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Sample records for affect lipid oxidation

  1. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  2. Variables affecting lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried microencapsulated oils are powdery foods or ingredients, prepared by drying natural or formulated emulsions, wherein the oil globules are dispersed in a matrix of saccharides and/or proteins. The study of lipid oxidation in microencapsulated oils is a very difficult task since, in addition to the numerous variables normally involved in lipid oxidation, mainly unsaturation degree, oxygen, light, temperature, prooxidants and antioxidants, other factors exert an important influence in these heterophasic lipid systems. In this paper, the present state of the art on lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils is reviewed, focused on the variables specifically involved in oxidation of these lipid systems. Such variables include those pertaining to the preparation process (type and concentration of the matrix components and drying procedure and those related to the physicochemical properties of microencapsulated oils (particle size, oil globule size, lipid distribution, water activity, pH and interactions between matrix components.Los aceites microencapsulados son alimentos o ingredientes en polvo preparados mediante secado de emulsiones naturales o formuladas, donde los glóbulos de aceite se encuentran dispersos en una matriz de hidratos de carbono y/o proteínas. El estudio de la oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados es muy difícil ya que, además de las numerosas variables implicadas normalmente en la oxidación lipídica, principalmente el grado de insaturación, oxígeno, luz, temperatura, prooxidantes y antioxidantes, en estos sistemas lipídicos heterofásicos existen otros factores que ejercen una importante influencia. En este trabajo, se revisa la situación actual del conocimiento sobre oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados en relación con las variables que intervienen específicamente en la oxidación de estos sistemas lipídicos. Concretamente, dichas variables incluyen las implicadas en el proceso de

  3. Protein and lipid oxidation affect the viscoelasticity of whey protein layers at the oil-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Schroder, Anja; Rovalino-Cordova, Ana; Schroën, Karin; Sagis, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Protein and lipid oxidation are prevailing issues that negatively affect the nutritional and sensory quality of food emulsions. It is probable that such oxidative modifications affect the functional properties of proteins, and in particular their ability to form densely packed, interconnected

  4. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  5. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  6. Addition of Fish Oil to Cream Cheese Affects Lipid Oxidation, Sensory Stability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Horsewell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.

  7. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms.

  8. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1...

  9. Lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-related molecules affected by tributyltin exposure in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Ma, Dongdong; Liu, Min; Huang, Shuntao

    2017-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). After 60 d of exposure, TBT increased contents of total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids in muscle tissues. Interestingly, TBT exposure disrupted fatty acid composition and increased contents of unsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in muscle tissues, which might be a response to preserve membrane functions from TBT exposure. Meanwhile, the concentrations of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 2 (Δ6-desaturase) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ9-desaturase) were increased after TBT exposure, which might contribute the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, TBT increased muscle lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), and the expression of immune-related molecules (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta and nuclear factor kappa B) in muscle tissues. The disruption of TBT on the lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-toxic effects in muscle tissues of fish might reduce nutritional qualities, and affect growth and health status, which might pose a constant and serious threat to fish and result in economic loss in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.

  11. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings...

  12. Oxidative stability, lipid composition and nutritional value of ruminant meat as affected by animal feeding system, sex and common household treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Boe, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Ruminant meats have been suffered from a negative health image related to the nature of their lipid fraction, mainly due to the higher content in SFA. Even so, ruminant edible fats are the major natural source of CLA, provide proteins of high biological value and important micronutrients, such as A, group B, D and E vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids all these components are associated with potential health benefits. Oxidation of lipids in foods is the major biochemical process that...

  13. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...... storage when added at a concentration above 440 mu g/g fish oil. However, the best antioxidative effect was observed when it was added at a concentration of 660 mu g/g fish oil. In contrast, prooxidative effects were observed when using either gamma-tocopherol at concentrations below 220 mu g/g fish oil......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  14. Radiation induced lipid oxidation in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snauwaert, F.; Tobback, P.; Maes, E.; Thyssen, J.

    1977-01-01

    Oxidative rancidity in herring and redfish was studied as a function of the applied irradiation dose, the storage time and storage temperature and the packaging conditions. - Measurements of the TBA (thiobarbituric acid) value and the peroxide value were used to evaluate the degree of oxidation of lipids, and were related with sensory scores. - Especially for the fatty fish species (herring) irradiation accelerated lipid oxidation and induced oxidative rancidity. Irradiation of vacuum-packed herring fillets and subsequent storage at +2 C seems to be an interesting process. For the experiments conducted on a semi-fatty fish (redfish), oxidative rancidity was never the limiting factor for organoleptic acceptability. (orig.) [de

  15. The dynamic of lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Both endogenous and exogenous lipid levels may be regulators of total lipid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We studied the dynamics of lipid oxidation in human myotubes established from healthy, lean subjects exposed to acutely and chronically increased palmitate concentrations. The intramyocellular...... triacylglycerol content increased with chronic palmitate exposure. Both, ectopically increased intracellular and extracellular lipid levels were simultaneously oxidized and could partly suppress each other's oxidation. Overall, the highest acute palmitate treatments stimulated fatty acid oxidation whilst...... the highest chronic treatments decreased total lipid oxidation. Intracellular lipids showed a more complete oxidation than exogenous lipids. Endogenous lipids reduced insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous lipid concentrations regulated each other's oxidation and total lipid...

  16. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucia S; Parhami, Farhad; Tintut, Yin; Kitchen, Christina M R; Demer, Linda L; Effros, Rita B

    2009-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.

  17. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2006-03-01

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  18. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  19. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  20. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    , but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial......-oxidation by redox state is thought to be an important mechanism for the slowing of lipid oxidation during intensive exercise....

  1. Lipid Oxidation in Carriers of Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Gene Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Daniil, Georgios; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Hovingh, G. Kees; Schimmel, Alinda W.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hazen, Stanley L.; Chroni, Angeliki; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Objective-Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT

  2. Lipid Oxidation in Carriers of Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase Gene Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Daniil, Georgios; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Hovingh, G. Kees; Schimmel, Alinda W.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hazen, Stanley L.; Chroni, Angeliki; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT

  3. Spastin binds to lipid droplets and affects lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisovalantis Papadopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in SPAST, encoding spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. HSP is characterized by weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, owing to progressive retrograde degeneration of the long corticospinal axons. Spastin is a conserved microtubule (MT-severing protein, involved in processes requiring rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in concert to membrane remodeling, such as neurite branching, axonal growth, midbody abscission, and endosome tubulation. Two isoforms of spastin are synthesized from alternative initiation codons (M1 and M87. We now show that spastin-M1 can sort from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to pre- and mature lipid droplets (LDs. A hydrophobic motif comprised of amino acids 57 through 86 of spastin was sufficient to direct a reporter protein to LDs, while mutation of arginine 65 to glycine abolished LD targeting. Increased levels of spastin-M1 expression reduced the number but increased the size of LDs. Expression of a mutant unable to bind and sever MTs caused clustering of LDs. Consistent with these findings, ubiquitous overexpression of Dspastin in Drosophila led to bigger and less numerous LDs in the fat bodies and increased triacylglycerol levels. In contrast, Dspastin overexpression increased LD number when expressed specifically in skeletal muscles or nerves. Downregulation of Dspastin and expression of a dominant-negative variant decreased LD number in Drosophila nerves, skeletal muscle and fat bodies, and reduced triacylglycerol levels in the larvae. Moreover, we found reduced amount of fat stores in intestinal cells of worms in which the spas-1 homologue was either depleted by RNA interference or deleted. Taken together, our data uncovers an evolutionarily conserved role of spastin as a positive regulator of LD metabolism and open up the possibility that dysfunction of LDs in axons may contribute to the pathogenesis of HSP.

  4. Gas stunning with CO2 affected meat color, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, glutathione S-transferases, and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the skeletal muscles of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haijun; Yue, Hongyuan; Wu, Shugeng; Yang, Haiming; Wang, Zhiyue; Qi, Guanghai

    2018-01-01

    Meat color and lipid peroxidation are important traits related to meat quality. CO 2 concentration is a critical factor that can affect meat quality in the commercial use of gas stunning (GS). However, the effect and mechanism of CO 2 stunning on meat color and lipid peroxidation during long-term storage remain poorly studied. We aimed to study the effects of GS methods, especially CO 2 concentration, on meat color and meat lipid peroxidation in broilers during long-term storage at 4 °C and to explore the potential mechanism of meat color change via lipid peroxidation and the inner lipid peroxide scavenging system. Eighteen broilers were sacrificed after exposure to one of the following gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO 2  + 21% O 2  + 39% N 2 (G40%), 79% CO 2  + 21% O 2 (G79%), or no stunning (0% CO 2 , control). Meat color, serum variables, enzyme activities, and the gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK ), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 ( Nrf2 ), glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) were determined. The concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T3, P  = 0.03) and the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4, P  meat and the TBARS 3 d in thigh meat ( P  meat ( r  = - 0.63, P  meat and in the thigh meat ( r  = - 0.57, P  = 0.01; and r  = - 0.53, P  = 0.03 respectively). Compared with the control group, Lightness (L*) 1 d ( P =  0.03) and L* 9 d ( P meat of both the G40% and G79% groups. The values of yellowness (b*) 3 d ( P =  0.01), b* 6 d ( P meat were lower in both the G40% and G79% groups than in the control group. In the breast muscle, the mRNA levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 ( JNK2, P  = 0.03), GSTT1 ( P  = 0.04), and SOD1 ( P  = 0.05) were decreased, and the mRNA levels of JNK1 ( P  = 0.07), Nrf2 ( P  = 0.09), and GSTA3 ( P  = 0.06) were slightly lower in both the G40% and G79% groups

  5. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation......, and their addition to foods is therefore limited by the development of unpleasant off-flavors. Hence, efficient strategies are necessary to protect the lipids and thereby make fish oil-enriched food products successful in the marketplace. In an attempt to increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched food...... stable product. Thus, a better understanding of factors influencing lipid oxidation in delivery emulsions themselves is therefore needed to understand the differences observed between food systems. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface...

  6. Individual whey protein components influence lipid oxidation dependent on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    In emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the composition at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for the resulting oxidation. Previous studies have shown that individual whey protein...... by affecting the preferential adsorption of whey protein components at the interface. The aim of the study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 1% whey protein having either a high concentration of α-lactalbumin, a high concentration of β-lactoglobulin or equal...... amounts of the two. Emulsions were prepared at pH4 and pH7. Emulsions were characterized by their droplet sizes, viscosities, and contents of proteins in the water phase. Lipid oxidation was assessed by PV and secondary volatile oxidation products. Results showed that pH greatly influenced the oxidative...

  7. Investigation of Lipid Oxidation in the Raw Materials of a Topical Skin Formulation: A Topical Skin Formulation Containing a High Lipid Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Taylor, Richard; Madsen, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lipid oxidation often occurs in topical skin formulations which can affect product odor (both positively and negatively). Furthermore, odor detection threshold values and odor descriptors of identified volatile oxidation products in cleansing and skin cream...... formulation prototypes were recently determined by a trained sensory panel at the Technical University of Denmark in the Division of Food Technology. In this study, we investigated lipid oxidation in a prototype skin cream formulation as well as in selected cosmetic skin care raw materials. Lipid oxidation...... was also identified. In addition, the concentrations of several well-known lipid oxidation products increased during storage and were suggested to originate primarily from rice bran wax, which oxidized more readily than other raw materials due to its unsaturated nature....

  8. LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg; Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that LKB1 muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmi...

  9. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  10. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  11. Advances in NMR Spectroscopy for Lipid Oxidation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are many analytical methods developed for the assessment of lipid oxidation, different analytical methods often give different, sometimes even contradictory, results. The reason for this inconsistency is that although there are many different kinds of oxidation products, most methods ...

  12. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...

  13. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  14. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won [Daejeon, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, JitKang [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO{sub 2} ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO{sub 2} concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO{sub 2} (5 g/L TiO{sub 2}) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO{sub 2} (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO{sub 2}/UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO{sub 2} and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO{sub 2}/UV-A.

  15. Digestibility of energy and lipids and oxidative stress in nursery pigs fed commercially available lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of lipid source on GE and ether extract (EE) digestibility, oxidative stress, and gut integrity in nursery pigs fed diets containing 10% of soybean oil (SO), choice white grease (CWG), palm oil (PO), or 2 different distillers corn oils (DCO-1 and DC...

  16. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  17. Modification of Casein by the Lipid Oxidation Product Malondialdehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.; Kimpe, de N.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of malondialdehyde with casein was studied in aqueous solution to evaluate the impact of this lipid oxidation product on food protein modification. By using multiresponse modeling, a kinetic model was developed for this reaction. The influence of temperature and pH on protein browning

  18. Review Article: Dyslipidaemia, Lipid Oxidation, And Free Radicals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with dyslipidaemia evidenced by high prevalence rate that range from 16%-40%, and chronically elevated level of plasma lipids, low-density lipoprotein in particular, leads to modification of structures, importantly through oxidative processes. Renal tissue particularly in diabetes ...

  19. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms.

  20. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyperthyroidism affects lipid metabolism in lactating and suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, S M; Jahn, G A; Giménez, M S

    2001-08-01

    Two per thousand pregnant women have hyperthyroidism (HT), and although the symptoms are attenuated during pregnancy, they rebound after delivery, affecting infant development. To examine the effects of hyperthyroidism on lactation, we studied lipid metabolism in maternal mammary glands and livers of hyperthyroid rats and their pups. Thyroxine (10 microg/100 g body weight/d) or vehicle-treated rats were made pregnant 2 wk after commencement of treatment and sacrificed on days 7, 14, and 21 of lactation with the litters. Circulating triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine concentrations in the HT mothers were increased on all days. Hepatic esterified cholesterol (EC) and free cholesterol (FC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were diminished on days 14 and 21. Lipid synthesis, measured by incorporation of [3H]H2O into EC, FC, and TG, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase activities increased at day 14, while incorporation into FC and EC decreased at days 7 and 21, respectively. Mammary FC and TG concentrations were diminished at day 14; incorporation of [3H]H2O into TG decreased at days 7 and 21, and incorporation of [3H]H2O into FC increased at day 14. In the HT pups, growth rate was diminished, tetraiodothyronine concentration rose at days 7 and 14 of lactation, and triiodothyronine increased only at day 14. Liver TG concentrations increased at day 7 and fell at day 14, while FC increased at day 14 and only acetyl CoA carboxylase activity fell at day 14. Thus, hyperthyroidism changed maternal liver and mammary lipid metabolism, with decreased lipid concentration in spite of increased liver rate of synthesis and decreases in mammary synthesis. These changes, along with the mild hyperthyroidism of the litters, may have contributed to their reduced growth rate.

  2. Mitochondrial mass is inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases while physical inactivity decrease mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles in vivo. It is unknown whether mitochondrial mass and substrate oxidation are related in non-contracting skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial mass, ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and lipid......, basal glucose oxidation and incomplete lipid oxidation were significantly increased while complete lipid oxidation was lower. Mitochondrial mass was not correlated to glucose oxidation or incomplete lipid oxidation in human myotubes but inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation. Thus within...... a stable energetic background, an increased mitochondrial mass in human myotubes was not positive correlated to an increased substrate oxidation as expected from skeletal muscles in vivo but surprisingly with a reduced complete lipid oxidation....

  3. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  4. Lipid nanoparticles to counteract gastric infection without affecting gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Catarina Leal; Nunes, Cláudia; Brás, Manuela; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Reis, Celso A; Gonçalves, Inês C; Reis, Salette; Martins, M Cristina L

    2018-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the major risk factors for gastric cancer development. Available antibiotic-based treatments not only fail in around 20% of patients but also have a severe negative impact on the gut microbiota. Recently, we demonstrated that nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), even without any drug loaded, are bactericidal against H. pylori at low concentrations. This work aims to clarify NLC mode of action and to evaluate if their bactericidal effect is specific to H. pylori without affecting bacteria from microbiota. NLC were produced by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method, using Precirol®ATO5 and Miglyol®812 as lipids and Tween®60 as a surfactant. NLC were able to eradicate H. pylori without affecting the other tested bacteria (Lactobacillus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus). Bioimaging assays demonstrated that NLC rapidly bind to and cross the H. pylori bacterial membrane, destabilizing and disrupting it, which leads to leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and consequent bacterial death. In an era where efficient alternatives to antibiotics are urgent, NLC are an interesting route to be explored in the quest for new antibiotic-free therapies to fight H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholesterol Protects the Oxidized Lipid Bilayer from Water Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Michael C; Kulig, Waldemar; Rog, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to delineate how cholesterol protects membrane structure under oxidative stress conditions, we monitored the changes to the structure of lipid bilayers comprising 30 mol% cholesterol and an increasing concentration of Class B oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC...... in a characteristic reduction in bilayer thickness and increase in area per lipid, thereby increasing the exposure of the membrane hydrophobic region to water. However, cholesterol was observed to help reduce water injury by moving into the bilayer core and forming more hydrogen bonds with the oxPLs. Cholesterol also...... resists altering its tilt angle, helping to maintain membrane integrity. Water that enters the 1-nm-thick core region remains part of the bulk water on either side of the bilayer, with relatively few water molecules able to traverse through the bilayer. In cholesterol-rich membranes, the bilayer does...

  6. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, ordor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, ordor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with nonirradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and ordor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  7. ( Citrus maxima ) peel powder on lipid oxidation of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of phenolic compounds in Shaddock peel powder (SPP) and its effect on lipid oxidation in cooked and raw semimembranosus (SM) muscle in goats were examined. The SPP was applied to cooked and raw minced SM at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the weight of the meat and compared with 0.01% ...

  8. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Lipid Bilayer Composition Affects Transmembrane Protein Orientation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie D. Hickey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na+ K+-ATPase or -amylase. Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na+ K+-ATPase within the membranes.

  10. Color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler breast meat from animals raised on organic versus non-organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, F M; Canto, A C V C S; Costa-Lima, B R C; Salim, A P A A; Conte-Junior, C A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the influence of organic and non-organic production systems on color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler meat Pectoralis major (PM) stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 9 days. PM samples from organic (ORG) and non-organic (NORG) production systems were compared based on physicochemical analyses (instrumental color, myoglobin concentration, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), pH, and lipid oxidation) performed in 4 different trials (n = 4). In general, NORG broilers demonstrated higher (P color stability observed in NORG samples can be partly due to lipid oxidation. Therefore, the production system can affect color and lipid stability of broiler breast meat during storage. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. An Efficient Glycoblotting-Based Analysis of Oxidized Lipids in Liposomes and a Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takayuki; Hinou, Hiroshi; Takeda, Seiji; Chiba, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Hui, Shu-Ping

    2017-10-05

    Although widely occurring lipid oxidation, which is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS), produces a variety of oxidized lipids, practical methods to efficiently analyze oxidized lipids remain elusive. Herein, it is shown that the glycoblotting platform can be used to analyze oxidized lipids. Analysis is based on the principle that lipid aldehydes, one of the oxidized lipid species, can be captured selectively, enriched, and detected. Moreover, 3-methyl-1-p-tolyltriazene (MTT) methylates phosphoric and carboxylic acids, and this MTT-mediated methylation is, in combination with conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis, an effective method for the structural analysis of oxidized lipids. By using three classes of standards, liposomes, and a lipoprotein, it is demonstrated that glycoblotting represents a powerful approach for focused lipidomics, even in complex macromolecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  13. Effect of low levels of lipid oxidation on the curvature, dynamics, and permeability of lipid bilayers and their interactions with cationic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwankyu; Malmstadt, Noah

    2018-04-01

    Lipid bilayers composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids, oxidized lipids, and cholesterol at concentrations of 0–18 mol% oxidized lipid were simulated, showing that the presence of oxidized lipid increases bilayer disorder, curvature, and lateral dynamics at low oxidized-lipid concentrations of 18 mol% or less. The aldehyde terminal of a shortened oxidized-lipid tail tends to interact with water and thus bends toward the bilayer-water interface, in agreement with previous experiments and simulations. In particular, water molecules pass through the oxidized bilayer without pore formation, implying passive permeability. A single nanoparticle, which consists of 300 polystyrene (PS) chains with cationic terminals, added to this bilayer simulation induces negative bilayer curvature and inserts to the bilayer, regardless of the oxidized-lipid concentration. Hydrophobic monomers and cationic terminals of the PS particle interact respectively with lipid tails and headgroups, leading to the wrapping of either lipid monolayer or bilayer along the particle surface. These results indicate that lipid oxidation increases membrane curvature and permeability even at such a low concentration of oxidized lipid, which supports the experimental observations regarding the passive permeability of oxidized bilayer, and also that oxidized lipids of low concentration do not significantly influence the insertion of a cationic PS particle to the bilayer.

  14. Pathophysiology of mitochondrial lipid oxidation: Role of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and other bioactive lipids in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengqing; Zhong, Huiqin; Xia, Lin; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial lipids are essential for maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and the proper functions of mitochondria. As the "powerhouse" of a cell, mitochondria are also the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs when the antioxidant system is overwhelmed by overproduction of ROS. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes are primary targets for ROS attack, which may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and generation of reactive lipids, such as 4-hydroxynonenal. When mitochondrial lipids are oxidized, the integrity and function of mitochondria may be compromised and this may eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been associated with many human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. How mitochondrial lipids are oxidized and the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences associated with mitochondrial LPO remain poorly defined. Oxidation of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin and generation of bioactive lipids through mitochondrial LPO has been increasingly recognized as an important event orchestrating apoptosis, metabolic reprogramming of energy production, mitophagy, and immune responses. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of how mitochondrial LPO and generation of bioactive lipid mediators in mitochondria are involved in the modulation of mitochondrial functions in the context of relevant human diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from lean...... both for endogenous and exogenous lipids. Thus myotubes established from obese and obese T2D subjects express a reduced complete oxidation of endogenous lipids. Two cardinal principles govern the reduced lipid oxidation in obese and diabetic myotubes; firstly, an impaired coupling between endogenous...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  16. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. lipid oxidation during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrem Andrzej S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After meat and dairy products, fish meat is one of the greatest sources of animal protein, but it is also probably the most susceptible to oxidation. The study material consisted of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., meat. The left and right sides of the fillet were divided into three parts, the head, abdomen, and tail. On the first day of the study, the anisidine value ranged from 0.21-1.70, and did not differ significantly among the body parts. Peroxide values fluctuated frequently during the study. Lipid oxidation depended on the part of the fish the meat came from and the structure of the meat, either fillets or ground meat.

  17. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  18. Microspectroscopy (μFTIR) reveals co-localization of lipid oxidation and amyloid plaques in human Alzheimer disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseny-Cases, Núria; Klementieva, Oxana; Cotte, Marine; Ferrer, Isidre; Cladera, Josep

    2014-12-16

    Amyloid peptides are the main component of one of the characteristic pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD): senile plaques. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, amyloid peptides may play a central role in the sequence of events that leads to neurodegeneration. However, there are other factors, such as oxidative stress, that may be crucial for the development of the disease. In the present paper, we show that it is possible, by using Fourier tranform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, to co-localize amyloid deposits and lipid peroxidation in tissue slides from patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Plaques and lipids can be analyzed in the same sample, making use of the characteristic infrared bands for peptide aggregation and lipid oxidation. The results show that, in samples from patients diagnosed with AD, the plaques and their immediate surroundings are always characterized by the presence of oxidized lipids. As for samples from non-AD individuals, those without amyloid plaques show a lower level of lipid oxidation than AD individuals. However, it is known that plaques can be detected in the brains of some non-AD individuals. Our results show that, in such cases, the lipid in the plaques and their surroundings display oxidation levels that are similar to those of tissues with no plaques. These results point to lipid oxidation as a possible key factor in the path that goes from showing the typical neurophatological hallmarks to suffering from dementia. In this process, the oxidative power of the amyloid peptide, possibly in the form of nonfibrillar aggregates, could play a central role.

  19. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Solas, Maria Teresa; Triki, Mehdi; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Oil (healthier lipid combination of olive, linseed and fish oils)-in-water emulsions stabilized with different protein systems (prepared with sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein isolate (SPI), and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)) were used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat frankfurters. Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation of frankfurters were analyzed and found to be affected by the type of oil-in-water emulsion and by chilling storage (2° C, 41 days). Although the lipid oxidation levels attained were low, replacement of animal fat by healthier oil combinations in frankfurter formulation did promote a slight increase in lipid oxidation. Residual nitrite was affected (P nitrite was detectable in the product after processing and 17-46% at the end of storage. The microbial population was low in all formulations during chilling storage. Spermine was the most abundant amine (19-20 mg/kg), but similar in level to all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of irradiation on color and lipid oxidation of prosciutto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Yue Ling; Chen Zhijun; Bao Yingzi; Dai Xudong; Xu Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the effect of irradiation on the color, irradiation odor and lipid oxidation of prosciutto crudo. The hams were irradiated by γ-ray and electronic beam (EB). Changes of color, irradiation odor, TBA value (TBARS), peroxide value (POV), carbonyl value and conjugated diene value were analyzed and compared with non-irradiated hams. Results showed that color index (a * ) of control, γ-ray irradiated and EB irradiated were 14.39, 9.45 and 11.71 respectively. The ratios of a * /b * were different with the type of rays. The ratio of a * /b * of EB irradiation was same with control, while that of γ-ray irradiation was decreased apparently. γ-ray irradiation had been shown to have apparently detrimental effect on the color and odor of hams, while EB irradiation had little detrimental effect. Irradiation increased POV and conjugated diene value, but the amounts of lipid oxidation products (TBARS, carbonyl value) were less than nonirradiated hams. (authors)

  1. Context-Dependent Role of Oxidized Lipids and Lipoproteins in Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yury I; Shyy, John Y-J

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which contains hundreds of different oxidized lipid molecules, is a hallmark of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The same oxidized lipids found in OxLDL are also formed in apoptotic cells, and are present in tissues as well as in the circulation under pathological conditions. In many disease contexts, oxidized lipids constitute damage signals, or patterns, that activate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and significantly contribute to inflammation. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of oxidized lipids and the regulation of inflammation, focusing on oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified into cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs). We also highlight context-dependent activation and biased agonism of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and the NLRP3 inflammasome, among other signaling pathways activated by oxidized lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers. Part II. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2008-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variability of markers of oxidative damage to lipids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 15-F2t-IsoP) and proteins (protein carbonyl levels) in 50 bus drivers and 50 controls from Prague, Czech Republic, and to identify factors affecting oxidative stress markers. The samples were collected in three seasons with different levels of air pollution. The exposure to environmental pollutants (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, c-PAHs, particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10, and volatile organic compounds, VOC) was monitored by personal and/or stationary monitors. For the analysis of both markers, ELISA techniques were used. The median levels of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 15-F2t-IsoP (nmol/mmol creatinine): winter 2005, 0.81 versus 0.68 (pbus drivers in winter seasons, but not in summer. Lipid peroxidation was positively correlated with c-PAHs and PM exposure; protein oxidation correlated negatively and was highest in summer suggesting another factor(s) affecting protein carbonyl levels.

  3. Oxidative status and lipid profile in metabolic syndrome: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Aysem; Uzunhasan, Isil; Baskurt, Murat; Ozkan, Alev; Ataoglu, Esra; Okcun, Baris; Yigit, Zerrin

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of novel oxidative stress parameters and lipid profiles in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The study population included 88 patients with metabolic syndrome, consisting of 48 postmenauposal women (group I) and 40 men (group II). Premenauposal women were excluded. Plasma levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) were determined by using the Erel automated measurement method, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. To perform the calculation, the resulting unit of TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L, was converted to micromol equivalent/L and the OSI value was calculated as: OSI = [(TOS, micromol/L)/(TAS, mmol Trolox equivalent/L) x 100]. The Student t-test, Mann-Whitney-U test, and chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis; the Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman rank test were used for correlation analysis. P women and men had similar properties regarding demographic characteristics and biochemical work up. Group II had significantly lower levels of antioxidant levels of TAS and lower levels of TOS and OSI compared with group I (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0035, and P = 0,0001). Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) levels were significantly higher in group I compared with group II. Our findings indicate that women with metabolic syndrome have a better antioxidant status and higher ApoA levels compared with men. Our findings suggest the existence of a higher oxidative stress index in men with metabolic syndrome. Considering the higher risk of atherosclerosis associated with men, these novel oxidative stress parameters may be valuable in the evaluation of patients with metabolic sydrome.

  4. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelija Zarkovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein, form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development.

  5. Hypoxia and oxidation levels of DNA and lipids in humans and animal experimental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Risom, Lotte; Lundby, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the association between hypoxia and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Evaluation criteria encompassed specificity and validation status of the biomarkers, study design, strength of the association, dose-response relationship, biological plausibility......, analogous exposures, and effect modification by intervention. The collective interpretation indicates persuasive evidence from the studies in humans for an association between hypoxia and elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. The levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions and lipid...... in subjects at high altitude. Most of the animal experimental models should be interpreted with caution because the assays for assessment of lipid peroxidation products have suboptimal validity....

  6. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafizzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004. Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003 and rosemary (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2001. Their use as additives for animal feeding may be a valid alternative to synthetic antioxidants since they show beneficial effects also on animal welfare and other physiological functions (Tedesco, 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether garlic and rosemary dietary supplementation as compared with vitamin E affects lamb meat colour and lipid stability during storage.

