2 ) forms supported bilayers only with DOPC; type 3 (ZnO and NiO) are cationic and damage lipid membranes. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied for conjugation of fluorophores, proteins, and DNA to the supported DOCP bilayers via lipid headgroup labeling, covalent linking, or lipid insertion. Delivery of the conjugates to cells and selective DNA hybridization were demonstrated. This work provides a general solution for coating the type 1 oxides with a simple mixing in water, facilitating applications in biosensing, separation, and nanomedicine.

  12. Ultrafine particles affect the balance of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in the lung: in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck-Speier Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ultrafine particles exerts diverse harmful effects including aggravation of pulmonary diseases like asthma. Recently we demonstrated in a mouse model for allergic airway inflammation that particle-derived oxidative stress plays a crucial role during augmentation of allergen-induced lung inflammation by ultrafine carbon particle (UfCP inhalation. The mechanisms how particle inhalation might change the inflammatory balance in the lungs, leading to accelerated inflammatory reactions, remain unclear. Lipid mediators, known to be immediately generated in response to tissue injury, might be strong candidates for priming this particle-triggered change of the inflammatory balance. Methods We hypothesize that inhalation of UfCP may disturb the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in: i a model for acute allergic pulmonary inflammation, exposing mice for 24 h before allergen challenge to UfCP inhalation (51.7 nm, 507 μg/m3, and ii an in-vitro model with primary rat alveolar macrophages (AM incubated with UfCP (10 μg/1 x 106 cells/ml for 1 h. Lungs and AM were analysed for pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators, namely leukotriene B4 (LTB4, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 15(S-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15(S-HETE, lipoxin A4 (LXA4 and oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane by enzyme immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. Results In non-sensitized mice UfCP exposure induced a light non-significant increase of all lipid mediators. Similarly but significantly in rat AM all lipid mediators were induced already within 1 h of UfCP stimulation. Also sensitized and challenge mice exposed to filtered air showed a partially significant increase in all lipid mediators. In sensitized and challenged mice UfCP exposure induced highest significant levels of all lipid mediators in the lungs together with the peak of allergic airway inflammation on day 7 after UfCP inhalation. The levels of LTB4, 8-isoprostane and PGE2 were

  13. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  14. Lipid-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira Farooqui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative movement disorder of unknown etiology. PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depletion of dopamine in the striatum, abnormal mitochondrial and proteasomal functions, and accumulation of α-synuclein that may be closely associated with pathological and clinical abnormalities. Increasing evidence indicates that both oxidative stress and inflammation may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of PD. Oxidative stress is characterized by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and depletion of glutathione. Lipid mediators for oxidative stress include 4-hydroxynonenal, isoprostanes, isofurans, isoketals, neuroprostanes, and neurofurans. Neuroinflammation is characterized by activated microglial cells that generate proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. Proinflammatory lipid mediators include prostaglandins and platelet activating factor, together with cytokines may play a prominent role in mediating the progressive neurodegeneration in PD.

  15. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, L.; Priolo, A.; L. Biondi; Lanza, M.; Bognanno, M.; Gravador, R.; Luciano, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrateswith high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates inwhich 24% and 35% dried citrus pulpwere included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and satu...

  16. Natural Antioxidants Dietary and Lipid Oxidation Analysis in Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARDIANSYAH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoxidation of lipids is related to flesh deterioration and discoloration, as well as unpleasant flavors produced during processing and storage. This becomes a major factor determining fresh and frozen seafood products price. The aims of this research were to investigate the effect of two novel dietary supplementation antioxidants Vinlife® grape seed extract and Herbalox® rosemary extract on lipid oxidation during post-mortem storage of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio and the relationships between dietary antioxidants with the enzymatic antioxidant activities. Herbalox® supplemented diet showed no harmful effects on growth or survival of zebrafish. However, the diet could not inhibit Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS formation in zebrafish during post-mortem storage at 4 oC. Dietary Herbalox® and Vinlife® supplementation also showed no deleterious effects on growth or survival of zebrafish. The Vinlife® supplementation efficiently suppressed TBARS formation in the zebrafish but the Herbalox® supplementation. The two novel antioxidants had significant effects on catalase and glutathione S-transferase but not on glutathione peroxidase. These findings suggested that the supplementation with Vinlife® was more effective than with Herbalox® in inhibiting the formation of lipid oxidation products in zebrafish. Hence, Vinlife® supplementation, could be a safe alternative method to improve oxidative stability of fish lipid contents.

  17. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in pork bundles processing by superheated steam frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Ho, Chi-Tang; Fu, Hui-Yin

    2004-05-19

    The effect of superheated steam treatment on the oxidative stability of lipids in packaged Zousoon (pork bundles) was investigated. The aroma quality of Zousoon samples was evaluated by sensory analysis and chromatographic analysis of volatiles. Results of this study indicated that oxidation of lipids occurred in pan-fried Zousoon after prolonged storage. Significant amounts of highly volatile compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and hexanal in Zousoon were identified by a modified method of cysteamine derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Superheated steam was found to be effective in suppressing lipid oxidation in canned Zousoon as compared with Zousoon fried by the conventional method in a frying pan. The superheated steam-fried samples had relatively low thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and peroxide (POV) values before and after storage, whereas samples prepared by pan frying had relatively high TBARS and POV values before and after storage. Superheated steam-fried Zousoon had superior lipid stability to that prepared by the conventional pan-frying method.

  18. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C

    2014-08-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation.

  19. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Intake of fish oil, and in particular the long chained polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, has over the last centuries been associated with a wide range of health beneficial effects. Nevertheless, the intake of these healthy lipids is still lower than recommended in most Western populations....... An interest in omega-3 enriched foods has therefore developed. The challenge when the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are added to foods is their sensitivity towards heating, metal ions and oxygen, as these factors can lead to lipid oxidation. To avoid this, a possible approach is to incorporate...

  20. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation) as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in lipid and protein metabolism. The free radicals and oxidative stress may act as a common pathway to diabetes itself, as well as to its later complications. Objectives: The present study was planned to study the bio-markers of oxidative stress, such as protein carbonyl (CO) group, nitric oxide (NO.) in the form of total nitrite (NOx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid p...

  1. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  2. Lung inflammation does not affect the clearance kinetics of lipid nanocapsules following pulmonary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aateka; Woods, A; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Babin-Morgan, Anna; Jones, Marie-Christine; Jones, Stuart; Sunassee, Kavitha; Clark, Stephen; T M de Rosales, Rafael; Page, Clive; Spina, Domenico; Forbes, Ben; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2016-08-10

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are semi-rigid spherical capsules with a triglyceride core that present a promising formulation option for the pulmonary delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Whilst the biodistribution of LNCs of different size has been studied following intravenous administration, the fate of LNCs following pulmonary delivery has not been reported. We investigated quantitatively whether lung inflammation affects the clearance of 50nm lipid nanocapsules, or is exacerbated by their pulmonary administration. Studies were conducted in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation compared to healthy controls. Particle deposition and nanocapsule clearance kinetics were measured by single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging over 48 h. A significantly lower lung dose of (111)In-LNC50 was achieved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). When normalised to the delivered lung dose, the clearance kinetics of (111)In-LNC50 from the lungs fit a first order model with an elimination half-life of 10.5±0.9h (R(2)=0.995) and 10.6±0.3h (R(2)=1.000) for healthy and inflamed lungs respectively (n=3). In contrast, (111)In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), a small hydrophilic molecule, was cleared rapidly from the lungs with the majority of the dose absorbed within 20min of administration. Biodistribution to lungs, stomach-intestine, liver, trachea-throat and blood at the end of the imaging period was unaltered by lung inflammation. This study demonstrated that lung clearance and whole body distribution of lipid nanocapsules were unaffected by the presence of acute lung inflammation. PMID:27180635

  3. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in porcine meat during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIR LLOHA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been porcine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid assay show that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sample, while DPPH assay shows an increased level of antioxidant activity. Lipids oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of the samples of porcine meat treated with rosemary, oregano and tea polyphenolic extracts is lower than the control samples either in treated or not treated in 85°C samples. The samples which have been subjected to tea polyphenolic extract show a lower lipid oxidation degree and a higher antioxidant activity compared not only to control samples, but also to the samples treated with other polyphenolic extracts. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity result are greater in temperature treated samples compared to those in raw state.

  4. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in bovine meat during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Lloha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been bovine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid assay shows that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sample, while DPPH assay shows the level of antioxidant activity. Lipids oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of the samples of bovine meat treated with rosemary, oregano and tea polyphenolic extracts is lower than the control samples either in treated or not treated in 85°C samples. The samples which have been subjected to tea polyphenolic extract shows a lower lipid oxidation degree and a higher antioxidant activity compared not only to control samples but also to the samples treated with the other polyphenolic extracts. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity results greater in temperature treated samples compared to those in raw state.

  5. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Brzezinska, Zofia; Klapcinska, Barbara; Galbo, Henrik; Gorski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Pdiet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  7. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Evaluation of protein and lipid oxidative stress in the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Çavdaroğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress may change cellular function in multiple pathological conditions, including osteoporosis. We aimed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA levels, advanced oxidation protein pruducts (AOPP, levels end products of protein oxidation, thiol as known antioxidant, serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activities as known lipid antioxidant, induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS for evaluating oxidative stress in osteoporotic patients. Methods: 59 patients diagnosed with postmenopaual osteoporosis were included in the study and compared with 21 healthy controls. Serum AOPP, MDA, thiol levels and PON1 activity were measured according to an enzymatic spectrophotometric method. Results: The serum MDA, AOPP, and thiol levels was significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p<0.05. PON1 activity was found lower in the patients group than the control group. Conclusion: Increased ROS levels in osteoporotic patients may result in a pro-oxidation environment, which in turn could result in increased MDA, AOPP. As a result, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation may have a role in the pathogenesis of the osteoporotic patients.

  9. Environmentally Relevant Dose of Bisphenol A Does Not Affect Lipid Metabolism and Has No Synergetic or Antagonistic Effects on Genistein’s Beneficial Roles on Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Li, Hongyu; Zhao, Nana; Yang, Huiqin; Ye, Xiaolei; He, Dongliang; Yang, Hui; Jin, Xin; Tian, Chong; Ying, Chenjiang

    2016-01-01

    Both bisphenol A (BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemicals) and genistein (a phytoestrogen mainly derived from leguminosae) are able to bind to estrogen receptors, but they are considered to have different effects on metabolic syndrome, surprisingly. We here investigate the effects of an environmentally relevant dose of BPA alone and the combined effects with genistein on lipid metabolism in rats. Eight groups of adult male Wistar rats, fed with either standard chow diet or high-fat diet, were treated with BPA (50μg/kg/day), genistein (10mg/kg/day), and BPA plus genistein for 35 weeks, respectively. Metabolic parameters in serum and liver were determined; the hematoxylin/eosin and oil Red O staining were used to observe liver histologically; gene expressions related to hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed by Real-time PCR; protein expressions of PPARγ, PPARα and LC3 in liver were analyzed by western blotting. No difference of body weight gain, total energy intake, liver weight/body weight or body fat percentage in both STD- and HFD-fed sub-groups was observed after treatment with BPA, genistein, or BPA plus genistein (P>0.05). Genistein alleviated lipid metabolism disorder and decreased the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ (P0.05) or combined with genistein. Our findings suggest that long-term environmentally relevant dose of BPA did not affect lipid metabolism, and had no synergetic or antagonistic roles on genistein’s beneficial function on hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27171397

  10. Environmentally Relevant Dose of Bisphenol A Does Not Affect Lipid Metabolism and Has No Synergetic or Antagonistic Effects on Genistein's Beneficial Roles on Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Ding

    Full Text Available Both bisphenol A (BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemicals and genistein (a phytoestrogen mainly derived from leguminosae are able to bind to estrogen receptors, but they are considered to have different effects on metabolic syndrome, surprisingly. We here investigate the effects of an environmentally relevant dose of BPA alone and the combined effects with genistein on lipid metabolism in rats. Eight groups of adult male Wistar rats, fed with either standard chow diet or high-fat diet, were treated with BPA (50μg/kg/day, genistein (10mg/kg/day, and BPA plus genistein for 35 weeks, respectively. Metabolic parameters in serum and liver were determined; the hematoxylin/eosin and oil Red O staining were used to observe liver histologically; gene expressions related to hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed by Real-time PCR; protein expressions of PPARγ, PPARα and LC3 in liver were analyzed by western blotting. No difference of body weight gain, total energy intake, liver weight/body weight or body fat percentage in both STD- and HFD-fed sub-groups was observed after treatment with BPA, genistein, or BPA plus genistein (P>0.05. Genistein alleviated lipid metabolism disorder and decreased the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ (P0.05 or combined with genistein. Our findings suggest that long-term environmentally relevant dose of BPA did not affect lipid metabolism, and had no synergetic or antagonistic roles on genistein's beneficial function on hepatic lipid metabolism.

  11. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  12. The Inhibiting Effect of Bone Protein Hydrolysates on Lipid Oxidation in Pork Patties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Jingjing; DIAO Xinping; KONG Baohua; CHEN Hongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Bone protein hydrolysates were prepared by limited alcalase hydrolysis (5 h). The hydrolysates were formulated (0-3%,w/w) into pork patties to determine the antioxidant efficacy. 0.02% BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) was used as a positive control.Lipid oxidation in patties during storage was analyzed by measuring the TBARS and protein carbonyl content. The results showed that bone protein hydrolysates possessed significant antioxidant activity, and antioxidant activity increased with the increasing hydrolysates concentration. Sensory evaluation indicated that bone protein hydrolysates improved the color and decreased lipid oxidation flavor of pork patties. The 2% bone hydrolysates possessed the highest antioxidant activity and better sensory quality, and its effect was closed to 0.02% BHA.

  13. Comparison of Performance, Meat Lipids and Oxidative Status of Pigs from Commercial Breed and Organic Crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rearing systems for pig production, as concerns performance, meat lipid content, the fatty acid profile, histidinic antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, and TBARs. One hundred pigs were assigned to one of three treatments: intensively reared commercial hybrid pig (I, free range commercial hybrid pig (FR or organically reared crossbred pig (O, according to organic EU Regulations. I pigs showed the best productive performance, but FR and O increased: C20:1n9, Δ9-desaturase (C18 and thioesterase indices in meat. Lipid, dipeptides and CoQ10 appeared correlated to glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. We can conclude that all studied parameters were influenced by the rearing system used, and that differences were particularly evident in the O system, which produced leaner meat with higher oxidative stability. In this respect, the organic pig rearing system promotes and enhances biodiversity, environmental sustainability and food quality.

  14. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  15. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M;

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids.......92). Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels; however, our data did not support an effect of testosterone on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique.......-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Lean body mass (LBM) and total fat mass (TFM) were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and serum total testosterone was measured by tandem mass spectrometry...

  16. Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, Antonin; Vlkova, Veronika; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Veleminsky, Milos; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2016-08-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM) represents a class of heterogeneous substances that form one component of air pollution. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important action mechanism for PM on the human organism. Oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) may affect any cellular macromolecule. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage [8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)] and lipid peroxidation [15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP)] in the urine and blood from mothers and newborns from two localities with different levels of air pollution: Ceske Budejovice (CB), a locality with a clean air, and Karvina, a locality with high air pollution. The samples from normal deliveries (38-41 week+) of nonsmoking mothers and their newborns were collected in the summer and winter seasons. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were found in Karvina than in CB in the summer 2013 (mean±SD: 20.41±6.28 vs. 9.45±3.62μg/m(3), P<0.001), and in the winter 2014 (mean±SD: 53.67±19.76 vs. 27.96±12.34μg/m(3), P<0.001). We observed significant differences in 15-F2t-IsoP levels between the summer and winter seasons in Karvina for newborns (mean±SD: 64.24±26.75 vs. 104.26±38.18pg/ml plasma, respectively) (P<0.001). Levels of 8-oxodG differed only in the winter season between localities, they were significantly higher (P<0.001) in newborns from Karvina in comparison with CB (mean±SD: 5.70±2.94 vs. 4.23±1.51 nmol/mmol creatinine, respectively). The results of multivariate regression analysis in newborns from Karvina showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor for 8-oxodG excretion, PM2.5 and B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) concentrations to be a significant predictor for 15-F2t-IsoP levels. The results of multivariate regression analysis in mothers showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor of 8-oxodG levels.

  17. Nonbilayer lipids affect peripheral and integral membrane proteins via changes in the lateral pressure profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink-van der Laan, Els; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-11-01

    Nonbilayer lipids can be defined as cone-shaped lipids with a preference for nonbilayer structures with a negative curvature, such as the hexagonal phase. All membranes contain these lipids in large amounts. Yet, the lipids in biological membranes are organized in a bilayer. This leads to the question: what is the physiological role of nonbilayer lipids? Different models are discussed in this review, with a focus on the lateral pressure profile within the membrane. Based on this lateral pressure model, predictions can be made for the effect of nonbilayer lipids on peripheral and integral membrane proteins. Recent data on the catalytic domain of Leader Peptidase and the potassium channel KcsA are discussed in relation to these predictions and in relation to the different models on the function of nonbilayer lipids. The data suggest a general mechanism for the interaction between nonbilayer lipids and membrane proteins via the membrane lateral pressure. PMID:15519321

  18. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    M. Scafizzari; Vonghia, G; F. Minuti; R. Favia; M.A. Colonna; A. Caputi Jambrenghi; F. Giannico

    2010-01-01

    The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004). Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003) and rosemary (...

  19. Perturbation in kidney lipid metabolic profiles in diabetic rats with reference to alcoholic oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Shanmugam; Ramakrishna, C. H.; K Mallikarjuna; Reddy, K. Sathyavelu

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a major threat to global public health, and the number of diabetic patients is rapidly increasing worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications and alcoholic diseases. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of alcohol on lipid metabolic profiles in kidney tissue under streptozotocin induced diabetic condition. No study has been reported so far on the effect of alcohol on diabetic condition and also with ref...

  20. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl e...

  1. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  2. Fat(al) attraction: oxidized lipids act as “eat-me” signals

    OpenAIRE

    Fadeel, Bengt; Quinn, Peter; Xue, Ding; Kagan, Valerian

    2007-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cell corpses is a conserved and well-regulated process and is required to maintain tissue homeostasis within an organism. Evidence suggests that apoptotic cell engulfment by macrophages is dependent upon the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the plasma membrane of the dying cell. Furthermore, oxidation of PS and other phospholipids may serve to facilitate cell corpse removal. However, our understanding of how these various lipid “eat-me” signals are recog...

  3. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu; Vanitha Reddy Palvai; Asna Urooj

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cost...

  4. Theoretical Elucidation on Different Lipid-Oxidation Potentials of Aminoxyl Antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰芬; 张红雨

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the different lipid-oxidation potentials of aminoxyl antioxidants, a kind of combined density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to calculate C-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of a model linoleic acid (LH) and O-H BDEs of hydrogenated aminoxyls. The higher the O-H BDE is, the more potent the amlnoxyl to abstract the H-atom from LH and the stronger the LH-oxidation potential. Accordingly,the prooxidant activity differences of amlnoxyls were elucidated by the different O--H BDEs of hydrogenated amlnoxyls, which were further clarified in terms of distinct electronic effects of the substituents.

  5. Retardation of myoglobin and haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed bighead carp by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiansilakul, Yaowapa; Benjakul, Soottawat; Grunwald, Eric W; Richards, Mark P

    2012-09-15

    Antioxidative activities of phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid; 200 ppm) in washed mince (pH 6), with added myoglobin (Mb) and haemoglobin (Hb), from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), during 9 days of iced storage, were studied. Tannic acid exhibited the preventive effect on discolouration of washed mince containing Mb or Hb during storage (P<0.05). High peroxide value (PV) was found and large amount of, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal were formed in washed mince containing haem proteins, especially Hb. As determined by apo Streptococcal haem-associated protein, Hb had the lower haem affinity than Mb. Phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid and gallic acid, could lower lipid oxidation induced by Mb or Hb throughout storage (P<0.05). Prevention of haem release, as well as inhibition of lipid oxidation induced by haem proteins with selected phenolic compounds, should be an alternative means in lowering discolouration and lipid oxidation in fish muscle. PMID:23107692

  6. Dose dependent oxidation kinetics of lipids in fish during irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey). Lalahan Nuclear Research Inst.; Bicer, A.; Pamuk, V. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Kinetic aspects of the development of lipid oxidation in complex foods as fish in the course of irradiation were analyzed with respect to the associated formation of malonaldehyde (MA) through the reactions modified so as to be consistent with those in complex foods as fish. Air-packed anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples in polyethylene pouches were irradiated at the doses of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15,20 and 25 kGy at 20{sup o} C in a Cs-137 gamma irradiator of 1.806 kGy/h dose rate. Immediately after each irradiation, MA contents of irradiated and unirradiated samples were determined by thiobarbituric acid test. Based on the MA formation, a kinetic model to simulate the apparent oxidation of lipid in fish as a function of irradiation dose was derived from the rate equations consistent with modified reactions. Kinetic parameters and simulation were related to conditions of lipid oxidation, and associated rancidity state of fish with respect to the doses applied in different irradiation-preservation processes. Numerical values of kinetic parameters based on the MA formation were found as a threshold dose of 0.375 kGy, an apparent yield of 1.871 {mu}mol/kg kGy, and a maximum attainable concentration of 15.853 {mu}mol/kg which may be used for process control and dosimetry. (author).

