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Sample records for affect capreomycin resistance

  1. Molecular Analysis of Cross-Resistance to Capreomycin, Kanamycin, Amikacin, and Viomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maus, Courtney E.; Plikaytis, Bonnie B.; Shinnick, Thomas M

    2005-01-01

    Capreomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, and viomycin are drugs that are used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Each inhibits translation, and cross-resistance to them is a concern during therapy. A recent study revealed that mutation of the tlyA gene, encoding a putative rRNA methyltransferase, confers capreomycin and viomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Mutations in the 16S rRNA gene (rrs) have been associated with resistance to each of the drugs; however, reports o...

  2. Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol using genotype MTBDRsl assay: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test. METHODS: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guideline. The search terms of "MTBDRsl" and "tuberculosis" were used on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc 1.4. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI for each study. From these calculations, forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curves were produced. RESULTS: Patient selection bias as well as flow and timing bias were observed in most studies. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI was 0.874(0.845-0.899, 0.826(0.777-0.869, 0.820(0.772-0.862, 0.444(0.396-0.492, and 0.679(0.652-0.706 for fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and ethambutol, respectively. The specificity (95% CI was 0.971(0.961-0.980, 0.995(0.987-0.998, 0.973(0.963-0.981, 0.993(0.985-0.997, and 0.799(0.773-0.823, respectively. The AUC (standard error were 0.9754(0.0203, 0.9300(0.0598, 0.9885(0.0038, 0.9689(0.0359, and 0.6846(0.0550, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genotype MTBDRsl showed good accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin and capreomycin, but it may not be an

  3. Disparities in Capreomycin Resistance Levels Associated with the rrs A1401G Mutation in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Analise Z.; Campbell, Patricia J.; Willby, Melisa J.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis strains continues to rise, so does the need to develop accurate and rapid molecular tests to complement time-consuming growth-based drug susceptibility testing. Performance of molecular methods relies on the association of specific mutations with phenotypic drug resistance and while considerable progress has been made for resistance detection of first-line antituberculosis drugs, rapid detection of resistance for second-line drugs lags behind. The rrs A1401G allele is considered a strong predictor of cross-resistance between the three second-line injectable drugs, capreomycin (CAP), kanamycin, and amikacin. However, discordance is often observed between the rrs A1401G mutation and CAP resistance, with up to 40% of rrs A1401G mutants being classified as CAP susceptible. We measured the MICs to CAP in 53 clinical isolates harboring the rrs A1401G mutation and found that the CAP MICs ranged from 8 μg/ml to 40 μg/ml. These results were drastically different from engineered A1401G mutants generated in isogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which exclusively exhibited high-level CAP MICs of 40 μg/ml. These data support the results of prior studies, which suggest that the critical concentration of CAP (10 μg/ml) used to determine resistance by indirect agar proportion may be too high to detect all CAP-resistant strains and suggest that a larger percentage of resistant isolates could be identified by lowering the critical concentration. These data also suggest that differences in resistance levels among clinical isolates are possibly due to second site or compensatory mutations located elsewhere in the genome. PMID:25385119

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of Drug Resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Amikacin, Capreomycin, Kanamycin and Ethambutol Using Genotype MTBDRsl Assay: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Sijun; Wang, Qungang; Wang, Liang; Tang, Shaowen; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinol...

  5. Capreomycin susceptibility is increased by TlyA-directed 2'-O-methylation on both ribosomal subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monshupanee, Tanakarn; Johansen, Shanna K; Dahlberg, Albert E; Douthwaite, Stephen Roger

    2012-01-01

    The binding site of the cyclic peptide antibiotics capreomycin and viomycin is located on the ribosomal subunit interface close to nucleotides C1409 in 16S rRNA and C1920 in 23S rRNA. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the 2'-hydroxyls of both nucleotides are methylated by the enzyme TlyA. Loss of...... these methylations through inactivation of TlyA confers resistance to capreomycin and viomycin. We report here that TlyA orthologues occur in diverse bacteria and fall into two distinct groups. One group, now termed TlyA(I) , has shorter N- and C-termini and methylates only C1920; the second group (now...

  6. 莫西沙星联合卷曲霉素治疗耐多药肺结核的临床效果观察%Clinical effect of moxifloxacin combined with capreomycin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculo-sis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of moxifloxacin combined with capreomycin in the treat-ment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Methods 108 patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis were random-ly divided into two groups, 54 cases in each group. The control group was treated with moxifloxacin, and the experi-ment group was treated with moxifloxacin combined with capreomycin. The clinical effect of the two groups was ob-served after the treatment. Results The total absorption rate of lesion was 88. 33% and the cavity closure rate was 85. 19% in the experiment group, which were significantly higher than those in the control group ( 57. 40% and 59. 62%) (P<0. 05). Conclusion The application of moxifloxacin combined with capreomycin is more effective than moxifloxacin alone in the treatment of patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, which has higher cure rate and no obvious adverse reactions.%目的:对莫西沙星联合卷曲霉素治疗耐多药肺结核的临床效果进行探讨。方法选取108名在我院进行治疗的耐多药肺结核的患者,随机分成对照组和实验组,平均每组54人。对照组通过使用莫西沙星治疗耐多药肺结核,实验组则采用莫西沙星联合卷曲霉素治疗耐多药肺结核。比较并观察两组患者治疗后的临床效果。结果两组患者经过一段时间的治疗后,实验组的病灶总吸收率(88.33%)、空洞闭合有效率(85.19%)明显高于对照组的病灶总吸收率(57.40%)、空洞闭合有效率(59.62%),统计学上有意义(P<0.05)。结论通过观察分析使用莫西沙星联合卷曲霉素治疗耐多药肺结核的疗效明显好于单独使用莫西沙星的治疗效果,病灶吸收和空洞闭合明显高于对照组。治愈率高,无不良反应,安全可靠,值得在临床上广泛应用。