  7. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (Pcooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  9. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  10. Biodiesel production from microalgae: cultivation parameters that affect lipid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Penaranda, Martha Trinidad; Martinez Roldan, Alfredo de Jesus; Canizares Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2013-01-01

    The microalgae have the capacity to mitigate CO 2 emissions and to produce lipids, which are considered with potential to obtain third-generation biofuel. This review provides updated information of the influence of culture conditions on the lipids production with high productivity and profile suitable for the biodiesel production. This document presents a compilation of research conclusions over the last 13 years around the world. in the literature consulted, the authors conclude that although the behavior of microalgae at physiological stress conditions, varies between species; the nutrients limitation, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, associated with heterotrophic growth or high irradiances in phototrophy are considered the most efficient strategies to increase the lipid content in microalgae, particularly triglycerides (consisting of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids), which are excellent for the production of biodiesel. Also, it is reported that the lipid content increase and the number of unsaturated fatty acids decrease with the addition of small amounts of CO 2 and harvesting the biomass it the stationary phase of growth.

  11. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kozłowska, Mariola; Onacik-Gür, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural - green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0%) and synthetic BHA (0.02%) and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV) and secondary (AnV) oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA) and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content - 1%) to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample). In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA) and 6.71 (extract content - 1%) to 16.83 (control sample). The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  12. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  13. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  15. Zinc in the prevention of Fe2initiated lipid and protein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAOLA ZAGO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we characterized the capacity of zinc to protect lipids and proteins from Fe2+-initiated oxidative damage. The effects of zinc on lipid oxidation were investigated in liposomes composed of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylserine (PS at a molar relationship of 60:40 (PC:PS, 60:40. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as the oxidation of cis-parinaric acid or as the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. Zinc protected liposomes from Fe2+ (2.5-50 muM-supported lipid oxidation. However, zinc (50 muM did not prevent the oxidative inactivation of glutamine synthelase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase when rat brain superntants were oxidized in the presence of 5 muM Fe2+ and 0.5 mM H2O2 .We also studied the interactions of zinc with epicatechin in the prevention of liid oxidation in liposomes. The simulaneous addition of 0.5 muM epicatechin (EC and 50 muM zinc or EC separately. Zinc (50 muM also protecte liposomes from the stimulatory effect of aluminum on Fe2+-initiated lipid oxidation. Zinc could play an important role as an antioxidant in biological systems, replacing iron and other metals with pro-oxidant activity from binding sites and interacting with other components of the oxidant defense system.

  16. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  17. Application of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation biomarkers for oxidative damage in mammalian cells. A comparison with two fluorescent probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orhan, H.; Gurer-Orhan, H.; Vriese, E.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Meerman, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    We recently developed two biomarker sets for oxidative damage: one for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO) degradation products; acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, malondialdehyde and acetone, by a gas chromatography-electron capture detection

  18. Inhibition effect on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork by adding hawthorn flavonoid extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Liu Chao; Cao Lei; Li Kexi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of hawthorn flavonoid extract and its inhibition effect on irradiated pork lipid oxidant were investigated. The results showed that hawthorn flavonoids had efficient scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals (DPPH ·), and the scavenging rate reached 56% while 2 ml of 0.035 mg/ml hawthorn flavonoid extract was added. Hawthorn flavonoid extract can inhibition the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork effectively and it showed a stronger inhibition ability while the hawthorn flavonoid extract were used together with Vc. It is concluded that can decrease the lipid oxidation of pork, hawthorn flavonoid extract is a remarkable natural antioxidant. (authors)

  19. Iron-mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil-in-ater emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of five different emulsifiers on iron‐mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions. The emulsifiers were either based on protein (whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate) or based on phospholipid (soy lecithin...... and two milk phospholipids with different phospholipid contents, MPL20 and MPL75). Lipid oxidation was studied at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and results were compared to lipid oxidation in neat fish oil. Results showed that all emulsions oxidised more than neat oil. Furthermore, emulsions prepared with proteins...

  20. Effects of microwave cooking and refrigerated storage of main broiler parts on lipid oxidation in chicken muscle and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikul, J.; Kummerow, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    From a total of 78 chickens, 24 carcasses were used to estimate the percentage for the individual cuts and their composition. Fifty-four carcasses were cut vertically into halves of which two-thirds were quartered, yielding front and hind quarters (Cuts 2 and 3). Half of these quarters were cut into individual pieces, yielding breasts and thighs with back ribs, drumsticks, and wings. The muscles and skin of one-third from each of the seven different cuts described above were analyzed raw for lipid oxidation products; while the remaining two-thirds were microwaved. Half of the microwaved cuts were analyzed 2 hours after cooking; the other half, after 4 days of storage at 4 C. The results indicated that the absolute amount of lipid oxidation products in chicken muscles and skin after microwave cooking and refrigerated storage was affected by the initial level of those products in the raw samples and by the particular cut of meat Cooking the different cuts of chicken carcasses by microwave significantly increased the amount of malonaldehyde (MA) and lipid-oxidation fluorescent products (LOFP) in the aqueous phase of Folch-extracted muscles and skin and in the organic phase of Folch-extracted skin lipids. Microwave cooking for the separate broiler parts (especially the drumsticks and wings, as compared to halves or quarters) produced the lowest amount of lipid oxidation products due to the shorter cooking time. Refrigerated storage of broiler parts cooked by microwave produced substantial amounts of MA and LOFP in the aqueous phase of the Folch extracted skin and in the organic phase of the Folch-extracted lipids from the muscles. (author)

  1. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  2. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative damage on lipids, glutathione and DNA in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredilla, R; Barja, G; López-Torres, M

    2001-10-01

    Oxygen radicals of mitochondrial origin are involved in oxidative damage. In order to analyze the possible relationship between metabolic rate, oxidative stress and oxidative damage, OF1 female mice were rendered hyper- and hypothyroid by chronic administration of 0.0012% L-thyroxine (T4) and 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), respectively, in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Hyperthyroidism significantly increased the sensitivity to lipid peroxidation in the heart, although the endogenous levels of lipid peroxidation were not altered. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress also resulted in higher levels of GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA was greater than that to genomic DNA. Hyperthyroidism decreased oxidative damage to genomic DNA. Hypothyroidism did not modify oxidative damage in the lipid fraction but significantly decreased GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA. These results indicate that thyroid hormones modulate oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, and cellular redox potential in the mouse heart. A higher oxidative stress in the hyperthyroid group is presumably neutralized in the case of nuclear DNA by an increase in repair activity, thus protecting this key molecule. Treatment with PTU, a thyroid hormone inhibitor, reduced oxidative damage in the different cell compartments.

  3. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, sunflower oil, high oleic acid ...

  4. Conformations of double-headed, triple-tailed phospholipid oxidation lipid products in model membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermetter, Albin; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Products of phospholipid oxidation can produce lipids with a carbonyl moiety at the end of a shortened lipid acyl tail, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC). The carbonyl tail of POVPC can covalently bond to the free tertiary amine of a phosphatidylethanolamine...

  5. Packaging and irradiation effects on lipid oxidation and volatiles in pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Olson, D.G.; Lee, J.I.; Jo, C.; Wu, C.; Chen, X.

    1998-01-01

    Raw-meat patties were prepared from three pork muscles, irradiated in different packaging environments, and stored for 0 or 3 days before cooking. Lipid oxidation by-products were formed in the raw meat during storage and the baseline lipid oxidation data of raw meat was used to measure the progression of lipid oxidation after cooking. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles data indicated that preventing oxygen exposure after cooking was more important for cooked meat quality than packaging, irradiation, or storage conditions of raw meat. Propanal, pentanal, hexanal, 1-pentanol, and total volatiles correlated highly (P 0.01) with TBARS values of cooked meat. Hexanal and total volatiles represented the lipid oxidation status better than any other individual volatile components

  6. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  7. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    A Pourkhalili; M Mirlohi; E Rahimi; M Hojatoleslami

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying a...

  8. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  10. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  11. Changes in bolti fish lipids as affected by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Bolti fish was transported live in special tank, then prepared and packed in international ken field pouches. Half of the pouches were sealed under vacuum and the other were left unsealed. All pouches were gamma irradiated at 0.2.4.6 and 8 KGH. Fish lipids were extracted and analyzed for hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), keto-fatty acids (KFA), total sterols and fatty alcohols, total carotenoids and individual un esterified fatty acids (UFA). The results indicated that HFA gradually decreased in air and vacuum packed samples upon exposure to 2 and 4 KGY, then increased with increasing irradiation. KFA showed the opposite trend of HFA by gamma irradiation. Total carotenoids were unchanged at 2 KGY in air packed samples, then increased with increasing dosage and peaked at 6 KGY (216% increase) while all doses caused a remarkable increase in total carotenoids of vacuum packed samples and the percentage increase reached 294 at 8 KGY. Total sterols and fatty alcohols followed the same pattern observed in total carotenoids when air and vacuum packed samples irradiated with gamma rays. Moreover, the individual UFA were unaffected at 2 KGY in vacuum packed samples, then showed a gradual increase with increasing irradiation. The individual UFA gradually increased upon exposure of the air packed fish samples to ascending doses of gamma radiation

  12. Influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-04-01

    Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is a widely used additive in food industry due to its preservation and antimicrobial properties provided by its ability to reduce water activity. Moreover, the addition of salt to meat and seafood aims at improving water retention capacity and enhancing flavor due to its influence on the activity of some enzymes responsible for flavor development. On the other hand, salt added in meat and seafood can favor lipid oxidation, which is one of the main responsibles for quality losses in the food industry. In this review, the main mechanisms of fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation are described as well as the influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood. Besides, the possible mechanisms of the pro-oxidant action of sodium chloride are presented and potential solutions to inhibit the salt action in lipid oxidation and decrease the salt content in food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Lipid Oxidation Using the Reagent Kit Based on Spectrophotometry (FOODLABfat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Woo Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and availability of FOODLABfat system for determining acid value (AV and peroxide value (POV were assessed during the hydrolytic rancidification and lipid oxidation of edible oils. This reagent kit based on spectrophotometry was compared to the official methods (ISO 660 and 3960 protocols based on manual titration employing the standard mixture for the simulated oxidation models and edible oils during the thermally induced oxidation at 180°C. The linear regression line of standard mixture and the significant difference of thermally oxidized time course study determined between them showed high correlations (R2=0.998 and p<0.05 in both AVs and POVs. Considering ISO protocols with a probability of human error in manual titration, the rapidness and simplicity of the reagent kit based on spectrophotometry make it a promising alternative to monitor the lipid oxidation of edible oils and lipid-containing foods.

  14. Protein aggregation in food models: effect of γ-irradiation and lipid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Paul, P.

    1981-01-01

    Myoglobin and serum albumin have been irradiated in aqueous solution in the presence of varying amounts of carbohydrates and lipids, and the yield of protein aggregates has been determined by gel filtration. With myoglobin the formation of aggregates evolving from the reaction with oxidizing lipids was observed, which was not found for serum albumin. The production of protein-lipid complexes, in which lipid material was occluded in the high-molecular aggregates by physical forces was demonstrated. Gel filtration and gel electrophoresis, both in the presence of SDS, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed distinct structural differenes between the protein aggregates induced by irradiation and the aggregates formed by interaction with oxidizing lipids

  15. Methods to assess secondary volatile lipid oxidation products in complex food matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Yesiltas, Betül

    A range of different methods are available to determine secondary volatile lipid oxidation products. These methods include e.g. spectrophotometric determination of anisidine values and TBARS as well as GC based methods for determination of specific volatile oxidation products such as pentanal...... headspace methods on the same food matrices will be presented....

  16. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K; Arredouani, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression...... in lungs of ozone-resistant mice suggested an additional role protecting against inhaled oxidants. After ozone exposure, MARCO-/- mice showed greater lung injury than did MARCO+/+ mice. Ozone is known to generate oxidized, proinflammatory lipids in lung lining fluid, such as 5beta,6beta......-epoxycholesterol (beta-epoxide) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (PON-GPC). Intratracheal instillation of either lipid caused substantial neutrophil influx in MARCO-/- mice, but had no effect in MARCO+/+ mice. Normal AMs showed greater uptake in vitro of beta-epoxide compared with MARCO-/- AMs...

  17. The results of the lipids peroxidation products on the DNA bases as biological markers of the oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falletti, O.

    2007-10-01

    Different ways of DNA damages have been studied, among these ones the direct way of DNA damages formation by the reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). This way leads to the formation of oxidative DNA damages. In 1990, works have suggested an indirect way of DNA damages formation, the lipids peroxidation. Instead of oxidizing directly DNA, the R.O.S. oxide the lipids present in the cells and their membranes; The products coming from this degradation are able to provoke DNA damages. This way has not been studied very much. The work of this thesis is axed on this DNA theme and lipids peroxidation. In the first chapter, we begin by presenting DNA and the direct way of oxidative damages formation by the R.O.S.Then, we speak about the cell lipids suffering oxidation reactions and the different ways of lipids oxidation. Then, we present how the lipid peroxidation is a source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  18. Lipid raft proteome reveals that oxidative phosphorylation system is associated with the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Woo; Lee, Chang Seok; Yi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Won; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Soon-Young; Kim, Min-Sik; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Myung-Shik; Yoon, Gyesoon; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2010-12-01

    Although accumulating proteomic analyses have supported the fact that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes are localized in lipid rafts, which mediate cell signaling, immune response and host-pathogen interactions, there has been no in-depth study of the physiological functions of lipid-raft OXPHOS complexes. Here, we show that many subunits of OXPHOS complexes were identified from the lipid rafts of human adipocytes, C2C12 myotubes, Jurkat cells and surface biotin-labeled Jurkat cells via shotgun proteomic analysis. We discuss the findings of OXPHOS complexes in lipid rafts, the role of the surface ATP synthase complex as a receptor for various ligands and extracellular superoxide generation by plasma membrane oxidative phosphorylation complexes.

  19. β-Amyloid promotes accumulation of lipid peroxides by inhibiting CD36-mediated clearance of oxidized lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Tayeba

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia, an established risk factor for atherosclerosis, is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The myeloid scavenger receptor CD36 binds oxidized lipoproteins that accumulate with hypercholesterolemia and mediates their clearance from the circulation and peripheral tissues. Recently, we demonstrated that CD36 also binds fibrillar β-amyloid and initiates a signaling cascade that regulates microglial recruitment and activation. As increased lipoprotein oxidation and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products have been reported in Alzheimer's disease, we investigated whether β-amyloid altered oxidized lipoprotein clearance via CD36. Methods The availability of mice genetically deficient in class A (SRAI & II and class B (CD36 scavenger receptors has facilitated studies to discriminate their individual actions. Using primary microglia and macrophages, we assessed the impact of Aβ on: (a cholesterol ester accumulation by GC-MS and neutral lipid staining, (b binding, uptake and degradation of 125I-labeled oxidized lipoproteins via CD36, SR-A and CD36/SR-A-independent pathways, (c expression of SR-A and CD36. In addition, using mice with targeted deletions in essential kinases in the CD36-signaling cascade, we investigated whether Aβ-CD36 signaling altered metabolism of oxidized lipoproteins. Results In primary microglia and macrophages, Aβ inhibited binding, uptake and degradation of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL in a dose-dependent manner. While untreated cells accumulated abundant cholesterol ester in the presence of oxLDL, cells treated with Aβ were devoid of cholesterol ester. Pretreatment of cells with Aβ did not affect subsequent degradation of oxidized lipoproteins, indicating that lysosomal accumulation of Aβ did not disrupt this degradation pathway. Using mice with targeted deletions of the scavenger receptors, we demonstrated that Aβ inhibited oxidized

  20. Dietary fatty acids early in life affect lipid metabolism and adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula S; Guimarães, Daniella E D; Mizurini, Daniella M; Maia, Ingrid C; Ortiz-Costa, Susana; Sardinha, Fátima L; do Carmo, Maria G Tavares

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four isoenergetic diets of differing fat composition on blood lipid profile and adiposity in young rats. Diets containing different lipid sources--partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), palm oil (PO), canola oil (CO), and soy oil (SO)--were fed to lactating rats during the 21 days of lactation, and then fed to young males following weaning until the 45th day of life. In vivo lipogenesis rate (LR), lipid content (LC), relative level of FA, and the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme were measured in epididymal adipose tissue (EPI). Fasting blood lipoproteins and LC in the carcass were also appraised. Body weight of PO and PHVO groups was significantly higher than CO and SO groups from day 14 of lactation to day 45, despite the lower food intake in the PHVO group. PO and PHVO groups presented higher LR and LC in EPI than SO and CO groups. Carcass fat content was significantly higher in PHVO and PO groups than in CO and SO groups. The LPL activity in EPI was unaffected by dietary lipids. PHVO group had increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in comparison with the PO group, and significantly lower HDL level compared with the other groups. These results show that the kind of FA in the dietary lipid offered early in life can affect lipid metabolism and adiposity.

  1. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...... lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  2. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  3. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (Pmeatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates...... of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components...... nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds...

  5. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids...... lipid oxidation (b = 5.65 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.045) increased and basal glucose oxidation (b = -9.71 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.046) decreased in response to testosterone therapy even when corrected for changes in LBM. No significant changes in insulin-stimulated Rd was observed (b = -0.01mg/min/m(2), p = 0.......92). Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels; however, our data did not support an effect of testosterone on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique....

  6. Oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to exert health effects through oxidative stress, which causes damage to DNA and lipids. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether levels of oxidatively damaged DNA and lipid peroxidation products in cells or bodily fluids from humans are useful biomarkers...... of biologically effective dose in studies of the health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes. DATA SOURCES: We identified publications that reported estimated associations between environmental exposure to PM and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in PubMed and EMBASE. We also...... identified publications from reference lists and articles cited in the Web of Science. DATA EXTRACTION: For each study, we obtained information on the estimated effect size to calculate the standardized mean difference (unitless) and determined the potential for errors in exposure assessment and analysis...

  7. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pourkhalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying and roasting methods according to the cooking routine and tradition in Iranian society, in terms of temperature and time. Proximate compositions (moisture, lipid, ash and protein in the raw and cooked meat were determined using the standard methods of analysis. Moreover, weight loss was measured after each treatment. Lipid oxidation parameters such as peroxide value, conjugated diene and TBARS indices were measured in the raw and cooked samples. Evaluation of lipid oxidation parameters showed that peroxide value was significantly decreased in all cooked samples. In contrast, conjugated diene value was significantly increased in the fried and grilled samples (p

  9. Oxidative changes in lipids, proteins, and antioxidants in yogurt during the shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Bellamio, Marco; Feller, Emiliano; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks. All types of yogurts revealed a basal antioxidant activity that was higher when a fruit puree was present but gradually decreased during the shelf life. However, after 5-8 weeks, antioxidant activity increased again. Both in plain and berries yogurts lipid peroxidation increased until the seventh week of shelf life and after decreased, whereas protein oxidation of all yogurts was similar either in the absence or presence of berries and increased during shelf life. During the shelf life, a different behavior between lipid and protein oxidation takes place and the presence of berries determines a protection only against lipid peroxidation.

  10. Induction of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes during cholesterol oxidation catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, V.E.; Monovich, O.; Ribarov, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the ability of cholesterol oxidase (ChO), which catalyzes oxidation of cholesterol (Ch) to cholest-4-en-3-one and, at the same time, reduction of O 2 to H 2 O 2 , to induce the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma membranes. Erythrocyte ghosts were obtained from guinea pig blood; the reaction of oxidation of Ch in the erythrocyte ghosts or in micelles with Triton X-100 was carried out in the following medium: Tris-HCl 0.2 M, pH 7.0 (at 37 C), Triton X-100 0.25%, and ChO 0.05 U/ml. At the present time ChO is often used to study the asymmetry of distribution of Ch in biomembranes and the velocity of its transbilayer migration. It is suggested that changes in membrane permeability do not take place during the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, and no products capable of affecting flip-flop in biological are formed. Accumulation of LPO products in erythrocyte membranes discovered in this investigation under the influence of ChO compels critical re-examination of the resutls

  11. Effect of emulsifiers and physical structure on lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The body of evidence supporting health beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has increased over the last decades. Consequently, the interest in fish oil-enriched foods has also increased. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty acids to foods also adds...... the challenge of lipid oxidation. In order to limit lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours, the manner in which the fish oil is introduced to the food product should be carefully considered, e.g. an emulsion could be used as delivery system for the omega-3s. The aim...

  12. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  13. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid...

  14. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40°C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  17. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  18. Myoglobins: the link between discoloration and lipid oxidation in muscle and meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens K. S. Møller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic metabolism changes rapidly to glycolysis post-mortem resulting in a pH-decrease during the transformation of muscle in to meat affecting ligand binding and redox potential of the heme iron in myoglobin, the meat pigment. The "inorganic chemistry" of meat involves (i redox-cycling between iron(II, iron(III, and iron(IV/protein radicals; (ii ligand exchange processes; and (iii spin-equilibra with a change in coordination number for the heme iron. In addition to the function of myoglobin for oxygen storage, new physiological roles of myoglobin are currently being discovered, which notably find close parallels in the processes in fresh meat and nitrite-cured meat products. Myoglobin may be characterized as a bioreactor for small molecules like O2, NO, CO, CO2, H2O, and HNO with importance in bio-regulation and in protection against oxidative stress in vivo otherwise affecting lipids in membranes. Many of these processes may be recognised as colour changes in fresh meat and cured meat products under different atmospheric conditions, and could also be instructive for teaching purposes.

  19. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension. - Highlights: • Marinated anchovies were γ-irradiated at 2, 3 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 °C (10 months). • Irradiation slightly hardened the texture and reduced its softening during storage. • Irradiated marinades had good sensory acceptability without differences with controls. • Irradiation improved the quality by reducing texture softening and color changes

  20. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...... of CE-O(O)H is dependent on, and correlates with, LDL's alpha-TOH content, yet does not require preformed lipid hydroperoxides or H(2)O(2). This indicates that in native LDL alpha-TOH can act as a phase-transfer agent and alpha-TO(*) as a chain-transfer agent propagating LDL lipid peroxidation via...

  1. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    : M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised (i.e. lipid content, protein, water, iron, fatty acid profile and tocopherol content) and analysed for protein and lipid oxidation in order to investigate the impact of the washing steps...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing...

  2. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  3. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Intracerebroventricular ghrelin treatment affects lipid metabolism in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to elucidate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of central ghrelin (GHRL) treatment on the regulation of liver lipid metabolism, and the possible modulatory effect of central GHRL treatment on the simultaneous effects of raised levels of oleate. Thus, we injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) rainbow trout GHRL in the presence or absence of oleate and evaluated in liver variables related to lipid metabolism. Oleate treatment elicited in liver of rainbow trout decreased lipogenesis and increased oxidative capacity in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, as demonstrated for the first time in fish in the present study, GHRL also acts centrally modulating lipid metabolism in liver, resulting in increased potential for lipogenesis and decreased potential for fatty acid oxidation, i.e. the converse effects to those elicited by central oleate treatment. The simultaneous treatment of GHRL and oleate confirmed these counteractive effects. Thus, the nutrient sensing mechanisms present in hypothalamus, particularly those involved in sensing of fatty acid, are involved in the control of liver energy metabolism in fish, and this control is modulated by the central action of GHRL. These results give support to the notion of hypothalamus as an integrative place for the regulation of peripheral energy metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Part II: Effects of gamma irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in mechanically deboned turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L.; Beczner, J.; Polyak-Feher, K.; Gaal, O.; Lebovics, V.K.; Lugasi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The pasteurizing effect of a 2 kGy radiation dose on non-frozen mechanically deboned turkey meat was achieved without increase in cholesterol oxidation products or increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values during 15 d of chilled storage following the treatments, while untreated samples were spoiled. The addition of antioxidants, such as thyme oil or α-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid, significantly inhibited the oxidative changes of cholesterol and lipids during 3 kGy treatment. (author)

  6. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Kabir, Mohammad M; Marshall, Kate E; Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M

    2010-07-27

    We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream) leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose), when consumed in isocaloric amounts. In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal) amounts. Nine young (22 +/- 2 years), healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals), dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals), lipid at 33 g (300 kcals), lipid at 66 g (600 kcals). Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable, and a 4 x 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. A meal x time effect (p = 0.0002) and a time effect was noted for glucose (p Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr). The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05). A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05). An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal x time effect (p = 0.02) and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72). An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal x time effect (p = 0.0002), a meal effect (p 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals), and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre). The time effect for H2O2 was primarily influenced by the 66 g lipid meal. These data indicate that 1) minimal oxidative

  7. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts. Objective In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal amounts. Design Nine young (22 ± 2 years, healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals, dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals, lipid at 33 g (300 kcals, lipid at 66 g (600 kcals. Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable, and a 4 × 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. Results A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002 and a time effect was noted for glucose (p Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr. The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05. A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05. An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. A meal × time effect (p = 0.02 and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72. An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals. A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002, a meal effect (p 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals, and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre. The time effect for H2O2 was primarily influenced by the 66 g lipid meal. Conclusions

  8. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Danielsen, Pernille H; Folkmann, Janne K

    2014-01-01

    exposure to 6.4mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because...... and subsequently incubated for another 18h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid...... there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes....

  9. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P; Bakke, Siril S

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are related to both enlarged intramyocellular triacylglycerol stores and accumulation of lipid intermediates. We investigated how lipid overflow can change the oxidation of intramyocellular lipids (ICL(OX)) and intramyocellular lipid storage (ICL). These experiments...... were extended by comparing these processes in primary cultured myotubes established from healthy lean and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, two extremes in a range of metabolic phenotypes. ICLs were prelabeled for 2 days with 100 microM [(14)C]oleic acid (OA). ICL(OX) was studied using a (14)CO......(2) trapping system and measured under various conditions of extracellular OA (5 or 100 microM) and glucose (0.1 or 5.0 mM) and the absence or presence of mitochondrial uncoupling [carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP)]. First, increased extracellular OA availability (5 vs. 100...

  10. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity.

  11. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  12. Effects of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in the brain of rats during fasting and re-feeding were investigated. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (170-180 g) were divided into four groups of control, fasting, fasting + vitamin C and fasting + L-carnitine. The test groups were further ...

  13. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  14. Rosemary and oxygen scavenger in active packaging for prevention of high-pressure induced lipid oxidation in pork patties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolumar Garcia, Jose Tomas; Lapena Gomez, David; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid...... oxidation was studied at the surface and the inner part by measuring secondary lipid oxidation products (TBARs) and the tendency to form radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Lipid oxidation was lower in the inner part than at the surface for all three packaging systems. Rosemary active...... packaging was the most effective method to protect pork patties from the HPP-induced lipid oxidation, while oxygen scavenger packaging was not effective since residual oxygen remained in the package in the initial period of storage. The kinetics of the oxygen trapping by oxygen scavengers appears...