  7. Macrophage Differentiation from Monocytes Is Influenced by the Lipid Oxidation Degree of Low Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available LDL plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and macrophage differentiation. However, there is no report regarding the oxidation degree of LDL and macrophage differentiation. Our study has shown that the differentiation into M1 or M2 macrophages is related to the lipid oxidation level of LDL. Based on the level of lipid peroxidation, LDL is classified into high-oxidized LDL (hi-oxLDL and low-oxidized LDL (low-oxLDL. The differentiation profiles of macrophages were determined by surface receptor expression and cytokine secretion profiles. Low-oxLDL induced CD86 expression and production of TNF-α and IL-12p40 in THP-1 cells, indicating an M1 macrophage phenotype. Hi-oxLDL induced mannose receptor expression and production of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which mostly match the phenotype of M2 macrophages. Further supporting evidence for an M2 polarization by hi-oxLDL was the induction of LOX-1 in THP-1 cells treated with hi-oxLDL but not with low-oxLDL. Similar results were obtained in primary human monocytes. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the oxidation degree of LDL influences the differentiation of monocytes into M1 or M2 macrophages and determines the inflammatory fate in early stages of atherosclerosis.

  8. Rosemary and oxygen scavenger in active packaging for prevention of high-pressure induced lipid oxidation in pork patties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolumar Garcia, Jose Tomas; Lapena Gomez, David; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt;

    2016-01-01

    Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid...

  9. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  10. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  11. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  12. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  13. Oxidative stress in severe dengue viral infection: association of thrombocytopenia with lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundravally, R; Sankar, P; Bobby, Z; Hoti, S L

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative stress in viral infections has been suggested. The study was carried out to assess the oxidative stress in the different clinical spectrums of dengue infection and to evaluate if thrombocytopenia is associated with lipid and protein oxidative injury. Twenty-seven dengue fever (DF), 32 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 21 dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases were studied at 3, 5 and 7 days of illness. Sixty-three healthy subjects were selected as controls. Serum protein carbonyls (PCOs), malendialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated in blood. Dengue infected individuals had significantly high levels of PCOs and MDA on the three days tested in comparison to controls. In DF cases, no significant changes in the levels of MDA and PCOs were found in course of time. However, among DHF and DSS, significant increase in MDA levels was found in the fifth and seventh day samples in comparison to their respective third day sample (P platelet count and plasma lipid peroxidation levels among DHF and DSS on all three days tested [day 3 (DHF r = -0.392; p = 0.012 and DSS r = -0.453; p = 0.004), day 5 (DHF r = -0.592; p viral infection. The level of oxidative stress was maximal in DSS followed by DHF and its severity was minimal in DF. The thrombocytopenia of dengue infection was associated with the extent of lipid peroxidation. Future studies might be carried out to find the role of oxidative damage in the ethiopathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and vascular leakage in dengue infection.

  14. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin,; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw...

  15. Cutting Edge: Distinct Glycolytic and Lipid Oxidative Metabolic Programs Are Essential for Effector and Regulatory CD4+ T Cell Subsets

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan D Michalek; Gerriets, Valerie A.; Jacobs, Sarah R.; Macintyre, Andrew N.; MacIver, Nancie J.; Mason, Emily F.; Sullivan, Sarah A.; Nichols, Amanda G.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes can differentiate into effector T cell (Teff) or inducible regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets with specific immunological roles. We show that Teff and Treg require distinct metabolic programs to support these functions. Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells expressed high surface levels of the glucose transporter Glut1 and were highly glycolytic. Treg, in contrast, expressed low levels of Glut1 and had high lipid oxidation rates. Consistent with glycolysis and lipid oxidation p...

  16. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  17. Consumption pattern of lipids and the factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Pasdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing appropriate edible oils and right consumption amounts play an important role in the promotion of public health and prevention of chronic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate the consumption level of various edible oils and factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 families selected from six different areas using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face to face interview using a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about consumption of different edible oils. Descriptive statistics and regression and chi-square tests were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean of edible oil consumption was 69.75±3.8 g/day per capita, more than half of which (34.7±2.2 g/day was supplied by hydrogenated fat. 31.4% of total daily energy intake was supplied by lipids from which 15.6% was supplied by hydrogenated fat, that is higher than the recommended level, maximum 10% (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and rising consumption of oils instead of fats (r=0.2, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that the daily consumption of hydrogenated fat was higher than half of the lipids consumed by families. Given the complications resulting from saturated fat consumption, decreasing the production of hydrogenated fat and increasing the nutritional knowledge of families through public media and educational programs are highly recommended.

  18. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  19. Carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, are affected by chromic oxide inclusion in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, S Y; Liang, H S

    1995-04-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. Two levels of chromic oxide (0.5 and 2%) were each incorporated into diets containing glucose or starch. Chromic oxide was added at 0 or 8 wk. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish weighing 1.11 +/- 0.05 g. Fish fed the starch diet had greater (P protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition and digestibility of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and dry matter than fish fed the glucose diet irrespective of the time and level of chromic oxide supplementation. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein deposition than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide. The ingredient digestibility estimated using 0.5% chromic oxide as the marker was greater than that estimated with 2% chromic oxide. Higher phosphofructokinase and lower glucose-6-phosphatase activity was found in fish fed the starch diet than in fish fed the glucose diet regardless of the time and level of chromic oxide inclusion. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher phosphofructokinase activity and lower tissue chromium concentration than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide irrespective of chromic oxide inclusion time. These data suggest that the level of chromic oxide in the diet alters glucose utilization by tilapia and affects nutrient digestibility by tilapia. The time of chromic oxide inclusion had no effect on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility.

  20. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling.

  1. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling. PMID:26310971

  2. Oxidized LDL lipids increase β-amyloid production by SH-SY5Y cells through glutathione depletion and lipid raft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Irundika H K; Mistry, Jayna; Fell, Shaun; Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M; Polidori, Maria C; Lip, Gregory Y H; Griffiths, Helen R

    2014-10-01

    Elevated total cholesterol in midlife has been associated with increased risk of dementia in later life. We have previously shown that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is more oxidized in the plasma of dementia patients, although total cholesterol levels are not different from those of age-matched controls. β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which accumulates in Alzheimer disease (AD), arises from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase-1 (BACE1). BACE1 activity is regulated by membrane lipids and raft formation. Given the evidence for altered lipid metabolism in AD, we have investigated a mechanism for enhanced Aβ production by SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to oxidized LDL (oxLDL). The viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 4μg oxLDL and 25µM 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) was decreased significantly. Lipids, but not proteins, extracted from oxLDL were more cytotoxic than oxLDL. In parallel, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione was decreased at sublethal concentrations of lipids extracted from native and oxLDL. GSH loss was associated with an increase in acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity and lipid raft formation, which could be inhibited by the ASMase inhibitor desipramine. 27OH-C and total lipids from LDL and oxLDL independently increased Aβ production by SH-SY5Y cells, and Aβ accumulation could be inhibited by desipramine and by N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest a mechanism whereby oxLDL lipids and 27OH-C can drive Aβ production by GSH depletion, ASMase-driven membrane remodeling, and BACE1 activation in neuronal cells.

  3. The effect of natural antioxidants on haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Sigrun M; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Holmfridur; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y

    2013-11-15

    Heating and changes in pH often practised during fish protein hydrolysis can cause lipid oxidation. The effect of natural antioxidants towards haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod proteins was investigated. Different variants of a washed cod model system, containing different combinations of haemoglobin and natural antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid and Fuscus vesiculosus extract), were hydrolysed using Protease P "Amano" 6 at pH 8 and 36°C to achieve 20% degree of hydrolysis. Lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analysed periodically during the hydrolysis process. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the final products was investigated. Results indicate that oxidation can develop rapidly during hydrolysis and antioxidant strategies are preferable to produce good quality products. Oxidation products did not have an impact on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. The natural antioxidants inhibited oxidation during hydrolysis and contributed to the antioxidant activity of the final product. PMID:23790867

  4. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  5. Identifying initial molecular targets of PDT: protein and lipid oxidation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Kim, Junhwan; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Xue, Liang-yan; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Anderson, Vernon E.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) generates singlet oxygen (1O2) which oxidizes biomolecules in the immediate vicinity of its formation. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 localizes to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and the primary targets of Pc 4-PDT are expected to be lipids and proteins of those membranes. The initial damage then causes apoptosis in cancer cells via the release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) from mitochondria into the cytosol, followed by the activation of caspases. That damage also triggers the induction of autophagy, an attempt by the cells to eliminate damaged organelles, or when damage is too extensive, to promote cell death. Cyt-c is bound to the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial inner membrane through association with cardiolipin (CL), a phospholipid containing four unsaturated fatty acids and thus easily oxidized by 1O2 or by other oxidizing agents. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidation of CL loosens its association with Cyt-c, and that the peroxidase activity of Cyt-c can oxidize CL. In earlier studies of Cyt-c in homogeneous medium by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS, we showed that 1O2 generated by Pc 4-PDT oxidized histidine, methionine, tryptophan, and unexpectedly phenylalanine but not tyrosine. Most of the oxidation products were known to be formed by other oxidizing agents, such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical anion, and peroxynitrite. However, two products of histidine were unique to 1O2 and may be useful for reporting the action of 1O2 in cells and tissues. These products, as well as CL oxidation products, have now been identified in liposomes and mitochondria after Pc 4-PDT. In mitochondria, the PDT dose-dependent oxidations can be related to specific changes in mitochondrial function, Bcl-2 photodamage, and Cyt-c release. Thus, the role of PDT-generated 1O2 in oxidizing Cyt-c and CL and the interplay between protein and lipid targets may be highly relevant to understanding one mechanism for cell killing by PDT.

  6. Oxidative Damage to DNA and Lipids: Correlation with Protein Glycation in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Goodarzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetic hyperglycemia is associated with increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. ROS reacts with DNA results in products such as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine that excrete in urine due to DNA repair processes. This study aims to evaluate correlation between oxidative damage of DNA and protein glycation in patients with Type 1 diabetes. We measured urinary 8-OHdG level in diabetic and control group and evaluated its correlation to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and glycated serum protein (GSP levels. Furthermore plasma malondialdehyde (MDA level was measured as an important indicator of lipid peroxidation in diabetes.Materials & Methods: We studied 32 patients with diabetes mellitus Type 1 and compared them with 48 sex and age-matched non-diabetic controls. GSP and MDA measurement were made by colorimetric assay. Hemoglobin A1c measured by ion-exchange chromatography method and urinary 8-OHdG measurement was made by competitive in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: In the present study urinary 8-OHdG, blood HbA1c, plasma MDA and GSP levels were significantly higher in diabetics comparing to the control subjects (P<0.05. Furthermore, we found significant correlation between urinary 8-OHdG and HbA1c (P<0.05 in diabetic group. In addition, fasting blood sugar showed significant correlation with GSP and MDA (P<0.05. However the correlation of MDA with HbA1c was not significant in diabetic patients.Conclusion: This case-control study in young diabetic patients showed that increased blood glucose and related metabolic disorders result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Furthermore oxidative damage to DNA correlated to glycemic control, while there was no significant correlation between lipid peroxidation and the level of HbA1c.

  7. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P < 0.01). However, within each week of frozen storage, all treatments were equally discolored in both studies. Treatment did not affect the sensory characteristics or textural properties of fresh sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in IC compared to PC by approximately 0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat, but there were no differences within each storage week. Increasing frozen storage time increased lipid oxidation an off-flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage. PMID:27247765

  8. Control of lipid oxidation during exercise: role of energy state and mitochondrial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, K; Harris, R C

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable progress during recent years our understanding of how lipid oxidation (LOx) is controlled during exercise remains incomplete. This review focuses on the role of mitochondria and energy state in the control of LOx. LOx increases in parallel with increased energy demand up...... and CHO oxidation and relative fuel utilization is mainly controlled by substrate availability and the capacity of the metabolic pathways. In the high-intensity domain (>60%VO(2max)) there is a pronounced decrease in energy state, which will stimulate glycolysis in excess of the substrate requirements...... of the oxidative processes. This will lead to acidosis, reduced levels of free Coenzyme A (CoASH) and reduced levels of free carnitine. Acidosis and reduced carnitine may limit the carnitine-mediated transfer of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into mitochondria and may thus explain the observed reduction in LOx...

  9. Oxidative stability of the lipid fraction in cookies – the EPR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subjected to the storage in elevated temperature. It was shown that thyme extract can be used as a natural antioxidant source for the preparation of bakery products, while the rosemary extract should be used with care in fat-rich products exposed to high temperatures.

  10. The influence of emulsifier type on lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched light mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2010-01-01

    analysis. Surprisingly, our hypothesis that substitution of egg yolk with a less iron-containing emulsifier (milk protein-based emulsifier) could increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaises was not confirmed. These findings suggest that the initial quality of the emulsifiers was more......The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched light mayonnaise (40% oil) and the influence of two different emulsifiers, egg yolk and milk protein-based emulsifier, were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of different fish oil concentrations (4, 10 and 14%) and storage temperatures (2 and 20 degrees C......) were investigated. As expected, the results showed that lipid oxidation increased with storage temperature, and at 20 degrees C with increasing fish oil concentrations. On the basis of the findings in this study, a storage temperature of 20 degrees C for 4 months cannot be recommended for light...

  11. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  12. Plasma membrane lipid-protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eZauber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipid-protein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status.

  13. Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    decreased rates (p=0.014). These responses may be explained by improved soil aggregate stability in the first case, and reduced aggregate stability in the latter case. No effects of warming, elevated precipitation, elevated N deposition, or multifactor interactions were found. Among MCCE soils, similarly, no effects of elevated or reduced precipitation were found. While warming did not affect low elevation ecosystems, it did significantly decrease rates in the highest elevation mixed conifer forest (p=0.004). This suggests a vulnerability of cold-adapted CH4 oxidizing bacteria to elevated temperature. However, bacterial communities in all sampled ecosystems appear to be resistant to drier conditions and unaffected by wetter conditions. If biological oxidation is responsible for the current stability in atmospheric CH4 concentrations, then the improved function of this global CH4 sink is likely driven by indirect plant effects under elevated atmospheric CO2. Improved function, however, may be absent or reversed in future ecosystems that experience increased wildfire frequency and in high altitude and latitude ecosystems that experience rapid warming.

  14. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  15. Relationship of oxidized low density lipoprotein with lipid profile and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults: a translational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL plays important roles in the pro-inflammatory and atherosclerotic processes, the relationships with metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers have been only scarcely investigated in young adult people. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess plasma ox-LDL concentrations and the potential association with oxidative stress markers as well as with anthropometric and metabolic features in healthy young adults. Methods This study enrolled 160 healthy subjects (92 women/68 men; 23 ± 4 y; 22.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, lifestyle features, biochemical data, and oxidative stress markers were assessed with validated tools. Selenium, copper, and zinc nail concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-c and uric acid concentrations, TC-to-HDL-c ratio, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were positive predictors of ox-LDL concentrations, while nail selenium level (NSL was a negative predictor, independently of gender, age, smoking status, physical activity. Those individuals included in the highest tertile of GPx activity (≥611 nmol/[mL/min] and of NSL (≥430 ng/g of nail had higher and lower ox-LDL concentrations, respectively, independently of the same covariates plus truncal fat or body mass index, and total cholesterol or LDL-c concentrations. Conclusions Ox-LDL concentrations were significantly associated with lipid biomarkers, GPx activity, uric acid concentration, and NSL, independently of different assayed covariates, in young healthy adults. These findings jointly suggest the early and complex relationship between lipid profile and redox status balance.

  16. Lipid oxidation in minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, G; Grabež, V; Bjelanovic, M; Slinde, E; Olsen, K; Langsrud, O; Phung, V T; Haug, A; Oostindjer, M; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-11-15

    Krebs cycle substrates (KCS) can stabilise the colour of packaged meat by oxygen reduction. This study tested whether this reduction releases reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid oxidation in minced meat under two different storage conditions. KCS combinations of succinate and glutamate increased peroxide forming potential (PFP, 1.18-1.32 mmol peroxides/kg mince) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.30-0.38 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/kg mince) under low oxygen storage conditions. Both succinate and glutamate were metabolised. Moreover, under high oxygen (75%) storage conditions, KCS combinations of glutamate, citrate and malate increased PFP (from 1.22 to 1.29 mmol peroxides/kg) and TBARS (from 0.37 to 0.40 mg MDA equivalents/kg mince). Only glutamate was metabolised. The KCS combinations that were added to stabilise colour were metabolised during storage, and acted as pro-oxidants that promoted lipid oxidation in both high and low oxygen conditions.

  17. Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on Membrane Lipids and Oxidative Injury of Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ou; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S.; Han, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0–4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane fluidity of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimuriumi), possibly due to the alterations of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated gene expressions (down-regulation of cfa and fabA gene expressions and the up-regulation of fabD gene expression), which, in turn, modified the composition of membrane lipid (decrease in the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids). In addition, oxidative injury induced by PEF treatment was associated with an increase in the content of malondialdehyde. The up-regulation of cytochrome bo oxidase gene expressions (cyoA, cyoB, and cyoC) indicated that membrane damage was induced by PEF treatment, which was related to the repairing mechanism of alleviating the oxidative injury caused by PEF treatment. Based on these results, we achieved better understanding of microbial injury induced by PEF, suggesting that micro-organisms tend to decrease membrane fluidity in response to PEF treatment and, thus, a greater membrane fluidity might improve the efficiency of PEF treatment to inactivate micro-organisms. PMID:27556460

  18. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, I.; Haugsgjerd, B.O.;

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40°C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil...... firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters......, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Effect of different antioxidants on lipid oxidation of irradiated cooked streaky pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of antioxidants on lipid oxidation of vacuum packaged irradiated cooked streaky pork were studied. The cooked streaky pork were added with 0.02% TeaPolyphenols (TP), rosemary, Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin E separately, then were irradiated with 6 kGy, and stored at 4 degree C. The results showed that antioxidants can reduce the value of TBA, POV value of irradiated cooked streaky pork, and the effects of TBHQ and TP were better, than other antiatidins. (authors)

  20. Monitoring of cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer membrane using streptolysin O as a sensing and signal transduction element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Atsushi; Ikeya, Kana; Aoyagi, Miki; Takatsuji, Ryutaro; Yanagida, Akio; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Sugawara, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO), which recognizes sterols and forms nanopores in lipid membranes, is proposed as a sensing element for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer. The structural requirements of eight sterols for forming nanopores by SLO confirmed that a free 3-OH group in the β-configuration of sterols is required for recognition by SLO in a lipid bilayer. The extent of nanopore formation by SLO in lipid bilayers increased in the order of cholestanoloxidation of cholesterol in a lipid bilayer. The potential of the SLO nanopore-based method for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer by other oxidative enzymes is also discussed.

  1. Monitoring of cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer membrane using streptolysin O as a sensing and signal transduction element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Atsushi; Ikeya, Kana; Aoyagi, Miki; Takatsuji, Ryutaro; Yanagida, Akio; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Sugawara, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO), which recognizes sterols and forms nanopores in lipid membranes, is proposed as a sensing element for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer. The structural requirements of eight sterols for forming nanopores by SLO confirmed that a free 3-OH group in the β-configuration of sterols is required for recognition by SLO in a lipid bilayer. The extent of nanopore formation by SLO in lipid bilayers increased in the order of cholestanolcholesterolcholesterol and in a sterol concentration-dependent manner. The immobilization of liposomes consisting of PC, cholesterol and 4-cholesten-3-one exhibited a linear relationship between calcein permeability and the molar ratio of cholesterol and 4-cholesten-3-one. The SLO-based method was successfully applied for monitoring of cholesterol oxidase-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a lipid bilayer. The potential of the SLO nanopore-based method for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer by other oxidative enzymes is also discussed. PMID:27362457

  2. Saikosaponin a inhibits lipopolysaccharide-oxidative stress and inflammation in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells via preventing TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunhe; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-12-01

    Saikosaponin a (SSa), the major triterpenoid saponin derivatives from Radix bupleuri (RB), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SSa on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of SSa. The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 were detected by ELISA. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS, NF-κB and IκB protein were determined by Western blotting. To investigate the protective mechanisms of SSa, TLR4 expression was detected by Western blotting and membrane lipid rafts were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The results showed that SSa dose-dependently inhibited the production of ROS, TNF-α, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. Western blot analysis showed that SSa suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation. SSa did not affect the expression of TLR4 induced by LPS. However, translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4 induce by LPS was inhibited by SSa. Furthermore, SSa disrupted the formation of lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol. Moreover, SSa activated LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway, which could induce cholesterol efflux from lipid rafts. Knockdown of LXRα abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of SSa. In conclusion, the effects of SSa is associated with activating LXRα-ABCA1 signaling pathway which results in disrupting lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and reducing translocation of TLR4 to lipid rafts and oligomerization of TLR4, thereby attenuating LPS mediated oxidative and inflammatory responses.