  15. Structure Annotation and Quantification of Wheat Seed Oxidized Lipids by High-Resolution LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Wiebach, Janine; Altmann, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation is a process ubiquitous in life, but the direct and comprehensive analysis of oxidized lipids has been limited by available analytical methods. We applied high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify oxidized lipids (glycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and galactolipids) and implemented a platform-independent high-throughput-amenable analysis pipeline for the high-confidence annotation and acyl composition analysis of oxidized lipids. Lipid contents of 90 different naturally aged wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed stocks were quantified in an untargeted high-resolution LC-MS experiment, resulting in 18,556 quantitative mass-to-charge ratio features. In a posthoc liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry experiment, high-resolution MS/MS spectra (5 mD accuracy) were recorded for 8,957 out of 12,080 putatively monoisotopic features of the LC-MS data set. A total of 353 nonoxidized and 559 oxidized lipids with up to four additional oxygen atoms were annotated based on the accurate mass recordings (1.5 ppm tolerance) of the LC-MS data set and filtering procedures. MS/MS spectra available for 828 of these annotations were analyzed by translating experimentally known fragmentation rules of lipids into the fragmentation of oxidized lipids. This led to the identification of 259 nonoxidized and 365 oxidized lipids by both accurate mass and MS/MS spectra and to the determination of acyl compositions for 221 nonoxidized and 295 oxidized lipids. Analysis of 15-year aged wheat seeds revealed increased lipid oxidation and hydrolysis in seeds stored in ambient versus cold conditions. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  16. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C 60 or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C 60 , diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered expression

  17. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter, E-mail: pemo@sund.ku.dk

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  18. Effect of the presence of protein on lipolysis and lipid oxidation occurring during in vitro digestion of highly unsaturated oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-11-15

    The effect of the presence of ovalbumin and soy protein isolate on lipolysis and oxidation taking place during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of slightly oxidized sunflower and flaxseed oils was addressed. The extent of lipolysis, the molar proportions of acyl groups/fatty acids after digestion, and the oxidation products formed were studied by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The presence of proteins provoked a higher hydrolysis in triglycerides, a lower decrease of polyunsaturated chains, and a lower generation of oxidation compounds (conjugated dienes in chains having also hydroperoxy/hydroxy groups, epoxides and aldehydes); the formation of hydroxides was clearly favoured over that of hydroperoxides. Study of headspace composition by Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry confirmed that oxidation advanced to a lesser extent in the presence of protein. Thus, amino acids/peptides released during digestion may show antioxidant properties, affecting not only the extent of lipid oxidation, but also reactions pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J.; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure to urban PM cause systemic inflammation and oxidative damage to lung tissue lipids and proteins. • Repeated exposure to these PM extracts decreased transcription of Nrf2 protective genes. • Single as opposed to repeated exposure, induced confined lung response accompanied by activated defense mechanisms. • Metals, potentially from break and tire wear, drive the pulmonary response with exposure to urban PM. - Repeated exposures to urban PM water extracts

  20. Glutathione delays varies as-tocopherol oxidation and subsequent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, S.; Mavis, R.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for in vitro trace radiolabeling of rat liver microsomes with 3 H-α-tocopherol (αT*) which allows virtually complete oxidation of the αT* under oxidizing conditions. The supernatant of a 16,000 xg centrifugation of homogenized rat liver, containing the cytosolic rat liver vitamin E (VE) transfer protein, was incubated with an ethanolic solution of αT* for 10 minutes at 37 0 C. Labeled microsomes were collected in the washed 100,000 xg pellet. Microsomes were then incubated with 30 μM Fe 2+ in an NADPH-generating system, and both production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (a product of lipid peroxidation) and oxidation of αT* were monitored over a time course in the presence and absence of glutathione (GSH). The results indicate virtually complete oxidation of αT* precedes significant membrane lipid peroxidation, and that addition of 5 mM GSH delays both αT* oxidation and subsequent MDA production. This suggests that the previously observed VE-dependent heat labile inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by GSH involves maintaining membrane levels of α-tocopherol

  1. Association between oxidative stress index and serum lipid levels in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkdogan, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between lipid levels and oxidative stress index in healthy young adults. Methods: The study was camed out at the Department of Emergency Service, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey, between January 2011 and July 2012. A total of 100 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from all individuals, and serum lipid parameters, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative levels were studied. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, there were 84 (84%) males and 16 (16%) females. The mean age of the male population was 30+-3 years, while that of the females was 31+-3 years. Overall age ranged from 25 to 35 years. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oxidative stress index and serum cholesterol (p<0.001; r=0.596), triglyceride (p<0.001; r=0.476) and low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.001; r=0.318). However, no significant correlation was found between oxidative stress index and serum high-density lipoprotein levels (p=0.564; r=0.058). Conclusion: The results showed that even at an early age, there is a direct linear correlation between oxidative stress and serum lipid levels. (author)

  2. Plant-derived phenolics inhibit the accrual of structurally characterised protein and lipid oxidative modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Soler-Cantero

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that plant-derived phenolics beneficial effects include an inhibition of LDL oxidation. After applying a screening method based on 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine-protein carbonyl reaction to 21 different plant-derived phenolic acids, we selected the most antioxidant ones. Their effect was assessed in 5 different oxidation systems, as well as in other model proteins. Mass-spectrometry was then used, evidencing a heterogeneous effect on the accumulation of the structurally characterized protein carbonyl glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes as well as for malondialdehyde-lysine in LDL apoprotein. After TOF based lipidomics, we identified the most abundant differential lipids in Cu(++-incubated LDL as 1-palmitoyllysophosphatidylcholine and 1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Most of selected phenolic compounds prevented the accumulation of those phospholipids and the cellular impairment induced by oxidized LDL. Finally, to validate these effects in vivo, we evaluated the effect of the intake of a phenolic-enriched extract in plasma protein and lipid modifications in a well-established model of atherosclerosis (diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in hamsters. This showed that a dietary supplement with a phenolic-enriched extract diminished plasma protein oxidative and lipid damage. Globally, these data show structural basis of antioxidant properties of plant-derived phenolic acids in protein oxidation that may be relevant for the health-promoting effects of its dietary intake.

  3. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  4. Effect of relative humidity on lipid oxidation in freezedried emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinachoti, P.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stability was studied in a freeze-dried emulsion consisting of linoleic acid (LA, Tween-20, sucrose and maltodextrin in the presence of a catalyst (FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Changes in residual LA and conjugated dienes as a function of time were monitored at 0, 32, 43 and 75% relative humidities (RH. Based on GC analyses, LA oxidation was more significant in the surface fraction than the entrapped. The loss of surface oil upon storage may also be due to partial entrapment. However faster oxidation of the surface oil was confirmed by measurement of diene conjugation. Oxidation was more rapid at the lower relative humidities (0 and 32% RH and decreased with increasing RH. At high moisture, physical modifications in the sample were observed, including reduced porosity, structural collapse, reduction of the surface oil and coalescence of oil droplets triggered by sucrose crystallization. These may be responsible for the decreased oxidation. Sucrose crystallization at the higher humidities inhibited oxidation. In addition, while samples with similar glass transition temperature (Tg range behaved differently, samples with different glass transition range showed similar oxidative behaviour. Microstructural changes leading to oil entrapment and oil droplet coalescence were found to be significant, in this case.Se ha estudiado la estabilidad oxidativa en una emulsión liofilizada compuesta de ácido linoleico (LA, Tween-20, sacarosa y maltodextrina en presencia de un catalizador (FeSO4/ácido ascórbico. Los cambios en ácido linoleico remanente (LA y dienos conjugados en función del tiempo fueron monitorizados a humedades relativas (RH del 0, 32, 43 y 75%. Basado en análisis por cromatografía gaseosa, la oxidación de LA fue más significativa en la fracción superficial que en la encapsulada. La pérdida de aceite superficial con el almacenamiento puede deberse también al encapsulado parcial. Sin embargo, la más rápida oxidación del aceite

  5. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...

  6. The Effect of Buckwheat Hull Extract on Lipid Oxidation in Frozen-Stored Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit; Davutoglu, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Ozer, Orhan; Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nuts have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering. We aimed to investigate effect of the Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) on blood glucose, lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidation in healthy young men living in a controlled environment. A Mediterranean diet was administered to normolipidemic 32 healthy young men (mean age 22 y, range 21-24) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, participants continued to receive the Mediterranean diet but pistachio was added for 4 wk by replacing the monounsaturated fat content constituting approximately 20% of daily caloric intake. Fasting blood samples and brachial endothelial function measurements were performed at baseline and after each diet. Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the pistachio diet decreased glucose (Ppistachio diet significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation (P=0.002, 30% relative increase), decreased serum interleukin-6, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase (Ppistachio diet improved blood glucose level, endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and oxidative status in healthy young men. These findings are in accordance with the idea that nuts, in particular pistachio nuts, have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering that deserve to be evaluated with prospective follow-up studies. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Lipid oxidation in buffalo meat from animals with dietary supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis meat is not widely used in the diet, but it is recently reconsidered due to its valuable nutritional qualities. New strategies aiming to improve the quality of buffalo meat have to be applied particularly to face the problem of lipid peroxidation, one of the most important causes of meat food deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid oxidation of buffalo meat (muscles Caput longum tricipitis brachii, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus, coming from animals fed with two different amount of vitamin E (600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die for 102 -123 days considering, as markers for lipid oxidation, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC-UV and TBA test. Moreover it was evaluated, by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E concentration in the meat samples. Muscles coming from animals with vitamin E supplementation were in mean 2 times more enriched of vitamin E than control (p < 0.05. Meat from buffalo fed with 600 IU/die vitamin E had significant lower MDA concentration in comparison with control (in mean -53%, n= 4. Both for MDA and vitamin E concentrations not significant differences were found between the supplementation of 600 IU/die and 1500 IU/die. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with Vitamin E is a promising strategy to prevent lipid oxidation of buffalo meat and to prolong its shelf-life.

  9. Oxidative stress induced lipid accumulation via SREBP1c activation in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Mika; Hiraishi, Ako; Touyama, Maiko; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2008-01-01

    SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) is a metabolic-syndrome-associated transcription factor that controls fatty acid biosynthesis under glucose/insulin stimulation. Oxidative stress increases lipid accumulation, which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, we know little about the role of oxidative stress in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the action of oxidative stress in lipid accumulation via SREBP1c, we examined SREBP1c activity in H 2 O 2 -treated mammalian cells. We introduced a luciferase reporter plasmid carrying the SREBP1c-binding site into HepG2 or COS-7 cells. With increasing H 2 O 2 dose, SREBP1c transcriptional activity increased in HepG2 cells but declined in COS-7 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SREBP1c gene or of SREBP1c-regulated genes rose H 2 O 2 dose-dependently in HepG2 cells but dropped in COS-7 cells. Lipid accumulation and levels of the nuclear form of SREBP1c increased in H 2 O 2 -stimulated HepG2 cells. ROS may stimulate lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells via SREBP1c activation

  10. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  12. Intensity of lipid oxidation and formation of cholesterol oxidation products during frozen storage of raw and cooked chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Conchillo, A. (Ana); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2004-01-01

    Raw and cooked chicken breasts were stored at −18 °C for 3 months under aerobic and vacuum conditions, and the intensity of lipid oxidation and the formation of COP (cholesterol oxidation products) were studied. Raw samples showed low COP levels (4.60–7.40 µg g−1 fat), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels (0.01–0.03 mg kg−1) and peroxide values (not detected) under both aerobic and vacuum conditions. Cooked samples (grilled and roasted) showed TBARS levels of 0.36–0.99 mg kg...

  13. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant. - Highlights: • Irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of ready-to-eat cured turkey. • 4.5 kGy irradiation increased protein oxidation. • Irradiated samples were isolated due to Strecker/radiolytic degradation products. • 1.5 kGy irradiation had limited effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages. • Dimethyl disulfide can be used as a potential marker for irradiated meat products.

  14. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Comorbid Major Depression with GAD Are Characterized by Enhanced Nitro-oxidative Stress, Increased Lipid Peroxidation, and Lowered Lipid-Associated Antioxidant Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Morelli, Nayara Rampazzo; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; St Stoyanov, Drozdstoy; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-05-07

    Accumulating evidence shows that nitro-oxidative pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) and maybe anxiety disorders. The current study aims to examine superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and uric acid (UA) in participants with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring or not with BD, MDD, or tobacco use disorder. Z unit-weighted composite scores were computed as indices of nitro-oxidative stress driving lipid and protein oxidation. SOD1, LOOH, NOx, and uric acid were significantly higher and HDL and PON1 significantly lower in participants with GAD than in those without GAD. GAD was more adequately predicted by increased SOD + LOOH + NOx and lowered HDL + PON1 composite scores. Composite scores of nitro-oxidative stress coupled with aldehyde and AOPP production were significantly increased in participants with comorbid GAD + MDD as compared with all other study groups, namely MDD, GAD + BD, BD, GAD, and healthy controls. In conclusion, GAD is characterized by increased nitro-oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses, while increased uric acid levels in GAD may protect against aldehyde production and protein oxidation. This study suggests that increased nitro-oxidative stress and especially increased SOD1 activity, NO production, and lipid peroxidation as well as lowered HDL-cholesterol and PON1 activity could be novel drug targets for GAD especially when comorbid with MDD.

  15. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  16. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes: Association with the impairment of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belba, Arben; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Andrea, Giansanti; Durante, Jacopo; Nigi, Laura; Dotta, Francesco; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Leoncini, Roberto; Guerranti, Roberto; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exists an association of non-diabetic and diabetic patients suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) with lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Clinical and laboratory characteristics in non-diabetic (n = 30, middle age range: 41–55.5 years; n = 25, old age range: 55.5–73), diabetic ED patients (n = 30, age range: 55.5–75 years) and diabetic patients (n = 25, age range: 56–73.25), were investigated. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins and to evaluate their oxidative posttranslational modifications. A decreased level of high-density lipoproteins in all ED patients (P < 0.001, C.I. 0.046–0.10), was detected by routine laboratory tests. Proteomic analysis showed a significant decreased expression (P < 0.05) of 5 apolipoproteins (i.e. apolipoprotein H, apolipoprotein A4, apolipoprotein J, apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein A1) and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, 50% of which are more oxidized proteins. Exclusively for diabetic ED patients, oxidative posttranslational modifications for prealbumin, serum albumin, serum transferrin and haptoglobin markedly increased. Showing evidence for decreased expression of apolipoproteins in ED and the remarkable enhancement of oxidative posttranslational modifications in diabetes-associated ED, considering type 2 diabetes mellitus and age as independent risk factors involved in the ED pathogenesis, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress appear to exert a complex interplay in the disease.

  17. Control of lipid oxidation during exercise: role of energy state and mitochondrial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, K; Harris, R C

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable progress during recent years our understanding of how lipid oxidation (LOx) is controlled during exercise remains incomplete. This review focuses on the role of mitochondria and energy state in the control of LOx. LOx increases in parallel with increased energy demand up...... to an exercise intensity of about 50-60% of VO(2max) after which the contribution of lipid decreases. The switch from lipid to carbohydrate (CHO) is of energetic advantage due to the increased ATP/O(2) yield. In the low-intensity domain (energy state will stimulate both LOx...... during high-intensity exercise. Another potential mechanism, suggested in this review, is that Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an initial step in LCFA catabolism, functions as a regulator of LOx. ACS activity is suggested to be under control of CoASH and energy state. Furthermore, evidence exists...

  18. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Effect of Thermal Processing towards Lipid Oxidation and Non-enzymatic Browning Reactions of Antartic Krill (Euphausia superba) Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzi; Cong, Peixu; Li, Beijia; Song, Yu; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2018-04-13

    Antarctic krill is a huge source of biomass and prospective high-quality lipid source. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), nutritionally important lipid components with poor oxidative stability, were used as markers of oxidation during thermal processing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal by evaluating the lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and non-enzymatic browning reactions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the phospholipids (PLs) and the main oxidation products of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was effective for evaluating the oxidation of EPA and DHA. During boiling, oxidation of EPA and DHA in the FFA and PC fractions and hydrolysis of the fatty acids at the sn-2 position of the PLs were predominant. The changes in PC during drying were mainly attributed to the oxidation of EPA and DHA. Heat treatment increased the oxidation products and concentration of hydrophobic pyrrole owing to pyrrolization between phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and the lipid oxidation products. The lipid oxidation level of Antarctic krill increased after drying, owing to prolonged heating under the severe conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  1. Comparison of Performance, Meat Lipids and Oxidative Status of Pigs from Commercial Breed and Organic Crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rearing systems for pig production, as concerns performance, meat lipid content, the fatty acid profile, histidinic antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, and TBARs. One hundred pigs were assigned to one of three treatments: intensively reared commercial hybrid pig (I, free range commercial hybrid pig (FR or organically reared crossbred pig (O, according to organic EU Regulations. I pigs showed the best productive performance, but FR and O increased: C20:1n9, Δ9-desaturase (C18 and thioesterase indices in meat. Lipid, dipeptides and CoQ10 appeared correlated to glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. We can conclude that all studied parameters were influenced by the rearing system used, and that differences were particularly evident in the O system, which produced leaner meat with higher oxidative stability. In this respect, the organic pig rearing system promotes and enhances biodiversity, environmental sustainability and food quality.

  2. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  3. The effects of Bifidobacteria on the lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats fed thermally oxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, there has been concern about the changes taking place in heated oils and the effects on individuals consuming them. The present study investigated the effects of a diet containing thermally oxidized soybean oil (TO) or TO supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacteria (TO+Pro) on the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats. The data showed several indicators of oil deterioration after thermal processing, including high levels of % free fatty acid (FFA; 15-fold), acid value (AV; 14-fold), peroxide value (8-fold), p-anisidine value (AnV; 39-fold), total oxidation value (TOTOX; 19-fold), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value (8.5-fold), and trans-FA (TFA) isomers (2.5-fold) compared to the control. The rats that were fed a diet containing TO showed a significant (p blood serum samples. High levels of TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were also detected in the livers, kidneys, testes, and brains of rats. Interestingly, a diet containing TO+Pro restored all biological parameters to their control values. The present data suggested that Bifidobacteria may ameliorate the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers that are generated in animals that are fed a TO diet.

  4. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Palgae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were planned to study the influence of dietary fat sources (fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)) and dietary doses of -tocopheryl acetate (-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0 IU, 10000 IU and 20000 IU) on lipid oxidation of stored eggs in three stages of 0 or fresh, 1 and 2 months of storage time.

  6. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  7. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. The peroxide values were in the range 1.04-10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60-5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23-932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24-119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9-11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendanha, S.A.; Anjos, J.L.V.; Silva, A.H.M.; Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation.

  9. DIETARY BLACK CUMIN (NIGELLA SATIVA SEED OIL AFFECTS SERUM LIPIDS IN CHICKEN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 40 chicken broilers of Cobb provenience to investigate the effect of dietary black cumin seed oil on some blood biochemical parameters in chicken broilers. 40 chicken broilers who were included in the 42 days lasting experiment were divided into two groups, each one of 20 individuals. Group K was the control – with no added oil in feed mixture and the second group P was the experimental one – chickens were fed with 0,025 g of p.o. administered black cumin seed oil. Feed and water supplies were ad libitum. Microclimate conditions (light, temperature and airflow were maintained according to the technological procedure. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of all animals from both groups at age of 25, 32 and 39 days. The following blood serum biochemical parameters were determined: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumen and calcium. Dietary black cumin seed oil significantly (P<0.05 affected serum lipid components, particularly total lipids, but not albumen and calcium in chicken broilers. Possible reason for these findings could be dietary fat component as well as fatty-acid composition of added black cumin seed oil. Key words: black cumin seed oil, chicken broilers, blood serum biochemical parameters, fatty acid composition of oil

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions affected by biochar and nitrogen stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both biochar and N fertilizer stabilizers (N transformation inhibitors) are potential strategies to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilization, but the mechanisms and/or N transformation processes affecting the N dynamics are not fully understood. This research investigated N2O emission...

  11. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The effect of electron beam irradiation on lipid oxidation in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atefeh yousefi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irradiation treatment is one of the best techniques to extend the shelf-life of meat, without emerging the nutritional properties and sensory quality of irradiated meat products.  However electron -beam  may cause transformations in foods but has been known as to the most easily-applied irradiation technique in food industries. Electron-beam irradiation is an environment friendly, low cost and time effective alternative to other decontamination technologies. Lipid oxidation could produce of irradiated meat. This study aimed at evaluating the state of lipid oxidation of irradiated sausages. Its findings could help the control, improve food safety and quality properties to food industries. Methods: Sausages were purchased in a local supermarket, minced sausages blended for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS analysis and divided into 25 g pieces. The samples including one control group and four case groups. Packaged sausage were exposed at doses of 0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy and analyzed on various days 0, 5, 10 and 30. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS has increased as time goes on (P<0.05. A significant relationship was observed on different Doses. But, the maximum of TBARS was observed in 3 kGy. Conclusion: Utilizing of Electron-beam irradiation in low doses does not have significant difference on lipid oxidation. Irradiating of meat products by addition of antioxidants can minimize or avoid the development of rancidity.

  14. Effec t of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Lipid Oxidation and Myowater in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of freezing-thawing cycles (0, 2, 4 and 6 on lipid oxidation and myowater contents and distribution. Nine replicates of chicken breast meat samples were used for each cycle. Lipid oxidation was determined by measuring peroxide value, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations, which reflect thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Color was determined with a digital colorimeter. Muscle moisture contents were determined by drip loss and thawing loss, water holding capacity, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The results showed that, as the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased, meat redness decreased and MDA and peroxide values increased. Drip loss and thawing loss tended to decreasing as the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased. Water holding capacity also decreased as a function of increasing freeze-thaw cycles. NMR relaxometry profile showed freeze-thaw cycles change the water distribution of meat subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, multiple freezing and thawing rate (6 cycles increased lipid oxidation, decreased myowater, and impaired the color of chicken meat.

  15. Effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation in eviscerated chicken carcasses during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Hussein, M.F.; Mahmoud, A.A.; Hegazy, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative changes induced in pectoralis major muscle of chicken after irradiation treatments with 0,6,10 and 20 KGy in both non frozen or frozen conditions during subsequent storage were investigated. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption, peroxides and thiobarbituric reactive substances increased in chicken lipids with increasing irradiation doses. These oxidative changes are greater in irradiated refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) than in irradiated frozen (-20°C) chicken lipids during storage. It was found the peroxides and TBA reactive substances do not accumulate as a stable end products of fat oxidation but reach a maximum during storage followed by gradual declining. The UV absorption provides an objective measure of chicken lipids autoxidation suitable for following the progress of autoxidation of irradiated chicken during subsequent non frozen (4 ± 1°C) or frozen (-20°C) storage. The extent of Maillard-like browning was followed in both unirradiated and irradiated samples during storage. All tested objective parameters correlated well with sensory assessment of odour particularly when irradiation dose was increased as well as in frozen samples

  16. Dose dependent oxidation kinetics of lipids in fish during irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T.; Bicer, A.; Pamuk, V.

    1997-01-01

    Kinetic aspects of the development of lipid oxidation in complex foods as fish in the course of irradiation were analyzed with respect to the associated formation of malonaldehyde (MA) through the reactions modified so as to be consistent with those in complex foods as fish. Air-packed anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples in polyethylene pouches were irradiated at the doses of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15,20 and 25 kGy at 20 o C in a Cs-137 gamma irradiator of 1.806 kGy/h dose rate. Immediately after each irradiation, MA contents of irradiated and unirradiated samples were determined by thiobarbituric acid test. Based on the MA formation, a kinetic model to simulate the apparent oxidation of lipid in fish as a function of irradiation dose was derived from the rate equations consistent with modified reactions. Kinetic parameters and simulation were related to conditions of lipid oxidation, and associated rancidity state of fish with respect to the doses applied in different irradiation-preservation processes. Numerical values of kinetic parameters based on the MA formation were found as a threshold dose of 0.375 kGy, an apparent yield of 1.871 μmol/kg kGy, and a maximum attainable concentration of 15.853 μmol/kg which may be used for process control and dosimetry. (author)

  17. Effects of parsley supplementation on the seminal quality, blood lipid profile and oxidant status of young and old male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. El-Gindy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high unsaturation levels of spermatozoal membrane make it very susceptible to oxidative damage and this problem increases with advancing age. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether parsley seed (PS has a protective effect on semen quality, serum lipid profile and antioxidative status of old and young bucks. Male rabbits (n= 36 (18 young 9-12 mo old and 18 old 36-42 mo old were each assigned to 3 dietary treatments (a control and 2 levels of PS: 0.3 and 0.6 kg/100 kg diet to evaluate the ability of parsley to enhance bucks’ reproductive status. Most of the studied traits were adversely affected by age of rabbit bucks. On the other hand, the inclusion of PS significantly boosted ejaculate volume and improved mass motility concentration and total sperm output. Seminal plasma and blood serum total antioxidant capacity increased, while serum lipid peroxidase decreased with parsley treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of parsley seed alleviates most semen quality parameters and counteracts oxidative stress, especially with the advance of age (seminal plasma and blood serum of total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde.

  18. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative Stress Measures of Lipid and DNA Damage in Human Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Kristina M; Chandler, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    We evaluate feasibility and repeatability of measures for lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation in human tears, as well as relationships between outcome variables, and compared our findings to previously reported methods of evaluation for ocular sun exposure. A total of 50 volunteers were seen for 2 visits 14 ± 2 days apart. Tear samples were collected from the inferior tear meniscus using a glass microcapillary tube. Oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): lipid peroxidation by measurement of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) expression; DNA oxidation by measurement of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguinosone (8OHdG) expression. Descriptive statistics were generated. Repeatability estimates were made using Bland-Altman plots with mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between measures. Mean (±SD) values for tear HEL and 8OHdG expression were 17368.02 (±9878.42) nmol/L and 66.13 (±19.99) ng/mL, respectively. Repeatability was found to be acceptable for both HEL and 8OHdG expression. Univariate linear regression supported tear 8OHdG expression and spring season of collection to be predictors of higher tear HEL expression; tear HEL expression was confirmed as a predictor of higher tear 8OHdG expression. We demonstrate feasibility and repeatability of estimating previously unreported tear 8OHdG expression. Seasonal temperature variation and other factors may influence tear lipid peroxidation. Support is demonstrated to suggest lipid damage and DNA damage occur concurrently on the human ocular surface.

  20. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multinuclear NMR studies of single lipid bilayers supported in cylindrical aluminum oxide nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Holly C; Luckett, Keith M; Polozov, Ivan V; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2004-08-31

    Lipid bilayers were deposited inside the 0.2 microm pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters by extrusion of multilamellar liposomes and their properties studied by 2H, 31P, and 1H solid-state NMR. Only the first bilayer adhered strongly to the inner surface of the pores. Additional layers were washed out easily by a flow of water as demonstrated by 1H magic angle spinning NMR experiments with addition of Pr3+ ions to shift accessible lipid headgroup resonances. A 13 mm diameter Anopore filter of 60 microm thickness oriented approximately 2.5 x 10(-7) mol of lipid as a single bilayer, corresponding to a total membrane area of about 500 cm2. The 2H NMR spectra of chain deuterated POPC are consistent with adsorption of wavy, tubular bilayers to the inner pore surface. By NMR diffusion experiments, we determined the average length of those lipid tubules to be approximately 0.4 microm. There is evidence for a thick water layer between lipid tubules and the pore surface. The ends of tubules are well sealed against the pore such that Pr3+ ions cannot penetrate into the water underneath the bilayers. We successfully trapped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 8000 in this water layer. From the quantity of trapped PEG, we calculated an average water layer thickness of 3 nm. Lipid order parameters and motional properties are unperturbed by the solid support, in agreement with existence of a water layer. Such unperturbed, solid supported membranes are ideal for incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins with large intra- and extracellular domains. The experiments suggest the promise of such porous filters as membrane support in biosensors.

  2. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santangeli, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Traversi, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Gallo, P. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Fattore, E. [Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, IRCCS–Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, 20156 Milano (Italy); Mita, D.G. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Mandich, A. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Carnevali, O., E-mail: o.carnevali@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  3. Dietary lipids differentially affect membranes from different areas of rooster sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongalhardo, D C; Leeson, S; Buhr, M M

    2009-05-01

    The present work aimed to compare the effect of dietary flax with other oil sources on rooster sperm membranes and on semen characteristics. White Leghorn roosters (16 per diet) were fed 1 of 4 treatments: control diet (CON), or a diet containing corn oil (CORN), fish oil (FISH), or flax seed (FLAX) as the lipid source. Semen from 4 birds (30 wk old) of each treatment was pooled, the sperm head (HM) and body membranes (BM) were isolated, and lipids were extracted and analyzed. Aspects of lipid composition tested were as follows: percentage of individual fatty acids (C14:0 to C24:1) in total fatty acids, percentage of fatty acid categories [saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio] within total fatty acids, and percentage of phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin] in total phospholipids. Sperm characteristics evaluated were as follows: volume, concentration, viability, percentage of motile cells, average path velocity, track speed, progressive velocity, lateral head displacement, straightness, and linearity. Diet did not affect membrane phospholipid ratios in either membrane but modified major fatty acids within certain phospholipids. Birds fed FISH and CORN showed, respectively, the highest and the lowest n-3 in sperm, causing reciprocal significant changes in n-6:n-3 ratio. Feeding FLAX caused intermediate effects in n-3, with values significantly lower than FISH but higher than CORN in HM (PC, PE, and phosphatidylinositol) and PC in BM (P < 0.05). In the PE phospholipids, FISH, followed by FLAX, increased n-3 in BM and decreased n-6 PUFA in HM. Sperm concentration was specifically correlated with the amount of 20:4n-6 in FLAX and 22:4n-6 in CON. In FLAX diets, straightness correlated with C18:0, n-3, and n-6:n-3 ratio. Diets containing distinct lipid sources differentially modify the lipid contents of HM and BM, with minor

  4. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V.; Santangeli, S.; Traversi, I.; Gallo, P.; Fattore, E.; Mita, D.G.; Mandich, A.; Carnevali, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  5. Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in fermented sausages depending on different processing conditions and different antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Battaglia, Alessandra; Chizzolini, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in Mediterranean and North Europe type sausages were studied in relation to raw material, processing conditions and additives. In particular the effect of ascorbic acid, nitrites and spices was evaluated. Lipolysis was measured by the determination of total and free fatty acids of fresh minces and matured products and lipid oxidation was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and cholesterol oxidation products. The increase of free fatty acids during maturation appears to be independent from processing conditions and the differences in polyunsaturated fatty acids increment found among the formulations appear to be due to inherent variations of raw materials. The presence of ascorbic acid and/or nitrite seems important for cholesterol protection and, as a consequence, for the safety of fermented meat products while spices at doses up to 0.1% do not seem to have a remarkable effect. The effect on fatty acid oxidation of the same additives and of the different processing technologies is not significantly different and the variations linked to raw material may play the greatest role.

  6. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, I.; Haugsgjerd, B.O.

    2014-01-01

    was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature......The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40°C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil...

  7. Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-methylindole pneumotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450-catalyzed metabolism of 3-methylindole (3-MI) results in acute lung injury in ruminants and horses. Experiments were conducted to determine the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-MI pneumotoxicity in goats. Goats were given methylethylketone peroxide (MEKP), a potent peroxidant, 3-MI, indole, or cremophor-EL vehicle. The levels of shortchain hydrocarbons in expired air were measured for 6 hours post-dosing by gas chromatography. Exhaled hydrocarbons increased 20 to 30 fold within 1 hour in goats given MEKP. No significant changes were seen in goats given 3-Mi, indole or cremophor-EL. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were significantly increased in lung tissue from goats given MEKP. In goats given 3-MI, indole or cremophor-EL, the levels were not significantly different from each other. Goats were killed at 6 hours post-dosing and examined post mortem. Bronchiolar epithelial necrosis was seen in goats given 3-MI but there were not lung lesions in other groups. The role of oxygen radicals in 3-MI pneumotoxicity was examined in a goat lung explant system using 51 Cr release as an indicator of cytotoxicity. The results of these studies provide no evidence to support the view that 3-MI pneumotoxicity involves lipid peroxidation or oxidative stress as a result of formation of oxygen or xenobiotic radicals

  9. Controlling lipid oxidation via a biomimetic iron chelating active packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-12-18

    Previously, a siderophore-mimetic metal chelating active packaging film was developed by grafting poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) from the surface of polypropylene (PP) films. The objective of the current work was to demonstrate the potential applicability of this PP-g-PHA film to control iron-promoted lipid oxidation in food emulsions. The iron chelating activity of this film was investigated, and the surface chemistry and color intensity of films were also analyzed after iron chelation. In comparison to the iron chelating activity in the free Fe(3+) solution, the PP-g-PHA film retained approximately 50 and 30% of its activity in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)/Fe(3+) and citric acid/Fe(3+) solutions, respectively (pH 5.0), indicating a strong chelating strength for iron. The ability of PP-g-PHA films to control lipid oxidation was demonstrated in a model emulsion system (pH 3.0). PP-g-PHA films performed even better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in preventing the formation of volatile oxidation products. The particle size and ζ potential results of emulsions indicated that PP-g-PHA films had no adverse effects on the stability of the emulsion system. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis suggested a non-migratory nature of the PP-g-PHA film surface. These results suggest that such biomimetic, non-migratory metal chelating active packaging films have commercial potential in protecting foods against iron-promoted lipid oxidation.

  10. Plasma lipid oxidation predicts atherosclerotic status better than cholesterol in diabetic apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Ekkelund; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Raun, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress have been suggested to play a detrimental role in the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid oxidation correlated to the degree of aortic plaque lesions...... in a proatherogenic diabetic mouse model. Three groups of apolipoprotein E knockout mice were studied for 20 weeks, a control, a streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and a diabetic enalapril-treated group. Enalapril was hypothesized to lower oxidative stress level and thus the plaque burden. Both diabetic groups were...... significantly different from the control group as they had higher blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, together with a lower high-density lipoprotein concentration and body weight. Animals in the diabetic group had significantly higher plaque area...

  11. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  12. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD

  13. Oxidative stability of the lipid fraction in cookies – the EPR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subjected to the storage in elevated temperature. It was shown that thyme extract can be used as a natural antioxidant source for the preparation of bakery products, while the rosemary extract should be used with care in fat-rich products exposed to high temperatures.

  14. Lipid binding to cytoglobin leads to a change in haem co-ordination: a role for cytoglobin in lipid signalling of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Brandon J; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Wilson, Michael T

    2011-03-15

    Cytoglobin is a recently discovered hexa-co-ordinate haemoglobin that does not appear to function as a classical oxygen-binding protein. Its function is unknown and studies on the effects of changes in its expression have not decisively determined its role within the cell. In the present paper, we report that the protein is transformed from hexa-co-ordinate to penta-co-ordinate on binding a lipid molecule. This transformation occurs with the ferric oxidation state of the protein, but not the ferrous state, indicating that this process only occurs under an oxidative environment and may thus be related to redox-linked cell signalling mechanisms. Oleate binds to the protein in a 1:1 stoichiometry and with high affinity (K(d)=0.7 μM); however, stopped-flow kinetic measurements yield a K(d) value of 110 μM. The discrepancy between these K(d) values may be rationalized by recognizing that cytoglobin is a disulfide-linked dimer and invoking co-operativity in oleate binding. The lipid-induced transformation of cytoglobin from hexa-co-ordinate to penta-co-ordinate does not occur with similar hexa-co-ordinate haemoglobins such as neuroglobin, and therefore appears to be a unique property of cytoglobin among the haemoglobin superfamily. The lipid-derived transformation may explain why cytoglobin has enhanced peroxidatic activity, converting lipids into various oxidized products, a property virtually absent from neuroglobin and much decreased in myoglobin. We propose that the binding of ferric cytoglobin to lipids and their subsequent transformation may be integral to the physiological function of cytoglobin, generating cell signalling lipid molecules under an oxidative environment.

  15. Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    In light of evidence that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress and altered antioxidant status, we investigated the effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extracts (SPEt) (aqueous, ethanolic, and chloroform) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Significant increases in the activities of insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E were observed in liver, kidney, and brain on treatment with SPEt. In addition, the treated groups also showed significant decreases in blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and hydroperoxide formation in tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation-induced membrane damage. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that extracts of S. dulcis, especially the aqueous extract, showed a modulatory effect by attenuating the above lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.

  16. The influence of achyrocline satureioides ("Marcela" extract on the lipid oxidation of salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two levels (0.5 and 1% of hydroalcoholic extract of Achyrocline satureioides on the safety (TBARS values and quality (pH, water activity, colour, weight loss, and sensorial attributes of salami was evaluated. The addition of Achyrocline satureioides extract decreased TBARS values significantly during the storage of salami when compared to the control, which was elaborated without Achyrocline satureioides extract. The treatment with 1% of "Marcela" extract showed larger lipid stability than that of the lot with 0.5%, However, it presented a decrease (p < 0.05 in the sensorial acceptance. The two levels of "Marcela" extract did not influence pH, water activity, colour, and weight loss significantly. This study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of "Marcela" was effective in decreasing the lipid oxidation and at 0.5% it did not alter the sensorial features; therefore, it may be used in salami to provide safer products for the consumers.

  17. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  18. Lipid oxidation. Part 2. Oxidation products of olive oil methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, J; Tài, P; Parízková, H; Smidrkalová, E; El-Tarras, M F; Janícek, G

    1976-01-01

    Olive oil was converted into methyl esters which were autoxidized at 60 degrees C. The composition of oxidized products was determined by the comparison of infrared spectra and NMR spectra of the original and acetylated samples, the sample reduced with potassium iodide and the acetylated reduced sample. Oxidized products were separated by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel and characterized by selective detection and by infrared spectrometry of the fractions. The oxidation products consisted of hydroperoxido butyl oleate, substituted hydroperoxides, mono- and disubstituted monomeric derivatives and a small amount of oligomers.

  19. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  20. Myotoxic reactions to lipid-lowering therapy are associated with altered oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul S; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Dong-Lim; Verity, M Anthony; Wolfson, Tanya; Henry, Robert R

    2009-02-01

    Despite exceptional efficacy and safety, fear of muscle toxicity remains a major reason statins are underutilized. Evidence suggests that statin muscle toxicity may be mediated by abnormalities in lipid metabolism. To test the hypothesis that myotubes from patients intolerant of lipid-lowering therapies have abnormal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) responses we compared muscle from 11 subjects with statin intolerance (Intolerant) with muscle from seven statin-naive volunteers undergoing knee arthroplasty (Comparator). Gross muscle pathology was graded and skeletal muscle cell cultures were produced from each subject. FAO was assessed following treatment with increasing statin concentrations. There was no difference in muscle biopsy myopathy scores between the groups. Basal octanoate oxidation was greater in Intolerant than in Comparator subjects (P = 0.03). Lovastatin-stimulated palmitate oxidation tended to be greater for Intolerant compared to Control subjects' myotubes (P = 0.07 for 5 microM and P = 0.06 for 20 microM lovastatin). In conclusion abnormalities in FAO of Intolerant subjects appear to be an intrinsic characteristic of these subjects that can be measured in their cultured myotubes.

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Nam, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  2. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Lerin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. Methods: To identify pathways related to insulin resistance, we performed comprehensive gene expression and metabolomics analyses in skeletal muscle from 41 humans with normal glucose tolerance and 11 with T2D across a range of insulin sensitivity (SI, 0.49 to 14.28. We studied both cultured cells and mice heterozygous for the BCAA enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. Results: Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. Conclusions: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D. Keywords: Insulin sensitivity, BCAA, Fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle

  3. Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on Membrane Lipids and Oxidative Injury of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ou; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Han, Zhong

    2016-08-22

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0-4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane fluidity of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimuriumi), possibly due to the alterations of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated gene expressions (down-regulation of cfa and fabA gene expressions and the up-regulation of fabD gene expression), which, in turn, modified the composition of membrane lipid (decrease in the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids). In addition, oxidative injury induced by PEF treatment was associated with an increase in the content of malondialdehyde. The up-regulation of cytochrome bo oxidase gene expressions (cyoA, cyoB, and cyoC) indicated that membrane damage was induced by PEF treatment, which was related to the repairing mechanism of alleviating the oxidative injury caused by PEF treatment. Based on these results, we achieved better understanding of microbial injury induced by PEF, suggesting that micro-organisms tend to decrease membrane fluidity in response to PEF treatment and, thus, a greater membrane fluidity might improve the efficiency of PEF treatment to inactivate micro-organisms.

  4. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P acids were identified. Combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) content varied between (19.20 ± 0.37) mg g-1 and (23.45 ± 1.05) mg g-1. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio in yellow croaker was 0.73-1.10, and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was approximately 0.13-0.20. The contents of most fatty acids varied significantly ( P acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  5. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  6. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  7. Ramadan fasting ameliorates arterial pulse pressure and lipid profile, and alleviates oxidative stress in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shafei, Ahmad I M

    2014-06-01

    Effects of Ramadan fasting on health are important. Its effects on arterial pulse pressure (PP), lipid profile and oxidative stress were characterized in hypertensives. PP, indices of lipid profile and oxidative stress were measured pre-, during and post-fasting in equal (40 each), sex- and age-matched groups (age 55 ± 5 years) of hypertensives (HT) and controls (C). Fasting reduced PP significantly by 17.2% and insignificantly by 9.3% in the HT and C groups, respectively. Total cholesterol (TC) was lowered insignificantly by 11.7% and 4.7% in the HT and C patients, respectively. Triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly lowered by: TG: 24.5% and 22.8%; MDA: 45.6% and 54.3%; while glutathione (GSH) elevated by 56.8% and 52.6% in the HT and C groups, respectively. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) were raised significantly by 33.3% and insignificantly by 6.7%, whereas low-density lipoproteins (LDL) decreased significantly by 17.7% and insignificantly by 4.0% in the HT and C groups, respectively. At 6 weeks post-fasting, MDA remained significantly lower than the pre-fasting level by 24.3% and 25.7%, and GSH higher by 30.2% and 26.3% in the HT and C groups, respectively, while PP and TC returned to pre-fasting values in both groups. The post-fasting, HDL was significantly higher by 20.3% and LDL lower by 12.0% than the fasting levels in the HT patients. Fasting improves PP and lipids profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in hypertensives.

  8. Effect of different antioxidants on lipid oxidation of irradiated cooked streaky pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shuzhen; Ha Yiming; Zhang Haiwei; Wang Feng; Liu Shuliang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on lipid oxidation of vacuum packaged irradiated cooked streaky pork were studied. The cooked streaky pork were added with 0.02% TeaPolyphenols (TP), rosemary, Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin E separately, then were irradiated with 6 kGy, and stored at 4 degree C. The results showed that antioxidants can reduce the value of TBA, POV value of irradiated cooked streaky pork, and the effects of TBHQ and TP were better, than other antiatidins. (authors)

  9. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-10-15

    Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  11. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  12. Investigation of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Marine phospholipids (PL) have received much attention recently due to their numerous advantages. One of these advantages is their better resistance towards oxidation as compared to fish oil. In addition to the antioxidative properties of α-tocopherol and phospholipids, the better oxidative...... stability of marine PL might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles formed between oxidised lipids with amine groups from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or residues amino acids that are present in marine PL. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the presence of amine group...... of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine) from 2 authentic standards (PC and PE) and 2 purified marine PL (LC and MPL) through sonication method. Emulsions were incubated at 60 ºC for 0, 2, 4 and 6 days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of i) Strecker aldehydes...

  13. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  14. Obesity, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in children after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubkowski, Piotr; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Pawłowska, Joanna; Jankowska, Irena; Socha, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In adult liver transplant recipients, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure are significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This may be attributed to the long-term immunosuppressive treatment, mostly with calcineurin inhibitors and steroids, which in long-term may be associated with hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and cardiovascular complications. Since such data for children is sparse, the aim of this study was to assess the lipid and oxidative stress markers after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx). We performed prospective analysis of 74 children, at the median age of 7.9 (2.8-11.6) years, 3.2 (1.2-4.3) years after LTx. We assessed the BMI Z-scores, cholesterol fractions (LDLc, HDLc, VLDLc), triglicerides, apolipoproteins (ApoAI, ApoB, ApoE), LCAT, insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and markers of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis: glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), asymmetrical dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxyLDL). At baseline, the results were compared with a healthy age-and-sex matched control group. After 3.1±0.3 year follow-up we repeated all investigations and compared them with the baseline results. At the baseline, we investigated 74 patients 3.2 (1.2-4.3) years after LTx, at the median age of 7.9 (2.8-11.6) years. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (BMI >85 th percentile) was 23% and was more common in girls (24% vs 20%). Fourteen patients had TCH >200 mg%, 9 patients had LDLc >130 mg% and TG were at normal levels in all patients. Compared to the controls, there were no significant differences in lipid profiles but we found decreased GSH (p95 th and >85 Th percentile was present in 8% and 14% respectively. ADMA and oxyLDL decreased, whilst GSH and GPx increased when compared to the baseline. There was also significant decrease in apoB and Lp(a). Children after LTx had normal lipid profiles when compared to controls, however there is a tendency for hypercholesterolemia and obesity

  15. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  16. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerin, Carles; Goldfine, Allison B; Boes, Tanner; Liu, Manway; Kasif, Simon; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; De Sousa-Coelho, Ana Luisa; Daher, Grace; Manoli, Irini; Sysol, Justin R; Isganaitis, Elvira; Jessen, Niels; Goodyear, Laurie J; Beebe, Kirk; Gall, Walt; Venditti, Charles P; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. To identify pathways related to insulin resistance, we performed comprehensive gene expression and metabolomics analyses in skeletal muscle from 41 humans with normal glucose tolerance and 11 with T2D across a range of insulin sensitivity (SI, 0.49 to 14.28). We studied both cultured cells and mice heterozygous for the BCAA enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D.

  17. MR imaging of abscess by use of lipid-coated iron oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.W.; Eley, C.G.S.; Kressel, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper investigate the potential application of lipid-coated iron oxide particles as an MR contrast agent for imaging inflammatory process by using a rat subcutaneous abscess model induced by turpentine. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous injections of 0.1 mL of turpentine in the flank. At 24-36 hours later, the rats developed a subcutaneous abscess of 1-1.8 cm. An intravenous injection of lipid-coated iron oxide particles, Ferrosome (Vestar) at doses of 25, 40, 100, 200 μg/kg was administered. The animals were imaged at 12-24 hours later on a 1.5-T magnet using a 3-inch (7.62-cm) surface coil. Two animals were also imaged 5 days later. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and multiplanar gradient-recalled (MPGR) sequences were obtained. The abscess was then excised and examined with routine H-E and iron staining

  18. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  19. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  20. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  1. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  2. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-08-28

    Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFalpha) values showed overexpression (198%). Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  3. BRCA1 affects lipid synthesis through its interaction with acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Ray, Hind; Luquain, Céline; Lefai, Etienne; Foufelle, Fabienne; Billaud, Marc; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-02-10

    Germ line alterations in BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1) are associated with an increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 acts as a scaffold protein implicated in multiple cellular functions, such as transcription, DNA repair, and ubiquitination. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumorigenesis are not yet fully understood. We have recently demonstrated that BRCA1 interacts in vivo with acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCA) through its tandem of BRCA1 C terminus (BRCT) domains. To understand the biological function of the BRCA1.ACCA complex, we sought to determine whether BRCA1 is a regulator of lipogenesis through its interaction with ACCA. We showed here that RNA inhibition-mediated down-regulation of BRCA1 expression induced a marked increase in the fatty acid synthesis. We then delineated the biochemical characteristics of the complex and found that BRCA1 interacts solely with the phosphorylated and inactive form of ACCA (P-ACCA). Finally, we demonstrated that BRCA1 affects lipid synthesis by preventing P-ACCA dephosphorylation. These results suggest that BRCA1 affects lipogenesis through binding to P-ACCA, providing a new mechanism by which BRCA1 may exert a tumor suppressor function.

  4. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  5. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Reyes-Gordillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  6. Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Cosmai, Lucrezia; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants. The OLE addition significantly reduced the forced oxidative degradation during oven test, as evidenced by a decrease of 27% in oxidation-related volatile compounds and of 42% in triacylglycerol oligopolymers compared to control snacks (CTR) without OLE. Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR (i.e. hexanal 165.49 vs 38.31 μg g -1 in OLE-added). The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids by DOPA, protein-bound DOPA, and related catechol(amine)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Incubation of free 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), protein-bound DOPA (PB-DOPA) and related catechols with DNA, proteins and lipids has been shown to result in oxidative damage to the target molecule. This article reviews these reactions with particular emphasis on those that occur in the pres......Incubation of free 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), protein-bound DOPA (PB-DOPA) and related catechols with DNA, proteins and lipids has been shown to result in oxidative damage to the target molecule. This article reviews these reactions with particular emphasis on those that occur...... in the presence of molecular O(2) and redox-active metal ions (e.g. Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Cr(6+)), which are known to increase the rate of DOPA oxidation. The majority of oxidative damage appears to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and HO(.) radicals, though other DOPA oxidation products...

  8. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined effects of gamma radiation doses and sodium nitrite content on the lipid oxidation and color of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Monalisa Pereira; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Silva, Douglas Roberto Guimarães; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-12-15

    The effects of different doses of gamma radiation (0-20kGy) on the color and lipid oxidation of mortadella prepared with increasing nitrite levels (0-300ppm) were evaluated using a central composite rotatable design. Higher radiation doses increased the redox potential, promoted the lipid oxidation and elevating the hue color of the mortadellas. Nevertheless, higher addition of sodium nitrite elevated the residual nitrite content, reduced the lipid oxidation and promoted the increase of redness and the reduce of hue color of the mortadellas, regardless of the radiation dose applied. Nitrite addition had a greater effect than irradiation on the quality parameters evaluated, and even at low levels (∼75ppm), its use decreased the deleterious effects of irradiation at doses as high as 20kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Solak Tekin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  11. Preperitoneal Fat Thicknesses, Lipid Profile, and Oxidative Status in Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Clemente, Nicolò; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Tassetti, Marta; Zagaglia, Giulia; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a possible role for metabolic syndrome and its determinants, such as dyslipidemia, in uterine fibroid (UF) pathogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the association between UFs and visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), lipid profile, and oxidative and antioxidative status. In this cross-sectional study, 35 patients diagnosed with UFs and 15 women without UFs were enrolled. Clinical history and anthropometric parameters were collected for every woman. Characteristics of UFs, preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT), and SFT were assessed ultrasonically. Lipid profile, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated on plasma from participants. Women with UFs showed a significantly increased PFT (11.63 ± 3.39 vs 7.01 ± 3.10 mm; P HDL-C; 45.4 ± 8.3 vs 57.2 ± 13.4 mg/dL; P = .017), higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 92.3 ± 21.5 vs 72.0 ± 14.6 mg/dL; P = .007), and oxidized LDL (65.2 ± 20.7 vs 43.0 ± 11.3 U/L; P = .002). In patients, TBARs concentration was significantly higher (9.41 ± 6.49 vs 2.92 ± 1.65 nmol malondialdehyde/100 μg prot; P body mass index, oxidized LDL, and TBARs. At multivariate analysis, PFT and HDL-C maintained a significant correlation with the diagnosis of UFs. Chronic inflammation triggered and sustained by visceral fat could play a determinant role in cell differentiation and proliferation processes, necessary for the development of UFs. Alterations in cholesterol fractions may be explained as a consequence of the increased visceral fat deposits and can reflect an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with UF.

  12. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy

  13. Effects of Loud Noise on Oxidation and Lipid peroxidation Variations of Liver Tissue of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Ramazan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world, noise is one of the major physical pollutants. The exact mechanism leading to tissue damage in loud noise is not clear. There are increasing evidences that show damage to cochlear tissue by noise is linked to cell injury induced by free radical species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between change in liver tissue glutathione (anti- oxidant and malondialdehyde (one metabolite of lipid oxidation levels that occur in rabbits which were exposed to continuous loud noise.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 12 white Newzeland male rabbits in Tarbiat Modarres University in 2004. The rabbits were assigned to the following two groups: control, and exposed to continuous loud noise for 96 hours (8 h/day for 12 days, SPL=110dBA and 250Hz to 20 KHz. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH in liver tissue samples were measured in rabbits after exposure to noise. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance, Ellman's reagent and spectrophotometry techniques were used for this measurement. The data were statically analyzed by SPSS software and 2 groups were compared by t-test. Differences at the level of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Comparison of the biochemical parameters of GSH and MDA measured in treated group with control indicated that antioxidant and lipid peroxidants parameters were suppressed in treated group compared to control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Possible similarities between rabbit and human biological system indicate the possible role of noise in causation of oxidative stress in context with liver tissue impairm

  14. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    -enriched oil-in-water emulsion. The selected food emulsifiers were Tween 80, Citrem, sodium caseinate and lecithin. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by determination of peroxide values and secondary volatile oxidation products. Moreover, the zeta potential and the droplet sizes were determined. Twen resulted...... in the least oxidatively stable emulsions, followed by Citrem. When iron was present, caseinate-stabilized emulsions oxidized slower than lecithin emulsions at pH 3, whereas the opposite was the case at pH 7. Oxidation generally progressed faster at pH 3 than at pH 7, irrespective of the addition of iron. EDTA...

  15. Lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation in simulated whole milk powder as influenced by processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodani, Fatemeh; Perera, Conrad O; Abernethy, Grant; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Chen, Hong

    2018-09-30

    Vitamin D3 levels are known to sometimes decline in fortified products, which could be due to its degradation, although the exact mechanism is unknown. In this study, the influence of processing and storage conditions on lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation were studied. Simulated whole milk powders with and without heat treatment were stored for 12 months at two different storage temperatures (20 °C and 40 °C). Stored samples without heat treatment showed higher lipid oxidation products analyzed by PV and TBARS values compared to those with heat treatment. Higher storage temperature also resulted in higher levels of lipid oxidation products. The concentration of vitamin D3 was also analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS after PTAD derivatization in stored samples. An inverse relationship was observed between lipid oxidation products and vitamin D3 content. Finally, previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 oxidation products were quantified in stored samples using MRM analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of infant gut microbial communities in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Bahl, Martin Iain; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2015-01-01

    to 14 : 0 and MAG 12 : 0) or long-chained NEFA (LC-NEFA; 16 : 0 to 18 : 1 and MAG 16 : 0) with and without sphingosine, representing lipid hydrolysis products characteristic for intestinal hydrolysis of breast milk lipids. Ion Torrent sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed...

  17. Effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Bess, K N; Zhao, J; Yan, F; Dilger, A C; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, shelf life, and tissue oxidative status. Ross 308 male broilers were allotted to a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Factors consisted of antioxidant (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) inclusion at 2 levels (0 or 135 mg/kg) and oil quality (fresh soybean oil, control diet peroxide value dressing percentage (P = 0.906), breast yield (P = 0.708), or breast ultimate pH (P = 0.625) and had minimal effect on breast color. Antioxidant supplementation (P = 0.057) reduced breast thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 7 d of display. Fresh oil decreased liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, whereas antioxidant inclusion increased serum and liver vitamin A and E concentration. The presence of an antioxidant in the feed protects lipids from further oxidizing, therefore increasing broiler performance and improving shelf life when using oxidized oil.

  18. Experimental studies on anti-oxidants reducing lipid peroxidation of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Liu Keliang; Su Liaoyuan

    1993-08-01

    The free radical plays an important role in the irradiation damage. The irradiation damage would be reduced if anti-oxidants is used, because anti-oxidants can scavenge free radicals and suppress lipid peroxidation. In the study, a fluoro-spectrophotometer was used to determine the changes of MDA levels in mice tissues and serum after irradiation and the protective effect of anti-oxidants of Vit E and DMSO on damage caused by free radicals. The results are as follows: (1) The highest MDA level was at 12 to 24 hours after irradiation dose of 3.0 Gy. (2) The MDA level is increasing with the increasing of irradiation dose. It means the MDA level can indicate the extent of irradiation damage. (3) Both Vit E and DMSO had a powerful effect on reducing MDA level, but the effect of DMSO was stronger than Vit E. The optimum doses of them were 0.25 mg/g body weight and 10 mg/g body weight respectively. (4) The best effect obtained was to use Vit E and DMSO simultaneously

  19. Control of lipid oxidation by nonmigratory active packaging films prepared by photoinitiated graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-08-08

    Transition metal-promoted oxidation impacts the quality, shelf life, and nutrition of many packaged foods. Metal-chelating active packaging therefore offers a means to protect foods against oxidation. Herein, we report the development and characterization of nonmigratory metal-chelating active packaging. To prepare the films, carboxylic acids were grafted onto the surfaces of polypropylene films by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and iron-chelating assay were used to characterize film properties. Graft polymerization yielded a carboxylic acid density of 68.67 ± 9.99 nmol per cm(2) film, with ferrous iron-chelating activity of 71.07 ± 12.95 nmol per cm(2). The functionalized films extended the lag phase of lipid oxidation in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion system from 2 to 9 days. The application of such nonmigratory active packaging films represents a promising approach to reduce additive use while maintaining food quality.

  20. Improvements in the shelf life of commercial corn dry masa flour (CMF) by reducing lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Castillo, A; Vidal-Quintanar, R L

    2011-03-01

    To improve the shelf life of commercial nixtamalized corn dry masa flour (CMF), the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used. Pouches (20 × 20 cm) of ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH) with 180 g of CMF were stored at 55 °C, and a(w) of 0.45; under Light and Dark conditions, antioxidants (0.02% TBHQ), Vacuum, and N(2) and CO(2), and used as treatments. Thereafter, changes in their linoleic acid (LA) concentration by GC, peroxide (PV), and anisidine values (p-A), which were monitored for 180 d. EVOH showed a significantly lower consumption of LA by autoxidation (11.7% ± 0.2% in 117 d) than polyethylene film (70.5% ± 0.3% in 113 d) under the same storage temperature. The elimination of oxygen by vacuum in each pouch allowed a low consumption (16.4% ± 0.1%) of LA. PV (14.5 ± 0.09 mEq/kg of fat), and p-A (63 ± 0.16 mmol/kg) were low, and generated over 121 d of storage. CMF stored under MAP had 100% protection against oxidation of LA. A combination of Vacuum and EVOH packaging extended the shelf life of CMF to 108 d with only 10% of LA loss. For retail stores, the EVOH packaging will reduce lipid oxidation of CMF and safety related to off odors and flavors from the oxidation of tortillas will increase dramatically.

  1. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  2. Optimization of the C11-BODIPY581/591 Dye for the Determination of Lipid Oxidation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    CHELONI Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a recognized end point for the study of oxidative stress and is an important parameter to describe the mode of micropollutant action on aquatic microorganisms. Therefore the development of quick and reliable methodologies probing the oxidative stress and damage in living cells is highly sought. In the present proof of concept work we examined the potential of the fluorescent dye C11 BODIPY591/581 to probe lipid oxidation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C11...