  3. Lipid hydroperoxide determination in dark chicken meat through a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, A; Codony, R; Rafecas, M; Barroeta, A C; Guardiola, F

    2000-09-01

    A ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method was adapted to measure lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) in raw and cooked dark chicken meat. Its applicability was evaluated using samples with different alpha-tocopherol contents or unsaturation degrees (both modulated by dietary supplementation). The FOX assay can work as an induced method because there is some oxidation of the sample extract during the incubation of the reaction. Consequently, it allows assessment of sample susceptibility to oxidation (response after some hours of incubation) and comparison of samples that are highly oxidized or readily susceptible to oxidation through their absorbance after 30 min of incubation. It is highly specific for LHP and showed a linear relationship between volume of meat extract and absorbance. However, the most suitable volume of extract and incubation time must be studied for each kind of sample. The use of butylated hydroxytoluene during this incubation is strongly discouraged because it attenuated the reaction by radical stabilization, thus diminishing Fe(III) formation and leading to a lower response. PMID:10995327

  4. Oxidized lipids and lipid-mediators are involved in cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiac and vascular injuries are unknown. We hypothesized that these injuries involve alterations in'aortic membrane lipids and lipid-mediators. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wk old), nose-only to air, ozone (03; 0.5 ppm),...

  5. Lipid emulsions differentially affect LPS-induced acute monocytes inflammation: in vitro effects on membrane remodeling and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Delabranche, Xavier; Klymchenko, Andrey; Drai, Jocelyne; Blond, Emilie; Zobairi, Fatiha; Mely, Yves; Hasselmann, Michel; Toti, Florence; Meziani, Ferhat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute monocyte inflammation in vitro. An 18 h long LPS induced human monocyte leukemia cell stimulation was performed and the cell-growth medium was supplemented with three different industrial lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®), containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT--soybean oil); Medialipid(®), containing LCT (soybean oil) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT--coconut oil); and SMOFlipid(®), containing LCT, MCT, omega-9 and -3 (soybean, coconut, olive and fish oils). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry respectively. Monocyte composition and membrane remodeling were studied using gas chromatography and NR12S staining. Microparticles released in supernatant were measured by prothrombinase assay. After LPS challenge, both cellular necrosis and apoptosis were increased (threefold and twofold respectively) and microparticle release was enhanced (sevenfold) after supplementation with Medialipid(®) compared to Intralipid(®), SMOFlipid(®) and monocytes in the standard medium. The monocytes differentially incorporated fatty acids after lipid emulsion challenge. Finally, lipid-treated cells displayed microparticles characterized by disrupted membrane lipid order, reflecting lipid remodeling of the parental cell plasma membrane. Our data suggest that lipid emulsions differentially alter cell viability, monocyte composition and thereby microparticle release. While MCT have deleterious effects, we have shown that parenteral nutrition emulsion containing LCT or LCT and MCT associated to n-3 and n-9 fatty acids have no effect on endotoxin-induced cell death and inflammation. PMID:25038627

  6. Response of oxidative stress and isoflavone treatment on superoxide dismutase enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver

    OpenAIRE

    Suarsana IN; Wresdiyati T; Suprayogi A

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is defined as over-production of free radicals which lead to cells damage, pathological condition and cell death. The objective of this study was to analyze respond of oxidative stress and isoflavone treatment on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rat liver. A total of fifteen male Spraque Dawley rats were used in this study. They were sub-divided into three groups; (1) a negative control group, (2) a stress oxidative group, and (3) treatme...

  7. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  8. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  9. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  10. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  11. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as protein carbonyl, NOx (total nitrites and MDA are significantly increased in type 2 DM compared to healthy subjects. There is increased protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and increased conversion of NO. to its end products like nitrite and nitrates in type 2 DM. This suggests that there is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress in type 2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects.

  12. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  13. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerin, Carles; Goldfine, Allison B; Boes, Tanner;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. METHODS: To identify pathways related t...... catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D....... methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate...... fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA...

  14. Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Joung; Jung, Ha Na; Kim, Ki Nam; Kwak, Ho-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and athero...

  15. Study on Targeting and in vitro Anti-oxidation of Baicalin Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Yang; YU Lian; HU Yan-qiu; MA Li-na; CAO Yue-sheng; ZHANG Lei; MIYAMURA Mitsuhiko; YOKOTA Junko; YOSHIOKA Saburo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare liver-targeted baicalin solid lipid nanoparticles(BSLNs)and to study their in vitro anti-oxidative activity.Methods BSLNs were prepared by emulsification ultrasonic dispersion method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and laser particle size distribution;The tissue in vivo distribution was detected by pharmacokinetics;In vitro anti-superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and reduction capacity of BSLNs were determined;The ability of removing hydroxyl radical was determined by phenanthroline-Fe2+oxidation.Results The best prescription was baicalin-soybean lecithin-glyeeryl monostearate-poloxamer 188(1:5:15:30);The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 84.7% and 5.65%,respectively,mean size of particles was(68.6±8)nm,Zeta potential was-22.13 mV;The in vitro anti-oxidant results showed that BSLNs had a significant inhibitory effect on SOD and a strong reducing capacity as well as a removing hydroxide radical ability.The targeting rate of BSLNs was 6.931 for liver.Conclusion The results demonstrate that BSLNs could enhance the liver targeting ability and in vitro anti-oxidative activity significantly.

  16. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL. PMID:26753985

  17. The effect of iodine salts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of protein in stored processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hęś, Marzanna; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of iodine salts (KI or KIO(3)) on lipid oxidation as well as changes in the availability of lysine and methionine and protein digestibility in frozen-stored processed meats. Three types of iodine salt carriers were used: table salt, wheat fiber and soy protein isolate. The results showed no catalytic effect of iodine salts on lipid oxidation in stored processed meats. The application of a protein isolate and wheat fiber resulted in the inhibition of lipid oxidation in meatballs. During storage of meat products the contents of available lysine and methionine as well as protein digestibility were decreased. The utilization of wheat fiber as an iodine salt carrier had a significant effect on the reduction of lysine losses. No protective properties were found for the wheat fiber or soy protein isolate towards methionine.

  18. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised.

  19. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. PMID:24295686

  20. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  1. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Solak Tekin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  3. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    by sampling after 4, 8, 13, 18, and 22 months. The carotenoid content in the muscle was found to be approximately 9-10 mg/kg of fish for both carotenoids. Primary oxidation lipid products (peroxides) as well as secondary oxidation products (volatiles) were measured. In addition, the level of protein carbonyl......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4...... that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated...

  4. Effects of Loud Noise on Oxidation and Lipid peroxidation Variations of Liver Tissue of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Ramazan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world, noise is one of the major physical pollutants. The exact mechanism leading to tissue damage in loud noise is not clear. There are increasing evidences that show damage to cochlear tissue by noise is linked to cell injury induced by free radical species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between change in liver tissue glutathione (anti- oxidant and malondialdehyde (one metabolite of lipid oxidation levels that occur in rabbits which were exposed to continuous loud noise.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 12 white Newzeland male rabbits in Tarbiat Modarres University in 2004. The rabbits were assigned to the following two groups: control, and exposed to continuous loud noise for 96 hours (8 h/day for 12 days, SPL=110dBA and 250Hz to 20 KHz. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH in liver tissue samples were measured in rabbits after exposure to noise. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance, Ellman's reagent and spectrophotometry techniques were used for this measurement. The data were statically analyzed by SPSS software and 2 groups were compared by t-test. Differences at the level of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Comparison of the biochemical parameters of GSH and MDA measured in treated group with control indicated that antioxidant and lipid peroxidants parameters were suppressed in treated group compared to control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Possible similarities between rabbit and human biological system indicate the possible role of noise in causation of oxidative stress in context with liver tissue impairm

  5. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooiveld Guido JEJ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  6. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), serum lipoprotein oxidation lag time, plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. ENL concentrations in serum (P

  7. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  8. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial......) LCPUFA content (P LDL cholesterol (P = 0...

  9. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were detected as either protonated or cationated species. Clean MS/MS spectra for each lipid were also successfully obtained. Pre-MS surface cleaning of the target plates with UV-ozone treatment successfully removed organic contaminants that would interfere with the mass spectra especially in the low molecular weight region. Preliminary application of the presented target plate to the detection of endogenous lipids in latent fingerprints showed promising results and for potential use in the visualization and chemical composition determination of latent fingerprints by nanoparticle assistance. PMID:24860715

  10. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations. PMID:25985711

  11. Oxidative stability of structured lipid-based infant formula emulsion: effect of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-07-01

    The effect of permitted antioxidants, including α-tocopherol, β-carotene, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and their combinations, on the lipid oxidation of structured lipid (SL)-based infant formula (IF) was evaluated. The 3.5% oil-in-water IF emulsion was formulated with a human milk fat analogue enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and stearidonic acid, and the antioxidants were added at 0.005% and 0.02% of the oil. The peroxide value, anisidine value, and hexanal concentration of emulsion samples were measured over a 28-day period. The results showed that whether a compound exhibited antioxidant behavior depended on its mechanism of action, polarity, concentration, and environmental conditions. The most effective antioxidant was ascorbyl palmitate at 0.005%, and a synergistic antioxidant effect was found between α-tocopherol and β-carotene. A high correlation was observed between anisidine value and hexanal content. Our findings have important implications for the successful incorporation of SL into IF products for infant nutrition and health. PMID:25704676

  12. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  13. Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide Metabolites, and Their Ratio in a Group of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Gregorio Caimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate expressed as NOx, and TBARS/NOx ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS and nondiabetic (NDMS and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NOx levels and a decrease in TBARS/NOx ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NOx was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NOx ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.

  14. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and antioxidant vitamins in plasma of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Selami; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Eriş, Sevilay; Yalman, Kadir; Yilmaz, Nigar; Yener, Mahmut

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia is not clearly understood. In recent years, a few studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation (LP), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with fibromyalgia and controls. The study was performed on the blood plasma of 30 female patients and 30 age-matched controls. After a fast of 12 h, blood samples were taken, and plasma samples were obtained for measurement of vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene concentrations and levels of LP and NO. Concentrations of vitamins A (p fibromyalgia than in controls, and LP levels were significantly (p vitamin C and beta-carotene and levels of NO did not change significantly. These results provide some evidence for a potential role of LP and fat-soluble antioxidants in the patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:19319826

  15. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

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    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  16. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile related to broiler breast meat color abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of lipid oxidation on broiler breast meat (Pectoralis major m color abnormalities. There were 27.0 % more lipid oxidation in PSE in relation to normal meat and 41.0 % more in relation to DFD-like meat (pA influência da oxidação lipídica no surgimento das anormalidades das cores do filé do peito de frango (Pectoralis major foi avaliado. A oxidação lipídica foi 27 % maior em carnes PSE em relação ao normal e 41,0% em relação ao análogo DFD (p< 0.05. O perfil dos ácidos graxos foi também significantemente diferente desde que a fração do ácido araquidônico (AA aumentou 38,6% e 70,5% em carnes PSE em comparação às carnes normais e análogas ao DFD, respectivamente. A razão PUFA/SFA se alterou nos três tipos de carne, 0,736, 0,713 e 0,694 para carnes PSE, normal e análogo ao DFD, respectivamente, refletindo a maior produção dos ácidos graxos polinsaturados em amostras PSE. Esses resultados corroboram os nossos anteriores, indicando que a atividade da enzima fosfolipase A2 tem um papel relevante no desenvolvimento da síndrome do PSE em uma cascata de reações bioquímicas promovendo a formação dos compostos radicais livres do AA que finalmente compromete os sistemas das membranas celulares do músculo.

  17. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Russell; Sylvia Stephen; Charles Bestwick; Fiona Campbell; Garry Duthie

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidant...

  18. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  19. Archaeal lipids and anaerobic oxidation of methane : A comparative study of the euxinic Black Sea and Cariaco Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea and the Cariaco Basin are both large, euxinic marine basins in which methane concentrations are high and where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important part of the carbon cycle. AOM can be recognized by lipid biomarkers that are specific to methanotrophic archaea involved a

  20. Effect of the dietary supplementation with vitamin E on colour stability and lipid oxidation in packaged, minced pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Eikelenboom, G.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of vitamin E (200 IU kg-1 feed) in the diet of pigs on colour stability and lipid oxidation in minced pork was studied. Control and enriched diets were provided for the last 12 weeks before slaughter. Half of the samples of minced shoulder meat from control and suppleme

  1. Dietary hydrogenated soybean oil affects lipid and vitamin E metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroglu, Mustafa; Brandsch, Corinna

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acids containing stearic acid, which are found in hydrogenated fat, may have a detrimental effect on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of plasma lipoproteins, and on the absorption of fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. The aim of our study was to examine the tissue concentration of lipids and vitamins A and E after feeding a hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) diet to rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, fed on coconut oil (control) and HSO, respectively in amounts corresponding to 15% of the total feed. Plasma total cholesterol, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of the TAG and cholesterol in feces were higher in the HSO than in the control group. TAG values in plasma and liver, and HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma were lower in the HSO than in the control group. The same was true for phospholipids in plasma and for saturated fatty acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in the liver and vitamin E in plasma, LDL and adipose tissue. The results of this study provide new evidence concerning the effect of dietary hydrogenated fat on lipid, TAG and vitamin E status, which are important for maintenance of good health. Consumption of dietary HSO may be associated with cardiovascular disease.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Fff of... - Nitrogen Oxides Requirements for Affected Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrogen Oxides Requirements for... Before September 20, 1994 Pt. 62, Subpt. FFF, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart FFF of Part 62—Nitrogen Oxides Requirements for Affected Facilities Municipal waste combustor technology Nitrogen oxides emission limit...

  3. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p

  4. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

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    Rosa Castellano

    Full Text Available Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL or a deficient methionine supply (MD during 10 days (n=6 per group. At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently

  5. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  6. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  7. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p < 0.05) between coated and uncoated samples were observed. Gum cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %). PMID:25829621

  8. Role of Nrf2 in preventing ethanol-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai Connie [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress and lipid accumulation play important roles in alcohol-induced liver injury. Previous reports showed that, in livers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-activated mice, genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced, whereas genes involved in lipid biosynthesis are suppressed. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in ethanol-induced hepatic alterations, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation, were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg, po). Blood and liver samples were collected 6 h thereafter. Ethanol increased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in serum of Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. After ethanol administration, mitochondrial glutathione concentrations decreased markedly in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicates that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. Ethanol increased serum triglycerides and hepatic free fatty acids in Nrf2-null mice, and these increases were blunted in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In addition, the basal mRNA and nuclear protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(Srebp-1) were decreased with graded Nrf2 activation. Ethanol further induced Srebp-1 mRNA in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation prevented alcohol-induced oxidative stress and accumulation of free fatty acids in liver by increasing genes involved in antioxidant defense and decreasing genes involved in lipogenesis. -- Highlights: ► Ethanol depleted mitochondrial GSH in Nrf2-null mice but not in Keap1-KD mice. ► Ethanol increased ROS in hepatocytes isolated from Nrf2-null and wild

  9. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease.

  10. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  11. Eff ects of natural antioxidants on colour stability, lipid oxidation and metmyoglobin reducing activity in raw beef patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Minced meats undergo oxidative changes and develop rancidity more quickly than intact muscle since grinding exposes more of the muscle surface to air and microbial contamination. Due to concerns about toxicological safety of synthetic antioxidants, recent studies have put more focus on natural antioxidant compounds derived from food components. Material and methods. The effects of four natural antioxidants (vitamin E, carnosine, grape seed extract and tea catechins on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in raw beef patties during refrigerated (4°C storage were investigated and the results were compared with butylated hydroxyanisole treatment patties. The correlation of lipid oxidation, colour and metmyoglobin reducing activity of beef patties were also studied. Results. Samples treated with carnosine had the highest redness values on the eighth day. Tea catechins, vitamin E and grape seed extract showed higher protective effect against lipid oxidation than carnosine. Metmyoglobin reducing activity increased greatly in all samples during the storage. Signifi cant correlation between redness value and lipid oxidation was demonstrated, while a weak correlation between metmyoglobin reducing activity and any other parameters was shown.

  12. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Russell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05 improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato. Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01. However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01 contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  13. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety. PMID:26987021

  14. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Mohamedou, M M; Zouirech, K; El Messal, M; El Kebbaj, M S; Chraibi, A; Adlouni, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B), CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P = 0.001), total chol by 9.13%, (P = 0.01), and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P = 0.02). However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P = 0.01 and 9.40%,  P = 0.045, resp.). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P = 0.038) in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%, methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%, and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55% in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r=0.816 and low-density lipoprotein (r=0.948 and Costus speciosus in brain (r=0.977, polyphenols, and r=0.949, flavonoids correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates.

  17. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  18. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation. PMID:27283678

  19. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  20. The application of natural antioxidants via brine injection protects Iberian cooked hams against lipid and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    In response to the increasing consumers' mistrust in synthetic additives, the meat industry is focused on searching sources of natural antioxidants. Two different sources of natural antioxidants i) a mixture of garlic, cinnamon, cloves and rosemary essential oils and ii) a Rosa canina L. extract, were compared with a commercial antioxidant additive (Artinox®) for their ability to control protein and lipid oxidation in cooked hams after a settling period of 30 days and at the end of a chilled storage (150 days). The mixture of essential oils was the most effective against lipid oxidation while R. canina L. extracts were the most effective in controlling protein carbonylation at day 150. Accordingly, the use of these antioxidants via brine injection is a successful strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of cooked hams without modifying their physicochemical properties.

  1. The application of natural antioxidants via brine injection protects Iberian cooked hams against lipid and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    In response to the increasing consumers' mistrust in synthetic additives, the meat industry is focused on searching sources of natural antioxidants. Two different sources of natural antioxidants i) a mixture of garlic, cinnamon, cloves and rosemary essential oils and ii) a Rosa canina L. extract, were compared with a commercial antioxidant additive (Artinox®) for their ability to control protein and lipid oxidation in cooked hams after a settling period of 30 days and at the end of a chilled storage (150 days). The mixture of essential oils was the most effective against lipid oxidation while R. canina L. extracts were the most effective in controlling protein carbonylation at day 150. Accordingly, the use of these antioxidants via brine injection is a successful strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of cooked hams without modifying their physicochemical properties. PMID:26923219

  2. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of infant gut microbial communities in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Bahl, Martin Iain; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine;

    2015-01-01

    Some lipid hydrolysis products such as medium-chained NEFA (MC-NEFA), sphingosine and monoacylglycerols (MAG) possess antibacterial activity, while others, including oleic acid, are essential for the optimal growth of Lactobacillus species. Thus, changes in the concentrations of NEFA and MAG...... that the relative abundance of lactic acid-producing genera, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, was generally increased in the presence of 50mM or higher concentrations of MC-NEFA. For Bifidobacterium, the same effect was also observed in the presence of a mixture containing LC-NEFA with sphingosine...

  3. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  4. Effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation in vitro, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Qi; Kummerow, Fred A

    2011-11-01

    In this study we examined the antioxidant effect of curcumin on lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, curcumin at 5 microgM concentration completely prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by CuS0(4), indicating that curcumin is an effective antioxidant in vitro. In vivo, feeding a pure cholesterol (PC)-rich diet to rabbits significantly increased the plasma and liver lipids as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Addition of curcumin to the PC diet did not show any effect on either plasma lipid and TBARS or liver lipids. Liver TBARS tended to decrease but that decrease was not significant. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly decreased while catalase activity was significantly increased in rabbits fed a PC diet. The addition of curcumin to a PC diet did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte enzyme activities compared to the rabbits fed a PC diet. The liver GSH-Px and catalase activities were significantly decreased in rabbits fed a PC diet, but the addition of curcumin to the PC diet enhanced the liver GSH-Px activity, which became nonsignificantly different from the control group. These results were discussed considering that curcumin may not be well absorbed and it did not reach a level high enough in vivo to overcome the severe hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress produced by the PC-rich diet.

  5. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  6. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  7. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar; Carani Venkatraman Anuradha

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR) on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet) displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats sho...

  8. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  9. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows, PC barrows, and gilts were still below 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg of meat, the threshold at which trained panelists may deem a food to be rancid. In conclusion, bacon shelf life characteristics were not altered by the immunological castration management strategy and bacon from IC barrows was similar to bacon from

  10. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

    2012-12-01

    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  11. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  12. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and...... oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative...... stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for...

  13. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel;

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...

  14. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p yellow pea pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake. PMID:23595133

  15. Specific adduction of plant lipid transfer protein by an allene oxide generated by 9-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Bakan, Benedicte; Hamberg, Mats; Perrocheau, Ludivine; Maume, Daniel; Rogniaux, Helene; Tranquet, Olivier; Rondeau, Corinne; Blein, J Pierre; Ponchet, Michel; Marion, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous plant lipid-binding proteins that have been associated with multiple developmental and stress responses. Although LTPs typically bind fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives in a non-covalent way, studies on the LTPs of barley seeds have identified an abundantly occurring covalently modified form, LTP1b, the lipid ligand of which has resisted clarification. In the present study, this adduct was identified as the {alpha}-ketol 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z)...