  3. Factors affecting drug encapsulation and stability of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2011-07-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles are polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers that combine the highly biocompatible nature of lipids with the structural integrity afforded by polymeric nanoparticles. Recognizing them as attractive drug delivery vehicles, antibiotics are encapsulated in the present work into hybrid nanoparticles intended for lung biofilm infection therapy. Modified emulsification-solvent-evaporation methods using lipid as surfactant are employed to prepare the hybrid nanoparticles. Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) and phosphatidylcholine are used as the polymer and lipid models, respectively. Three fluoroquinolone antibiotics (i.e. levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin), which vary in their ionicity, lipophilicity, and aqueous solubility, are used. The hybrid nanoparticles are examined in terms of their drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, stability, and in vitro drug release profile. Compared to polymeric nanoparticles prepared using non-lipid surfactants, hybrid nanoparticles in general are larger and exhibit higher drug loading, except for the ciprofloxacin-encapsulated nanoparticles. Hybrid nanoparticles, however, are unstable in salt solutions, but the stability can be conferred by adding TPGS into the formulation. Drug-lipid ionic interactions and drug lipophilicity play important roles in the hybrid nanoparticle preparation. First, interactions between oppositely charged lipid and antibiotic (i.e. ciprofloxacin) during preparation cause failed nanoparticle formation. Charge reversal of the lipid facilitated by adding counterionic surfactants (e.g. stearylamine) must be performed before drug encapsulation can take place. Second, drug loading and the release profile are strongly influenced by drug lipophilicity, where more lipophilic drug (i.e. levofloxacin) exhibit a higher drug loading and a sustained release profile attributed to the interaction with the lipid coat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. The effect of lipid peroxidation products on reactive oxygen species formation and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Gabriela; Pekarova, Michaela; Lojek, Antonin

    2011-02-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by oxidants leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites. These can affect various immune functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lipid peroxidation products (LPPs) - acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde - on ROS and NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and to compare these effects with the cytotoxic properties of LPPs. Macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/ml) and treated with selected LPPs (concentration range: 0.1-100 μM). ATP test, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, Griess reaction, Western blotting analysis, amperometric and total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay were used for determining the LPPs cytotoxicity, ROS and NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, NO scavenging, and antioxidant properties of LPPs, respectively. Our study shows that the cytotoxic action of acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal works in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further, our results imply that acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde can inhibit, to a different degree, ROS and NO production in stimulated macrophages, partially independently of their toxic effect. Also, changes in enzymatic pathways (especially NADPH-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition) and NO scavenging properties are included in the downregulation of reactive species formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving the lipid profile of ready-to-cook meat products by addition of omega-3 microcapsules: effect on oxidation and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Solomando, Juan Carlos; Antequera, Teresa

    2018-04-15

    The omega-3 enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products by microencapsulated fish oil (MFO) addition was analyzed. Accordingly, three batches of chicken nuggets were prepared: (i) control (C); (ii) enriched in bulk fish oil (BFO); and (iii) with added MFO. Sensory features, acceptability, oxidative stability and volatile compounds were analyzed. MFO nuggets did not differ from C ones with respect to any sensory trait. BFO showed increased juiciness and saltiness but decreased meat flavor. Acceptability was not affected by enrichment. Consumers were not able to differentiate between C and MFO in a triangle test, although they could clearly identify BFO nuggets. Higher levels of lipid and protein oxidation indicators and of volatile compounds from fatty acid oxidation were found in BFO nuggets compared to C and MFO nuggets. Enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products in omega-3 fatty acids with MFO provides both lipid and protein oxidative protection without changes in sensory quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of refrigeration time on the lipid oxidation and fatty acid profiles of catfish (Arius maculatus) commercialized in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenyang, N.; Womeni, H.M.; Tiencheu, B.; Villeneuve, P.; Linder, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of refrigeration at 4 °C during 9 days on the quality and stability of catfish oil were evaluated using a change in fatty acid composition by gas chromatography (GC), commonly used analytical indexes (acid and peroxide values), and analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that lipid deterioration, hydrolysis and oxidation occurred throughout the cold storage (4 °C). Refrigeration induced the lipolysis of triglycerides by lipases and phospholipases. It also affected the fatty acids composition of the catfish. The progressive loss of unsaturation was monitored by the decrease in the absorbance band at 3012 cm−1on FTIR spectra and the lowest value was observed in the catfish muscle at 9 days of refrigeration. Eicosapentaenoic C20:5ω3 (EPA) and docosahexaenoic C22:6ω3 (DHA) acids were the polyunsaturated fatty acids most affected during refrigeration. Refrigeration for less than 5 days was found to be the best conditions for the preservation of the catfish. [es

  8. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...... oxidation products. Efficients strategies to prevent lipid oxidation are therefore required. Such strategies include addition of antioxidants or the use of omega-3 delivery emulsions. However, antioxidant efficacy in complex omega-3 enriched foods are influenced by many factors including the lipophilicity...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed...

  9. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  11. Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide Metabolites, and Their Ratio in a Group of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Caimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate expressed as NOx, and TBARS/NOx ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS and nondiabetic (NDMS and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NOx levels and a decrease in TBARS/NOx ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NOx was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NOx ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.

  12. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  13. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  14. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansooreh; Shidfar, Farzad; Tabassi, Zohreh; Shahaboddin, Mohamadesmaeil; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  16. Curcumin prevents the oxidation and lipid modification of LDL and its inhibition of prostacyclin generation by endothelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Sherry Q; Kummerow, Fred A

    2009-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was isolated from human plasma and oxidized by 5microM copper sulfate for 4h at 37 degrees C in the absence and presence of 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20microM of curcumin. LDL oxidized in the absence of curcumin (oxLDL) showed an increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides (TBARS) and lysolecithin (lysoPC) and a significant loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LDL oxidized with 5microM copper sulfate in the presence of curcumin caused a significant decrease of conjugated diene, lipid peroxides, lysoPC and significant increase of PUFA compared to oxLDL. These changes were dose dependent and reached a maximum at 5microM curcumin. Incubation of human endothelial cells (EC) with 200microg protein/ml of oxLDL caused a significant decrease of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation. LDL oxidized in presence of 5microM curcumin did not show any inhibition of PGI(2) generation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that curcumin is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant which prevents oxidation and lipid modification of LDL. The inhibition of oxLDL on PGI(2) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Curcumin supplementation could be an effective strategy in preventing LDL oxidation and its impact on atherosclerosis and lesion formation.

  17. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šojić, Branislav V.; Petrović, Ljiljana S.; Mandić, Anamarija I.; Sedej, Ivana J.; Džinić, Natalija R.; Tomović, Vladimir M.; Jokanović, Marija R.; Tasić, Tatjana A.; Škaljac, Snežana B.; Ikonić, Predrag M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial) in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p

  18. Effects of Different Lipophilized Ferulate Esters in Fish Oil-Enriched Milk: Partitioning, Interaction, Protein, and Lipid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ferulic acid and lipophilized ferulate esters were investigated in fish oil-enriched milk. Methyl ferulate (C1) and ethyl ferulate (C2) more efficiently prevented lipid oxidation than dodecyl ferulate (C12) did, followed by ferulic acid (C0). The combination of C1 or C2 wit...

  19. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  20. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  1. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control participants received no supplements, others were provided with milk-containing LNS, soy-containing LNS or corn-soy blend (CSB) for 12 months. Outcomes were the age at which they achieved key milestone: motor (walking with assistance, standing and walking alone, running), social (drinking from a cup and eating by themselves) and language (saying single comprehensible words and waving goodbye). The mean age at which the subjects walked with assistance was 42.5, 42.3, 42.7 and 43.2 weeks in the control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively (p = 0.748). There were also no significant differences in the mean age at standing alone (45.0, 44.9, 45.1 and 46.3 weeks), walking alone (54.6, 55.1, 55.3, 56.5 weeks), running (64.6, 63.7, 64.8, 65.9 weeks) or any other social or language milestones (each p > 0.10). The findings do not support a hypothesis that providing tested formulations and doses of micronutrient-fortified LNS or CSB would have an impact on when young children in rural Malawi achieved selected developmental milestones. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn M. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls. Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine, and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain.

  3. Skeletal muscle expression of p43, a truncated thyroid hormone receptor α, affects lipid composition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, François; Fouret, Gilles; Lecomte, Jérome; Cortade, Fabienne; Pessemesse, Laurence; Blanchet, Emilie; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2018-02-01

    Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of metabolism and mitochondrial function. Thyroid hormone also affects reactions in almost all pathways of lipids metabolism and as such is considered as the main hormonal regulator of lipid biogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of p43, a 43 Kda truncated form of the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor TRα1 which stimulates mitochondrial activity. Therefore, using mouse models overexpressing p43 in skeletal muscle (p43-Tg) or lacking p43 (p43-/-), we have investigated the lipid composition in quadriceps muscle and in mitochondria. Here, we reported in the quadriceps muscle of p43-/- mice, a fall in triglycerides, an inhibition of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) synthesis, an increase in elongase index and an decrease in desaturase index. However, in mitochondria from p43-/- mice, fatty acid profile was barely modified. In the quadriceps muscle of p43-Tg mice, MUFA content was decreased whereas the unsaturation index was increased. In addition, in quadriceps mitochondria of p43-Tg mice, we found an increase of linoleic acid level and unsaturation index. Last, we showed that cardiolipin content, a key phospholipid for mitochondrial function, remained unchanged both in quadriceps muscle and in its mitochondria whatever the mice genotype. In conclusion, this study shows that muscle lipid content and fatty acid profile are strongly affected in skeletal muscle by p43 levels. We also demonstrate that regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis by the thyroid hormone does not imply p43.

  4. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo 2 -Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  5. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (Pcooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (Pcooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %).

  7. Oxidative Stress Induced Lipid Peroxidation And DNA Adduct Formation In The Pathogenesis Of Multiple Myeloma And Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon, Ravi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the oxidative stress status by quantification of byproducts generated during lipid peroxidation and DNA breakdown products generated during DNA damage in the blood serum of multiple myeloma and lymphoma patients.Material & Methods: Case control study comprised of 40 patients of multiple myeloma and 20 patients of lymphoma along with 20 age and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Levels of Malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-Guanosine were measured to study the oxidative stress status in the study subjects.Results: The level of markers of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation were found to be raised significantly in the study subjects in comparison to healthy controls. The results indicate oxidative stress and DNA damage activity increase progressively with the progression of disease.Conclusion: Oxidative stress causes DNA damage and Lipid peroxidation which results in the formation of DNA adducts leading to mutations thereby indicate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and lymphoma.

  8. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  9. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad......Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off...

  10. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%, methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%, and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55% in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r=0.816 and low-density lipoprotein (r=0.948 and Costus speciosus in brain (r=0.977, polyphenols, and r=0.949, flavonoids correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates.

  12. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Lipid raft integrity affects GABAA receptor, but not NMDA receptor modulation by psychopharmacological compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Uhr, Manfred; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Gilling, Kate E; Parsons, Chris G; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Lipid rafts have been shown to play an important role for G-protein mediated signal transduction and the function of ligand-gated ion channels including their modulation by psychopharmacological compounds. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the membrane distribution of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in relation to the accumulation of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) and the benzodiazepine diazepam (Diaz). In the presence of Triton X-100, which allowed proper separation of the lipid raft marker proteins caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 from the transferrin receptor, all receptor subunits were shifted to the non-raft fractions. In contrast, under detergent-free conditions, NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were detected both in raft and non-raft fractions. Diaz was enriched in non-raft fractions without Triton X-100 in contrast to DMI, which preferentially accumulated in lipid rafts. Impairment of lipid raft integrity by methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD)-induced cholesterol depletion did not change the inhibitory effect of DMI at the NMDA receptor, whereas it enhanced the potentiating effect of Diaz at the GABAA receptor at non-saturating concentrations of GABA. These results support the hypothesis that the interaction of benzodiazepines with the GABAA receptor likely occurs outside of lipid rafts while the antidepressant DMI acts on ionotropic receptors both within and outside these membrane microdomains.

  14. Homogenization Pressure and Temperature Affect Protein Partitioning and Oxidative Stability of Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Barouh, Nathalie; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability of 10 % fish oil-in-water emulsions was investigated for emulsions prepared under different homogenization conditions. Homogenization was conducted at two different pressures (5 or 22.5 MPa), and at two different temperatures (22 and 72 °C). Milk proteins were used...... prior to homogenization did not have any clear effect on lipid oxidation in either of the two types of emulsions....

  15. Insulin-like growth factor I reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2015-02-01

    We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe(-/-) mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe(-/-) mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor I Reduces Lipid Oxidation and Foam Cell Formation via Downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe−/− mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. Approach and Results We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe−/− mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Conclusions Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. PMID:25549319

  17. Positive Association between Urinary Concentration of Phthalate Metabolites and Oxidation of DNA and Lipid in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chao-Yu; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-03-01

    Phthalate has been used worldwide in various products for years. Little is known about the association between phthalate exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress in adolescents and young adults. Among 886 subjects recruited from a population-based cohort during 2006 to 2008, 751 subjects (12-30 years) with complete phthalate metabolites and oxidation stress measurement were enrolled in this study. Nine urine phthalate metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) were measured in urine to assess exposure and oxidative stress to DNA and lipid, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in urine biomarkers of oxidative stress (in μg/g creatinine of 0.098 ± 0.028 in 8-OHdG; and 0.253 ± 0.051 in 8-isoPGF2α). There was no association between other eight phthalate metabolite concentrations and oxidative stress. In conclusion, a higher MMP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in markers of oxidative stress to DNA and lipid in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to phthalate and oxidative stress.

  18. Effect of Folk Dance Training on Blood Oxidative Stress Level, Lipids, and Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okdan Bora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folk dance is a form of physical activity which helps develop the ability to use the whole body in a coordinated way with music, and folk dancers’ characteristics vary according to the particular type of dance practised in a given geographic region. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of 12-week folk dance training on blood oxidative stress level, lipids, lipoproteins, as well as muscle damage markers and to define some physical and physiological properties of folk dancers. Material and methods. Thirty-eight healthy male folk dancers aged 21-28 years having an average of 11 years of dance training experience voluntarily participated in the study. All of the physical and physiological measurements and the blood analysis were performed twice, before and after the training period which focused on different regional dances (Caucasus, Bar, Zeybek, Spoon Dance, Thracian dances, and Horon. The training was done 2 hours per day (a total of 10 hours a week, during a 12-week-long period. Results. All the blood parameters were found to be within the specified reference ranges. The training programme had no significant effect on the blood lipid profile, whereas it was found to have positive effects on body fat (p ≤ 0.012, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; p = 0.000, muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, Δ% = −19.6, and total antioxidant capacity (p ≤ 0.002. Conclusions. Regular folk dance training was found to have positive effects on body fat, VO2peak, blood total antioxidant capacity, and muscle damage markers. Based on these results, the community should be encouraged to perform folk dance as a recreational physical activity, and public awareness should be raised about the health benefits of practising folk dances.

  19. Triiodothyronine induces lipid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat Harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Burrone, L; Falvo, S; Senese, R; Lanni, A; Chieffi Baccari, G

    2013-10-01

    The rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones. In this study, we found that both isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (Trα (Thra) and Trβ (Thrb)) are expressed in rat HGs. Although Thra is expressed at a higher level, only Thrb is regulated by triiodothyronine (T3). Because T3 induces an increase in lipid metabolism in rat HGs, we investigated the effects of an animal's thyroid state on the expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (Cpt1b) and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox1) (rate-limiting enzymes in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation respectively), as well as on the mitochondrial compartment, thereby correlating mitochondrial activity and biogenesis with morphological analysis. We found that hypothyroidism decreased the expression of Cpt1b and Acox1 mRNA, whereas the administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats increased transcript levels. Respiratory parameters and catalase protein levels provided further evidence that T3 modulates mitochondrial and peroxisomal activities. Furthermore, in hypothyroid rat HGs, the mitochondrial number and their total area decreased with respect to the controls, whereas the average area of the individual mitochondrion did not change. However, the average area of the individual mitochondrion was reduced by ∼50% in hypothyroid T3-treated HGs, and the mitochondrial number and the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased. The mitochondrial morphometric data correlated well with the molecular results. Indeed, hypothyroid status did not modify the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1 and Tfam, whereas T3 treatment increased the expression level of these genes.

  20. Nitric Oxide, Inflammation, Lipid Profile, and Cortisol in Normal- and Overweight Women With Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Alma; Molina, Francisco; Gassó, Manuela; Camacho, Maria Victoria; Peinado, Maria Ángeles; del Moral, Maria Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Research has identified many factors associated with fibromyalgia (FM), but findings have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate changes in levels of nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory markers, lipid profile, and cortisol in normal- and overweight patients with FM and controls. Since most patients with FM are overweight, we explored possible changes in these markers according to body mass index (BMI). This preliminary study was performed on serum samples of women with FM and age-matched controls, grouped according to their BMI: 12 normal-weight patients and 12 controls and 13 overweight patients and 8 controls. Ozone-based chemiluminescence assay was used to measure NO. Inflammatory mediators and cortisol were determined by immunoassay. Lipid profile was measured by a spectrophotometric procedure. Functional capacity was assessed by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). Normal-weight patients showed higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein B compared to controls (both p < .05). CRP, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides were higher in overweight patients versus overweight controls (all p < .05) and in overweight versus normal-weight patients (CRP p < .01; apolipoprotein B, triglycerides p < .05). The other markers were unaffected. Apolipoprotein B (r = .762; p < .05) and NO (r = -.921; p < .05) levels correlated with FIQ score in normal-weight patients. CRP level correlated with FIQ (r = .912; p < .05) in overweight patients. CRP and apolipoprotein B, biomarkers linked to cardiovascular events, may be associated with FM-related dysfunction in normal- and overweight women with FM. Their increased levels in these patients may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  2. Vitamin D supplementation does not affect serum lipids and lipoproteins in Pakistani immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, Christine; Mejborn, Heddie

    2009-01-01

    Potential long-term negative effects of increased vitamin D consumption are not thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A 1-year long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled interve......Potential long-term negative effects of increased vitamin D consumption are not thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A 1-year long randomised double-blinded placebo......-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol after daily supplementation with 10 or 20 g vitamin D for 1 year. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake by 10–20 g per day for 1 year is safe for Pakistani immigrants with regards to serum lipids and lipoproteins....

  3. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows, PC barrows, and gilts were still below 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg of meat, the threshold at which trained panelists may deem a food to be rancid. In conclusion, bacon shelf life characteristics were not altered by the immunological castration management strategy and bacon from IC barrows was similar to bacon from gilts. Therefore, bacon from IC barrows would result in shelf life and sensory quality similar to PC barrows and gilts.

  4. Effect of combined gliclazide/metformin treatment on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Alsharidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires pharmacotherapy interventions. Metformin and gliclazide are widely used drugs in monotherapy. However, their complementary action made utilization of the combination of these drugs an appealing approach. Aims: The study compared major therapeutic potentials of combined metformin/gliclazide treatment over metformin monotherapy based on the following parameters: oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions. Subjects and methods: This is a comparative study was conducted from March 2015 to March 2016. The study screened 80 type 2 diabetic patients, of which 40 patients underwent combined metformin + gliclazide therapy (500 mg BD + 80 mg OD, respectively. The other 40 were matched for age and duration of diabetes mellitus with the previous group and received metformin monotherapy (500 mg BD. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, total glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, serum creatinine, aspartate and alanine transaminases, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were measured according to the standard methods. Results: Oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions were comparable in patients of both groups. However, patients on metformin treatment showed significantly lower levels of FBG [7.61 (6.70–8.89 mmol/L vs. 9.00 (7.30–10.68 mmol/L; P = .022] and HBA1c [7.00 (6.40–7.65% vs. 8.20 (7.20–9.75%; P < .001] compared to those on combined therapy. Conclusion: Oxidative stress, lipids profile, and hepatorenal functions were not different in patients who were on combined metformin/gliclazide therapy and compared to those metformin alone. In contrast, glycemic control was poor in the diabetic patients undergoing combined therapy. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Gliclazide, Glucose, Lipids, Metformin, Oxidative stress

  5. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Paul, P.; D'Souza, S.F.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  6. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  7. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  8. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  9. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  10. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  11. The effect of virtual cross linking on the oxidative stability and lipid uptake of aliphatic poly(urethane urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinoy; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2002-01-01

    In vitro oxidative degradation and lipid sorption of aliphatic, low elastic modulus and virtually cross-linked poly(urethane urea)s based on 4,4' methylene bis(cyclohexyl isocyanate), hydroxy terminated poly butadiene and hexamethylene diamine were evaluated. The aged samples revealed no weight loss in the oxidation medium. The IR spectral analyses revealed the stability of unsaturated double bonds at 964 cm(-1) (characteristic for polybutadiene soft segment) with no change in peak intensity. The poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG)-added poly(ether urethane urea) polymer also revealed no disappearance of IR peaks for ether and unsaturated double bonds in samples aged in vitro oxidation medium. All the polymers have shown increase in weight due to lipid up take in lipid-rich medium (palm oil) but it was rather low in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) cholesterol. The slight change in mechanical properties of the present polymers in oxidation and DMEM is due to the rearrangement of molecular structure with virtual cross links of hydrogen bonding (physical cross linking) without degradation and plasticization effect of lipid. The influence of these media on the rearrangement of virtual cross links has been observed. Higher the virtual cross-link density, lesser is the loss of tensile properties of poly(urethane urea)s in the oxidation medium and vice versa. On the other hand, higher the virtual cross-link density of poly(urethane urea), higher is the loss of ultimate tensile strength and stress at 100% strain and vice versa in DMEM medium.

  12. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  13. The Role of Propolis in Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mujica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence of the benefits of propolis on human health, the vast majority of studies have been conducted using animal models. The present study includes the chemical characterization and clinical evaluation of the effects of the oral administration of propolis solution on the oxidative status and modulation of lipids in a human population in Talca, Chile. Chemical characterization of propolis, total phenol, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacity were determined by ORAC. Identification of phenols and flavonoids in propolis was assessed by HPLC-DAD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Subjects provided informed consent form and the Bioethics Committee of the Universidad de Talca approved protocol. Eligible subjects (n=67 were randomized in two groups: propolis (n=35 and placebo (n=32. All subjects were evaluated at 0 (baseline, 45, and 90 days. In the propolis group, we observed that increases in HDL-c went from 53.9 ± 11.9 to 65.8 ± 16.7 mg/dL (p<0.001 from baseline to 90 days. Compared to placebo subjects, consumption of propolis induced a net increase in GSH levels (p<0.0001 and a decrease (p<0.001 in TBARS levels for the propolis group. Our findings indicate potential benefits of propolis use in human health. The use of propolis appears to have positive effects on oxidative status and improvement of HDL-c, both of which contribute to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2×10(-7) to 2×10(-5)M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the PFAS in human liver cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  16. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  17. Steady-state oxidation of cholesterol catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayer membranes on platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Devadoss, Anando; Palencsar, Mariela S.; Burgess, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase is immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes. Platinum electrodes are initially modified with a self-assembled monolayer of thiolipid. A vesicle fusion method is used to deposit an outer leaflet of phospholipids onto the thiolipid monolayer forming a thiolipid/lipid bilayer membrane on the electrode surface. Cholesterol oxidase spontaneously inserts into the electrode-supported lipid bilayer membrane from solution and is consequently immobilized to the electrode surface. Cholesterol partitions into the membrane from buffer solutions containing cyclodextrin. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol by molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide as a product. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide for continuous solution flow experiments are presented, where flow was alternated between cholesterol solution and buffer containing no cholesterol. Steady-state anodic currents were observed during exposures of cholesterol solutions ranging in concentration from 10 to 1000 μM. These data are consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for oxidation of cholesterol as catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase immobilized in the lipid bilayer membrane. The cholesterol detection limit is below 1 μM for cholesterol solution prepared in buffered cyclodextrin. The response of the electrodes to low density lipoprotein solutions is increased upon addition of cyclodextrin. Evidence for adsorption of low density lipoprotein to the electrode surface is presented

  18. Rare branched fatty acids characterize the lipid composition of the intra-aerobic methane oxidizer "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Dorien M; Zhu, Baoli; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Jetten, Mike S M; Ettwig, Katharina F; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2012-12-01

    The recently described bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" couples the oxidation of the important greenhouse gas methane to the reduction of nitrite. The ecological significance of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" is still underexplored, as our ability to identify the presence of this bacterium is thus far limited to DNA-based techniques. Here, we investigated the lipid composition of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" to identify new, gene-independent biomarkers for the environmental detection of this bacterium. Multiple "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" enrichment cultures were investigated. In all cultures, the lipid profile was dominated up to 46% by the fatty acid (FA) 10-methylhexadecanoic acid (10MeC(16:0)). Furthermore, a unique FA was identified that has not been reported elsewhere: the monounsaturated 10-methylhexadecenoic acid with a double bond at the Δ7 position (10MeC(16:1Δ7)), which comprised up to 10% of the total FA profile. We propose that the typical branched fatty acids 10MeC(16:0) and 10MeC(16:1Δ7) are key and characteristic components of the lipid profile of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera." The successful detection of these fatty acids in a peatland from which one of the enrichment cultures originated supports the potential of these unique lipids as biomarkers for the process of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in the environment.

  19. Characterization of lipid oxidation process of beef during repeated freeze-thaw by electron spin resonance technology and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmin; Xie, Yunfei; Xi, Jinzhong; Guo, Yahui; Qian, He; Cheng, Yuliang; Chen, Yi; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-15

    In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize lipid oxidation of beef during repeated freeze-thaw (RFT). Besides the conventional indexes including peroxide values (PV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and acid values (AV) were evaluated, the radical and molecular structure changes were also measured by ESR and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that PV, TBARS and AV were increased (PRaman intensity of ν(CC) stretching region (1655cm -1 ) was decreased during RFT. Furthermore, lower Raman intensity ratio of I 1655 /I 1442 , I 1655 /I 1745 that determine total unsaturation was also observed. Significant correlations (pRaman spectroscopy. Our result has proved that ESR and Raman spectroscopy showed great potential in characterizing lipid oxidation process of beef during RFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of ethylene oxide containing lipopolymers and tri-block copolymers on lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekmark, T. R.; Pedersen, S.; Jorgensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    oxide moity, anchored to the bilayer by a 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-s,n-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DC18PE) lipid. The second type, which is a novel type of membrane-spanning object, is an amphiphilic tri-block copolymer composed of two hydrophilic stretches of polyethylene oxide separated by a hydrophobic...... stretch of polystyrene. Hence the tri-block copolymer may act as a membrane-spanning macromolecule mimicking an amphiphilic protein or polypeptide. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to determine a partial phase diagram for the lipopolymer systems and to assess the amount of lipopolymer that can...... be loaded into DC16PC lipid bilayers before micellization takes place. Unilamellar and micellar phase structures are investigated by fluorescence quenching using bilayer permeating dithionite. The chain length-dependent critical lipopolymer concentration, denoting the lamellar-to-micellar phase transition...

  1. Does Lipid Profile Affect Thrombin Generation During Ramadan Fasting in Patients With Cardiovascular Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mouna; Chakroun, Taher; Chouchène, Saoussen; Hellara, Ilhem; Boubaker, Hamdi; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Khochtali, Ines; Hassine, Mohsen; Addad, Faouzi; Elalamy, Ismail; Nouira, Semir

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that diet and variation in lipid metabolism can influence blood coagulation, but little is known about the effect of Ramadan fasting on plasmatic coagulation pattern. We investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on thrombin generation (TG) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, and we aimed to assess the effect of lipid profile on TG parameters. The study was conducted in 36 adults having at least 2 CVD risks and in 30 healthy controls. Coagulation pattern was assessed by both classical clotting times and TG test. A complete lipid profile was performed simultaneously. Patients were invited 2 times: 1 week before Ramadan and during the last week of the Ramadan. The TG parameters were not different in patients with CVD risks compared to healthy controls. Fasting had no effect on plasmatic coagulation parameters and on TG profile. Individual analysis of the mean rate index (MRI) of TG revealed 3 groups: group 1 with no modification of MRI, group 2 with a significant increase in MRI (81.64 nM/min vs 136.07 nM/min; P fasting did not influence the global coagulation pattern in patients with CVD risks. Whereas, a significant increase in the propagation phase of TG was associated with a significant increase in cholesterol levels, which was not found with the other TG parameters.

  2. Co-administration of trientine and flaxseed oil on oxidative stress, serum lipids and heart structure in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2013-08-01

    The administration of flaxseed oil or flaxseed oil plus trientine in diabetic rats reduced triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, the combined treatment significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated serum Cu2+. The results suggest that the administration of flaxseed oil plus trientine is useful in controlling serum lipid abnormalities, oxidative stress, restoring heart structure, and reducing serum Cu2+ in diabetic rats.

  3. Effect of repeated oral administration of bifenthrin on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Muneer Ahmad; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Raina, Rajinder; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sultana, Mudasir

    2013-07-01

    The oxidative stress-inducing potential of the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, was evaluated in rats at 5.8 mg/kg body weight once daily for 20 or 30 days. Bifenthrin treated animals showed significantly increased lipid peroxidation, evidenced by increased blood malondialdehyde levels. Blood glutathione levels and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the bifenthrin treated animals after both 20 and 30 days of treatment, whereas, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase decreased significantly only on the 30th day. In conclusion, bifenthrin has a potential to induce severe oxidative stress in rats exposed to sublethal concentrations.

  4. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO 4 , Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P 2 O 2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  6. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  7. Metabolic encephalopathy and lipid storage myopathy associated with a presumptive mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Biegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurologic examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurologic signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy.

  8. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  9. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  10. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  11. Impaired secondary oxidant deactivation capacity and enhanced oxidative stress in serum from alveld affected lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegge, Anne Bee; Mysterud, Ivar; Karlsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Alveld is a hepatogenous photosensitivity disorder in lambs. The aim of the study was to investigate if alveld affected lambs had a reduced capacity to handle oxidative stress induced from either endogenous and/or exogenous photosensitizers. Serum samples from alveld lambs (n=33) were compared...... to serum samples from control lambs (n=31) and exposed to a controlled amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The sera from alveld lambs were found to have an impaired ability to deactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to control sera. A higher degree of initial hemolysis and a higher concentration...... in pooled serum from alveld lambs that showed a high degree of hemolysis. It was concluded that alveld photosensitivity is likely to be initiated by a photodynamic reaction involving PP and possibly also PP IX followed by a light-independent reaction involving hemoglobin-related products and catalysis...

  12. Ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway coordinates nutrient stress with lipid metabolism by regulating MCD and promoting fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; He, Yizhou; Jin, Aiwen; Tikunov, Andrey P; Zhou, Lishi; Tollini, Laura A; Leslie, Patrick; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Li, Lei O; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Yong Q; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Graves, Lee M; Zhang, Yanping

    2014-06-10

    The tumor suppressor p53 has recently been shown to regulate energy metabolism through multiple mechanisms. However, the in vivo signaling pathways related to p53-mediated metabolic regulation remain largely uncharacterized. By using mice bearing a single amino acid substitution at cysteine residue 305 of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2(C305F)), which renders Mdm2 deficient in binding ribosomal proteins (RPs) RPL11 and RPL5, we show that the RP-Mdm2-p53 signaling pathway is critical for sensing nutrient deprivation and maintaining liver lipid homeostasis. Although the Mdm2(C305F) mutation does not significantly affect growth and development in mice, this mutation promotes fat accumulation under normal feeding conditions and hepatosteatosis under acute fasting conditions. We show that nutrient deprivation inhibits rRNA biosynthesis, increases RP-Mdm2 interaction, and induces p53-mediated transactivation of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), which catalyzes the degradation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA, thus modulating lipid partitioning. Fasted Mdm2(C305F) mice demonstrate attenuated MCD induction and enhanced malonyl-CoA accumulation in addition to decreased oxidative respiration and increased fatty acid accumulation in the liver. Thus, the RP-Mdm2-p53 pathway appears to function as an endogenous sensor responsible for stimulating fatty acid oxidation in response to nutrient depletion.

  13. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Andrade, María-Jesús; Kylli, Petri; Estévez, Mario

    2011-05-25

    The first aim of the present work (study 1) was to analyze ethyl acetate, 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill.) varieties, namely, 'Hass' and 'Fuerte', for their phenolic composition and their in vitro antioxidant activity using the CUPRAC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Their antimicrobial potential was also studied. Peels and seeds had higher amounts of phenolics and a more intense in vitro antioxidant potential than the pulp. Peels and seeds were rich in catechins, procyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the pulp was particularly rich in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of avocado phenolics was affected by the extracting solvent and avocado variety. The avocado materials also displayed moderate antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Taking a step forward (study 2), extracts (70% acetone) from avocado peels and seeds were tested as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in meat patties. Avocado extracts protected meat lipids and proteins against oxidation with the effect on lipids being dependent on the avocado variety.

  14. Recent approaches to the total synthesis of phytoprostanes, isoprostanes and neuroprostanes as important products of lipid oxidative stress and biomarkers of disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Emanuela; Durand, T.; Galano, J. M.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2014), s. 301-319 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lipids * oxidative stress * phytoprostanes * isoprostanes * neuroprostanes * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.272, year: 2014

  15. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  16. Lipid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinying Liang,1–3 Xinxin Zhang,2 Yunqiu Miao,2 Juan Li,1 Yong Gan2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The development of noninvasive imaging techniques for the accurate diagnosis of progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is of great clinical significance and has always been desired. Herein, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeting fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (NP was obtained by conjugating near-infrared fluorescence to the surface of Fe3O4 (NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs, followed by coating the lipids consisting of tumoral hepatocytes-targeting polymer (Gal-P123. This magnetic NP (GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 with superparamagnetic behavior showed high stability and safety in physiological conditions. In addition, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 achieved more specific uptake of human liver cancer cells than free Fe3O4 NPs. Importantly, with superparamagnetic iron oxide and strong NIR absorbance, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs demonstrate prominent tumor-contrasted imaging performance both on fluorescent and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR imaging modalities in a living body. The relative MR signal enhancement of GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs achieved 5.4-fold improvement compared with NIR-Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs may be potentially used as a candidate for dual-modal imaging of tumors with information covalidated and directly compared by combining fluorescence and MR imaging. Keywords: dual-imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatocellular carcinoma, tumor-targeting

  17. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  18. Factors affecting radium removal using mixed iron-manganese oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, H.V. Singh, S.; Kondapally, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    Batch experiments confirmed that sorption of radium by a mixed iron-manganese oxide solid phase shows promise for treating radium-contaminated water. The capacities of these mixed oxides for sorption of radium depend on the composition of the solid phase, the pH of the aqueous solution, and the presence of competing cations. The removal of the oxide-radium complexes from aqueous suspension by manganese greensand filtration was also investigated. It was found that influent radium concentrations of 100 pCi/L were reduced to 2--9 pCi/L by this process. Additional study of the fate of radium in manganese greensand filters is recommended before this procedure is used for drinking water treatment

  19. Factors affecting radium removal using mixed iron-manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, H.V. Singh, S.; Kondapally, V.R. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Batch experiments confirmed that sorption of radium by a mixed iron-manganese oxide solid phase shows promise for treating radium-contaminated water. The capacities of these mixed oxides for sorption of radium depend on the composition of the solid phase, the pH of the aqueous solution, and the presence of competing cations. The removal of the oxide-radium complexes from aqueous suspension by manganese greensand filtration was also investigated. It was found that influent radium concentrations of 100 pCi/L were reduced to 2--9 pCi/L by this process. Additional study of the fate of radium in manganese greensand filters is recommended before this procedure is used for drinking water treatment.

  20. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  1. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation is Associated With Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidemia, but Does not Contribute to Better Lipid and Oxidative Status on Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation in physiological doses on oxidative stress (OS) and dyslipidemia in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Randomized, double-blind, controlled, experimental trial. A total of 88 HD patients ≥18 years old and on HD for at least 6 months. A total of 43 patients received 1.28 g/day of n-3 PUFA, and 45 other patients received soybean oil for 12 weeks. Both oil supplements were vitamin E standardized. Routine tests, lipid profile, advanced oxidation protein products, isoprostanes, vitamins C and E, total antioxidant capacity, serum fatty acids, and adverse effects were evaluated. Supplementation was not able to alter lipid or OS profiles. There was an increase in the serum n-3 PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic acid: +116%; docosahexaenoic acid: +100%) and an improvement in the n-6/n-3 ratio (-49%) in the supplemented group. Associations between n-3 PUFA and improvement in isoprostane and advanced oxidation protein product and HDL were observed. Treatment was well tolerated. Although the n-3 PUFA supplementation was associated with lower concentrations of isoprostane and advanced oxidation protein product and higher HDL levels, it was not sufficient for the improvement of highly prevalent risk factors, such as OS and dyslipidemia in HD patients. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric oxide and neopterin in bipolar affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Fekkes, D.; Pepplinkhuizen, L.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Tuinier, S.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of nitric oxide (NO) and pterines in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The results so far show an inconsistent pattern. Methods: In the present study, neopterin and a measure of NO synthesis in plasma of symptomatic and

  4. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Shafaeizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Pectin consumption could decrease serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol in the diet that contains oxidized oil. Pectin supplementation could decrease the detrimental effects of thermally oxidized oil.

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  6. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: Non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic......) Strecker derived volatiles, (ii) yellowness index (YI), (iii) hydrophobic and (iv) hydrophilic pyrroles content. The oxidative stability of the samples was assessed through measurement of secondary lipid derived volatile oxidation products. The result showed that the presence of PE and amino acids caused...... the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids....

  7. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  8. The hypobaric hypoxia affects the oxidant balance in skeletal muscle regeneration of women

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    Rosa Mancinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells in young women.Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia and after (POST-Hypoxia the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid damage, mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non oxidized cells.Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the Vastus Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects.

  9. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (Poil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids - early effect

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    Makarewicz Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radioiodine (131I therapy is widely accepted as an essential part of therapeutic regimens in many cases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules is a well known phenomenon. Frequently examined process to evaluate oxidative damage to macromolecules is lipid peroxidation (LPO, resulting from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. The aim of the study was to examine serum LPO level in hypothyroid (after total thyroidectomy cancer patients subjected to ablative activities of 131I. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 21 patients (18 females and 3 males, average age 52.4 ± 16.5 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary (17 patients or follicular (4 patients thyroid carcinoma. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH blood concentration (BRAHMS, Germany, measured before 131I therapy. Activity of 2.8 - 6.9 GBq of 131I was administered to the patients orally as sodium iodide (OBRI, Poland. Concentrations of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA, as an index of LPO (LPO-586 kit, Calbiochem, USA, were measured in blood serum just before 131I administration (day "0" and on the days 1-4 after 131I therapy. Sera from 23 euthyroid patients served as controls. Correlations between LPO and TSH or 131I activity were calculated. Results Expectedly, serum LPO level, when measured before 131I therapy, was several times higher (p 131I therapy. LPO did not correlate with TSH concentration. In turn, negative correlation was found between 131I activity and LPO level on the day "2" after radioiodine treatment. Conclusions Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids, at least early, after therapy.

  11. Optimization of the C11-BODIPY(581/591) dye for the determination of lipid oxidation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, Giulia; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2013-10-01

    Lipid oxidation is a recognized end point for the study of oxidative stress and is an important parameter to describe the mode of micropollutant action on aquatic microorganisms. Therefore, the development of quick and reliable methodologies probing the oxidative stress and damage in living cells is highly sought. In the present proof-of-concept work, we examined the potential of the fluorescent dye C11-BODIPY(591/581) to probe lipid oxidation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C11-BODIPY(591/581) staining was combined with flow cytometry measurements to obtain multiparameter information on cellular features and oxidative stress damage within single cells. First, staining conditions were optimized by exploring the capability of the dye to stain algal cells under increasing cell and dye concentrations and different staining procedures. Then lipid oxidation in algae induced by short- and long-term exposures to the three metallic micropollutants, copper, mercury, and nanoparticulate copper oxide, and the two organic contaminants, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and diuron was determined. In this work we pointed out C11-BODIPY(591/581) applicability in a wide range of exposure conditions, including studies of oxidation as a function of time and that it is suitable for in vivo measurements of lipid oxidation due to its high permeation and stability in cells and its low interference with algal autofluorescence. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal

  13. Treatment of chronic hemodialysis patients with low-dose fenofibrate effectively reduces plasma lipids and affects plasma redox status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makówka Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyslipidemia is common in chronic hemodialysis patients and its underlying mechanism is complex. Hemodialysis causes an imbalance between antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species, which induces the oxidative stress and thereby may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. Statins have been found to be little effective in end-stage kidney disease and other lipid-lowering therapies have been only scarcely studied. The study aimed to assess the effect of low-dose fenofibrate therapy on plasma lipids and redox status in long-term hemodialysis patients with mild hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty seven chronic hemodialysis patients without any lipid-lowering therapy were included in a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study. The patients were randomized into two groups and were given a sequence of either 100 mg of fenofibrate per each hemodialysis day for 4 weeks or placebo with a week-long wash-out period between treatment periods. Plasma lipids, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, urea, creatinine, electrolytes, phosphocreatine kinase (CK, GOT, GPT and plasma thiols (total and free glutathione, homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinylglycine were measured at baseline and after each of the study periods. Plasma aminothiols were measured by reversed phase HPLC with thiol derivatization with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate. Fenofibrate therapy caused a significant decrease of total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and an increase of HDL cholesterol. The treatment was well tolerated with no side-effects but there was a small but significant increase of CK not exceeding the upper limit of normal range. There were no changes of serum CRP, potassium, urea, and creatinine and liver enzymes during the treatment. Neither total nor total free cysteinylglycine and cysteine changed during the study but both total and free glutathione increased during the therapy with fenofibrate and the same was observed

  14. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Tributyltin (TBT) induces oxidative stress and modifies lipid profile in the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Gajewska, Ewa; Szewczyk, Rafał; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the response of the tributyltin-degrading fungal strain Cunninghamella elegans to the organotin, a comparative lipidomics strategy was employed using an LC/MS-MS technique. A total of 49 lipid species were identified. Individual phospholipids were then quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring method. Tributyltin (TBT) caused a decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. In the presence of TBT, it was observed that overall unsaturation was lower than in the control. Lipidome data were analyzed using principal component analysis, which confirmed the compositional changes in membrane lipids in response to TBT. Additionally, treatment of fungal biomass with butyltin led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that modification of the phospholipids profile and lipids peroxidation may reflect damage to mycelium caused by TBT.

  16. Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from lemon (Citrus limoni) peels on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography. Antioxidant properties of the oil and inhibition of pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenate were also assessed. The essential oil inhibited AChE and BChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. GC analysis revealed the presence of sabinene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, the essential oil exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by ferric reducing property, Fe(2+)-chelation and radicals [DPPH, ABTS, OH, NO] scavenging abilities. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  17. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P virgin olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular affection in relation to oxidative DNA damage in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, Rokayaa; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Khalil, Noha; Abdel Atty, Sahar; Sabra, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has become an important issue affecting both males and females. Obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration has been used to express oxidation status. Twenty-seven obese patients with metabolic syndrome, 25 obese patients without metabolic syndrome and 31 healthy subjects were included in our study. They were subjected to full history and clinical examination; fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hour post prandial blood sugar (2HPP), lipid profile, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and carotid duplex, A/B index and tibial diameters were all assessed. There was a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.027) in diameter of the right anterior tibial artery among the studied groups, with decreased diameter of the right anterior tibial artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome; the ankle brachial index revealed a lower index in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. There was a statistically insignificant difference ( p = 0.668) in the 8-oxodG in the studied groups. In obese patients with metabolic syndrome there was a positive correlation between 8-oxodG and total cholesterol and LDL. Urinary 8-oxodG is correlated to total cholesterol and LDL in obese patients with metabolic syndrome; signifying its role in the mechanism of dyslipidemia in those patients. Our study highlights the importance of anterior tibial artery diameter measurement and ankle brachial index as an early marker of atherosclerosis, and how it may be an earlier marker than carotid intima-media thickness.

  19. Subcutaneous body lipids affect cyclicity and estrus behavior in primiparous Charolais cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recoules, E; De La Torre, A; Agabriel, J; Egal, D; Blanc, F

    2013-08-01

    Conception rate and the calving interval of beef cows are known to be influenced by body reserves at calving and subsequent postpartum changes. However, few studies have focused on the effect of body reserve dynamics on both postpartum cyclicity and estrus expression. Two successive similar experiments (Year 1: n=14; Year 2: n=16) were carried out on primiparous Charolais cows reared indoors during winter to quantify the effects of adipose cell diameter at calving (ACDca) and their postpartum changes (ACDch) on cyclicity and estrus behavior. Cows were managed to calve with a body condition score (BCS, scale 0-5) of 2.5 (Year 1) and 1.5 (Year 2). After calving cows were assigned to a Low vs. a High energy level diet until turn out to pasture in May. Within years ACDca was similar between Low and High groups whereas calving to turnout changes of body weight (BW), BCS and adipose cell diameter differed (Pbody lipids to predict relationships between nutrition and reproduction in cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential...... mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHx...

  1. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  2. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  3. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    OpenAIRE

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation does not affect serum lipids in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Tourlede, Eleftheria; Rezou, Athanasia; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Boletis, John; Zampelas, Antonis

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on serum lipids and inflammation markers in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study followed a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. The study was conducted at the Hemodialysis Unit of the Laikon General Hospital in Athens, Greece. A total of 25 chronic HD patients were included in the study (16 men, 9 women, age: 51 ± 15 years). Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following 2 intervention groups: omega-3 fatty acids plus α-tocopherol (920 mg eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), 760 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 8 mg α-tocopherol in total per day) or α-tocopherol supplement (100 mg/week resulting in 14.2 mg/day) alone for 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the 2 groups were crossed. Medical history data were collected and anthropometric and nutritional intake evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of both interventions. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as C-reactive protein levels were measured. No statistically significant results were recorded in the lipidemic profiles of the participants between baseline and the 2 interventions. C-reactive protein levels also did not change significantly between the 2 interventions (5.54 ± 3.33 to 6.70 ± 5.01 mg/L [P = .19] with vitamin E vs. 7.13 ± 5.04 to 6.87 ± 5.24 [P = .78] with omega-3, P overall = .53). The results of this study do not provide support for the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in HD patients. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The results of the lipids peroxidation products on the DNA bases as biological markers of the oxidative stress; Les adduits des produits de la peroxydation lipidique sur les bases de l'ADN comme biomarqueurs du stress oxydant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falletti, O

    2007-10-15

    Different ways of DNA damages have been studied, among these ones the direct way of DNA damages formation by the reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). This way leads to the formation of oxidative DNA damages. In 1990, works have suggested an indirect way of DNA damages formation, the lipids peroxidation. Instead of oxidizing directly DNA, the R.O.S. oxide the lipids present in the cells and their membranes; The products coming from this degradation are able to provoke DNA damages. This way has not been studied very much. The work of this thesis is axed on this DNA theme and lipids peroxidation. In the first chapter, we begin by presenting DNA and the direct way of oxidative damages formation by the R.O.S.Then, we speak about the cell lipids suffering oxidation reactions and the different ways of lipids oxidation. Then, we present how the lipid peroxidation is a source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  6. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise-Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host...... gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16...... indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved...

  7. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  8. Influence of cooking methods and storage time on lipid and protein oxidation and heterocyclic aromatic amines production in bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soladoye, O P; Shand, P; Dugan, M E R; Gariépy, C; Aalhus, J L; Estévez, M; Juárez, M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of cooking methods and pre-determined refrigerated storage days on the production of lipid oxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (PROTOX) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in bacon. Forty-four pork bellies selected from pigs varying in breed, sex and diets to introduce variability in composition were processed as bacon. Sliced-bacon was stored at 4°C either for 2 or 28days and these storage groups were cooked either with microwave or frying pan. Microwave led to significantly higher PROTOX (P0.05) by the cooking methods and storage times. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of pork belly did not significantly influence the production of HAA, TBARS and PROTOX produced in bacon during cooking. Overall, microwave cooking had lesser impact on the production of carcinogenic compounds in bacon with only minor impact on sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Non-enzymatic lipid oxidation products in biological systems: assessment of the metabolites from polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigor, Claire; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Pinot, Edith; Oger, Camille; Vercauteren, Joseph; Le Faouder, Pauline; Galano, Jean-Marie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Durand, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids notably omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have become important biomarkers of lipid products. Especially the arachidonic acid-derived F2-isoprostanes are the classic in vivo biomarker for oxidative stress in biological systems. In recent years other isoprostanes from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic acids have been evaluated, namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively. These have been gaining interest as complementary specific biomarkers in human diseases. Refined extraction methods, robust analysis and elucidation of chemical structures have improved the sensitivity of detection in biological tissues and fluids. Previously the main reliable instrumentation for measurement was gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), but now the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunological techniques is gaining much attention. In this review, the types of prostanoids generated from non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of some important omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and biological samples that have been determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Some peculiarities of lipides peroxide oxidation and anti oxidation therapy of duodenal peptic ulcer in the persons who stayed in the zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, O.Ya.; Chernyak, A.M.; Goncharova, L.Yi.; Pasyijeshvyilyi, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied the links of lipides peroxide oxidation (LPO) in the blood plasma, i.e. the level of antioxidant protection at duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) in the persons who stayed in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. LPO intensification takes place at the expense of the primary stages (spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced chemo luminescence) in the liquidators with DPU, when compared with the patients having DPU who did not stay in the zone of the accident. It suggests of exhaustion of cell membranes anti-oxidate protection level which provides atypical course of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane. The peculiarities of blood plasma LPO changes suggest that it would be reasonable to include antioxidants (Unithiolum) to the complex treatment of the liquidators

  13. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Chun

    Full Text Available A high phosphorus (HP diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054 in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty

  14. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO{sub 4}, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol [ripe (113.7mg/100g), unripe (70.5mg/100g)] content and ferric reducing antioxidant property than the unripe pepper. However, there was no significant difference in the vitamin C [ripe (231.5{mu}g/g), unripe (224.4{mu}g/g)] content and Fe (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the pepper extracts caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in 25{mu}M Fe(II), 7{mu}M Sodium Nitroprusside and 1mM Quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the Rat's brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ripe pepper inhibited MDA (Malondialdehyhide) production in the Rat's brain than the unripe pepper. Conversely, both extract did not significantly inhibit Fe (II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe

  15. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage.

  16. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M

    2014-01-01

    therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13......) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry. Muscle mRNA levels and protein abundance and phosphorylation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism were examined by quantitative......: The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable...

  17. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-02-24

    The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles.

  18. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p<0.05, while the content of malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening. At the end of the storage period, contents of pentanal and hexanal in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening (4.03 μg/g and 1.67 μg/g, respectively were significantly lower (p<0.05 in comparison with these contents in the sausage subjected to industrial conditions of drying and ripening. Traditional conditions of drying and ripening at lower temperatures have led to lower oxidative changes in lipids in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31032

  19. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  20. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Soo-Yoen; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of soy sauce on lipid oxidation and color stability of raw beef patties. Raw beef patties were formulated with four solutions such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution), NaCl/SS (1:1 ratio of sodium chloride and soy sauce solution), SS (soy sauce solution), or SS/A (soy sauce solution combined with 0.05% ascorbic acid) in the same salt concentration. Addition of soy sauce resulted in the decreased pH, lightness, and increased yellowness. Treatment SS/A had the lowest percent of metmyoglobin during storage (Psauce addition were observed in treatments SS and SS/A at the end of the storage period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in free fatty acid concentration at the end of storage. The combined addition of soy sauce and ascorbic acid greatly improved (P<0.05) color stability and retarded lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. The effect of fish oil enriched margarine on plasma lipids, low density lipoprotein particle composition, size and susceptibility to oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Marckmann, Peter; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of incorporating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the diet on the lipid-class composition of LDLs, their size, and their susceptibility to oxidation. Forty-seven healthy volunteers incorporated 30 g sunflower-oil (SO) margarine/d into their habitual diet...... during a 3-wk run-in period and then used either SQ or a fish-oil-enriched sunflower oil (FO) margarine for the following 4 wk. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A-I and B did not differ significantly between the groups...... to 86 min, P = 0.003) and lower maximum rate of oxidation (from 10.5 to 10.2 nmol.mg(-1).min(-1), P = 0.003) after intake of the FO margarine. The results indicate that consumption of the FO compared with the SO margarine had no effect on LDL size and lipid composition and led to minor changes in LDL...

  3. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  4. The effects of yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean on lipid levels and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2010-04-01

    Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Effect of combined gliclazide/metformin treatment on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharidah, Mansour; Algeffari, Metab; Abdel-Moneim, Abdel-Moneim Hafez; Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Alshelowi, Haila

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires pharmacotherapy interventions. Metformin and gliclazide are widely used drugs in monotherapy. However, their complementary action made utilization of the combination of these drugs an appealing approach. The study compared major therapeutic potentials of combined metformin/gliclazide treatment over metformin monotherapy based on the following parameters: oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions. This is a comparative study was conducted from March 2015 to March 2016. The study screened 80 type 2 diabetic patients, of which 40 patients underwent combined metformin + gliclazide therapy (500 mg BD + 80 mg OD, respectively). The other 40 were matched for age and duration of diabetes mellitus with the previous group and received metformin monotherapy (500 mg BD). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, serum creatinine, aspartate and alanine transaminases, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were measured according to the standard methods. Oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions were comparable in patients of both groups. However, patients on metformin treatment showed significantly lower levels of FBG [7.61 (6.70-8.89) mmol/L vs. 9.00 (7.30-10.68) mmol/L; P = .022] and HBA1c [7.00 (6.40-7.65)% vs. 8.20 (7.20-9.75)%; P metformin/gliclazide therapy and compared to those metformin alone. In contrast, glycemic control was poor in the diabetic patients undergoing combined therapy.

  6. Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, Antonín; Vlková, Veronika; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajslová, J.; Velemínský Jr., M.; Solanský, Ivo; Šrám, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 6 (2016), s. 545-556 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2016

  7. Effect of intermittent frying on fatty acids, vitamin E, lipid oxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality parameters determined in this study were: fatty acid composition of the oils, ... quality were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in isocratic mode. ... Conjugated dienes, Anisidine value and viscosity as markers of lipid ... In soybean oils, about 57% and 62.5% of linoleic and linolenic acids were lost ...

  8. Intact polar lipids of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: Structural diversity anapplication inmolecular ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-extremophilic Crenarchaeota are ubiquitous, and comprise a major component of the microbial assemblages in many modern-day systems. Several studies have analyzed glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids synthesized by Crenarchaeota to interpret the presence, distribution, and

  9. Linking isoprenoidal GDGT membrane lipid distributions with gene abundances of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckles, L.K.; Villanueva, L.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratified lakes are important reservoirs of microbial diversity and provide habitats for niche differentiation of Archaea. In this study, we used a lipid biomarker/DNA-based approach to reveal the diversity and abundance of Archaea in the water column of Lake Challa (East Africa). Concentrations of

  10. Evaluation of lipid oxidation and microbial loads of suya as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat samples used for this study were excised from leg cuts of 9 Red Sokoto bucks. They were starved for 16hours before slaughter and their carcasses randomly assigned to three post-mortem processing methods – scalding, skinning and singeing. The carcasses were opened up, eviscerated, washed and fabricated.

  11. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  12. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers' diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  13. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by α-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S.H.; Jang, A.; Kim, J.K.; Song, H.P.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, M.; Jo, C.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and α-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm α-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of α-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of α-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and α-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of α-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation

  14. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Glucose Homeostasis, Lipid Profiles, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic parameters, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic status among women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty seven PCOS patients who had fasted for a mean period of 16.5 hours a day during the 29 days of the month of Ramadan in Kashan, Iran. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 29 days of the study to quantify related variables. To identify within-group differences (before and after Ramadan), paired-samples t-tests were used. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels in PCOS women after Ramadan fasting were significantly higher compared to the baseline values (70.63 ± 15.78 vs. 59.94 ± 13.87 μmol/L, P = 0.003). Post-Ramadan levels of plasma glutathione (GSH) increased significantly in comparison with pre-Ramadan (974.95 ± 414.20 vs. 746.96 ± 205.93 μmol/L, P = 0.011). In addition, a trend toward a significant effect of Ramadan fasting on reducing serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations (2001.07 ± 1686.08 vs. 2962.72 ± 2845.21 ng/mL, P = 0.072) was seen. We did not observe any significant effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose hemostasis parameters, lipid profiles or total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In conclusion, Ramadan fasting in women with PCOS for 4 weeks had beneficial effects on NO and GSH levels, but did not affect glucose hemostasis parameters, lipid profiles or TAC.

  15. Physiological activities of the combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid affecting hepatic lipogenesis and parameters related to oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    We studied the combined effect of fish oil and α-lipoic acid on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation and parameters of oxidative stress in rats fed lipogenic diets high in sucrose. A control diet contained a saturated fat (palm oil) that gives high rate of hepatic lipogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid and containing 0, 20, or 100 g/kg fish oil, for 21 days. α-Lipoic acid significantly reduced food intake during 0-8 days but not the later period of the experiment. Fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and their combination further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Fish oil increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid appeared to antagonize the stimulating effects of fish oil of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid attenuated fish oil-dependent increases in serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, and this compound also reduced the serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. α-Lipoic acid affected various parameters related to the antioxidant system; fish oil also affected some of the parameters. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid effectively reduced serum lipid levels through the additive down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. α-Lipoic acid was effective in attenuating fish oil-mediated oxidative stress.

  16. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Maximal lipid oxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes is normal and shows an adequate increase in response to aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, M; Vind, B F; Højlund, K

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity is associated with an imbalance between the availability and the oxidation of lipids. We hypothesized that maximal whole-body lipid oxidation during exercise (FATmax) is reduced and that training-induced metabolic adaptation...... in response to aerobic training in obese subjects with and without T2D. These metabolic adaptations to training seem to be unrelated to changes in insulin sensitivity and indicate that an impaired capacity for lipid oxidation is not a major cause of insulin resistance in T2D....... subjects after training (all p Insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance rate (Rd) was lower in T2D vs. control subjects both before and after training. Rd increased...

  18. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effect of ethanolic flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.

  20. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  1. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno - competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn - soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseein Moravej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VPreduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days on performance,immuno-competence,and characteristicsof leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed oncorn-soybeanmeal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocatedtofivetreatment groups(0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP, withninereplicates per treatmentgroup. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheepredblood cells (SRBC. The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin(PHA and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCBat 34 and 42 days of ages.At 33, 38 and 43days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughteredand boneparameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactivesubstances (TBARS on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at-80 ̊C. The resultsshowed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisherperiod did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones.Results of TBARS showed thatlipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP wassignificantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally,the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisherbroilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  2. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (pglucose tolerance test showed that a transient elevation in blood glucose levels decreased circulating levels of lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolic intermediates (acetone, 2-oxocaporate, 2-aminobutyrate, pyruvate, formate, and sarcosine) in PCOS women, whereas the 2 h glucose challenge led to increases in the same intermediates in normal women. These pilot data suggest that PCOS-related inflexibility in fasting-related switching between lipid and carbohydrate/protein utilization for carbon metabolism may contribute to enhanced weight gain. PMID:24765590

  3. Parenteral lipids and partial enteral nutrition affect hepatic lipid composition but have limited short term effects on formula-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Rapid transition from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that partial enteral nutrition with colostrum, increased proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or exclusion of lipid...