  16. The hypobaric hypoxia affects the oxidant balance in skeletal muscle regeneration of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mancinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells in young women.Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia and after (POST-Hypoxia the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid damage, mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non oxidized cells.Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the Vastus Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects.

  17. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (Poil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions.

  18. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. PMID:26263964

  19. Protective effect of black raspberry seed containing anthocyanins against oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine bioactive components and radical scavenging capacity of black raspberry seed extracts as byproducts obtaining during the juice (FSE) and wine (WSE) making process. Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was identified as a major anthocyanin and the total anthocyanin contents of fresh and wine seed were 78.24 and 41.61 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of FSE and WSE were 2.31 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 360.95 mg catechin equivalent (CE), and 2.44 g GAE and 379.54 mg CE per 100 g dry weight, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values were 1041.9 μM TE/g for FSE and 1060.4 μM TE/g for WSE. Pretreatment of the FSE and WSE inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA and protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals, and Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. WSE more effectively protected from oxidative damage than FSE. Results from the current study suggest that black raspberry seeds as byproducts from juice and wine processing could be potential sources for natural antioxidants. PMID:27162401

  20. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P  0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods. PMID:26344999

  1. Effects of fermented soy milk on the liver lipids under oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Zheng-Yu Tsai; I-Chi Cheng; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of fermented soy milk powder on the antioxidative status and lipid metabolism in the livers of CCl4-injected rats.METHODS: Forty-five healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups according to five different diets: control (AIN-76), AIN-76+highdose fermented soy milk powder, AIN-76+low-dose fermented soy milk powder, AIN-76+high-dose milk yogurt powder and AIN-76+low-dose milk yogurt powder. The experiment lasted for 8 wk. After 4 wk, all the rats received intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 (0.2 mL/100 g body weight) every week. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), TBARS, ALP, and antioxidative enzymes in the liver were evaluated.RESULTS: There was also no significant difference in TBARS and antioxidative enzymes in the liver. TC and TG in the groups fed with fermented soy milk powder were generally lower than those fed with casein powder.CONCLUSION: Consumption of fermented soy milk was positive in lowering total cholesterol and TG accumulation in the liver under CCl4-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  3. Increased levels of lipid metabolism and cystatin-C,but not glucose, affect virtual P vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia; LIN Yu-bi; ZENG Chu-qian; YANG Zhen-zhen; LAI Xiao-shu; LU Qi-ji; ZHOU Jing-wen

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study,we aimed to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose,lipid and Cystatin-C on the virtual P vector characteristics,which haven' t been reported in previous studies.Methods 204 of non-diabetes mellitus (NDM),130 of DM (type 2) and 39 of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients were consecutively and retrospectively recruited.We selected a one-minute length of electrocardiogram at 4AM for analysis.After a series of calculating algorisms,we obtained the virtual planar P vector parameters.Results There were no significant differences in FPV,FPA,RSPV,RSPA,HPV and HPA groups.After adjusting confounding factors,the regression coefficients (RC) were estimated as follow:for FPV,female gender (RC-0.21,P =0.02),triglyceride (RC-0.09,P < 0.01),RVOT (RC 0.03,P =0.02);for RSPV,female gender (RC-0.21,P < 0.01),triglyceride (RC-0.10,P < 0.01),average heart rate (RC 0.01,P =0.02);for HPV,triglyceride (RC-0.08,P < 0.001),LDL (RC-0.19,P < 0.01),Apo B (RC 0.67,P < 0.01);for RSPA,B type of blood (RC-22.06,P =0.02),Cystatin-C (RC-72.79,P =0.02),thickness of interventricular septum (RC 3.70,P =0.01).Cystatin-C was suggested as a cure related to RSPA,and the cut-off point was 1.6 mg/L.There were no significant risk factors associated with FPA and HPA.There was no difference in virtual P vector among DM,IGT and NDM groups.Conclusion Increased levels of lipid and Cystatin-C significantly impact the characteristics of virtual P vector,whereas glucose does not.These changes may come from a higher low voltage atrial area and abnormal orientation of atrial depolarization.

  4. Mediterranean Berries as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Porcine Burger Patties Subjected to Cooking and Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende

    2013-01-01

    The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.

  5. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal

  6. Calcium and protons affect the interaction of neurotransmitters and anesthetics with anionic lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2016-09-01

    We study how zwitterionic and anionic biomembrane models interact with neurotransmitters (NTs) and anesthetics (ATs) in the presence of Ca(2+) and different pH conditions. As NTs we used acetylcholine (ACh), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and l-glutamic acid (LGlu). As ATs, tetracaine (TC), and pentobarbital (PB) were employed. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we analyzed the changes such molecules produce in the thermal properties of the membranes. We found that calcium and pH play important roles in the interactions of NTs and ATs with the anionic lipid membranes. Changes in pH promote deprotonation of the phosphate groups in anionic phospholipids inducing electrostatic interactions between them and NTs; but if Ca(2+) ions are in the system, these act as bridges. Such interactions impact the physical properties of the membranes in a similar manner that anesthetics do. Beyond the usual biochemical approach, we claim that these effects should be taken into account to understand the excitatory-inhibitory orchestrated balance in the nervous system. PMID:27362370

  7. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

  8. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Andrade, María-Jesús; Kylli, Petri; Estévez, Mario

    2011-05-25

    The first aim of the present work (study 1) was to analyze ethyl acetate, 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill.) varieties, namely, 'Hass' and 'Fuerte', for their phenolic composition and their in vitro antioxidant activity using the CUPRAC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Their antimicrobial potential was also studied. Peels and seeds had higher amounts of phenolics and a more intense in vitro antioxidant potential than the pulp. Peels and seeds were rich in catechins, procyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the pulp was particularly rich in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of avocado phenolics was affected by the extracting solvent and avocado variety. The avocado materials also displayed moderate antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Taking a step forward (study 2), extracts (70% acetone) from avocado peels and seeds were tested as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in meat patties. Avocado extracts protected meat lipids and proteins against oxidation with the effect on lipids being dependent on the avocado variety.

  9. Antioxidant strategies for preventing oxidative flavour deterioration of foods enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated lipids: a comparative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Let, M.B.; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a better base for predicting the ability of antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation in food emulsions in general and in functional food systems enriched with n-3 PUFA in particular. Therefore, the antioxidant efficacies of a range of commercially available antioxidants in a number of fish oil enriched real food emulsions (milk, milk drink, salad dressing, mayonnaise and selected model emulsions) are compared. This comparison clearly shows that the same ant...

  10. Low-calorie Cranberry Juice Decreases Lipid Oxidation and Increases Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Ortiz, Jennifer; Simmons, Brandi; Wu, Mingyuan; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Cranberries, high in polyphenols have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low calorie cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. MA, USA) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as, lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized double-blind pla...

  11. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed...

  12. The effects of ethylene oxide containing lipopolymers and tri-block copolymers on lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekmark, T. R.; Pedersen, S.; Jorgensen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    stretch of polystyrene. Hence the tri-block copolymer may act as a membrane-spanning macromolecule mimicking an amphiphilic protein or polypeptide. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to determine a partial phase diagram for the lipopolymer systems and to assess the amount of lipopolymer that can be...... oxide moity, anchored to the bilayer by a 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-s,n-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DC18PE) lipid. The second type, which is a novel type of membrane-spanning object, is an amphiphilic tri-block copolymer composed of two hydrophilic stretches of polyethylene oxide separated by a hydrophobic...

  13. Metabolic encephalopathy and lipid storage myopathy associated with a presumptive mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Biegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurologic examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurologic signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy.

  14. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  15. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO4, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P2O2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  16. Lipid oxidative changes in chitosan-oregano coated traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkić, Nevena; Šojić, Branislav; Lazić, Vera; Petrović, Ljiljana; Mandić, Anamarija; Sedej, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The effect of a chitosan coating with added essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) on lipid oxidation of dry fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása) was investigated. Fatty acid profile, aldehyde contents and sensory analysis of odor and flavor were determined after drying and during seven months of storage. Between coated and control sausage, a difference was observed after two months storage in fatty acid profiles (myristic, oleic and linoleic acids), but after seven months storage there was no difference. Decrease in polyunsaturated acid content was observed (from 17.25% to 15.70%), as well as an increase in total aldehydes (from 4.54 μg/g to 31.80 μg/g), due to lipid oxidation during storage. After seven months storage, the content of most aldehydes was significantly lower in coated sausage than in the control. Sensory characteristics of odor and flavor were better for coated sausage, after seven months of storage. Results suggest that chitosan-oregano coating can be successfully applied to protect dry fermented sausages from lipid oxidation.

  17. The effect of Gongronema latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N H Ugochukwu; N E Babady; M Cobourne; S R Gasset

    2003-02-01

    Diabetes is known to involve oxidative stress and changes in lipid metabolism. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress on diabetes. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Gongronema latifolium leaves on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in a rat model of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results confirmed that the untreated diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by significantly abnormal activities of their scavenging enzymes (low superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide activities), compared to treated diabetic rats, and in the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehyde levels) present in the hepatocytes. The ethanolic extract of G. latifolium leaves possessed antioxidant activity as shown by increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases in malondialdehyde levels. High levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, which are typical of the diabetic condition, were also found in our rat models of diabetes. The ethanolic extract also significantly decreased triglyceride levels and normalized total cholesterol concentration.

  18. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  19. Effect of radioprotective biogenic amines on peroxide oxidation of lipids in rat small intestine mucosa microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective biogenic amines, dopamine, histamine, and serotonin inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat small intestine mucosal microsomes. Possible mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are discussed

  20. Effects of Anthocyanin-rich Colored Potato Flakes on Lipid Oxidation, Instrumental Color Evaluation and Sensory Characteristics in Cooked Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    JAYAWARDANA, Barana C.; YANAGIHARA, Maki; HAN, Kyu-Ho; FUKUSHIMA, Michihiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; SHIMADA, Kenichiro; 韓, 圭鎬; 福島, 道広; 関川, 三男; 島田, 謙一郎

    2012-01-01

    We investigated lipid oxidation, instrumental color evaluation, and sensory characteristics in cooked pork sausages containing anthocyanin rich colored potato (Solanum tuberosam cv. Shadow Queen) flakes (CPF). According to the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values, addition of 2% CPF suppressed lipid oxidation (P < 0.05) by 80% compared to the control. The antioxidant activity of 2% CPF was comparable to the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (0.1%) in cooked pork sausages...

  1. Effects of verbascoside supplemented diets on growth performance, blood traits, meat quality, lipid oxidation and histological features in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele De Marco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A trial has been performed to evaluate the effects of dietary verbascoside (VB on the growth performance, blood traits, meat quality and histological features of broiler chickens. Seventy-two male broiler chickens (Ross 708 were divided into three experimental groups (8 replicates: a control group (C; basal diet, a low VB group (LVB; basal diet+2.5 mg VB/kg feed and a high VB group (HVB; basal diet+5.0 mg VB/kg feed. The animals were kept in cages, three birds per cage. The trial lasted 35 days. Growth performance and carcass yield were recorded. Blood samples were collected at day 35 in order to evaluate the blood, serum and plasma parameters. As a result of this study, growth and slaughter performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. The LVB and HVB groups showed significantly lower concentrations of total protein (P=0.000, albumin (P=0.000, α-globulin (P=0.001 and β-globulin (P=0.023 than C group. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in HVB group than in LVB and C groups (P=0.005. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances results indicated lower lipid oxidation in the LVB group than in C group. The most relevant histological feature was the lymphoid depletion observed in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius in LVB and HVB. Other studies are still needed to identify the optimal dosage and exposure time of VB dietary supplementation and to further investigate the effects of VB on lymphoid tissue as well as to establish the VB antioxidant effect on broiler chickens.

  2. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  3. Anaerobic Exercise Affects the Saliva Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance in High-Performance Pentathlon Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant’Anna Marcelo de Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigate free radical production and antioxidant buffering in military pentathletes’ saliva after their performance of a standardized, running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST. Methods. Seven members of the Brazilian Navy pentathlon team were recruited to perform a running-based anaerobic test (~90 sec. The participants provided samples of saliva before and after the test that were analyzed for biomarkers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and the quantity of two specific antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid. Results. The lipid peroxidation increased ~2 fold after RAST, despite an increase in total antioxidant capacity (46%. The concentration of reduced glutathione did not change, while the uric acid concentration increased by 65%. Conclusions. The evaluation in saliva following a sprint test that lasted no more than 90 sec was sensitive enough to reveal changes in redox state.

  4. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Chun

    Full Text Available A high phosphorus (HP diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054 in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty

  5. The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is the primary source of NADPH for lipid overproduction from glucose in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylenko, Thomas M; Ahn, Woo Suk; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Oleaginous microbes represent an attractive means of converting a diverse range of feedstocks into oils that can be transesterified to biodiesel. However, the mechanism of lipid overproduction in these organisms is incompletely understood, hindering the development of strategies for engineering superior biocatalysts for "single-cell oil" production. In particular, it is unclear which pathways are used to generate the large quantities of NADPH required for overproduction of the highly reduced fatty acid species. While early studies implicated malic enzyme as having a key role in production of lipogenic NADPH in oleaginous fungi, several recent reports have cast doubts as to whether malic enzyme may contribute to production of lipogenic NADPH in the model oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. To address this problem we have used (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis to estimate the metabolic flux distributions during lipid accumulation in two Y. lipolytica strains; a control strain and a previously published engineered strain capable of producing lipids at roughly twice the yield. We observe a dramatic rearrangement of the metabolic flux distribution in the engineered strain which supports lipid overproduction. The NADPH-producing flux through the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is approximately doubled in the engineered strain in response to the roughly two-fold increase in fatty acid biosynthesis, while the flux through malic enzyme does not differ significantly between the two strains. Moreover, the estimated rate of NADPH production in the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is in good agreement with the estimated rate of NADPH consumption in fatty acid biosynthesis in both strains. These results suggest the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is the primary source of lipogenic NADPH in Y. lipolytica.

  6. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

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    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  7. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

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    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  8. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  9. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p laying hens feed led to a significant (p hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives. PMID:26847677

  10. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

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    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  11. Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids - early effect

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    Makarewicz Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radioiodine (131I therapy is widely accepted as an essential part of therapeutic regimens in many cases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules is a well known phenomenon. Frequently examined process to evaluate oxidative damage to macromolecules is lipid peroxidation (LPO, resulting from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. The aim of the study was to examine serum LPO level in hypothyroid (after total thyroidectomy cancer patients subjected to ablative activities of 131I. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 21 patients (18 females and 3 males, average age 52.4 ± 16.5 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary (17 patients or follicular (4 patients thyroid carcinoma. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH blood concentration (BRAHMS, Germany, measured before 131I therapy. Activity of 2.8 - 6.9 GBq of 131I was administered to the patients orally as sodium iodide (OBRI, Poland. Concentrations of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA, as an index of LPO (LPO-586 kit, Calbiochem, USA, were measured in blood serum just before 131I administration (day "0" and on the days 1-4 after 131I therapy. Sera from 23 euthyroid patients served as controls. Correlations between LPO and TSH or 131I activity were calculated. Results Expectedly, serum LPO level, when measured before 131I therapy, was several times higher (p 131I therapy. LPO did not correlate with TSH concentration. In turn, negative correlation was found between 131I activity and LPO level on the day "2" after radioiodine treatment. Conclusions Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids, at least early, after therapy.

  12. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model

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    Shila Shafaeizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Pectin consumption could decrease serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol in the diet that contains oxidized oil. Pectin supplementation could decrease the detrimental effects of thermally oxidized oil.

  13. Apolipoprotein M affecting lipid metabolism or just catching a ride with lipoproteins in the circulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, B; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein found mainly in high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Its function is yet to be defined. ApoM (25 kDa) has a typical lipocalin ss-barrel fold and a hydrophobic pocket. Retinoids bind apoM but with low affinity and may not be the natural ligands. Apo......M retains its signal peptide, which serves as a hydrophobic anchor to the lipoproteins. This prevents apoM from being lost in the urine. Approximately 5% of HDL carries an apoM molecule. ApoM in plasma (1 microM) correlates strongly with both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol, suggesting...... a link to cholesterol metabolism. However, in casecontrol studies, apoM levels in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and controls were similar, suggesting apoM levels not to affect the risk for CHD in humans. Experiments in transgenic mice suggested apoM to have antiatherogenic properties...

  14. Optimization of the C11-BODIPY(581/591) dye for the determination of lipid oxidation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, Giulia; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2013-10-01

    Lipid oxidation is a recognized end point for the study of oxidative stress and is an important parameter to describe the mode of micropollutant action on aquatic microorganisms. Therefore, the development of quick and reliable methodologies probing the oxidative stress and damage in living cells is highly sought. In the present proof-of-concept work, we examined the potential of the fluorescent dye C11-BODIPY(591/581) to probe lipid oxidation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C11-BODIPY(591/581) staining was combined with flow cytometry measurements to obtain multiparameter information on cellular features and oxidative stress damage within single cells. First, staining conditions were optimized by exploring the capability of the dye to stain algal cells under increasing cell and dye concentrations and different staining procedures. Then lipid oxidation in algae induced by short- and long-term exposures to the three metallic micropollutants, copper, mercury, and nanoparticulate copper oxide, and the two organic contaminants, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and diuron was determined. In this work we pointed out C11-BODIPY(591/581) applicability in a wide range of exposure conditions, including studies of oxidation as a function of time and that it is suitable for in vivo measurements of lipid oxidation due to its high permeation and stability in cells and its low interference with algal autofluorescence. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:23943236

  15. Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christine T; Wais, Joshua; Crawford, Dorota A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been on the rise over recent years. The presence of diverse subsets of candidate genes in each individual with an ASD and the vast variability of phenotypical differences suggest that the interference of an exogenous environmental component may greatly contribute to the development of ASDs. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is released from phospholipids of cell membranes, and is important in brain development and function; PGE2 is involved in differentiation, synaptic plasticity and calcium regulation. The previous review already described extrinsic factors, including deficient dietary supplementation, and exposure to oxidative stress, infections and inflammation that can disrupt signaling of the PGE2 pathway and contribute to ASDs. In this review, the structure and establishment of two key protective barriers for the brain during early development are described: the blood-brain barrier; and the placental barrier. Then, the first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during critical developmental periods when barrier components are still being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable periods in development.

  16. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced by enzyma......In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  17. Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites in sedentary subjects and sportsmen before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Caimi, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of an exercise test on some indices of oxidative status and endothelial function, in trained and untrained subjects. We examined lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and their ratio before and after a cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. We enrolled 60 male subjects who practiced sport unprofessionally, subdivided in two groups (A and B) according to the values of VO2max. Group A included sportsmen with poor or fair aerobic fitness (VO2max 39 ml/Kg/min). The control group included 19 male sedentary subjects. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by detection of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); the NOx were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. At rest, in comparison with sedentary controls, an increase in TBARS, NOx and TBARS/NOx ratio was found in all sportsmen and partially in the two groups. After the cardiopulmonary test, the increase of TBARS and TBARS/NOx ratio was significantly more evident in sedentary controls than in sportsmen. No variation was observed for NOx in any group. These data suggest that sportsmen are protected against the acute oxidative stress induced by an exercise test, and that protection is not strictly dependent on the aerobic fitness. PMID:22710809

  18. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) deficiency affects energy metabolism pattern in murine oxidative skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momken, Iman; Fortin, Dominique; Serrurier, Bernard; Bigard, Xavier; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Veksler, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative capacity of muscles correlates with capillary density and with microcirculation, which in turn depend on various regulatory factors, including NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To determine the role of eNOS in patterns of regulation of energy metabolism in various muscles, we studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in saponin-permeabilized fibres as well as the energy metabolism enzyme profile in the cardiac, soleus (oxidative) and gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles isolated from mice lacking eNOS (eNOS(-/-)). In soleus muscle, the absence of eNOS induced a marked decrease in both basal mitochondrial respiration without ADP (-32%; P <0.05) and maximal respiration in the presence of ADP (-29%; P <0.05). Furthermore, the eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle showed a decrease in total creatine kinase (-29%; P <0.05), citrate synthase (-31%; P <0.01), adenylate kinase (-27%; P <0.05), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (-43%; P <0.01) and pyruvate kinase (-26%; P <0.05) activities. The percentage of myosin heavy chains I (slow isoform) was significantly increased from 24.3+/-1.5% in control to 30.1+/-1.1% in eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle ( P <0.05) at the expense of a slight non-significant decrease in the three other (fast) isoforms. Besides, eNOS(-/-) soleus showed a 28% loss of weight. Interestingly, we did not find differences in any parameters in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscles compared with respective controls. These results show that eNOS knockout has an important effect on muscle oxidative capacity as well on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes in oxidative (soleus) muscle. The absence of such effects in cardiac and glycolytic (gastrocnemius) muscle suggests a specific role for eNOS-produced NO in oxidative skeletal muscle. PMID:12123418

  19. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Sriwongchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

  20. Parenteral lipids and partial enteral nutrition affect hepatic lipid composition but have limited short term effects on formula-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lauritzen, Lotte;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid transition from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that partial enteral nutrition with colostrum, increased proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or exclusion of lipid...