  4. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Sriwongchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

  5. Weekend ethanol consumption and high-sucrose diet: resveratrol effects on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Katiucha Karolina Honório Ribeiro; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the association between weekend ethanol and high-sucrose diet on oxygen consumption, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism. Because resveratrol (RS, 3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated as a modulator of alcohol-independent cardiovascular protection attributed to red wine, we also determined whether RS could change the damage done by this lifestyle. Male Wistar 24 rats receiving standard chow were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): (C) water throughout the experimental period; (E) 30% ethanol 3 days/week, water 4 days/week; (ES) a mixture of 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week; (ESR) 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose containing 6 mg/l RS 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week. After 70 days the body weight was highest in ESR rats. E rats had higher energy expenditure (resting metabolic rate), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), fat oxidation, serum triacylglycerol (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) than C. ES rats normalized calorimetric parameters and enhanced carbohydrate oxidation. ESR ameliorated calorimetric parameters, reduced TG, VLDL and lipid hydroperoxide/total antioxidant substances, as well enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL/TG ratio. Hepatic hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase (OHADH)/citrate synthase ratio was lower in E and ES rats than in C. OHADH was highest in ESR rats. The present study brought new insights on weekend alcohol consumption, demonstrating for the first time, that this pattern of ethanol exposure induced dyslipidemic profile, calorimetric and hepatic metabolic changes which resemble that of the alcoholism. No synergistic effects were found with weekend ethanol and high-sucrose intake. RS was advantageous in weekend drinking and high-sucrose intake condition ameliorating hepatic metabolism and improving risk factors for cardiovascular damage.

  6. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Nascetti, Simona; López-Sabater, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage.......The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage....

  7. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...

  8. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-01-01

    in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation...... stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product...

  9. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4......) vegetable oil/canthaxanthin; (5) fish oil/no pigment; and (6) vegetable oil/no pigment. The fish were slaughtered and stored in polyethylene bags individually as butterfly fillets for up to 22 months at -20 C. The composition of the fish muscle at slaughter and during frozen storage was evaluated...

  10. Methods for reducing lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched energy bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...

  11. The effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Techakriengkrai1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg is a major source of dietary cholesterol. The serum lipid response to egg shows marked individual variation, beingpartly genetically determined, and influence by ethnic groups and the overall diet response. In the present investigation, weinvestigated the effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemicwomen. Forty hypercholesterolemic women volunteers on a cholesterol-lowering diet (CLD divided into 2 groups ina randomized controlled cross-over study of one egg per day (CLD + 1 egg for 4-week and three eggs per day (CLD + 3 eggsfor 4-week, separated by 4-week period egg-free. The body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles and LDL oxidationwere measured at 4-week intervals. Cholesterol-lowering diet was applied throughout the study by a dietitian using a foodexchange program and 3-day dietary recall every 4 weeks. Compared to the values obtained at baseline, the mean serum totalcholesterol and LDL cholesterol of CLD + 3 eggs was not significantly different from baseline whereas of those of 4-week ofegg-free period and CLD + 1 egg were significantly decreased (238.3±2.9 mg/dL and 228.3±4.7 mg/dL compared to thebaseline (252.2±5.9 mg/dL as was LDL cholesterol (161.2±3.0 mg/dL and 155.7±4.8 mg/dL compared to the baseline (177.5±6.0 mg/dL (p<0.05. The study showed there were no significantly difference the body weight, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol,triglycerides or LDL oxidation during the study. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1 or 3 eggsper day after 4-week of egg consumption was not significantly higher than the egg-free period. The study suggests that inhypercholesterolemic women who are on cholesterol-lowering diet, consuming one or three eggs per day did not raise serumcholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels at 4 weeks or result in any change in LDL oxidation.

  12. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers – Part II: Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 642, 1-2 (2008), s. 21-27 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Air pollution * Oxidative stress * Bus drivers Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  13. Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Peroxidation, and Oxidative Damage of Arsenic in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Omidi, Ameneh; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sabzevari, Samin; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Sabzevari, Omid

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental contaminant present around the world in both organic and inorganic forms. Oxidative stress is postulated as the main mechanism for As-induced toxicity. This study was planned to examine the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on As-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of control (saline), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 20 mg/kg), ALC (300 mg/kg), and NaAsO2 plus ALC. Animals were dosed orally for 28 successive days. Blood and tissue samples including kidney, brain, liver, heart, and lung were collected on the 28th day and evaluated for oxidative damage and histological changes. NaAsO2 exposure caused a significant lipid peroxidation as evidenced by elevation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as sulfhydryl group content (SH group) was significantly suppressed in various organs following NaAsO2 treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NaAsO2 administration increased serum values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Our findings revealed that co-administration of ALC and NaAsO2 significantly suppressed the oxidative damage induced by NaAsO2. Tissue histological studies have confirmed the biochemical findings and provided evidence for the beneficial role of ALC. The results concluded that ALC attenuated NaAsO2-induced toxicity, and this protective effect may result from the ability of ALC in maintaining oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  14. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  15. Rare Branched Fatty Acids Characterize the Lipid Composition of the Intra-Aerobic Methane Oxidizer "

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.M.; Zhu, B.L.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Ettwig, K.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    The recently described bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" couples the oxidation of the important greenhouse gas methane to the reduction of nitrite. The ecological significance of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" is still underexplored, as our ability to identify the presence of this

  16. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, de Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms

  18. An overview of molecular dynamics simulations of oxidized lipid systems, with a comparison of ELBA and MARTINI force fields for coarse grained lipid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siani, Pablo; de Souza, R M; Dias, L G

    2016-01-01

    our new data of all-atom and coarse-grained simulations of hydroperoxidized lipid monolayer and bilayer systems and (iii) provide a comparison of the MARTINI and ELBA coarse grained force fields for lipid bilayer systems. We show that the better electrostatic treatment of interactions in ELBA is able...

  19. Effects of finishing period length with vitamin E supplementation and alfalfa grazing on carcass color and the evolution of meat color and the lipid oxidation of light lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, G; González-Calvo, L; Molino, F; Calvo, J H; Joy, M

    2013-04-01

    Indoor-kept concentrate-fed light lambs (n=54) were supplemented with 500 mg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg concentrate for 0, 10, 20 and 30 d before slaughtering at 22-24 kg BW. Simultaneously, 8 lambs with their dams were alfalfa-grazed and the lambs were slaughtered at the same weight. The age at slaughter and carcass characteristics were more affected by grazing than by supplementation with α-tocopherol. The grazing lambs had similar α-tocopherol levels to the lambs fed concentrate with dl-α-tocopheryl acetate for 10 days before slaughter. The length of the feeding period affected the evolution of the color, delaying the blooming and discoloration of the meat. Feeding lambs α-tocopherol enriched concentrate during the last 10 days of life or grazing them on alfalfa drastically diminished the lipid oxidation of the meat. Alfalfa grazing is a feasible alternative to increase light lamb meat shelf life without using additives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  1. Lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress in the liver of male rats exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Shi Zhimin; Liu Yang; Wei Yanhong; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with twelve carbon atoms, has broad industrial applications and is widely distributed in both wildlife and the environment. Unlike other PFCAs with short carbon chain, however, limited studies have been performed to date on the toxic effects of PFDoA on animals. To determine the hepatotoxicity of PFDoA, male rats were orally dosed by gavage for 14 days with 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day. Absolute liver weights were diminished, but the relative liver weight was significantly increased in the 5 and 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day groups. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were decreased significantly in rats dosed with 1 and 5 mg PFDoA/kg/day, while the liver lipid accumulation was observed in ultrastructure. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and its target genes, and to a lesser extent PPARγ, was induced by PFDoA. No significant changes in the expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα) or its target genes CYP7A1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) were noted, although the mRNA levels of several genes involved in lipogenesis and lipid transport were changed significantly in the certain of the experimental groups. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were activated significantly in the 1 mg PFDoA/kg/day group and inhibited significantly with a concomitant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the 5 and 10 mg PFDoA/kg/day groups. Our results demonstrate that PFDoA exerts notable hepatotoxicity in male rats and that PPAR and its target genes, SOD and CAT activity, and LPO levels exhibited sensitivity to the toxicity of PFDoA

  2. The Drosophila MAPK p38c regulates oxidative stress and lipid homeostasis in the intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveta Chakrabarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signaling cassette has been implicated in stress and immunity in evolutionarily diverse species. In response to a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological stresses p38 kinases phosphorylate various substrates, transcription factors of the ATF family and other protein kinases, regulating cellular adaptation to stress. The Drosophila genome encodes three p38 kinases named p38a, p38b and p38c. In this study, we have analyzed the role of p38c in the Drosophila intestine. The p38c gene is expressed in the midgut and upregulated upon intestinal infection. We showed that p38c mutant flies are more resistant to infection with the lethal pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila but are more susceptible to the non-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora 15. This phenotype was linked to a lower production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS in the gut of p38c mutants, whereby the transcription of the ROS-producing enzyme Duox is reduced in p38c mutant flies. Our genetic analysis shows that p38c functions in a pathway with Mekk1 and Mkk3 to induce the phosphorylation of Atf-2, a transcription factor that controls Duox expression. Interestingly, p38c deficient flies accumulate lipids in the intestine while expressing higher levels of antimicrobial peptide and metabolic genes. The role of p38c in lipid metabolism is mediated by the Atf3 transcription factor. This observation suggests that p38c and Atf3 function in a common pathway in the intestine to regulate lipid metabolism and immune homeostasis. Collectively, our study demonstrates that p38c plays a central role in the intestine of Drosophila. It also reveals that many roles initially attributed to p38a are in fact mediated by p38c.

  3. The Drosophila MAPK p38c regulates oxidative stress and lipid homeostasis in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sveta; Poidevin, Mickaël; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cassette has been implicated in stress and immunity in evolutionarily diverse species. In response to a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological stresses p38 kinases phosphorylate various substrates, transcription factors of the ATF family and other protein kinases, regulating cellular adaptation to stress. The Drosophila genome encodes three p38 kinases named p38a, p38b and p38c. In this study, we have analyzed the role of p38c in the Drosophila intestine. The p38c gene is expressed in the midgut and upregulated upon intestinal infection. We showed that p38c mutant flies are more resistant to infection with the lethal pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila but are more susceptible to the non-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora 15. This phenotype was linked to a lower production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the gut of p38c mutants, whereby the transcription of the ROS-producing enzyme Duox is reduced in p38c mutant flies. Our genetic analysis shows that p38c functions in a pathway with Mekk1 and Mkk3 to induce the phosphorylation of Atf-2, a transcription factor that controls Duox expression. Interestingly, p38c deficient flies accumulate lipids in the intestine while expressing higher levels of antimicrobial peptide and metabolic genes. The role of p38c in lipid metabolism is mediated by the Atf3 transcription factor. This observation suggests that p38c and Atf3 function in a common pathway in the intestine to regulate lipid metabolism and immune homeostasis. Collectively, our study demonstrates that p38c plays a central role in the intestine of Drosophila. It also reveals that many roles initially attributed to p38a are in fact mediated by p38c.

  4. Correction of Free Radical Lipid Oxidation in Internal Female Genital Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Belyaevsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper descries a specific view on the mechanism responsible for development of the resistance of an inflammatory process in the female genital tract to drugs and on the role of a free radical process activation factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Emphasis is laid on the importance of measures to diminish cell membrane permeability, by correcting their structural and functional states with antioxidants. Key words: inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative defense, cell membrane structural and functional state.

  5. Self-Assembled Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Heparin-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Theranostic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Eleonora; Bongio, Chiara; Sacchetti, Francesca; Maretti, Eleonora; Montanari, Monica; Iannuccelli, Valentina; Vismara, Elena; Leo, Eliana

    2017-06-09

    Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention owing to their potential as an oral delivery system, promoting intestinal absorption in the lymphatic circulation which plays a role in disseminating metastatic cancer cells and infectious agents throughout the body. SLN features can be exploited for the oral delivery of theranostics. Therefore, the aim of this work was to design and characterise self-assembled lipid nanoparticles (SALNs) to encapsulate and stabilise iron oxide nanoparticles non-covalently coated with heparin (Fe@hepa) as a model of a theranostic tool. SALNs were characterised for physico-chemical properties (particle size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability, and heparin leakage), as well as in vitro cytotoxicity by methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell internalisation in CaCo-2, a cell line model used as an indirect indication of intestinal lymphatic absorption. SALNs of about 180 nm, which are stable in suspension and have a high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) were obtained. SALNs were able to stabilise the heparin coating of Fe@hepa, which are typically unstable in physiological environments. Moreover, SALNs-Fe@hepa showed no cytotoxicity, although their ability to be internalised into CaCo-2 cells was highlighted by confocal microscopy analysis. Therefore, the results indicated that SALNs can be considered as a promising tool to orally deliver theranostic Fe@hepa into the lymphatic circulation, although further in vivo studies are needed to comprehend further potential applications.

  6. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  7. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  8. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  9. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response.

  10. Combined effect of cooking (grilling and roasting) and chilling storage (with and without air) on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchillo, Ana; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2003-05-01

    The oxidation of the lipid fraction and cholesterol in raw and cooked chicken breast samples stored for 0 and 6 days at 4 degrees C under aerobic conditions and in vacuum packaging was studied. The multivariate statistical analysis showed significant effects of both culinary process and storage conditions on the lipid and cholesterol oxidation process, with a significant interaction between the two variables. Aerobic storage increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA) from 0.04 to 0.06 ppm for raw samples, from 0.21 to 1.20 ppm for grilled samples, and from 0.24 to 1.62 ppm for roasted samples. During vacuum storage, only roasted samples showed significant increases in TBA. Levels of total cholesterol oxidation products (COP) remained low (2.88 to 4.35 microg/g of lipid) for all raw samples. Cooking increased COP levels to 12.85 and 11.54 microg/ g of lipid for grilled and roasted samples, respectively. Total COP and all individual COP except for cholestanetriol were significantly correlated with TBA and the peroxide index. However, the most extensive effect was attributable to the aerobic storage of cooked samples, which led to COP levels of 92.35 and 88.60 microg/g of lipid in grilled and roasted samples, respectively. Vacuum packaging did not increase COP levels for cooked samples.

  11. The Sensory Properties, Color, Microbial, Lipid Oxidation, and Residual Nitrite of Se’i Marinated with Lime and Roselle Calyces Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. M. Malelak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat deterioration can occur because of lipid oxidation and bacteria that could affect meat quality. It has been recognized that fruits of lime (Citrus aurantifolia and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces contain bioactive compounds that have a capability to prevent oxidation and bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to  investigate the effect of lime and roselle calyces extracts on se’i (Rotenese smoked beef quality. Completely randomized design (CRD with 2x4 factorial pattern was used in this study. The first factor (E was source of extracts i.e., lime extract (E1 and roselle extract (E2. The second factor (L was level of the extract consisted of 4 levels i.e., control (without extract/ L0; L1= 1%; L2= 2%; and L3= 3% (v/v. Each treatment consisted of 3 replications. Sensory properties measured were aroma, taste, and tenderness. Other variables measured were color, total plate count (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and residual nitrite.  The taste and tenderness of se’i were affected (P<0.05 by combination of the extract and the level of the extract.  Results showed that there were significant interactions (P<0.05 between the kind of extracts and the level of extract on L (lightness, a (redness, and b (yellowness values, TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. The level of 3% of  lime extract as well as 3% of roselle calyces extract improved score of taste and tenderness, reduced a values, decreased TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. Marinating in 3% of roselle calyces extract decreased the b value but marinating in 3% of lime increased the b value of se’i. It is concluded that marinating 3% of roselle or 3% of lime gives the best effect on taste, tenderness, TPC, and TBARS values of se’i.

  12. The combination of ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and [Fe III 3(µ3-O)]7+ as a catalyst for the oxidation of unsaturated lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Long, G.J.; Shahin, A.M.; Grandjean, F.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, iron 2-ethylhexanoate (Fe-eh, 1) in combination with ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AsA6p) has been reported as a good catalytic system for the oxidation of ethyl linoleate (EL), an unsaturated lipid. In response to the fascinating chemistry of this bio-inspired iron-based catalyst the

  13. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  14. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in foods and feeds and hydroxyl radical-treated fish erythrocytes: A comparative study of Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huatao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ethoxyquin (EQ and ethyl ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts (EAE, acetone extracts, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGbs on lipid oxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed and in hydroxyl radical (·OH-treated carp erythrocytes. The linoleic acid, fish flesh and fish feed were incubated with BHT, EQ and EGbs at 45°C for 8 d, respectively, except for the control group. The lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed was then measured by the ferric thiocyanate method or thiobarbituric acid method. The carp erythrocytes were treated with BHT, EQ or EGbs in the presence of 40 μmol/L FeSO4 and 20 μmol/L H2O2 at 37°C for 6 h, except for the control group. Oxidative stress and apoptosis parameters in carp erythrocytes were then evaluated by the commercial kit. The results showed that BHT, EQ and EGbs inhibited lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed and ·OH-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation (the biomarkers of apoptosis in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, BHT, EQ and EGbs decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, inhibited the oxidation of cellular components and restored the activities of enzymatic antioxidants in ·OH-treated carp erythrocytes. Of all examined EGbs, EAE showed the strongest effects. The effects of EAE on lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion and on superoxide anion and malonaldehyde levels, catalase activity and apoptosis in ·OH-treated carp erythrocytes were equivalent to or stronger than those of BHT. Moreover, these results indicated that the inhibition order of EGbs on the generation of ROS and oxidation of cellular components in fish erythrocytes approximately agreed with that for the food and feed materials tested above. And, the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of EGbs were

  16. Apoptotic Bax at Oxidatively Stressed Mitochondrial Membranes: Lipid Dynamics and Permeabilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dilgendein, A. P.; Pokorná, Šárka; Lidman, M.; Sparrman, T.; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Gröbner, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2017), s. 2147-2158 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : LOW-FREQUENCY MOTION * OXIDIZED PHOSPHOLIPIDS * BILAYER-MEMBRANES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  17. Reliability of ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of lipid oxidation at frying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of a method using ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of oil oxidation at a frying temperature was examined. During heating and frying at 180 °C, changes of soybean oil signals in the ^1^H NMR spectrum including olefinic (5.16-5.30 ppm), bisallylic (2.70-2.88 ppm), and allylic (1.94-2.1...

  18. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (POM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  20. Biochar type and factors affecting N transformation, ammonia volatilization, and nitrous oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendment with biochar has shown the potential to improve nitrogen (N) availability for plant uptake and reduce environmental losses via ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. There are still many unknowns on how biochar type and soil conditions affect N dynamics and processes associa...

  1. How Gold Deposition Affects Anatase Performance in the Photo-catalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Moma, John A.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Gold deposition on Hombikat UV100 was found to negatively affect the activity of this Anatase catalyst in selective photo-oxidation of cyclohexane. By ammonia TPD and DRIFT spectroscopy it was determined that the Au deposition procedure leads to a significant decrease in OH-group density (mol m−2

  2. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  3. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids synergize with lipid droplet binding thalidomide analogs to induce oxidative stress in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madácsi Ramóna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides with potent anticancer activities were synthesized. Results Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma at micromolar concentrations. The synthesized analogs are non-toxic to adult animals up to 1 g/kg but are teratogenic to zebrafish embryos at micromolar concentrations with defects in the developing muscle. Treatment of tumor cells resulted in calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ER stress and cell death. Antioxidants could partially, while an intracellular calcium chelator almost completely diminish ROS production. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid induced calcium release and ROS generation, and synergized with the analogs in vitro, while oleic acid had no such an effect. Gene expression analysis confirmed the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway components, such as GADD153, ATF3, Luman/CREB3 and the ER-associated degradation-related HERPUD1 genes. Tumor suppressors, P53, LATS2 and ING3 were also up-regulated in various cell lines after drug treatment. Amino-phthalimides down-regulated the expression of CCL2, which is implicated in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Conclusions Because of the anticancer, anti-angiogenic action and the wide range of applicability of the immunomodulatory drugs, including thalidomide analogs, lipid droplet-binding members of this family could represent a new class of agents by affecting ER-membrane integrity and perturbations of ER homeostasis.

  5. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Omotayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe2+-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe2+ inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe2+ inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe2+ may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe2+ and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump.

  6. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    and thereby protect the fatty acids in an emulsion before they are added to the food product. However, the use of these so-called delivery emulsions in different food products has shown contradictory results. On this background, the overall goal of the present PhD work was to increase our knowledge about...... for preparing the delivery emulsions. Independent of the introduction method of fish oil to cream cheese (neat oil vs a 70% delivery emulsion), the fish oil enriched cream cheese oxidized during a 20 weeks storage period to a degree where the sensory quality of the product was significantly impacted. However......, the aim was to utilize this knowledge for designing delivery emulsions for the addition of fish oil to foods, and thereby achieve oxidatively stable fish oil enriched products. In simple emulsions, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy lecithin and combinations of milk proteins and milk...

  7. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gois, Franz Dias; Sbardella, Maicon; Lima, Cristiane Bovi de; Migotto, Dannielle Leonardi; Cairo, Pedro Leon Gomes; Garbossa, Cesar Augusto Pospissil; Racanicci, Aline Mondini Calil; Costa, Leandro Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg) were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen). Animals were ...

  9. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  10. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  11. Lipid peroxidation regulates podocyte migration and cytoskeletal structure through redox sensitive RhoA signaling

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    Claudia Kruger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes. We found that lipid radicals govern changes in podocyte homeostasis through redox sensitive RhoA signaling: lipid radicals inhibit migration and cause loss of F-actin fibers. These effects were prevented by mutating the redox sensitive cysteines of RhoA. We therefore suggest that in diseases associated with increased lipid peroxidation, lipid radicals can determine podocyte function with potentially pathogenic consequences for kidney physiology. Keywords: Lipid peroxidation, Reactive lipids, Podocyte, RhoA, Cysteine, Chronic kidney disease

  12. Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, T.A.; Chen, R.G.; Oizumi, J.; Shaw, K.N.; Ng, W.G.; Donnell, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1- 14 C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

  13. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Zhang, Shizhu; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2013-01-01

    Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP), a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and four CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1) out of six genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular hydrocarbon

  14. Protective effects of Carissa opaca fruits against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney lipid peroxidation and trauma in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Sahreen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a potent nephrotoxin, as it causes acute as well as chronic toxicity in kidneys. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the pharmacological potential of different fractions of Carissa opaca fruits on CCl4-induced oxidative trauma in the kidney. Methods: The parameters studied in this respect were the kidney function tests viz, serum profile, urine profile, genotoxicity, characteristic morphological findings, and antioxidant enzymatic level of kidneys. Result: The protective effects of various fractions of C. opaca fruits against CCl4 administration were reviewed by rat renal function alterations. Chronic toxicity caused by 8-week treatment of CCl4 to the rats significantly decreased the pH level, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione contents, whereas a significant increase was found in the case of specific gravity, red blood cells, white blood cells, level of urea, and lipid peroxidation in comparison to control group. Administration of various fractions of C. opaca fruit with CCl4 showed protective ability against CCl4 intoxication by restoring the urine profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rat. CCl4 induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation and glomerular atrophy by means of dilation, disappearance of Bowmen's space, congestion in the capillary loops, dilation in renal tubules, and foamy look of epithelial cells of tubular region, which were restored by co-admiration of various fractions of C. opaca. Conclusion: Results revealed that the methanolic fractions of C. opaca are the most potent and helpful in kidney trauma.

  15. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg of peroxide value (POV in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080. Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST. Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  16. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  17. Fatty-acid oxidation and calcium homeostasis are involved in the rescue of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity by lipid emulsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-08-01

    Lipid emulsion has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty-acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity by lipid emulsion in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with lipid emulsion. Prospective, randomized animal study. University research laboratory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10 mg/kg over 20 secs, intravenously) and 20% lipid emulsion infusion (5 mL/kg bolus, and 0.5 mL/kg/min maintenance), and cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT-4325 (CVT) group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty-acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, or 0.0625 mg/kg bolus intravenously) 5 mins prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, the threshold for opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were measured. The values are mean ± SEM. Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. Lipid Emulsion infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the ejection fraction was fully recovered within 5 mins (ejection fraction=64±4% and fractional shortening=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10 mins. Lipid emulsion was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625 mg/kg; heart rate~181±11 beats/min at 10 mins, recovery of 56%; ejection fraction=50±1%; fractional shortening=26±0.6% at 5 mins, n=3), but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25, or 0.125 mg/kg). The calcium-retention capacity in response to Ca²⁺ overload was significantly higher in cardiac

  18. Influence of separate and combined impact both of radiation and chemical factors on state of lipid peroxide oxidation system and antioxidant protection at pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Kolb, V.G.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of low dozed ionizing irradiation and chemical toxicant was studied both under separate and combined action in the process of pregnancy. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) indices and antioxidant protection (AOP) parameters of females rats were studied. The result received proved that irradiation during pregnancy induced activation both of lipids free radical oxidation and of antioxidant protection in female rats. Chemical toxicants introduction resulted in shifts on the LPO-AOP system the hydrogen peroxide blood level increasing and the antioxidants ones reducing. Combined action of both factors led to development of a new level of LPO-AOP

  19. Effect of Walnut Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Nitric Oxide in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantarian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the major causes of death worldwide. There is a direct relationship between increased levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL, nitric oxide (NO, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and the CAD. Walnut may reduce these factors and consequently decrease the risk of CAD. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of walnut consumption on TG, LDL, cholesterol, HDL, NO, and hs-CRP in patients with CAD and healthy people. Patients and Methods In this randomized crossover clinical trial, 70 patients with CAD were divided into two groups: case and control groups. The patients were given 40 g walnuts daily for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the TG, LDL, cholesterol, HDL, NO and hs-CRP levels were measured. The experiment was also carried out on healthy people (3 groups with normal range of lipid. The LDL, HDL, cholesterol, and hs-CRP levels were measured using commercially available kits. The nitric oxide level was measured using the Griess reaction method. Results The cholesterol and LDL levels decreased significantly from 202.43 to 187.46 and 123.80 to 108.63 mmol/L (7.9% and 13.9 %, respectively in healthy subjects after the treatment (P < 0.01. In the experimental group, there was no significant difference in cholesterol (P = 0.110 and LDL levels (P = 0.176 before and after the treatment. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in other parameters between the two groups. Conclusions The walnut consumption did not affect cholesterol levels in patients with CAD; however, it might be administered as an agent for reducing the cholesterol, which is one of the risk factors associated with CAD.

  20. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND LIPID OXIDATION POSTEXERCISE WITH CAPSAICIN IN THE HUMANS

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    Ki Ok Shin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the synergistic effects of acute exercise with capsaicin (200mg upon the restoration of cardiac autonomic functions and depolarization- repolarization interval as well as substrate oxidation. Nine healthy males [21.9(0.8 yrs] volunteered for this study. Cardiac autonomic activity, metabolic responses, and the ECG QT intervals were continuously measured during 5 min at rest and postexercise recovery after 30 min exercise at 50% VO2max on a stationary ergometer with placebo (ECON or capsaicin intake (ECAP, and no exercise control (NCON were randomized. Results indicated that the HF power reflecting parasympathetic activity significantly returned to the baseline much faster during ECAP than ECON trial during postexercise [122.1 (23.2 vs. 60.2 (11.7 %, p < 0.05]. The ECAP trial significantly decreased RQ [0.79(0.02 vs. 0.85 (0.03, p < 0.05] with significantly greater fat oxidation [69.3 (6.0 vs. 49.4 (10.8 %, p < 0.05] in comparison to NCON trial during 120 min postexercise recovery without any adverse effects on cardiac electrical stability as determined by trigger-averaged ECG QT interval analyses. We suggest that capsaicin before the exercise may contribute to the improvement of cardio-protective functions and metabolic responses as one of the beneficial supplements accelerating faster restoration of autonomic activity and enhanced lipolysis during postexercise recovery without any adverse effects on cardiac electrical stability

  1. Papel do sal iodado na oxidação lipídica em hambúrgueres bovino e suíno (misto ou de frango The role of iodide salts on beef and chicken patties lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.F.S. TORRES

    1998-04-01

    the other hand lipid oxidation was higher (56,40% more in chicken samples. Iodide presence (14,41% did not affected lipid oxidation, in both meat as would be expected for an oxidant halogen salts.

  2. Resveratrol suppresses ethanol stress in winery and bottom brewery yeast by affecting superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharwalova, Lucia; Sigler, Karel; Dolezalova, Jana; Masak, Jan; Rezanka, Tomas; Kolouchova, Irena

    2017-11-03

    Mid-exponential cultures of two traditional biotechnological yeast species, winery Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the less ethanol tolerant bottom-fermenting brewery Saccharomyces pastorianus, were exposed to different concentrations of added ethanol (3, 5 and 8%) The degree of ethanol-induced cell stress was assessed by measuring the cellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of lipid peroxidation products, changes in cell lipid content and fatty acid profile. The resveratrol as an antioxidant was found to decrease the ethanol-induced rise of SOD activity and suppress the ethanol-induced decrease in cell lipids. A lower resveratrol concentration (0.5 mg/l) even reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation in cells. Resveratrol also alleviated ethanol-induced changes in cell lipid composition in both species by strongly enhancing the proportion of saturated fatty acids and contributing thereby to membrane stabilization. Lower resveratrol concentrations could thus diminish the negative effects of ethanol stress on yeast cells and improve their physiological state. These effects may be utilized to enhance yeast vitality in high-ethanol-producing fermentations or to increase the number of yeast generations in brewery.