  1. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Sheep Affected with Peste des petits ruminants

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    Kataria A. K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate oxidative stress in sheep affected with peste des petits ruminants (PPR. Oxidative stress in the affected sheep was evaluated by determining various serum biomarkers viz. vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase, the mean values of which were 1.70±0.07µmol L-1, 13.00± 0.10 µmol L-1, 2.25 ±0.07 µmol L-1, 3.10 ±0.06 µmol L-1, 140.00 ±8.00 kU L-1, 294.22 ±9.91 kU L-1, 6.99± 0.05 kU L-1 and 100.10 ±3.00 m U L-1, respectively. The levels of vitamins A, C, E and glutathione decreased significantly (p≤0.05 and the serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase activities increased significantly (p≤0.05 in affected sheep as compared to that in healthy ones. On the basis of the altered levels of serum biomarkers of oxidative stress it was concluded that the animals affected with PPR developed oxidative stress. The findings suggested the relevance of periodic assessment of oxidative status in ruminants for healthier management through supplementation of proper antioxidants as supportive treatment in PPR and in healthy in-contact animals.

  2. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  3. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  4. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  5. Inhibition of lipid oxidation and rancidity in precooked pork patties by radical-scavenging licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xin; True, Alma D; Zhou, Lirong; Xiong, Youling L

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of licorice extract (LE) to curtail lipid oxidation and protect sensory attributes of ground pork during refrigerated and frozen storage. Pork patties (20% fat) were formulated with 0%, 0.02%, 0.05%, and 0.1% (meat basis) LE or rosemary extract (RE) as comparison or 0.01% (fat basis) BHA with 0 or 1.5% NaCl. Raw and precooked (75 °C) patties were packaged in polyvinylchloride overwrapped trays and stored at 2 °C up to 7 and 14 d, respectively, or at -20 °C up to 6 mo. Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and sensory attributes of stored patty samples were evaluated, radical scavenging activity of the LE was measured, and the active phenolic compounds were identified. Cooking yield (<85%) was similar among antioxidant treatments, and lipid oxidation was minimal in refrigerated or frozen raw samples. However, TBARS values in refrigerated precooked control patties (0.22 mg/kg) rose to 9.3 to 9.4 mg/kg after 14 d, compared to 3.4 to 4.4 and 4.4 to 6.9 mg/kg in patties treated with 0.1% LE and RE, respectively. In frozen precooked samples, TBARS (0.22 mg/kg) increased to 1.3 mg/kg (P < 0.05) in control patties after 6 mo and had no significant change in patties treated with 0.1% LE or 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisol. Sensory panel evaluation confirmed strong inhibition of rancidity production by LE, corroborating its remarkable antiradical activity due to the presence of multiple phenolics. The results indicate that licorice has great potential as a natural antioxidative additive to extend the shelf-life of precooked pork. PMID:24245886

  6. Inlfuence of Rosuvastatin on Blood Lipids, Inlfammatory Factors, Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-wei; LI Ying-ying

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inlfuence of rosuvastatin on the blood lipids, inlfammatory factors, oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Totally 114 patients with CHF admitted to Yanan Hospital of TCM were collected from December, 2014 to December 2015, and randomly assigned into observation group (n=57) and control group (n=57). The patients in control group were given conventional treatment for CHF, while those in observation group orally took Rosuvastatin Calcium, 20 mg per time, qd.. The course of treatment was 3 months. The changes of cardiac function parameters, blood lipids-related indexes, inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were all observed in two groups before and after treatment. Results: After treatment, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased notably, while left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased obviously in two groups, which changed more signiifcantly in observation group than those in control group (P0.05). The levels of MDA, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were lower, while the level of SOD was evidently higher in observation group than those in control group, and the differences were shown statistically signiifcant (P Conclusion: Rosuvastatin is promising in the treatment of CHF. It can not only improve the cardiac function and regulate blood lipids, but also reduce the levels of inflammatory factors, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and relieve oxidative stress.

  7. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha is essential for maximal and efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John J; Boudina, Sihem; Banke, Natasha Hausler; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Han, Xianlin; Young, Deanna M; Leone, Teresa C; Gross, Richard W; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Abel, E Dale; Kelly, Daniel P

    2008-07-01

    High-capacity mitochondrial ATP production is essential for normal function of the adult heart, and evidence is emerging that mitochondrial derangements occur in common myocardial diseases. Previous overexpression studies have shown that the inducible transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is capable of activating postnatal cardiac myocyte mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice deficient in PGC-1alpha (PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice), which survive with modestly blunted postnatal cardiac growth. To determine if PGC-1alpha is essential for normal cardiac energy metabolic capacity, mitochondrial function experiments were performed on saponin-permeabilized myocardial fibers from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice. These experiments demonstrated reduced maximal (state 3) palmitoyl-l-carnitine respiration and increased maximal (state 3) pyruvate respiration in PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice compared with PGC-1alpha(+/+) controls. ATP synthesis rates obtained during maximal (state 3) respiration in permeabilized myocardial fibers were reduced for PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice, whereas ATP produced per oxygen consumed (ATP/O), a measure of metabolic efficiency, was decreased by 58% for PGC-1alpha(-/-) fibers. Ex vivo isolated working heart experiments demonstrated that PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited lower cardiac power, reduced palmitate oxidation, and increased reliance on glucose oxidation, with the latter likely a compensatory response. (13)C NMR revealed that hearts from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited a limited capacity to recruit triglyceride as a source for lipid oxidation during beta-adrenergic challenge. Consistent with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative enzyme gene expression, the total triglyceride content was greater in hearts of PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice relative to PGC-1alpha(+/+) following a fast. Overall, these results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is essential for the maintenance of maximal, efficient cardiac

  8. Parameters affecting the accuracy of oxide thickness prediction in thin metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, J. M.; Ahmad-Bitar, Riyad N.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the solution of the time dependent Schrödinger equation within the framework of the effective mass theory, a complete quantum mechanical electron tunneling through a biased square potential model with abrupt interfaces was deduced. Barriers of 3 eV height and widths up to 140 Å were investigated. Current density-voltage ( J- V) curves were computed for Al/SiO 2/ n+Si structure. The computed J- V curves exhibited oscillations at applied voltages above (Fowler-Nordheim tunneling) and below (direct tunneling) 3 V. For oxide thickness estimation, the position of the oscillation extrema from this quantum mechanical model were fitted to a wave interference formula and showed excellent agreement for oxide layer widths less than 50 Å. However, a systematic deviation appeared for layers larger than 50 Å. We show that the electron energy distribution at the injection layer and the electron effective mass on layers other than the oxide layer are important parameters for accurate oxide thickness estimation.

  9. Impaired biosynthesis of the non-bilayer lipids phosphatidylethanolamine or cardiolipin does not affect peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawałek, Adam; Jagadeesan, Chandhuru; van der Klei, Ida J

    2016-01-01

    The non-bilayer forming lipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) modulate membrane curvature, facilitate membrane fusion and affect the stability and function of membrane proteins. Yeast peroxisomal membranes contain significant amounts of CL and PE. We analysed the effect of CL def

  10. Maximal lipid oxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes is normal and shows an adequate increase in response to aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Vind, Birgitte Falbe; Højlund, K;

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity is associated with an imbalance between the availability and the oxidation of lipids. We hypothesized that maximal whole-body lipid oxidation during exercise (FATmax) is reduced and that training-induced metabolic adaptation...... is attenuated in T2D. Methods: Obese T2D (n = 12) and control (n = 11) subjects matched for age, sex, physical activity and body mass index completed 10 weeks of aerobic training. Subjects were investigated before and after training with maximal and submaximal exercise tests and euglycaemic...... in response to training in both groups (all p lipid oxidation during exercise or the training-induced changes in these parameters. Conclusions: FATmax was not reduced in T2D, and muscle oxidative capacity increased adequately...

  11. Rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) supplementation into the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: effects on lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    V. Chiofalo; D. Piccolo; Lo Presti, V; B. Chiofalo; Liotta, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the growing-fattening period (93 days; ILW 33.5±6 kg to FLW 67±3 kg), 30 Nero Siciliano pigs were fed on a basal diet supplemented with (ROX group) or not (CTR group) a rosemary extract (1g?kg-1). At 1, 3 and 5 days after slaughtering, the oxidative stability of the Longissimus dorsi muscle was determined by using TBArs test. Moreover, on the individual samples of the muscle the lipid content, the fatty acid and the sterol composition were determined; the acidic compositi...

  12. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Inhibits the Induction of Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astrocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    Pahan, Kalipada; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Taylor, Bradley S.; Wood, Charles; Fischer, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibited cytokine-induced production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astrocytes. Similar to gemfibrozil, clofibrate, another fibrate drug, also inhibited the expression of iNOS. Inhibition of human iNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity by gemfibrozil in cytokine-stimulated U373MG astroglial cells suggests that this compound inhibits the transcription of iNOS. Since gemfibroz...

  13. The impact of a short course of three lipid lowering drugs on fat oxidation during exercise in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Head, A; Jakeman, P. M.; Kendall, M. J.; Cramb, R.; Maxwell, S.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the impact of three lipid lowering drugs on fat oxidation during a 120 minute treadmill walk, at an exercise intensity of 50% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Subjects (N = 24) were healthy male volunteers with normal serum chemistry, assigned to three groups (n = 8). Group A received simvastatin 20 mg twice daily, Group B received gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily, Group C received acipimox 600 mg twice daily. Each subject performed two 120 minute walks, once with drug, and once wit...

  14. The effect of fish oil enriched margarine on plasma lipids, low density lipoprotein particle composition, size and susceptibility to oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Marckmann, Peter; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of incorporating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the diet on the lipid-class composition of LDLs, their size, and their susceptibility to oxidation. Forty-seven healthy volunteers incorporated 30 g sunflower-oil (SO) margarine/d into their habitual diet...... during a 3-wk run-in period and then used either SQ or a fish-oil-enriched sunflower oil (FO) margarine for the following 4 wk. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A-I and B did not differ significantly between the groups...

  15. Antioxidant strategies for preventing oxidative flavour deterioration of foods enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated lipids: a comparative evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Let, M.B.; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a better base for predicting the ability of antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation in food emulsions in general and in functional food systems enriched with n-3 PUFA in particular. Therefore, the antioxidant efficacies of a range of commercially available...... antioxidants in a number of fish oil enriched real food emulsions (milk, milk drink, salad dressing, mayonnaise and selected model emulsions) are compared. This comparison clearly shows that the same antioxidant exerts different effects in different systems. EDTA is a very efficient antioxidant in salad...

  16. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells. PMID:27603212

  17. Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Per; Ischebeck, Till; Turesson, Helle; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Feussner, Ivo; Carlsson, Anders S; Andersson, Mariette

    2016-09-01

    Tuber and root crops virtually exclusively accumulate storage products in the form of carbohydrates. An exception is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in which tubers have the capacity to store starch and triacylglycerols (TAG) in roughly equal amounts. This suggests that a tuber crop can efficiently handle accumulation of energy dense oil. From a nutritional as well as economic aspect, it would be of interest to utilize the high yield capacity of tuber or root crops for oil accumulation similar to yellow nutsedge. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which in seed embryos induce fatty acid synthesis, has been shown to be a major factor for oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 was expressed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers to explore whether this factor could impact tuber metabolism. This study shows that a WRINKLED1 transcription factor could induce triacylglycerol accumulation in tubers of transformed potato plants grown in field (up to 12 nmol TAG/mg dry weight, 1% of dry weight) together with a large increase in polar membrane lipids. The changes in metabolism further affected starch accumulation and composition concomitant with massive increases in sugar content. PMID:26914183

  18. The results of the lipids peroxidation products on the DNA bases as biological markers of the oxidative stress; Les adduits des produits de la peroxydation lipidique sur les bases de l'ADN comme biomarqueurs du stress oxydant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falletti, O

    2007-10-15

    Different ways of DNA damages have been studied, among these ones the direct way of DNA damages formation by the reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). This way leads to the formation of oxidative DNA damages. In 1990, works have suggested an indirect way of DNA damages formation, the lipids peroxidation. Instead of oxidizing directly DNA, the R.O.S. oxide the lipids present in the cells and their membranes; The products coming from this degradation are able to provoke DNA damages. This way has not been studied very much. The work of this thesis is axed on this DNA theme and lipids peroxidation. In the first chapter, we begin by presenting DNA and the direct way of oxidative damages formation by the R.O.S.Then, we speak about the cell lipids suffering oxidation reactions and the different ways of lipids oxidation. Then, we present how the lipid peroxidation is a source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  19. Impact of nitrogen flushing and oil choice on the progression of lipid oxidation in unwashed fried sliced potato crisps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasca, E.; Greetham, D.; Herring, S.D.; Fisk, I.D.

    2016-01-01

    Unwashed, sliced, batch-fried potato crisps have a unique texture and are growing in popularity in the UK/EU premium snack food market. In this study, the storage stability of unwashed sliced (high surface starch) potatoes (crisps) fried in regular sunflower oil (SO) or in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was compared over accelerated shelf life testing (45 °C, 6 weeks); with and without nitrogen gas flushing. Primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured with a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay and volatile secondary oxidation products (hexanal) were quantified by using solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Results revealed that crisps fried in SO were the least stable. Flushing the stored crisps with nitrogen gas proved to be effective in slowing down the oxidation rate after frying with sunflower oil, significantly stabilizing the crisps. However, crisps fried in HOSO were the most stable, with the lowest rate of development of oxidation markers, and this has previously not been shown for crisps with a high free starch content. PMID:26775947

  20. Impact of nitrogen flushing and oil choice on the progression of lipid oxidation in unwashed fried sliced potato crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasca, E; Greetham, D; Herring, S D; Fisk, I D

    2016-05-15

    Unwashed, sliced, batch-fried potato crisps have a unique texture and are growing in popularity in the UK/EU premium snack food market. In this study, the storage stability of unwashed sliced (high surface starch) potatoes (crisps) fried in regular sunflower oil (SO) or in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was compared over accelerated shelf life testing (45°C, 6 weeks); with and without nitrogen gas flushing. Primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured with a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay and volatile secondary oxidation products (hexanal) were quantified by using solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Results revealed that crisps fried in SO were the least stable. Flushing the stored crisps with nitrogen gas proved to be effective in slowing down the oxidation rate after frying with sunflower oil, significantly stabilizing the crisps. However, crisps fried in HOSO were the most stable, with the lowest rate of development of oxidation markers, and this has previously not been shown for crisps with a high free starch content. PMID:26775947

  1. Thyroid status affects membranes susceptibility to free radicals and oxidative balance in skeletal muscle of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Romestaing, Caroline; Bodennec, Jacques; Dumet, Adeline; Fongy, Anaïs; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are major contributor to oxidative stress in mammals because they (1) stimulate reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), (2) impair antioxidant defenses, and (3) increase the susceptibility to free radicals of most tissues. Unlike mammals, THs seem to diminish mitochondrial ROS while they have limited effect on the antioxidant machinery in birds. However, how THs modify the susceptibility to ROS has never been explored in an avian model, and very little is known about their effect on oxidative balance in birds. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of chronic pharmacological hypo- and hyperthyroidism on (i) the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to ROS; and (ii) the level of oxidative stress assessed by measuring oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings. We show that hypothyroidism had no effect on the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to free radicals. Hypothyroid ducklings had lower oxidized lipids (-31%) and DNA (-25%) but a similar level of protein carbonylation relative to controls. Conversely, mitochondrial membranes of hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited higher unsaturation (+12%) and peroxidation (+31%) indexes than in controls indicating a greater susceptibility to free radicals. However, hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited more oxidative damages on proteins (+67%) only, whereas lipid damages remained unchanged, and there was a slight reduction (-15%) in damages to DNA compared to euthyroid controls. Our results indicate that birds and mammals present fundamental differences in their oxidative stress response to thyroid status.

  2. Nitrous oxide vibrational energy relaxation is a probe of interfacial water in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffo, Logan R; Shattuck, Jeffrey T; Pinnick, Eric; Amsden, Jason J; Hong, M K; Wang, Feng; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Ziegler, Lawrence D

    2008-10-01

    Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of N 2O is shown to be a sensitive probe of hydrophobic and aqueous sites in lipid bilayers. Distinct rates of VER of the nu 3 antisymmetric stretching mode of N 2O can be distinguished for N 2O solvated in the acyl tail, interfacial water, and bulk water regions of hydrated dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. The lifetime of the interfacial N 2O population is hydration-dependent. This effect is attributed to changes in the density of intermolecular states resonant with the nu 3 band ( approximately 2230 cm (-1)) resulting from oriented interfacial water molecules near the lipid phosphate. Thus, the N 2O VER rate becomes a novel and experimentally convenient tool for reporting on the structure and dynamics of interfacial water in lipids and, potentially, in other biological systems. PMID:18793010

  3. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    mackerel. Water extract with lowest phenolic content showed no antioxidant effect in minced mackerel. In conclusion, the 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides can be a potential source of natural antioxidants, as these extracts have antioxidant activities similar to synthetic antioxidants such as BHT....... However, the extent of protection offered by these extracts against protein oxidation was not clear and further studies are needed to understand the nature of the interaction between proteins and these extracts.......In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g...

  4. The fluidity of the nuclear envelope lipid does not affect the rate of nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Suckling, K E

    1982-03-29

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo modifications of nuclear envelope lipid on DNa leakage and on ATP-stimulated RNA release from isolated rat liver nuclei were investigated. The modifications included corn-oil feeding of the animals to alter the fatty acid composition of the lipids, phospholipase treatment of the isolated nuclei, and extraction of the total lipid with Triton X-100. Significant changes in lipid composition and approximate order parameter values of the spin-label 5-doxylstearate resulted, but there was no significant effect on RNA transport rate. It was concluded that the nuclear envelope lipid does not play any important part in nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

  5. Influence of outdoor and indoor rearing system of suckling lambs on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation stability of raw and cooked meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of outdoor (OUT or indoor (IND rearing systems (RS of 48 male and female Sarda suckling lambs on fatty acid (FA composition and lipid oxidation of raw and cooked meat was studied. Ewes grazed daily on natural pasture for 6 hours. During grazing time of ewes, IND lambs were kept indoors whereas OUT lambs followed the mother. Slaughter age was 28 days. RS did not affect meat chemical composition, pH, cooking loss and FA profile. Microwave cooking changed markedly the concentrations of almost all meat FAs and FA classes: short (-28% and medium chain fatty acids (-11%, saturated fatty acids (-7.6%, odd-number carbon and branched-chain FA (-11.8%, proportion of long chain fatty acids (+5.3% and PUFAn-3 (+37.3% and PUFAn-6 (+26.1% class. Sex influenced significantly the concentration of the main odd-number carbon and branched chain fatty acid. OUT rearing system increased MDA concentration (P<0.01. RS ´ cooking interaction affected PUFA and MDA, which were higher in cooked samples of OUT than IND lambs. The results evidenced that the meat composition of suckling lambs is affected by the feeding system of the mother rather than the management system of lambs.

  6. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. A slurry ice (SI system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation. No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.Este trabajo estudia el sacrificio y conservación en hielo (hasta 14 días de dorada (Sparus aurata. Para ello, se aplicó hielo líquido (SI de forma comparativa con hielo tradicional (FI en escamas. Se analizó el desarrollo de hidrólisis y oxidación lipídicas, procediéndose a su comparación con la evaluación sensorial y la formación de trimetilamina (TMA. Se observó una importante pérdida de calidad de acuerdo con la valoración sensorial y la formación de TMA. Sin embargo, la alteración lipídica fue baja, a tenor de los índices ensayados (hidrólisis lipídica; oxidación lipídica primaria, secundaria y terciaria. No se detectaron desarrollo de olor rancio ni pérdida de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. El empleo de SI en esta especie resultó ser útil al objeto de inhibir la pérdida de calidad; así, se observó un incremento en el tiempo de vida útil y una inhibición en la formación de TMA y ácidos grasos libres.

  7. Seasonal changes in markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA; correlations with seasonal variation in diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolková, Bozena; Dusinská, Mária; Raslová, Katarína; McNeill, Geraldine; Spustová, Viera; Blazícek, Pavol; Horská, Alexandra; Collins, Andrew

    2004-07-13

    We have addressed the question whether the relatively high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in countries of central/eastern Europe might be associated with nutritional imbalance, in particular a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables in the diet in winter months. Nutritional parameters and markers of oxidative stress were studied in three Slovak population groups: 46 survivors of myocardial infarction (MI group) and 48 healthy, normolipidemic subjects (NL), living in or near Bratislava; and 70 rural controls (RC group) living a more traditional life style in a country town. Data were collected in February/March and September/October of two consecutive years, representing times of minimum and maximum local availability of fresh fruits and vegetables. Oxidative stress was monitored using two biomarkers; plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation), and oxidation of lymphocyte DNA. Dietary antioxidants, folic acid, homocysteine, total antioxidant status (FRAP) and uric acid were measured in plasma. Food frequency questionnaires were administered. Vegetable consumption in summer/autumn was twice as high as in winter/spring. DNA damage did not vary consistently across the seasons. Mean plasma MDA levels for the MI and NL groups showed a clear pattern, with high levels in winter/spring and low levels in summer/autumn. Folic acid showed a reciprocal pattern, similar to the pattern of vegetable consumption. The RC group had the smallest seasonal variations in vegetable consumption, folic acid levels, and MDA. High winter MDA levels are seen in those individuals with relatively low folic acid; they never occur in subjects with high plasma folic acid, implying that folic acid might directly protect against lipid oxidation. This study illustrates the value of the molecular epidemiological approach, while emphasising the need for well characterised population groups and valid biomarkers.

  8. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage. PMID:27393449

  9. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage.

  10. The usage of THz radiation of nitrogen oxide occurrence in blood antioxidant characteristics correction and lipid peroxidation process under stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav F. Kirichuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been studied influence of terahertz waves of molecular and absorption spectrum occurrence of 150.176-150.664 GHz nitrogen oxide on intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and blood antioxidant characteristics in 75 white outbred male-rats of 180-220 g under the immobilization stress condition. The tests were performed with account of lipid peroxidation metabolites – lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde. The states of blood antioxidant activity were peroxide erythrocyte resistance, superoxide dismutase and catalasa, general sulfhydryl groups and vitamin E. There has been displayed that under the influence of the THz-band of 150.176-150.664 GHz nitrogen oxide occurrence there was a total normalization of lipid peroxidation processes and of functional antioxidants activity (on the background of stress at white rats.

  11. Lipid Disturbances in Psoriasis: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Pietrzak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common disease with the population prevalence ranging from 2% to 3%. Its prevalence in the population is affected by genetic, environmental, viral, infectious, immunological, biochemical, endocrinological, and psychological factors, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. In the recent years, psoriasis has been recognised as a systemic disease associated with numerous multiorgan abnormalities and complications. Dyslipidemia is one of comorbidities in psoriatic patients. Lipid metabolism studies in psoriasis have been started at the beginning of the 20th century and are concentrated on skin surface lipids, stratum corneum lipids and epidermal phospholipids, serum lipids, dermal low-density lipoproteins in the psoriatic skin, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and correlations between inflammatory parameters, lipid parameters and clinical symptoms of the disease. On the basis of the literature data, psoriasis can be described as an immunometabolic disease.

  12. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  13. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  14. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  15. Intact polar lipids of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: Structural diversity anapplication inmolecular ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-extremophilic Crenarchaeota are ubiquitous, and comprise a major component of the microbial assemblages in many modern-day systems. Several studies have analyzed glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids synthesized by Crenarchaeota to interpret the presence, distribution, and

  16. Intact polar lipids of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: structural diversity application in molecular ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-extremophilic Crenarchaeota are ubiquitous, and comprise a major component of the microbial assemblages in many modern-day systems. Several studies have analyzed glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids synthesized by non-extremophilic Crenarchaeota to interpret the presence,

  17. [Terahertz radiations application of nitrogen oxide frequencies for correction of antioxidant properties of blood and lipid peroxidation in the conditions of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuk, B F; Tsymbal, A A

    2010-02-01

    The effect of terahertz radiations of oxide nitrogen 150.176-150.664 GHz frequencies on intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant properties of the white rat blood in stress condition was studied. It was shown that under terahertz radiations 150.176-150.664 GHz its effect in the form of full normalization of the lipid peroxidation processes flow and functional activity of antioxidants against a background of stress in white rats was observed. PMID:20432719

  18. INFLUENCE OF NEUROTIC AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS ON FORMATION OF PREDICTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Garganeyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors which influence the development and prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in 132 patients with neurotic and affective disorders are presented. The significance of predictors of IHD formation was evaluated with method of logistic regression. According to results of stepwise procedure the total score of prediction of IHD in male group was 93.7%. The influence of mental factors on disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which lead to persistent rise of level of blood glucose, lipid spectrum indices imbalance, promoting the progression of cardiovascular risk in IHD patients with anxiety, depressive, asthenic and other non-psychotic mental disorders, was ascertained.

  19. Changes of Intramuscular Fat Composition, Lipid Oxidation and Lipase Activity in Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus of Xuanwei Ham During Controlled Salting Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-yu; GAO Xiao-guang; ZHANG Ji-hong; ZHANG De-quan; MA Chang-wei

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of neutral lipids (NLs), phospholipids (PLs) and free fatty acids (FFAs) from intramuscular fat (IMF), lipid oxidation and lipase activity in muscle Semimembranosus (SM) and msucle Biceps femoris (BF) of dry-cured Xuanwei ham during the 90-d salting stages were analysed. The salt content increased from 0.34 to 3.52%in BF and from 0.10 to 5.42%in SM during the 90 d salting stage, respectively. PLs of IMF in both BF and SM decreased 54.70%(P<0.001) and 34.64%(P<0.05), furthermore, the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of PLs in both muscles were hydrolysed almost isochronously. FFAs were increased from 0.46 g 100 g-1 lipids to 2.92 g 100 g-1 lipids in BF at the end of salting, which was lower than SM (from 1.29 g 100 g-1 lipids to 9.70 g 100 g-1 lipids). The activities of acid lipase, neutral lipase and acid phospholipase all remained active in the 90 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was slowly increased to 1.34 mg kg-1 muscle in BF and to 2.44 mg kg-1 muscle in SM during the salting stage. In conclusion, the controlled salting process prompted the hydrolysis of PLs of IMF notably and increased the lipid oxidation of muscles within some limits.

  20. Methods for reducing lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched energy bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... with 5% FO. Heating of bars during baking did, apparently, not increase oxidation. Energy bars produced with neat FO were oxidatively unstable as measured by peroxide value, secondary volatile oxidation products and sensory analysis. Pre-emulsification of the FO with sodium caseinate in water offered...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...

  1. Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation.

  2. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry. PMID:26756135

  3. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry.

  4. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have indicated that serum testosterone in aging men is associated with insulin sensitivity and expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), and that testosterone treatment increases lipid oxidation. Herein, we investigated the effect of testosterone...... therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13......) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry. Muscle mRNA levels and protein abundance and phosphorylation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism were examined by quantitative...

  5. Lipid Peroxidation and Nitric Oxide Levels in Male Smokers' Spermatozoa and their Relation with Sperm Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Morad

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Low concentrations of NO is essential in biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has negative effects on sperm functions. Moreover, sperm membrane contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are highly susceptible to oxidative damage that interferes with fertilization ability. Therefore, we investigated the correlation betw...

  6. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pdiet did not affect (Pdiet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  7. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno - competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn - soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseein Moravej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VPreduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days on performance,immuno-competence,and characteristicsof leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed oncorn-soybeanmeal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocatedtofivetreatment groups(0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP, withninereplicates per treatmentgroup. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheepredblood cells (SRBC. The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin(PHA and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCBat 34 and 42 days of ages.At 33, 38 and 43days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughteredand boneparameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactivesubstances (TBARS on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at-80 ̊C. The resultsshowed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisherperiod did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones.Results of TBARS showed thatlipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP wassignificantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally,the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisherbroilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  8. Effect of Lipid Partitioning on Predictions of Acute Toxicity of Oil Sands Process Affected Water to Embryos of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Garrett D; Zhang, Kun; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2016-08-16

    Dissolved organic compounds in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) are known to be responsible for most of its toxicity to aquatic organisms, but the complexity of this mixture prevents use of traditional bottom-up approaches for predicting toxicities of mixtures. Therefore, a top-down approach to predict toxicity of the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW was developed and tested. Accurate masses (i.e., m/z) determined by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry in negative and positive ionization modes were used to assign empirical chemical formulas to each chemical species in the mixture. For each chemical species, a predictive measure of lipid accumulation was estimated by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) to poly(dimethyl)siloxane, or by partitioning to solid-supported lipid membranes (SSLM). A narcosis mode of action was assumed and the target-lipid model was used to estimate potencies of mixtures by assuming strict additivity. A model developed using a combination of the SBSE and SSLM lipid partitioning estimates, whereby the accumulation of chemicals to neutral and polar lipids was explicitly considered, was best for predicting empirical values of LC50 in 96-h acute toxicity tests with embryos of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Model predictions were within 4-fold of observed toxicity for 75% of OSPW samples, and within 8.5-fold for all samples tested, which is comparable to the range of interlaboratory variability for in vivo toxicity testing. PMID:27420640

  9. Effect of ethanolic fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L. extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Waszkowiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers was determined. Material and methods. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. Results. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. Conclusion. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety. Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.  

  10. Site variation in methane oxidation as affected by atmospheric deposition and type of temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumme, Rainer; Borken, Werner

    1999-06-01

    Factors controlling methane oxidation were analyzed along a soil acidity gradient (pH(H2O) 3.9 to 5.2) under beech and spruce forests in Germany. Mean annual methane oxidation ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and was correlated with base saturation (r2 = 0.88), soil pH (r2 = 0.77), total nitrogen (r2 = 0.71), amount of the organic surface horizon (r2 = 0.49) and bulk density of the mineral soil (r2 = 0.43). At lower pHs the formation of an organic surface horizon was promoted. This horizon did not have any methane oxidation capacity and acted like a gas diffusion barrier, which decreased the methane oxidation capacity of the soil. In contrast, on sites at the higher end of the pH range, higher burrowing activity of earthworms increased macroporosity and thereby gas diffusivity and methane oxidation. Gas diffusivity was also affected by litter shape: broad beech leaves reduced methane oxidation more than spruce needles. An increase in methane oxidation of most soil samples following sieving indicates that diffusion is the main limiting factor for methane oxidation. However, this "sieving effect" was less in soils with a pH below 5 than in soils with a pH above 5, which we attribute to a direct effect of soil acidity. We discuss our results using a hierarchical concept for the "short-term" and "long-term" controls on methane oxidation in forest ecosystems.

  11. Benzoyl peroxide increases UVA-induced plasma membrane damage and lipid oxidation in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, S H; Lambert, C R; Moran, M N; Lynch, M C; Kochevar, I E

    1998-01-01

    Ultraviolet A radiation induces oxidative stress and cell damage. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether ultraviolet A-induced cell injury was amplified by the presence of a non-ultraviolet A absorbing molecule capable of generating free radicals. Benzoyl peroxide was used as a lipid soluble potential radical-generating agent. Plasma membrane permeability assessed by trypan blue uptake was used to measure cell damage in murine leukemia L1210 cells. Cells were irradiated with a pulsed Nd/YAG laser at 355 nm using 0-160 J per cm2. The ratio of the fluence-response slope in the presence of 40 microM benzoyl peroxide to that of irradiated controls was 4.3 +/- 2.6. Benzoyl peroxide alone or benzoyl peroxide added after irradiation did not cause increased trypan blue uptake. The ratio of the fluence-response slopes in the presence of 40 microM benzoyl peroxide to that of irradiated controls was 4.7 +/- 1.4 when cells were irradiated (0-43 J per cm2) with a xenon lamp, filtered to remove wavelengths butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin E, and trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E derivative. Lipid oxidation, assessed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was significantly increased in samples irradiated with ultraviolet A in the presence of benzoyl peroxide at fluences >34 J per cm2. The increased trypan blue uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene. These results suggest that agents not absorbing ultraviolet A radiation may enhance ultraviolet A-initiated oxidative stress in cells. PMID:9424093

  12. Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1-14C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

  13. Disruption of the lipid-transporting LdMT-LdRos3 complex in Leishmania donovani affects membrane lipid asymmetry but not host cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Weingärtner

    Full Text Available Maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric lipid distribution across eukaryotic plasma membranes is governed by the concerted action of specific membrane proteins controlling lipid movement across the bilayer. Here, we show that the miltefosine transporter (LdMT, a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in Leishmania donovani, and the Cdc50-like protein LdRos3 form a stable complex that plays an essential role in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry in the parasite plasma membrane. Loss of either LdMT or LdRos3 abolishes ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet and results in an increased cell surface exposure of endogenous PE. We also find that promastigotes of L. donovani lack any detectable amount of phosphatidylserine (PS but retain their infectivity in THP-1-derived macrophages. Likewise, infectivity was unchanged for parasites without LdMT-LdRos3 complexes. We conclude that exposure of PS and PE to the exoplasmic leaflet is not crucial for the infectivity of L. donovani promastigotes.

  14. Disruption of the lipid-transporting LdMT-LdRos3 complex in Leishmania donovani affects membrane lipid asymmetry but not host cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Adrien; Drobot, Björn; Herrmann, Andreas; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago; Günther Pomorski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric lipid distribution across eukaryotic plasma membranes is governed by the concerted action of specific membrane proteins controlling lipid movement across the bilayer. Here, we show that the miltefosine transporter (LdMT), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in Leishmania donovani, and the Cdc50-like protein LdRos3 form a stable complex that plays an essential role in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry in the parasite plasma membrane. Loss of either LdMT or LdRos3 abolishes ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet and results in an increased cell surface exposure of endogenous PE. We also find that promastigotes of L. donovani lack any detectable amount of phosphatidylserine (PS) but retain their infectivity in THP-1-derived macrophages. Likewise, infectivity was unchanged for parasites without LdMT-LdRos3 complexes. We conclude that exposure of PS and PE to the exoplasmic leaflet is not crucial for the infectivity of L. donovani promastigotes. PMID:20865154

  15. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Nascetti, Simona; López-Sabater, Maria C;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage.......The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage....

  16. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  17. Iron dextran increases hepatic oxidative stress and alters expression of genes related to lipid metabolism contributing to hyperlipidaemia in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maísa; da Costa Guerra, Joyce Ferreira; Sampaio, Ana Flávia Santos; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25685776

  18. Iron Dextran Increases Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Alters Expression of Genes Related to Lipid Metabolism Contributing to Hyperlipidaemia in Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S, which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI, which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress.

  19. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT) activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST). Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil. PMID:26104529

  20. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT) activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST). Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  1. Response of oxidative stress and isoflavone treatment on superoxide dismutase enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarsana IN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is defined as over-production of free radicals which lead to cells damage, pathological condition and cell death. The objective of this study was to analyze respond of oxidative stress and isoflavone treatment on superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rat liver. A total of fifteen male Spraque Dawley rats were used in this study. They were sub-divided into three groups; (1 a negative control group, (2 a stress oxidative group, and (3 treatment by stress condition followed by treatment with isoflavone. Stress condition was achieved by five days fasting together with swimming for 5 mins/day and only drinking water ad libitum. Isoflavone was orally administrated on a dose of 1 mg/200g bw/day for five days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia. Liver was collected for analysis of SOD enzyme activities, SOD immunohistochemical analysis, and malondialdehyde (MDA level. Result showed that stress condition increase free radicals that showed by decreased SOD activity, and increased MDA level. Isoflavone treatment could get over reduction of SOD and prevented increase of MDA level in the liver of rats under stress conditions.

  2. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  3. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments.

  4. Molecular dynamics analysis of apolipoprotein-D-lipid hydroperoxide interactions: mechanism for selective oxidation of Met-93.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Oakley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest reduction of radical-propagating fatty acid hydroperoxides to inert hydroxides by interaction with apolipoprotein-D (apoD Met93 may represent an antioxidant function for apoD. The nature and structural consequences of this selective interaction are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we used molecular dynamics (MD analysis to address these issues. Long-timescale simulations of apoD suggest lipid molecules are bound flexibly, with the molecules free to explore multiple conformations in a binding site at the entrance to the classical lipocalin ligand-binding pocket. Models of 5s- 12s- and 15s-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids were created and the lipids found to wrap around Met93 thus providing a plausible mechanism by which eicosatetraenoic acids bearing hydroperoxides on different carbon atoms can interact with Met93 to yield Met93 sulfoxide (Met93SO. Simulations of glycosylated apoD indicated that a second solvent exposed Met at position 49 was shielded by a triantennerary N-glycan attached to Asn45 thereby precluding lipid interactions. MD simulations of apoD showed B-factors of the loop containing Met93SO were higher in the oxidized protein, indicating increased flexibility that is predicted to destabilize the protein and promote self-association. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies provide novel insights into the mechanisms that may contribute to the antioxidant function of apoD and the structural consequences that result if Met93SO is not redox-cycled back to its native state.

  5. Factors affecting mutational specificity induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to analyze the factors affecting the specificity of mutational change as induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. We want to understand not only the rules that affect base substitution, but also the mechanism(s) by which additions and deletions are produced, since detections are a common consequence of radiation. We wish to carry out this analysis in an in vitro mutation system that permits us to analyze the role of base sequence, of polymerase and of mutagenic agent. Our system is designed to screen out most direct breaks as a cause of mutation and should indicate the changes resulting from base damage to the DNA

  6. Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Levels of Nitric Oxide in Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    BENZER, Fulya; OZAN, Sema TEMİZER

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the levels of malondialdehyde and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, two antioxidant enzymes, and the levels of nitric oxide in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica were measured. The level of malondialdehyde in plasma and tissue was measured according to the Yagi and Ohkawa methods, respectively. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured according to the methods of Aebi and Beutler, respectively. The level of nitric oxide was deter...

  7. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such "migratory management" causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  8. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  9. Effect of pH and temperature on comparative antioxidant activity of nonenzymatically browned proteins produced by reaction with oxidized lipids and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaiz, M; Hidalgo, F J; Zamora, R

    1999-02-01

    The antioxidative activity of nonenzymatically browned bovine serum albumin (BSA) produced by reaction with ribose (RI), hydroperoxides of methyl linoleate oxidation (HP), and secondary products of methyl linoleate oxidation (SP), at different pHs (4, 7, and 10) and temperatures (25, 37, 50, 80, and 120 degrees C), was studied to compare the antioxidative effects of carbohydrate- and oxidized lipids-modified proteins. The modified proteins (RIBSA, HPBSA, and SPBSA) were tested for antioxidative activity (at 100 ppm) in soybean oil using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. All of them decreased significantly (p complimentary contribution of both Maillard and oxidized lipid/protein reactions to the antioxidative activity produced in foods during processing and storage. PMID:10563964

  10. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  11. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  12. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes induced by aspirin and diazinon:the protective role of selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Tawab Halim Mossa; Tarek Mohamed Heikal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse effect of exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), diazinon (DIA) and their combination on oxidant/antioxidant status in rat erythrocytes and the ameliorating role of selenium (Se). Methods: Rats were oral administered ASA at the maximum administration dose (1 350 mg/personal/d=2.5 mg/kg body weight/d), DIA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight/d and Se at a dose of 200 µg/kg body weight/d and their combinations for 28 consecutive d. Results: Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to a significant increment (P≤0.05) in lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the increase in erythrocytes MDA levels by 61.8%, 20.79%and 105.62%, respectively. Co-administration of Se to treated rats modulated the augmentation of MDA levels. Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to significant decreases (P≤0.05) in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes when compared to the control group. The most influence and decreases in the activities of the aforementioned enzymes were observed in the treatments of ASA+DIA by 30.53%, 43.42%and 48.31%, respectively. However, co-administration of Se mitigated the significant decreases of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities to by 14.47%, 15, 36%and 12.29%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that DIA and ASA induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes. The results reveal the pronounced ameliorating effect of Se in DIA and ASA intoxicated rats. It is supposed that antioxidant supplementation may be beneficial for the people using ASA for longer periods and exposure to pesticides.

  13. Colour, lipid and protein stability of Rhea americana meat during air- and vacuum-packaged storage: influence of muscle on oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, R S; Gatellier, P; Aubry, L; Thomas, A; Bauchart, D; Durand, D; Zambiazi, R C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2010-11-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability during storage were determined in Gastrocnemius pars interna (GN) and Iliofiburalis (IF) muscles of Rhea americana. Glycolytic potential (GP) and pH decline of muscles were measured within the first 24 h post mortem. Colour, lipid and protein stability were determined during storage of meat, i.e. 5 days under air-packaging at 4°C, or 28 days under vacuum-packaging at 4°C. In parallel, anti-oxidant status of muscles was estimated by measuring α-tocopherol content and anti-oxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase), while pro-oxidant status was evaluated by determining haeminic iron and long chain fatty acids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids). The ultimate pH was similar in both muscles, but the GP value was significantly higher in IF than in GN muscle. Haeminic iron and alpha-tocopherol content differed between muscles, with 30% more haeminic iron (ppackaging, lipid and protein oxidation of rhea muscles increased up to 275% and 30%, respectively. This increase was more rapidly and marked in IF muscle. The IF also showed high level of metmyoglobin accumulation after 3 days of storage (47%) and was rejected by 1 consumer out of 2 in sensorial analysis. Under vacuum-packaging, both muscles showed a high stability of colour and no oxidation of lipids and proteins.