  3. Physical Activity Targeted at Maximal Lipid Oxidation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Romain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is recognized as a part of the management of obesity and diabetes. Various protocols of exercise are proposed for the management of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. One of the strategies proposed by several authors is low intensity endurance training targeted at the level of maximal oxidation. Large series using this technique are lacking. Addressing this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the studies on anthropometric measurements. From a database of 433 articles, 15 were selected, including 279 subjects with 6 different populations. Studies duration ranged from 2 months to 12 months. Concerning weight loss, in the intervention versus control analysis, five studies with 185 participants were included with a significant effect size favors exercise (P=0.02 without significant heterogeneity (I2=0.0%, P=0.83. Further randomized controlled trials for comparing it with other exercise protocols and defining its dose effectiveness on large samples are needed.

  4. Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-09-15

    Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (pautolysis time increased (pautolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (pautolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipid induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid induced insulin resistance. Research and design methods: Insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7h. Muscle...... ratio was decreased by intralipid. Conclusion: Intralipid infusion causes less insulin resistance of muscle glucose uptake in women than in men. This insulin resistance is not due to decreased canonical insulin signaling, accumulation of lipid intermediates, inflammation or direct inhibition of glucose......AbstractObjective: We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism...

  6. Ferulic Acid Supplementation Improves Lipid Profiles, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Status in Hyperlipidemic Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarach Bumrungpert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound found in vegetables and cereal grains. In vitro and animal studies have shown ferulic acid has anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of ferulic acid supplementation on lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in hyperlipidemia. The study design is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 24 was given ferulic acid (1000 mg daily and the control group (n = 24 was provided with a placebo for six weeks. Lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed before and after the intervention. Ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol (8.1%; p = 0.001, LDL-C (9.3%; p < 0.001, triglyceride (12.1%; p = 0.049, and increased HDL-C (4.3%; p = 0.045 compared with the placebo. Ferulic acid also significantly decreased the oxidative stress biomarker, MDA (24.5%; p < 0.001. Moreover, oxidized LDL-C was significantly decreased in the ferulic acid group (7.1%; p = 0.002 compared with the placebo group. In addition, ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the inflammatory markers hs-CRP (32.66%; p < 0.001 and TNF-α (13.06%; p < 0.001. These data indicate ferulic acid supplementation can improve lipid profiles and oxidative stress, oxidized LDL-C, and inflammation in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, ferulic acid has the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp] y1 ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. SARM1 deletion restrains NAFLD induced by high fat diet (HFD) through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhen-Guo; An, Xu-Sheng

    2018-04-06

    SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice. Additionally, inflammatory response caused by HFD was alleviated by SARM1-deletion through inactivating TLR4/7/9 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Of note, SARM1-deletion also reduced the expressions of inflammation-associated molecules in hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, HFD administration led to oxidative stress in liver of mice, while being decreased in SARM1-KO mice. Moreover, SARM1-ablation improved lipid dyslipidemia by suppressing the mRNA levels of genes, linked to glycolysis, lipogenesis and transcriptional regulation. Insulin resistance was also attenuated by SARM1-deficiency through enhancing the activation of liver Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1)/FOXO1 pathways in HFD-fed mice. Also, SARM1-knockout improved neuropeptide Y (NPY), Pro-Opiomelanocortins (POMC), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP) and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript 1 (CART1) expressions in hypothalamus of mice after HFD administration. In vitro, we found that the reduction of inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia induced by SARM1-knockout in primary hepatocytes after fructose stimulation was largely attributed to its suppression to TLR4/7/9. Together, the findings demonstrated that SARM1 might be an effective target for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NAFLD. Copyright © 2018

  9. Surface oxidation on thin films affects ionization cross section induced by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Hinrichs, Ruth; Limandri, Silvina; Trincavelli, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In microanalysis techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), the transformation from intensity to concentration is made by standard less software that needs exact values of fundamental parameters such as the ionization cross section, transition probabilities of the different electronic levels, and fluorescent yield. The three parameters together measure the photon generating probability of an electronic transition and can be determined experimentally under the name of production cross section. These measurements are performed on thin films, with thickness around 10 nm, but most studies do not take into account any spontaneous surface oxidation. In this work, in the attempt to obtain cross section values of Al, Si and Ti, in metallic and oxide films, the influence of surface oxidation on the metallic films was established. Simulations considering the oxidation with the software SIMNRA on the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra obtained from the films provided mass thickness values used to calculate the cross section data that were compared with theoretical values (PWBA and ECPSSR), and with experimental values and empirical adjustments from other studies. The inclusion of the natural oxidation affects the values of cross section, and may be one of the causes of discrepancies between the experimental values published in literature. (author)

  10. Spin Trapping Radicals from Lipid Oxidation in Liposomes in the Presence of Flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, N.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of four structurally related flavonoids - quercetin, rutin, morin and catechin with peroxyl radicals using liposome/N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) and liposome -(4-pyridyl-N-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN)-spin trap systems have been studied through spin trapping ESR. Results obtained were different from that of conjugated diene analysis experiments, where lag phases indicated radical scavenging activity of all the flavonoids. No clear lag phase was observed in ESR experiments under same conditions. In the presence of flavonoids decreasing ESR signals of spin adducts in PBN, while no or negligibly smaller spin adducts with POBN system were observed which may be attributed to the possibility that spin traps interacted with free radicals. Experiments with buffer/spin trap systems without liposome revealed that spin adducts were only stable with catechin and destroyed by quercetin, rutin and morin in buffer/spin trap systems. These results further assured that quercetin, rutin and morin not only interacted with peroxyl radicals but also with spin adducts. (author)

  11. Reinterpreting the best biomarker of oxidative stress: The 8-iso-PGF(2α)/PGF(2α) ratio distinguishes chemical from enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Eling, Thomas E; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-06-01

    The biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is regarded as the gold standard for detection of excessive chemical lipid peroxidation in humans. However, biosynthesis of 8-iso-PGF2α via enzymatic lipid peroxidation by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHSs), which are significantly induced in inflammation, could lead to incorrect biomarker interpretation. To resolve the ambiguity with this biomarker, the ratio of 8-iso-PGF2α to prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is established as a quantitative measure to distinguish enzymatic from chemical lipid peroxidation in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. Using this method, we find that chemical lipid peroxidation contributes only 3% to the total 8-iso-PGF2α in the plasma of rats. In contrast, the 8-iso-PGF2α levels in plasma of human males are generated >99% by chemical lipid peroxidation. This establishes the potential for an alternate pathway of biomarker synthesis, and draws into question the source of increases in 8-iso-PGF2α seen in many human diseases. In conclusion, increases in 8-iso-PGF2α do not necessarily reflect increases in oxidative stress; therefore, past studies using 8-iso-PGF2α as a marker of oxidative stress may have been misinterpreted. The 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio can be used to distinguish biomarker synthesis pathways and thus confirm the potential change in oxidative stress in the myriad of disease and chemical exposures known to induce 8-iso-PGF2α. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Physicochemical properties affecting lipofection potency of a new series of 1,2-dialkoylamidopropane-based cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Ahmad; Spelios, Michael; Kearns, Molinda; Selvi, Bilge; Savva, Michalakis

    2007-05-15

    The in vitro transfection activity of a novel series of N,N'-diacyl-1,2-diaminopropyl-3-carbamoyl-(aminoethane) derivatives was evaluated against a mouse melanoma cell line at different +/- charge ratios, in the presence and absence of helper lipids. Only the unsaturated derivative N,N'-dioleoyl-1,2-diaminopropyl-3-carbamoyl-(aminoethane), (1,2lmp[5]) mediated significant increase in the reporter gene level which was significantly boosted in the presence of DOPE peaking at +/- charge ratio of 2. The electrostatic interactions between the cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA were investigated by gel electrophoresis, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic mobility techniques. In agreement with the transfection results, 1,2lmp[5]/DOPE formulation was most efficient in associating with and retarding DNA migration. The improved association between the dioleoyl derivative and DNA was further confirmed by ethidium bromide displacement assay and particle size distribution analysis of the lipoplexes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed that 1,2lmp[5] was the only lipid that exhibited a main phase transition below 37 degrees C. Likewise, 1,2lmp[5] was the only lipid found to form all liquid expanded monolayers at 23 degrees C. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that high in vitro transfection activity is mediated by cationic lipids characterized by increased acyl chain fluidity and high interfacial elasticity.

  13. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via increasing nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Xiao, Shaobo; Shao, Guoqing

    2013-09-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) of mycoplasma are the main pathogenicity factors in mycoplasma diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of M. hyopneumoniae LAMP on porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cell line. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in LAMP-treated PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, LAMP significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in PAM 3D4/21 cells compared with the untreated control. In addition, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, increased levels of superoxide anion production and activated caspase-3 in PAM 3D4/21 cells were observed after exposure to LAMP. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) was also confirmed in the cell supernatants. Besides, apoptotic rates increase and caspase-3 activation were suppressed by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. It is suggested that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via NO production, superoxide anion production, and caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  15. The Nutraceutic Silybin Counteracts Excess Lipid Accumulation and Ongoing Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro Model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Vecchione

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, are major consequences of hepatic lipid overload, which can contribute to progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Also, mitochondria are involved in the NAFLD pathogenesis for their role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Definitive treatments for NAFLD/NASH are lacking so far. Silybin, the extract of the milk thistle seeds, has previously shown beneficial effects in NAFLD. Sequential exposure of hepatocytes to high concentrations of fatty acids (FAs and TNFα resulted in fat overload and oxidative stress, which mimic in vitro the progression of NAFLD from simple steatosis (SS to steatohepatitis (SH. The exposure to 50 µM silybin for 24 h reduced fat accumulation in the model of NAFLD progression. The in vitro progression of NAFLD from SS to SH resulted in reduced hepatocyte viability, increased apoptosis and oxidative stress, reduction in lipid droplet size, and up-regulation of IκB kinase β-interacting protein and adipose triglyceride lipase expressions. The direct action of silybin on SS or SH cells and the underlying mechanisms were assessed. Beneficial action of silybin was sustained by changes in expression/activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and enzymes for FA oxidation. Moreover, silybin counteracted the FA-induced mitochondrial damage by acting on complementary pathways: (i increased the mitochondrial size and improved the mitochondrial cristae organization; (ii stimulated mitochondrial FA oxidation; (iii reduced basal and maximal respiration and ATP production in SH cells; (iv stimulated ATP production in SS cells; and (v rescued the FA-induced apoptotic signals and oxidative stress in SH cells. We provide new insights about the direct protective effects of the nutraceutic silybin on hepatocytes

  16. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Calcium Homeostasis are Involved in the Rescue of Bupivacaine Induced Cardiotoxicity by Lipid Emulsion in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lipid Emulsion (LE) has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine induced cardiotoxicity by LE in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with LE. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING University Research Laboratory. SUBJECTS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10mg/kg over 20seconds, i.v.) and 20% LE infusion (5ml/kg bolus, and 0.5ml/kg/min maintenance) with cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125 or 0.0625mg/kg bolus i.v.) 5min prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), the threshold for opening of mPTP, oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured. The values are Mean±SEM. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. ILP infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the EF was fully recovered within 5min (EF=64±4% and FS=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10min. LE was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625mg/kg) (HR=~181±11 beats/min at 10 min, recovery of 56%; EF=50±1%; FS=26±0.6% at 5min, n=3) but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25 or 0.125mg/kg). The calcium retention capacity in response to Ca2+ overload was significantly higher in cardiac mitochondria isolated from rats resuscitated with 20% LE compared to the group that did not receive ILP after bupivacaine

  17. The effect of lipid peroxidation products on reactive oxygen species formation and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Gabriela; Pekarová, Michaela; Lojek, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), s. 145-152 ISSN 0887-2333 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08058; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/08/1753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : lipid peroxidation products * reactive oxygen species * nitric oxide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2011

  18. Reprint of "How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  19. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  20. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  1. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-04-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  2. Biomarkers of oxidative stress study V: ozone exposure of rats and its effect on lipids, proteins, and DNA in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiiska, Maria B; Basu, Samar; Brot, Nathan; Cooper, Christopher; Saari Csallany, A; Davies, Michael J; George, Magdalene M; Murray, Dennis M; Jackson Roberts, L; Shigenaga, Mark K; Sohal, Rajindar S; Stocker, Roland; Van Thiel, David H; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Hatch, Gary E; Mason, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Ozone exposure effect on free radical-catalyzed oxidation products of lipids, proteins, and DNA in the plasma and urine of rats was studied as a continuation of the international Biomarker of Oxidative Stress Study (BOSS) sponsored by NIEHS/NIH. The goal was to identify a biomarker for ozone-induced oxidative stress and to assess whether inconsistent results often reported in the literature might be due to the limitations of the available methods for measuring the various types of oxidative products. The time- and dose-dependent effects of ozone exposure on rat plasma lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, methionine oxidation, and tyrosine- and phenylalanine oxidation products, as well as urinary malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes were investigated with various techniques. The criterion used to recognize a marker in the model of ozone exposure was that a significant effect could be identified and measured in a biological fluid seen at both doses at more than one time point. No statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups at either ozone dose and time point studied could be identified in this study. Tissue samples were not included. Despite all the work accomplished in the BOSS study of ozone, no available product of oxidation in biological fluid has yet met the required criteria of being a biomarker. The current negative findings as a consequence of ozone exposure are of great importance, because they document that in complex systems, as the present in vivo experiment, the assays used may not provide meaningful data of ozone oxidation, especially in human studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The partial substitution of digestible protein with gelatinized starch as an energy source reduces susceptibility to lipid oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M J; López-Bote, C J; Diez, A; Corraze, G; Arzel, J; Dias, J; Kaushik, S J; Bautista, J M

    1999-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary gelatinized starch and protein on the fatty acid composition of muscle in rainbow trout and European sea bass and on the susceptibility of flesh to lipid peroxidation. The possibility that flesh peroxidation could be accounted for by lipogenesis and the deposition of fat was also explored. The inclusion of gelatinized starch in the diet of rainbow trout improved growth with respect to that observed in fish fed crude starch (Ptrout led to a lower concentration of total (n-3) (P = .0457) and (n-6) (P = .0522) fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P = .0006). The inclusion of gelatinized starch led to a lower concentration of (n-3) fatty acids (P = .0034) and a higher concentration of saturated fatty acids (P = .0007). The polar fraction was hardly affected by the same treatment. A significantly lower susceptibility of the dorsal muscle to oxidation was observed in groups of European sea bass fed gelatinized starch (Ptrout, although differences were not significant. The findings suggest that the digestible protein concentration of nutrient-dense diets for rainbow trout and European sea bass can be reduced with a beneficial effect on tissue lipid oxidation and no negative effects on growth and muscle composition.

  4. The influence of L-DOPA on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in some brain structures affected by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, R.A.; Kocharli, R.Kh.; Akhmedova, G.Sh.; Gasanova, A.A.; Babaev, Kh.F.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of L-DOPA on the dynamics of changes in lipid peroxidation products (LPP) and the content of various types of SH-groups in certain brain structures (oblongata, cerebellum, visual and sensorimotor cortex) and their synaptosomal fractions upon irradiation. The preadministration of L-DOPA to irradiated rats inhibited LPP accumulation, prevented the decrease in the content of various types of thiols and thus exerted an antioxidant effect

  5. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.

  6. The absence of chlorophyll b affects lateral mobility of photosynthetic complexes and lipids in grana membranes of Arabidopsis and barley chlorina mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutereva, Elena V; Evkaikina, Anastasiia I; Ivanova, Alexandra N; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V

    2017-09-01

    The lateral mobility of integral components of thylakoid membranes, such as plastoquinone, xanthophylls, and pigment-protein complexes, is critical for the maintenance of efficient light harvesting, high rates of linear electron transport, and successful repair of damaged photosystem II (PSII). The packaging of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in the membrane depends on their size and stereometric parameters which in turn depend on the composition of the complexes. Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an important regulator of antenna size and composition. In this study, the lateral mobility (the mobile fraction size) of pigment-protein complexes and lipids in grana membranes was analyzed in chlorina mutants of Arabidopsis and barley lacking Chlb. In the Arabidopsis ch1-3 mutant, diffusion of membrane lipids decreased as compared to wild-type plants, but the diffusion of photosynthetic complexes was not affected. In the barley chlorina f2 3613 mutant, the diffusion of pigment-protein complexes significantly decreased, while the diffusion of lipids increased, as compared to wild-type plants. We propose that the size of the mobile fractions of pigment-protein complexes in grana membranes in vivo is higher than reported previously. The data are discussed in the context of the protein composition of antennae, characteristics of the plastoquinone pool, and production of reactive oxygen species in leaves of chlorina mutants.

  7. Hepatocyte MyD88 affects bile acids, gut microbiota and metabolome contributing to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duparc, Thibaut; Plovier, Hubert; Marrachelli, Vannina G

    2017-01-01

    performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESULTS...... proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes...

  8. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Does not Affect Changes of Lipid Metabolism Induced in Rats by Altered Thyroid Status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Pavelka, Stanislav; Behuliak, Michal; Tribulová, N.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2013), s. 507-512 ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/0570; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypothyriodism * hyperthyroidism * mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * glucose * plasma lipids Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2013

  9. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the lipid bilayer, the local temperature and membrane fluidity could be observed. DLNAs were encapsulated with different sized nanoparticles and concentrations in order to observe the effect of the bilayer nanoparticles on the lipid bilayer's phase behavior and leakage. Two different sized nanoparticles were used, a 2 nm gold nanoparticle (GNP) much smaller than the thickness of the bilayer and a 4 nm GNP near the thickness of the lipid bilayer. The 2 nm GNPs were shown to affect the lipid bilayer differently than the 4 nm GNP. Specifically, the two nanoparticles altered the phase behavior and leakage differently in a temperature dependent fashion, demonstrating that embedded nanoparticle size can be used induce or inhibit bilayer leakage. A dual solvent exchange method was used to control the lipid surface composition of an iron oxide nanoparticle with a cationic lipid and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipid to produce lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). PEG is well known for its ability to enhance the pharmacokinetics of nanostructures by preventing uptake by the immune system. By controlling the lipid surface composition, the surface charge and PEG conformation can be controlled which allowed the LMNPs to be used as an MRI contrast agent and a delivery system for siRNA that could be triggered with temperature.

  10. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  12. Melatonin reverses the enhanced oxidative damage to membrane lipids and improves skin biophysical characteristics in former-smokers - A study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorota; Stepniak, Jan; Gesing, Adam; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata

    2017-12-23

    Protective antioxidative effects of melatonin have been repeatedly documented in experimental and clinical studies. One of the most spectacular exogenous prooxidative agents is cigarette smoking. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation; LPO) in blood serum, and in epidermis exfoliated during microdermabrasion collected from former-smokers who were treated with melatonin. The study was performed in postmenopausal women. Ninety (90) female volunteers, aged 46-67 years, were enrolled. Two major groups, i.e. never-smokers (n=44) and former-smokers (n=46), were divided into: Control, melatonin topical skin application, Restructurer (containing antioxidants) topical skin application, and melatonin oral treatment. Microdermabrasion was performed at point '0', after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks of treatment. The following parameters were measured: LPO in blood serum, LPO in epidermis exfoliated during microdermabrasion, and skin biophysical characteristics, such as sebum, moisture, elasticity, and pigmentation. Malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals level (LPO index) was measured spectrophotometrically. Melatonin oral treatment significantly reversed the increased serum LPO level in former-smokers already after 2 weeks of treatment. In a univariate regression model, LPO blood level constituted the only independent factor negatively associated with melatonin oral treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment, melatonin given orally increased skin sebum, moisture and elasticity levels, and melatonin applied topically increased sebum level. Exogenous melatonin reverses the enhanced oxidative damage to membrane lipids and improves skin biophysical characteristics in former-smokers.

  13. The significance of fructose and MSG in affecting lipid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production of Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shariffah Nurhidayah Syed Abdul; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Optimization of fermentation medium for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 was carried out. In this study, levels of fructose, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production using response surface methodology (RSM). The design contains a total of 20 runs with 6 central points replication. Cultivation was carried out in 500 mL flasks containing 100 mL nitrogen limited medium at 30°C for 96h. Sequential model sum of squares (SS) revealed that the system was adequately represented by a quadratic model (p<0.0001). ANOVA results showed that fructose and MSG as a single factor has significant positive effect on the DHA content of SW1. The estimated optimal levels of the factors were 100 g/L fructose, 8 g/L MSG and 47% sea salt. Subsequent cultivation employing the suggested values confirmed that the predicted response values were experimentally achievable and reproducible, where 8.82 g/L DHA (51.34% g/g lipid) was achieved.

  14. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  15. Lipid chain saturation and the cholesterol in the phospholipid membrane affect the spectroscopic properties of lipophilic dye nile red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Animesh; Saha, Baishakhi; Maity, Pabitra; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Karmakar, Sanat

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the effect of composition and the phase state of phospholipid membranes on the emission spectrum, anisotropy and lifetime of a lipophilic fluorescence probe nile red. Fluorescence spectrum of nile red in membranes containing cholesterol has also been investigated in order to get insights into the influence of cholesterol on the phospholipid membranes. Maximum emission wavelength (λem) of nile red in the fluid phase of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids was found to differ by 10 nm. The λem was also found to be independent of chain length and charge of the membrane. However, the λem is strongly dependent on the temperature in the gel phase. The λem and rotational diffusion rate decrease, whereas the anisotropy and lifetime increase markedly with increasing cholesterol concentration for saturated phosoholipids, such as, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the liquid ordered phase. However, these spectroscopic properties do not alter significantly in case of unsaturated phospholipids, such as, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) in liquid disordered phase. Interestingly, red edge excitation shift (REES) in the presence of lipid-cholesterol membranes is the direct consequences of change in rotational diffusion due to motional restriction of lipids in the presence of cholesterol. This study provides correlations between the membrane compositions and fluorescence spectral features which can be utilized in a wide range of biophysical fields as well the cell biology.

  16. Factors Affecting Ballability of Mixture Iron Ore Concentrates and Iron Oxide Bearing Wastes in Metallurgical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfon Udo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS are produced at every segment of processing stage of sinter, molten iron and steel production. They are hard to handle and in many cases are stockpiled only to be a source of environmental pollution but can be balled into pellets. Pellet of good ballability values are transportable and recyclable as they can withstand stress they will encounter without disintegrating back to dust. But ballability is affected by some factors like the grain sizes of the materials, the moisture and binder contents of the ball mix, wettability of the balled materials and the processing perimeters of the granulator. The objective of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting ballability of mixture of iron ore concentrates and iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS in metallurgical processing. The parameters under consideration were grain size of materials, the moisture contents, the speed of balling disc, IROBEWAS and Bentonite (Binder contents of the balled mix. This was carried out by balling different volume fractions of mix containing iron oxide concentrate and IROBEWAS using a balling disc and testing the resulting balls for green compressive strength using universal testing machine. It was found that the ballability of the mixture of iron ore concentrate and IROBEWAS increases as grain sizes of the materials reduce but increases as the moisture contents and IROBEWAS content increase up to an optimum value of moisture content in the mix before it starts to reduce. The ballability also increases as the speed of the granulator (Balling disc increases within the limit of this work. It was also observed that there was an increase in ballability with slight increase in bentonite content in the mix.

  17. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  18. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perioperative Serum Lipid Status and Statin Use Affect the Revision Surgery Rate After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Werner, Brian C

    2017-11-01

    Recent animal studies have demonstrated that hyperlipidemia is associated with poor tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair; however, these findings have not been substantiated in human studies. To examine any association between hyperlipidemia and the failure of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair requiring revision surgery and to investigate whether the use of statin lipid-lowering agents had any influence on observed associations. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. From a national insurance database, patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with perioperative lipid levels (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) recorded were reviewed. For each lipid test, patients were stratified into normal, moderate, and high groups based on published standards. For the total cholesterol and LDL cohorts, a subgroup analysis of patients stratified by statin use was performed. The primary outcome measure was ipsilateral revision rotator cuff surgery, including revision repair or debridement. A logistic regression analysis controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities was utilized for comparison. There were 30,638 patients included in the study. The rate of revision rotator cuff surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .022) and high total cholesterol levels (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.55; P = .006) compared with patients with normal total cholesterol levels perioperatively. Within each of these groups, patients without statin use had significantly higher rates of revision surgery, while those with statin prescriptions did not. The absolute risk reduction for statin use ranged from 0.24% to 1.87% when stratified by the total cholesterol level, yielding a number needed to treat from 54 to 408 patients. The rate of revision surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.41; P = .001) and high LDL levels (OR, 1.46; 95

  20. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  1. Changes of nitric oxide system and lipid peroxidation parameters in the digestive system of rats under conditions of acute stress, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko Iryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in combination with being physiologically stressed often occurs in in the course of different pathologies. This situation may result in the alteration of digestive system functioning. The effect of stress brings about changes in the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, arginase, cyclooxygenase (COX and lipid peroxidation, whereas the use of NSAIDs interrupts the multiple functions of the cell via the inhibition of prostaglandins (PGs synthesis. Taking into account that NOS and COX-systems are connected in their regulation, the aim of the study was to determine the role played by NOS and lipid peroxidation under conditions of the combined action of NSAIDs and stress. In our study, male rats were used. The NSAIDs (naproxen - a non-selective COX inhibitor, celecoxib - a selective COX-2 blocker, and the compound 2A5DHT (which is the active substance of dual COX, and the lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitor, darbufelone were all administered at a dose 10 mg/kg, prior to water restraint stress (WRS. WRS brought about an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosal and muscular membranes, as well as in the pancreas. Because of this, constitutive NOS izoform (cNOS and arginase activities decreased. Moreover, the MDA concentration increased, indicating the development of oxidative stress. In our work, pretreatment with naproxen, as in the WRS model, engendered a decrease in iNOS activity. What is more, administration of Celecoxib did not change iNOS activity, as compared to WRS alone, and it showed a tendency to reduce lipid peroxidation. In addition, 2A5DHT prior WRS brought about a decrease of iNOS activity, with the subsequent rise of cNOS activity. Of note, MDA concentration decreased in all studied organs, indicating the reduction of lipid peroxidation under the action of the darbufelone active substance.

  2. Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2007-03-01

    Intake of food products rich in water-soluble fiber beta-glucan and products enriched with plant stanol esters lower serum cholesterol. Combining 2 functional food ingredients into one food product may achieve additional reductions of serum cholesterol. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous intake of beta-glucan plus plant stanol esters on lipid metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. In a randomized, controlled, 3-period crossover study, 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women received muesli in random order twice a day for 4 wk, which provided, in total, 5 g control fiber from wheat (control muesli), 5 g oat beta-glucan (beta-glucan muesli), or 5 g oat beta-glucan plus 1.5 g plant stanols (combination muesli). beta-Glucan muesli decreased serum LDL cholesterol by 5.0% compared with control muesli (P = 0.013). Combination muesli reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.6% compared with control muesli (P < 0.001), and by 4.4% compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.036). Serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ after the 3 treatments. Compared with control muesli, beta-glucan muesli increased bile acid synthesis (P = 0.043) and decreased cholesterol absorption (P = 0.011). Addition of plant stanols did not influence bile acid synthesis but decreased cholesterol absorption (P < 0.001) and raised cholesterol synthesis (P = 0.016) compared with control muesli, and the plant stanols decreased cholesterol absorption compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.004). The combination muesli decreased serum concentrations of sitostanol compared with control muesli (P = 0.010). Plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants did not differ after the 3 treatments. beta-Glucan muesli effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. The addition of plant stanol esters to beta-glucan-enriched muesli further lowered serum LDL cholesterol, although effects were slightly less than predicted.

  3. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  4. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Inhibits the Induction of Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahan, Kalipada; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Taylor, Bradley S.; Wood, Charles; Fischer, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibited cytokine-induced production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astrocytes. Similar to gemfibrozil, clofibrate, another fibrate drug, also inhibited the expression of iNOS. Inhibition of human iNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity by gemfibrozil in cytokine-stimulated U373MG astroglial cells suggests that this compound inhibits the transcription of iNOS. Since gemfibrozil is known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), we investigated the role of PPAR-α in gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS. Gemfibrozil induced peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE)-dependent luciferase activity, which was inhibited by the expression of ΔhPPAR-α, the dominant-negative mutant of human PPAR-α. However, ΔhPPAR-α was unable to abrogate gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS suggesting that gemfibrozil inhibits iNOS independent of PPAR-α. The human iNOS promoter contains consensus sequences for the binding of transcription factors, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) binding to interferon-stimulated responsive element (ISRE), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding to γ-activation site (GAS), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ); therefore, we investigated the effect of gemfibrozil on the activation of these transcription factors. The combination of interleukin (IL)-1β and IFN-γ induced the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, C/EBPβ, and GAS but not that of ISRE, suggesting that IRF-1 may not be involved in cytokine-induced expression of iNOS in human astrocytes. Interestingly, gemfibrozil strongly inhibited the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and C/EBPβ but not that of GAS in cytokine-stimulated astroglial cells. These results suggest that gemfibrozil inhibits the induction of iNOS probably by

  5. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a