  14. The effect of combined traditional and novel treatments on oxidative status of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) muscle lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Montero, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with beneficial effects on human health; however, these lipids are very sensitive to auto-oxidation reactions, leading to loss of nutritional and sensory quality. The effect of traditional (brining, smoking) and novel (addition of polyphenolic extracts, high pressure) preservation processes on the antioxidant/oxidative status of muscle lipids from dolphinfish and sardine was studied. Brining with oregano or rosemary aqueous extracts, as well as smoking, gave rise to deposition of phenolic compounds (9-42, 1.5-4.5 and 0.4-2.3 µg phenol/g for smoked, oregano-brined and rosemary-brined samples, respectively) in the muscle of both fish species. The antioxidant activity, as measured by ferric reducing ability, was also improved after brining with antioxidant extracts or smoking, results ranging from 8.9 to 82 mM FeSO4 · 7H2O equivalents/mg muscle depending on the treatment and the fish species. Consequently, fish lipid oxidation (as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) derived from brining and pressurizing, applied alone or in combination, was reduced between 6.6 and 69.8% depending on the treatment and the fish species. The combination of brining with oregano extract and light smoking showed an additional antioxidant effect, as compared with that obtained by smoking, on reducing sardine lipid oxidation derived from brining and pressurizing. PMID:23751550

  15. New parameters for evaluating the quality of commercial krill oil capsules from the aspect of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Classical techniques such as Peroxide Value and Anisidine Value are not useful to evaluate the quality of krill oil. These techniques may underestimate lipid oxidation and other degradative reactions in krill oil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of eight di...

  16. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegeta...

  17. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  18. The influence of age and the beginning of menopause on the lipid status, LDL oxidation, and CRP in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čaparević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherogenic lipid profile is an important risk factor in development of atherosclerosis in menopausal women. High level of small dense LDL, that is more susceptible to oxidation, and high levels of inflammatory markers are also associated with an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid profile, oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP as inflammatory reaction in healthy women dependent on age and menopause. Method. The study included a group of clinically healthy women (total of 97 women. Group 1: 15 women younger than 45 years; group 2: 62 women between 46 and 55 years, group 3: 20 women between 56 and 65 years, group of menopausal women (73 and group of premenopausal women (24. None of the women had history of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular, ischaemic heart disease, and hypertension. Lipid profiles were measured by enzymatic methods. Ox-LDL was measured by using a specific monoclonal antibody, mAb4E6. CRP was measured using hemiluminiscent methods (Immulite-DPC. Results. Results showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (p<0.01 and LDL cholesterol (p<0.01 in women over 56 years compared with women younger than 45 years. We also found similar results in menopausal women. Levels of Ox-LDL (p<0.05 and CRP (p<0.01 showed significantly higher levels in women over 56 years. In menopausal women, we found significantly higher levels of CRP (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the levels of oxLDL between the menopausal and premenopausal women. Levels of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not different among groups. We found that 51% women had levels of HDL cholesterol lower than 1.3 mmol/L. In all groups of women, we found positive correlation among age, Ox-LDL (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.01. Ox-LDL also positively correlated with CRP (p<0.01. Conclusion. In healthy women older than 56 as in menopausal

  19. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish. PMID:26704851

  20. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates...... are relatively ineffective as direct scavengers for HOCl as compared to water soluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, k ca. 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The reaction of HOCl with hydroquinone (a simple model for ubiquinol-10) was also investigated both in aqueous solution (k = 45 M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in a less polar...

  1. MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND SERUM LIPIDS IN PAT IENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Latha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress were evaluated in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total antioxidant capacity were measured in serum of PCOS subjects and age matche d controls. RESULTS: Study group comprised of 31 women with PCOS and control group wit h 31 healthy volunteers. Mean serum levels of MDA, Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL c holesterol were significantly increased and TAC and HDL cholesterol were significantly decrease d in PCOS subjects compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that PCOS is associated with d yslipidemia and altered oxidative status.

  2. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, Leah D; Butz, Daniel E; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, Luann K; Cook, Mark E; Porter, Warren P; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Markley, John L; Lindheim, Steven R; Schoeller, Dale A; Abbott, David H; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (pmetabolic substrate during overnight fasting in PCOS compared to normal women. Accompanying urinary analyses showed a trending correlation (pmetabolic intermediates (acetone, 2-oxocaporate, 2-aminobutyrate, pyruvate, formate, and sarcosine) in PCOS women, whereas the 2 h glucose challenge led to increases in the same intermediates in normal women. These pilot data suggest that PCOS-related inflexibility in fasting-related switching between lipid and carbohydrate/protein utilization for carbon metabolism may contribute to enhanced weight gain. PMID:24765590

  3. Reduction of lipid oxidation by formation of caseinate-oil-oat gum emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of oat gum, though important for formation of stable emulsion, has no effect on oxidation of Omega 3 oil; this is most prominent in fish-oil based Omega 3 oil. The optimal concentration of oat gum is about 0.2% wt for emulsion stability and visual appearance. We found that concentr...

  4. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  5. Rare Branched Fatty Acids Characterize the Lipid Composition of the Intra-Aerobic Methane Oxidizer "

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.M.; Zhu, B.L.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Ettwig, K.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    The recently described bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" couples the oxidation of the important greenhouse gas methane to the reduction of nitrite. The ecological significance of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" is still underexplored, as our ability to identify the presence of this bact

  6. Interaction between nitric oxide and lipid-like DDPA LB film investigated with SHG and AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU, An- Chi; LIU, Ting-Ting; LUO, Guo-Bin; YING, Li-Ming; ZHAO, Xin-Sheng; HUANG, Yan-Yi; HUANG, Chun-Hui

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between Nitric oxide (NO) and DDPA LangmuirBlodgett (LB) film are investigated with second harmonic generation (SHG) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been found that the adsorption of NO molecules on DDPA LB film only changes the value of the second-order susceptibility of the DDPA molecule on film but not its orientation.

  7. Protective Effects of Simvastatin, a Lipid Lowering Agent, against Oxidative Damage in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Mohamadin

    2011-01-01

    In vitro studies confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of SMV. Therefore, the present results revealed that SMV has a protective effect against STZ-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the free radicals generation and restoring the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems.

  8. The Autistic Phenotype Exhibits a Remarkably Localized Modification of Brain Protein by Products of Free Radical-Induced Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been documented in the peripheral tissues of autism patients. In this study, we sought evidence of oxidative injury in autistic brain. Carboxyethyl pyrrole (CEP and iso[4]levuglandin (iso[4]LGE2-protein adducts, that are uniquely generated through peroxidation of docosahexaenoate and arachidonate-containing lipids respectively, and heme oxygenase-1 were detected immunocytochemically in cortical brain tissues and by ELISA in blood plasma. Significant immunoreactivity toward all three of these markers of oxidative damage in the white matter and often extending well into the grey matter of axons was found in every case of autism examined. This striking threadlike pattern appears to be a hallmark of the autistic brain as it was not seen in any control brain, young or aged, used as controls for the oxidative assays. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed neurofilament heavy chain to be a major target of CEP-modification. In contrast, in plasma from 27 autism spectrum disorder patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls we found similar levels of plasma CEP (124.5 ± 57.9 versus 110.4 ± 30.3 pmol/mL, iso[4]LGE2 protein adducts (16.7 ± 5.8 versus 13.4 ± 3.4 nmol/mL, anti-CEP (1.2 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.3 and anti-iso[4]LGE2 autoantibody titre (1.3 ± 1.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.9, and no differences between the ratio of NO2Tyr/Tyr (7.81 E-06 ± 3.29 E-06 versus 7.87 E-06 ± 1.62 E-06. These findings provide the first direct evidence of increased oxidative stress in the autistic brain. It seems likely that oxidative injury of proteins in the brain would be associated with neurological abnormalities and provide a cellular basis at the root of autism spectrum disorders.

  9. Rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L. supplementation into the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: effects on lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chiofalo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the growing-fattening period (93 days; ILW 33.5±6 kg to FLW 67±3 kg, 30 Nero Siciliano pigs were fed on a basal diet supplemented with (ROX group or not (CTR group a rosemary extract (1g?kg-1. At 1, 3 and 5 days after slaughtering, the oxidative stability of the Longissimus dorsi muscle was determined by using TBArs test. Moreover, on the individual samples of the muscle the lipid content, the fatty acid and the sterol composition were determined; the acidic composition of the lard, removed from backfat, was also studied. Data were subjected to ANOVA. The fat content of the muscle was unaffected by the dietary treatment as well as the oxidative stability whereas, significant differences (P²0.01 were observed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid content which showed the highest values in the meat as well as in the lard of the ROX group; PUFA/SFA ratio was also significantly highest in the muscle (P=0.004 and in the lard (P=0.017 of the ROX group, testifying a possible antioxidative activity of the rosemary extract. The sterol fraction (cholesterol, cholestanol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and delta 5-avenasterol of the Longissimus dorsi muscle was unaffected by the rosemary supplementation; a significant difference was observed only for the campesterol (CTR group=1.08, ROX group=0.90; P = 0.021.

  10. Cell survival during complete nutrient deprivation depends on lipid droplet-fueled β-oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabodevilla, Ainara G; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Nintou, Eleni; Boiadjieva, Violeta G; Picatoste, Fernando; Gubern, Albert; Claro, Enrique

    2013-09-27

    Cells exposed to stress of different origins synthesize triacylglycerols and generate lipid droplets (LD), but the physiological relevance of this response is uncertain. Using complete nutrient deprivation of cells in culture as a simple model of stress, we have addressed whether LD biogenesis has a protective role in cells committed to die. Complete nutrient deprivation induced the biogenesis of LD in human LN18 glioblastoma and HeLa cells and also in CHO and rat primary astrocytes. In all cell types, death was associated with LD depletion and was accelerated by blocking LD biogenesis after pharmacological inhibition of Group IVA phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) or down-regulation of ceramide kinase. Nutrient deprivation also induced β-oxidation of fatty acids that was sensitive to cPLA2α inhibition, and cell survival in these conditions became strictly dependent on fatty acid catabolism. These results show that, during nutrient deprivation, cell viability is sustained by β-oxidation of fatty acids that requires biogenesis and mobilization of LD.

  11. Commonly consumed and naturally occurring dietary substances affect biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farombi, E. O.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    The influence of black currant juice, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI), kolaviron (a biflavonoid fraction of Garcinia kola seed), sugars, vitamin C and tert-butyl hydroperoxide on a wide range of biomarkers for oxidative stress, DNA damage and sugar or lipid metabolism has been investigated...... exposed to black currant juice, a statistically significant decrease in liver AAS and MDA was observed. This effect could not be explained by its content of sugars or of the known redox active constituent, vitamin C. The lowering effect of black currant juice on protein and lipid oxidation was similar...... in magnitude to that of the known liver protectant, kolaviron. In rats treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg body weight), background AAS levels were significantly reduced in both plasma and liver whereas the effect on MDA only reached statistical significance in plasma. Kolaviron was the only extract tested which...

  12. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Omotayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe2+-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe2+ inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe2+ inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe2+ may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe2+ and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump.

  13. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  14. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  15. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles, carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Water extracts was less efficient especially at higher concentrations, which might be due to lower phenolic content or due to the pro-oxidative nature...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...

  16. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur;

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl......-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating ability and reducing power. Progression of oxidation was followed by determining rancid odour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), redness and volatile oxidation compounds by gas chromatography (GC). In both...... the initiation of lipid peroxidation in both systems throughout the entire study period (8 days). Its effectiveness at 300 mg/kg level was comparable to that of 100 mg/kg propyl gallate (PG), a highly effective synthetic antioxidant in muscle foods. Although polymeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-5) had...

  17. Hepatocyte MyD88 affects bile acids, gut microbiota and metabolome contributing to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duparc, Thibaut; Plovier, Hubert; Marrachelli, Vannina G;

    2016-01-01

    performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESULTS...... proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes......, resembling those observed during diet-induced obesity. Finally, obese humans with NASH displayed a decreased expression of different cytochromes P450 involved in bioactive lipid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies a new link between innate immunity and hepatic synthesis of bile acids and bioactive...

  18. Lipid induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Jeppesen, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    AbstractObjective: We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism...... than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid induced insulin resistance. Research and design methods: Insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7h. Muscle...... biopsies were obtained before and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (1.42 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) clamp. Results: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p

  19. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in bovine meat during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ilir Lloha; Vlash Mara

    2013-01-01

    Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been bovine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid) assay shows that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sa...

  20. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in porcine meat during storage

    OpenAIRE

    ILIR LLOHA; VLASH MARA

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been porcine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid) assay show that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sa...

  1. DNA Repair and the Accumulation of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Are Affected by Fruit Intake in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Harboe, Charlotte;

    2010-01-01

    were fed for 14 weeks a control diet or a diet with 8% peach or nectarine extract. The activities of DNA repair enzymes, the level of DNA damage, and gene expression changes were measured. Our study showed that repair of various oxidative DNA lesions was more efficient in liver extracts derived from......Aging is associated with elevated oxidative stress and DNA damage. To achieve healthy aging, we must begin to understand how diet affects cellular processes. We postulated that fruit-enriched diets might initiate a program of enhanced DNA repair and thereby improve genome integrity. C57Bl/6 J mice......-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest that an increased intake of fruits might modulate the efficiency of DNA repair, resulting in altered levels of DNA damage....

  2. Hydrocortisone stimulates the development of oligodendrocytes in primary glial cultures and affects glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in these cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Warringa, R.A.J.; Hoeben, R C; Koper, W.J.; Sykes, J.E.C.; Golde, L.M.G. van; Lopes-Cardozo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of glial cells were prepared from the brains of one-week-old rat pups. After one day in culture, serum was omitted from the medium and replaced by a combination of growth-stimulating hormones and other factors that enhanced the percentage of oligodendrocytes in the cultures. We investigated the effects of hydrocortisone on the development of oligodendrocytes, on the activities of oligodendrocyte-specific enzymes and on glucose- and lipid-metabolism of the glial cells. (1) Hydrocortis...

  3. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of microbiota isolated from infant fecal samples after in vitro fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    Some lipid hydrolysis products such as medium-chained free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) have antibacterial activity, while others, including oleic acid, have been reported to be essential for optimal growth of Lactobacillus species. Thus, the FFA and MAG concentration in the distal...... of Firmicutes, Lactobacillus and B.longum is significantly increased in the presence of a mixture of C10-C14 FFAs....

  4. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hippocampal formation in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.W. Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal output is increased in affective disorders and is mediated by increased glutamatergic input via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and moderated by antidepressant treatment. Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate evokes the release of nitric oxide (NO by the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. The human hippocampus contains a high density of NMDA receptors and nNOS-expressing neurons suggesting the existence of an NMDA-NO transduction pathway which can be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. We tested the hypothesis that nNOS expression is increased in the human hippocampus from affectively ill patients. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate nNOS-expressing neurons in sections obtained from the Stanley Consortium postmortem brain collection from patients with major depression (MD, N = 15, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 15, and schizophrenia (N = 15 and from controls (N = 15. nNOS-immunoreactive (nNOS-IR and Nissl-stained neurons were counted in entorhinal cortex, hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 subfields, and subiculum. The numbers of Nissl-stained neurons were very similar in different diagnostic groups and correlated significantly with the number of nNOS-IR neurons. Both the MD and the BD groups had greater number of nNOS-IR neurons/400 µm² in CA1 (mean ± SEM: MD = 9.2 ± 0.6 and BD = 8.4 ± 0.6 and subiculum (BD = 6.7 ± 0.4 when compared to control group (6.6 ± 0.5 and this was significantly more marked in samples from the right hemisphere. These changes were specific to affective disorders since no changes were seen in the schizophrenic group (6.7 ± 0.8. The results support the current view of the NMDA-NO pathway as a target for the pathophysiology of affective disorders and antidepressant drug development.

  5. Isolation and Expression Analysis of STAT Members from Synechogobius hasta and Their Roles in Leptin Affecting Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins (STATs act as important mediators in multiple biological processes induced by a large number of cytokines. In the present study, full-length cDNA sequences of seven STAT members, including some splicing variants different from those in mammals, were obtained from Synechogobius hasta. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the seven STAT members were derived from paralogous genes that might have arisen by whole genome duplication (WGD events during vertebrate evolution. All of these members share similar domain structure compared with those of mammals, and were widely expressed across the tested tissues (brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle and spleen, but at variable levels. Incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed the intracellular triglyceride (TG content and mRNA levels of several STATs members, as well as expressions and activities of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, Tyrphostin B42 (AG490, a specific inhibitor of the Janus Kinase 2(JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced change on STAT3 and its two spliced isoforms expression, as well as expressions and activities of genes involved in lipid metabolism. As a consequence, the decrease of TG content was also reversed. Thus, our study suggests that STAT3 is the requisite for the leptin signal and the activation of the STAT3 member may account for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in S. hasta.

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  7. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas ePedrini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities.. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP, a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and 4 CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1 out of 6 genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular

  8. A comparative study on the effect of rosemary extract and sodium ascorbate on lipid and pigment oxidative stability of liver pate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewez Moges

    2015-02-01

    A comparative study on the antioxidant effect of rosemary extract (RE) and sodium ascorbate (SA) on lipid and colour oxidation of liver pâté made of lard and pork liver was done. During the 48 hour experimental time all the pâtés were wrapped in a foil and stored in cold room of 3.5°C under light of 1000 lux. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In the present study RE doses range (0,125, 250, 375 and 500 ppm) showed no significant (p>0.05) and linear effect on colour stability. However thez RE revealed a significant effect (p0.05) effect on TBARS number. In this study RE was showed better performance against lipid oxidation and SA was potent against discoloration. The effect of the added spices used in manufacturing of the studied product showed no significant (p>0.05) effect against lipid and color oxidation. However the added spices revealed possible antagonistic and synergetic relationship with the studied the antioxidant systems (RE & SA). PMID:25694710

  9. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P sausage.

  10. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05) concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05) concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05) concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05) the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  11. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    Full Text Available This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C. Diet had no effect (P> 0.05 on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA, antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05 concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05 concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05 concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05 the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05 while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon.

  12. Protective effects of Carissa opaca fruits against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney lipid peroxidation and trauma in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Sahreen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a potent nephrotoxin, as it causes acute as well as chronic toxicity in kidneys. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the pharmacological potential of different fractions of Carissa opaca fruits on CCl4-induced oxidative trauma in the kidney. Methods: The parameters studied in this respect were the kidney function tests viz, serum profile, urine profile, genotoxicity, characteristic morphological findings, and antioxidant enzymatic level of kidneys. Result: The protective effects of various fractions of C. opaca fruits against CCl4 administration were reviewed by rat renal function alterations. Chronic toxicity caused by 8-week treatment of CCl4 to the rats significantly decreased the pH level, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione contents, whereas a significant increase was found in the case of specific gravity, red blood cells, white blood cells, level of urea, and lipid peroxidation in comparison to control group. Administration of various fractions of C. opaca fruit with CCl4 showed protective ability against CCl4 intoxication by restoring the urine profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rat. CCl4 induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation and glomerular atrophy by means of dilation, disappearance of Bowmen's space, congestion in the capillary loops, dilation in renal tubules, and foamy look of epithelial cells of tubular region, which were restored by co-admiration of various fractions of C. opaca. Conclusion: Results revealed that the methanolic fractions of C. opaca are the most potent and helpful in kidney trauma.

  13. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in carcinomas and sarcomas affecting the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Augustine; Sekar, B.; Murali, S.; Maya Ramesh; R Nirmal Madhavan; Shankar Gouda Patil; Rao, Roopa S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a cytoplasmic enzyme which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of oral carcinomas and sarcomas. Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in carcinomas and sarcomas affecting the oral cavity in order to understand the possible role of iNOS in their biologic behavior and to correlate iNOS expression with lymph node metastasis in carcinomas and sarcomas. Settings and Design: Patients, who a...

  14. Papel do sal iodado na oxidação lipídica em hambúrgueres bovino e suíno (misto ou de frango The role of iodide salts on beef and chicken patties lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.F.S. TORRES

    1998-04-01

    the other hand lipid oxidation was higher (56,40% more in chicken samples. Iodide presence (14,41% did not affected lipid oxidation, in both meat as would be expected for an oxidant halogen salts.

  15. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning. PMID:25860433

  16. Investigation of lipid profile and occular oxidative stress of Chloroxylon swietenia on Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Patchimatla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder, characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Aim: This investigation was designed to study the antidiabetic effect of Ethanolic extract of Chloroxylon swietenia (EECS in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-induced type-II diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was given to the overnight-fasted Wistar albino rats for 14 days and the antidiabetic, lipid profile and ocular oxidative stress in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. The parameters studied were blood glucose, lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL], serum enzymes such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, complete blood picture (RBC, haemoglobin, WBC, insulin and liver glycogen levels. The result of test drug was compared with diabetic control. Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg was selected as standard hypoglycaemic drug. Statistical Analysis: Results were expressed as Mean ± SD. Dunnet′s and one-way ANOVA test was used to compare the mean values of test groups and diabetic control. Results: Administration of EECS prior to glucose overload resulted significant attenuation in blood sugar level at 60 and 120 min in comparison to glucose control group. The antidiabetic activity of EECS showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in blood glucose level at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dose levels at 14 th day. EECS with (250 and 500 mg/kg also decreased in serum SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C, WBC and TBARS, in diabetic-induced rats. In addition EECS at (250 and 500 mg/kg increased liver glycogen, insulin, complete blood picture RBC, haemoglobin

  17. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  18. Evaluation of the 2-thiobarbituric acid method for the measurement of lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned gamma irradiated chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method for the measurement of lipid oxidation in samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM), both gamma irradiated with doses of 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and non-irradiated. The values for the percent recuperation of 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxy-propane (TEP) and for the conversion factor K for the samples irradiated with doses of 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and the non-irradiated samples were, respectively, 88.6%, 90.0% and 88.6% for the former and 4.98, 4.91 and 4.98 for K. Comparing the results obtained for the samples of MDCM irradiated with doses of 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and the non-irradiated samples, as evaluated by the TBA distillation method, it was observed that the values for percent recuperation of TEP, the values for K and the spectral curves, as also the linear equations of the standard curves for the distillation of malonaldehyde, were similar for all the samples, no singular interference on the TBA test due to the process of irradiating the MDCM, being detected. (author)

  19. Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Disrupt Lipid Composition, Ca(2+) Homeostasis, and Synaptic Transmission in Primary Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramini, Mattia; Sacchetti, Silvio; Armirotti, Andrea; Rocchi, Anna; Vázquez, Ester; León Castellanos, Verónica; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-07-26

    Graphene has the potential to make a very significant impact on society, with important applications in the biomedical field. The possibility to engineer graphene-based medical devices at the neuronal interface is of particular interest, making it imperative to determine the biocompatibility of graphene materials with neuronal cells. Here we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the effects of chronic and acute exposure of rat primary cortical neurons to few-layer pristine graphene (GR) and monolayer graphene oxide (GO) flakes. By combining a range of cell biology, microscopy, electrophysiology, and "omics" approaches we characterized the graphene-neuron interaction from the first steps of membrane contact and internalization to the long-term effects on cell viability, synaptic transmission, and cell metabolism. GR/GO flakes are found in contact with the neuronal membrane, free in the cytoplasm, and internalized through the endolysosomal pathway, with no significant impact on neuron viability. However, GO exposure selectively caused the inhibition of excitatory transmission, paralleled by a reduction in the number of excitatory synaptic contacts, and a concomitant enhancement of the inhibitory activity. This was accompanied by induction of autophagy, altered Ca(2+) dynamics, and a downregulation of some of the main players in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our results show that, although graphene exposure does not impact neuron viability, it does nevertheless have important effects on neuronal transmission and network functionality, thus warranting caution when planning to employ this material for neurobiological applications. PMID:27359048

  20. INHIBITION OF THE LIPID OXIDATION PROCESSES BY THE KAZAKHSTANI-SOIL ENDEMIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashentseva A.A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids (PL are universal components of cell membranes. They can be used as objective indices of normal or pathological organism states. The changing nature of the quantitative composition of PL is indicating the intensity of oxidative stress as well as the efficiency of exogenous plant antioxidants.The PL dynamics of the ischemia in experimental rat’s was investigated. The change of that parameter using the preventive injection of some vegetation organs of Kazakhstan birch extract.The extracts of the birch vegetation organs in experimental group were dosed in the amount of 5 mg/kg. In order to investigate PL dynamics, the tissues of brain, liver, and kidney have been studied.In order to estimate the PL change range in rat homogenate, the correlation between neutral and acid PL. Despite the fact that the amount of acid PL in the bio-membranes is less than the neutral ones, the latter regulate membrane functions in a higher degree.It has been found that the rats which had experienced ischemia have a decreased amount of acid PL in the homogenates. Preventive injection of birch extracts brings about normalization of PL level. This fact points out a possibility of applying extracts of Betula Pendula Roth in order to regulate the PL level of experimental rats as well as an estimation of the antioxidant effect of exogenoussubstances.

  1. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  2. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  3. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Javier; Álvarez, Victoria; Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment a...

  4. Argan oil prevents prothrombotic complications by lowering lipid levels and platelet aggregation, enhancing oxidative status in dyslipidemic patients from the area of Rabat (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Masrar, Azelarab; Chraibi, Abdelmjid; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background It is now established that patients with hyperlipidemia have a high risk of atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications, which are two important events responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. In the context of managing dyslipidemia by means of dietary advice based on the consumption of argan oil, we wanted to investigate the effect of virgin argan oil on plasma lipids, and for the first time, on the platelet hyperactivation and oxidative status associa...

  5. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dos...

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lakshmi Devi; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at...

  7. The direct effect of leptin on skeletal muscle thermogenesis is mediated by substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Giovanni; Summermatter, Serge; Mainieri, Davide; Gubler, Marcel; Pirola, Luciano; Wymann, Matthias P.; Rusconi, Sandro; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Seydoux, Josiane

    2005-01-01

    We report here studies that integrate data of respiration rate from mouse skeletal muscle in response to leptin and pharmacological interference with intermediary metabolism, together with assays for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Our results suggest that the direct effect of leptin in stimulating thermogenesis in skeletal muscle is mediated by substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation, and that this cycle requires both PI...

  8. [Influence of wholemeal bread on functional and structure characteristics erythrocytes membrane and lipids oxidation in fraction of microsome of internal organs in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitavskaia, A V; Khasiev, Kh Kh; Murzakhmetova, M K

    2006-01-01

    Acute tests in rats showed, that application of wholemeal bread into a standard vivarium ration (40 g per a rat with body weight 180-200 g) drastically impoves structural and functional characteristics of membranes of erlthrocytes and cells of a number of internal organs. Anhibition of peroxide oxidation of biological membranes lipids of internal organs (liver, ridneys, heart, lungs and brain) takes place, as well as impairment of erythrocytes membranes perkeability and increase of their peroxide resistivity.

  9. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J.; Mendizabal, Jose A.; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega‐3, with CLA, or with omega‐3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatme...

  10. Chemical composition and oxidative status of tissues from Iberian pigs as affected by diets: extensive feeding v. oleic acid- and tocopherol-enriched mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Tejeda, J F; Estévez, M

    2008-04-01

    The present work was intended to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the muscle biceps femoris and adipose tissues from Iberian pigs fed different finishing diets: free-range feeding on grass and acorns in a 'Montanera' traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115 g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement with a tocopherol-non-supplemented control mixed diet (CON). Muscles from MON pigs contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat than those from HOVE and CON pigs. Muscles from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than muscles from CON pigs whereas free-range feeding provided significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol to muscles from MON pigs than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. Adipose tissues from MON and HOVE pigs contained significantly lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and significantly higher levels of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids than those from CON pigs. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than those from CON and HOVE pigs. To a higher extent, feeding background affected the fatty acid composition of polar lipids from the muscle biceps femoris than that of neutral lipids. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller ω-6/ω-3 values than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Compared to tissues from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels.

  11. Beneficial effects of simulated gastro-intestinal digests of fried egg and its fractions on blood pressure, plasma lipids and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Jahandideh

    Full Text Available We have previously characterized several antihypertensive peptides in simulated digests of cooked eggs and showed blood pressure lowering property of fried whole egg digest. However, the long-term effects of this hydrolysate and its fractions on blood pressure are not known. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to determine the effects of long term administration of fried whole egg hydrolysate and its fractions (i.e. egg white and egg yolk on regulation of blood pressure and associated factors in cardiovascular disease such as plasma lipid profile and tissue oxidative stress.We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, an animal model of essential hypertension. Hydrolysates of fried egg and its fractions were prepared by simulated gastro-intestinal digestion with pepsin and pancreatin. 16-17 week old male SHRs were orally administered fried whole egg hydrolysate, non-hydrolyzed fried whole egg, egg white hydrolysate or egg yolk hydrolysates (either defatted, or not daily for 18 days. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate were monitored by telemetry. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the treatment for vascular function studies and evaluating plasma lipid profile and tissue oxidative stress. BP was reduced by feeding fried whole egg hydrolysate but not by the non-hydrolyzed product suggesting a critical role for in vitro digestion in releasing anti-hypertensive peptides. Egg white hydrolysate and defatted egg yolk hydrolysate (but not egg yolk hydrolysate also had similar effects. Reduction in BP was accompanied by the restoration of nitric oxide (NO dependent vasorelaxation and reduction of plasma angiotensin II. Fried whole egg hydrolysate also reduced plasma levels of triglyceride although it was increased by the non-hydrolyzed sample. Additionally the hydrolyzed preparations attenuated tissue oxidative stress.Our results demonstrate that fried egg hydrolysates exert anti-hypertensive effects, improve plasma lipid profile and attenuate

  12. Light intensity and N/P nutrient affect the accumulation of lipid and unsaturated fatty acids by Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Su, Gaomin; Li, Zheng; Chang, Jingyu; Zeng, Xianhai; Sun, Yong; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, different light intensities (80, 160, 240 and 320 μmol/m(2) s) and various mediums including control medium (CM), N/P rich medium (NPM), N rich medium (NM), and P rich medium (PM) were applied for cultivation of Chlorella sp. It was revealed that cultivation of Chlorella sp. in CM under the light intensity of 320 μmol/m(2) s led to a lipid content up to 30% enhancement, which was higher than the results of other cases. A rather high unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of 7.5% and unsaturated fatty acid/total fatty acid (UFA/TFA) ratio of 0.73 were obtained under 320 μmol/m(2) s in CM, indicating that the CM-320 system was applicable for the generation of UFA. Moreover, Chlorella sp. cultivated in PM under 320 μmol/m(2) s provided higher TFA content (7.3%), which was appropriate for biofuel production.

  13. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the lipid bilayer, the local temperature and membrane fluidity could be observed. DLNAs were encapsulated with different sized nanoparticles and concentrations in order to observe the effect of the bilayer nanoparticles on the lipid bilayer's phase behavior and leakage. Two different sized nanoparticles were used, a 2 nm gold nanoparticle (GNP) much smaller than the thickness of the bilayer and a 4 nm GNP near the thickness of the lipid bilayer. The 2 nm GNPs were shown to affect the lipid bilayer differently than the 4 nm GNP. Specifically, the two nanoparticles altered the phase behavior and leakage differently in a temperature dependent fashion, demonstrating that embedded nanoparticle size can be used induce or inhibit bilayer leakage. A dual solvent exchange method was used to control the lipid surface composition of an iron oxide nanoparticle with a cationic lipid and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipid to produce lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). PEG is well known for its ability to enhance the pharmacokinetics of nanostructures by preventing uptake by the immune system. By controlling the lipid surface composition, the surface charge and PEG conformation can be controlled which allowed the LMNPs to be used as an MRI contrast agent and a delivery system for siRNA that could be triggered with temperature.

  14. Differential degradation of intact polar and core glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids upon post-depositional oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Kraaij, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Baas, M.; Stuut, J.-B.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) are used in various proxies, such as TEX86 and the BIT index. In living organism, they contain polar head groups (intact polar lipids – IPLs). IPL GDGTs have also been detected in ancient marine sediments and it is unclear wh

  15. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  16. Fe2+ oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe2+ ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ with H2O2 (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ with H2O2 (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe2+ oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe2+ is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: ► Slow oxidation of Fe2+ is helpful in jarosite formation. ► The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. ► Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  17. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.

  18. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples. PMID:26255668

  19. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.

  20. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment. PMID:27158393

  1. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. PMID:26475070

  2. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  3. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions as Affected by Water, Soil and Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zheng-Qin; XING Guang-Xi; ZHU Zhao-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Specific management of water regimes,soil and N in China might play an important role in regulating N2O and CH4 emissions in rice fields.Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from alternate non-flooded/flooded paddies were monitored simultaneously during a 516-day incubation with lysimeter experiments.Two N sources (15N-(NH4)2SO4 and 15N-labeled milk vetch)were applied to two contrasting paddies:one derived from Xiashu loess(Loess)and one from Quaternary red clay(Clay).Both N2O and CH4 emissions were significantly higher in soil Clay than in soil Loess during the flooded period.For both soil,N2O emissions peaked at the transition periods shortly after the beginning of the flooded and non-flooded seasons.Soil type affected N2O emission patterns.In soil Clay,the emission peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions was much higher than the peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions.In soil Loess,the emission peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions was obviously higher than the peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions except for milk vetch treatment.Soil type also had a significant effect on CH4 emissions during the flooded season,over which the weighted average flux was 111 mg C m-2 h-1 and 2.2 mg C m-2 h-1 from Clay and Loess,respectively.Results indicated that it was the transition in the water regime that dominated N2O emissions while it was the soil type that dominated CH4 emissions during the flooded season.Anaerobic oxidation of methane possibly existed in soil Loess during the flooded season.

  4. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  5. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduce...

  6. Hepatic oxidative stress and metal subcellular partitioning are affected by selenium exposure in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Dominic E; Caron, Antoine; Hare, Landis; Campbell, Peter G C

    2016-07-01

    Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from 11 lakes in the Canadian mining regions of Sudbury (Ontario) and Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) display wide ranges in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and thallium (Tl) in their livers. To determine if these trace elements, as well as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), are causing oxidative stress in these fish, we measured three biochemical indicators (glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)) in their livers. We observed that 44% of the yellow perch that we collected were at risk of cellular oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Considering all fish from all lakes, higher liver Se concentrations were coincident with both lower proportions of GSSG compared to GSH and lower concentrations of TBARS, suggesting that the essential trace-element Se acts as an antioxidant. Furthermore, fish suffering oxidative stress had higher proportions of Cd, Cu and Zn in potentially sensitive subcellular fractions (organelles and heat-denatured proteins) than did fish not suffering from stress. This result suggests that reactive oxygen species may oxidize metal-binding proteins and thereby reduce the capacity of fish to safely bind trace metals. High Cd concentrations in metal-sensitive subcellular fractions likely further exacerbate the negative effects of lower Se exposure. PMID:27131821

  7. Differential degradation of intact polar and core glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids upon post-depositional oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Lengger, S. K.; Kraaij, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Baas, M.; Stuut, J.-B.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) are used in various proxies, such as TEX86 and the BIT index. In living organism, they contain polar head groups (intact polar lipids – IPLs). IPL GDGTs have also been detected in ancient marine sediments and it is unclear whether or not they are fossil entities or are part of living cells. In order to determine the extent of degradation of IPL GDGTs over geological timescales, we analyzed turbidite deposits, which had...

  8. Low intensity infrared laser affects expression of oxidative DNA repair genes in mitochondria and nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Mencalha, A. L.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2014-11-01

    Practical properties and physical characteristics of low intensity lasers have made possible their application to treat soft tissue diseases. Excitation of intracellular chromophores by red and infrared radiation at low energy fluences with increase of mitochondrial metabolism is the basis of the biostimulation effect but free radicals can be produced. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by the base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluate the expression of POLγ and APEX2 genes related to repair of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low intensity infrared laser at different fluences. One hour and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA expression by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to laser radiation show different expression of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA depending of the fluence and time after exposure. Our study suggests that a low intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of oxidative lesions in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  9. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  10. Triggering role of nitric oxide in the delayed protective effect of monophosphoryl lipid A in rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Katalin; Muller, Bernard; Végh, Agnes; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Stoclet, Jean-Claud

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to further evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in delayed cardiac protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced by monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA).For this purpose, rats were administered with either 0.5 or 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA (i.p.). Eight or 24 h later, in vivo NO production in the heart was analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique. In parallel experiments, hearts were removed and perfused according to Langendorff. Functional ventricular parameters and incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were determined after 30 min global ischaemic insult (37°C) followed by 30 min reperfusion. Vascular reactivity of aortic rings was also assessed.Hearts from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 24 h (but not those from rats treated with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 and 24 h, or with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h) exhibited preservation of ventricular function (LVDP, ±dP/dtmax) and a reduced incidence of VF (25% vs 87.5% in vehicle control) during reperfusion. At the cardioprotective dose of 2.5 mg kg−1 (for 8 or 24 h), MLA did not produce alterations of the contractile response of aortic rings to noradrenaline.An increased formation of NO was detected in hearts removed from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h, but not in those from rats treated for 24 h (or with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA).Pretreatment of the animals with the inhibitors of inducible NO-synthase, aminoguanidine (2×300 mg kg−1) or L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL, 10 mg kg−1) abolished both MLA (2.5 mg kg−1)-induced rise of NO production (observed 8 h after MLA) and cardioprotection (observed 24 h after MLA). However MLA-induced cardioprotection was not attenuated when the hearts were perfused with aminoguanidine (150 μM) for 30 min before the ischaemic insult.Altogether, the present data suggest that NO acts as a trigger rather then a direct

  11. Role of Lipid Peroxidation Products, Plasma Total Antioxidant Status, and Cu-, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Elderly Prediabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetes is well known, but the influence of metabolic disturbances recognized as prediabetes, in elderly patients especially, awaits for an explanation. Methods. 52 elderly persons (65 years old and older with no acute or severe chronic disorders were assessed: waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT, and arterial blood pressure. During an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT fasting (0′ and 120-minute (120′ glycemia and insulinemia were determined, and type 2 diabetics (n=6 were excluded. Subjects were tested for glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, plasma lipids, total antioxidant status (TAS, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD-1. According to OGTT results, patients were classified as normoglycemics, (NGT, n=18 and prediabetics, (PRE, n=28. Results. Both groups did not differ with their lipids, FAT, and TBARS. PRE group had higher WC (P<0.002 and BMI (P<0.002. Lower SOD-1 activity (P<0.04 and TAS status (P<0.04 were found in PRE versus NGT group. Significance. In elderly prediabetics, SOD-1 and TAS seem to reflect the first symptoms of oxidative stress, while TBARS are later biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  12. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  13. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  14. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  15. Anti oxidative Properties of Irradiated Chitosan/Vitamin C Nanoparticles and their Use as Food Additive for Lipid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan (CS) antioxidant activity improvement was achieved by decreasing their molecular-weight (MW) by γ-rays followed by incorporation with vitamin C (VC) to prepare chitosan/vitamin C (CSVC) complex in the range of nanoparticles. Transmittance Electron Microscopy (TEM) of CSVC complex showed mean diameters ranged from 23.2 to 82 nm. The antioxidant activities of CSVC complexes were examined using scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and reducing power measurements. CSVC complexes have a synergistic effect on increasing the antioxidant properties rather than their individual effects. The effect of CSVC complexes on lipid peroxidation of meat during 21 days of refrigerated storage was investigated using thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Treatment of meat with CSVC complex delayed lipid peroxiation about 75% after 7 days of storage as a result the decrease in TBARS values. The results demonstrate promising use of CSVC complex as antioxidants and food additive for lipid storage.

  16. Oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: is it affected by a single bout of prolonged exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Francescato

    Full Text Available Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2; HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1 and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2 performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1 H2O2; p<0.001. In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS, while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02 from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005 and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005. In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet. Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting

  17. Effects of Oxides on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties and Fracture Toughness in Heat Affected Zones of Oxide-Containing API X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Sohn, Seok Su; Shin, Sang Yong; Oh, Kyung Shik; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-06-01

    This study is concerned with effects of complex oxides on acicular ferrite (AF) formation, tensile and Charpy impact properties, and fracture toughness in heat affected zones (HAZs) of oxide-containing API X80 linepipe steels. Three steels were fabricated by adding Mg and O2 to form oxides, and various HAZ microstructures were obtained by conducting HAZ simulation tests under different heat inputs. The no. of oxides increased with increasing amount of Mg and O2, while the volume fraction of AF present in the steel HAZs increased with increasing the no. of oxides. The strengths of the HAZ specimens were generally higher than those of the base metals because of the formation of hard microstructures of bainitic ferrite and granular bainite. When the total Charpy absorbed energy was divided into the fracture initiation and propagation energies, the fracture initiation energy was maintained constant at about 75 J at room temperature, irrespective of volume fraction of AF. The fracture propagation energy rapidly increased from 75 to 150 J and saturated when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 30 pct. At 253 K (-20 °C), the total absorbed energy increased with increasing volume fraction of AF, as the cleavage fracture was changed to the ductile fracture when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 45 pct. Thus, 45 vol pct of AF at least was needed to improve the Charpy impact energy, which could be achieved by forming a no. of oxides. The fracture toughness increased with increasing the no. of oxides because of the increased volume fraction of AF formed around oxides. The fracture toughness did not show a visible correlation with the Charpy absorbed energy at room temperature, because toughness properties obtained from these two toughness testing methods had different significations in view of fracture mechanics.

  18. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-06-20

    Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides. PMID:27085889

  19. ADSORPTION, DESORPTION AND OXIDATION OF ARSENIC AFFECTED BY CLAY MINERALS AND AGING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption/desorption and oxidation/reduction of arsenic at clay surfaces are very important to the natural attenuation of arsenic in the subsurface environment. Although numerous studies have concluded that iron oxides have high affinities for the adsorption of As(V), very litt...

  20. Conditions and mechanisms affecting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Pasveer oxidation ditch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, X.; Doddema, H.J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Pasveer oxidation ditch was studied. The purpose was to evaluate the performances of both nitrification and dentrification in oxidation ditches, and to pursue some possible approaches to enhance nitrogen removal. Almost complete nitrification was o