  7. Activated Antibiotic Production by Inducing Resistance to Capreomycin in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor%诱导对卷曲霉素的抗性活化变铅青链霉菌和天蓝色链霉菌的抗生素生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 朱宝泉; 胡海峰

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立抗生素菌株选育的新方法.方法:变铅青链霉菌和天蓝色链霉菌A3(2)的relA突变株的合成微量放线紫红素(Act)和十一烷基灵菌红素(Red),通过诱导对卷曲霉素的抗性,筛选能够恢复或活化Act和Red合成的突变株,并应用蛋白质印迹分析考察活化或恢复Act或Red的合成与表达两个抗生素生物合成途径中的调节蛋白ActII-ORF4或RedD之间关系.结果:一些卷曲霉素抗性突变株(cap)的突变能够恢复relA突变株被损伤的抗生素合成和活化变铅青链霉菌的抗生素(Act和Red)合成,但没有恢复ppGpp合成,暗示着cap突变能够使天蓝色链霉菌不依赖ppGpp分子启动抗生素的合成;变铅青链霉菌66的cap突变株展现不同的表型,其基因突变的位点或类型可能互不相同.结论:建立了一个新的抗生素生产菌株选育方法,即诱导生产菌株对卷曲霉素的抗性.%AIM:To develop a novel method for improving antibiotic-producing strains. METHODS: The actinorhodin (Act) and undecylprodigosin (Red) biosyntheses in Streptomyces lividans 66 and a relA mutant of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) were impaired. The mutants with activated/restored Act and Red production were selected by inducing resistance to capreomycin, a basic peptide antibiotic. Western blotitng analysis was made to investigate the relationship between activated Act and Red production and the expression of ActII-ORF4 and RedD, the Act and RedD biosynthetic pathway-specific regulators, respectively. RESULTS: the capreomycin-resistant (cap) mutations could restore the impaired antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor RelA (relA) without recovering the ppGpp synthesis, and activate the Act and Red production in Streptomyces lividans 66, suggesting that the dependence of Streptomyces coelicolor on ppGpp to initiate antibiotic biosynthesis could be bypassed by cap mutations. These cap mutants of Streptomyces lividans 66 exhibited different phenotypes

  8. Mutations in conserved helix 69 of 23S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus that affect capreomycin resistance but not posttranscriptional modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monshupanee, Tanakarn; Gregory, Steven T; Douthwaite, Stephen; Chungjatupornchai, Wipa; Dahlberg, Albert E

    2008-01-01

    Translocation during the elongation phase of protein synthesis involves the relative movement of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. This movement is the target of tuberactinomycin antibiotics. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of mutants of Thermus thermophilus selected for...

  9. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Panitz, Frank; Fasold, Mario; Bagnato, Alessandro; Soller, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of...

  10. Fire Reterdant Chemicals Affecting Combustion Resistance of Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın ÖRS; Sönmez, Abdullah

    1998-01-01

    Wood is an important material used in construction elements. However since it can be affected by biotic and abiotic deteriorating agents, it should be treated with chemical impregnating materials prior to use. In this study, the effects of water-soluble impregnating chemicals on the combustion resistance of wood was investigated. For this purpose, panels were prepared with oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis L.) and pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.), which are widely used in industry. These ...

  11. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids. PMID:25197882

  12. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to...... mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the...... functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection...

  13. Evaluation of the AID TB Resistance Line Probe Assay for Rapid Detection of Genetic Alterations Associated with Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ritter; Lucke, K.; F. A. Sirgel; Warren, R. W.; van Helden, P. D.; Böttger, E C; Bloemberg, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid accurate detection of drug resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for optimizing the treatment of tuberculosis and limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. The TB Resistance line probe assay from Autoimmun Diagnostika GmbH (AID) (Strassburg, Germany) was designed to detect the most prevalent mutations that confer resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, amikacin, capreomycin, fluoroquinolones, and ethambutol. This assay detected r...

  14. The Role and Impact of Affect in the Process of Resistance to Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Szabo, Erin Alison; Anderson, Jason; Morrill, Joshua; Zubric, Jessica; Wan, Hua-Hsin

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the role and impact of affect in the process of resistance among undergraduate students. Notes that initial results indicated that the cognitive, affective-anger, and affective-happiness inoculation treatments all conferred resistance to persuasive attacks. Indicates that greater receiver involvement was positively associated with…

  15. Seneca’s Error: An Affective Model of Cognitive Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to the body of knowledge on mental models in the fields of design methodology, engineering psychology and human factors by studying the resistance of mental models to change. In this work the term cognitive resistance is introduced as the capacity to endure

  16. Seneca’s Error: An Affective Model of Cognitive Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, R.J. de

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to the body of knowledge on mental models in the fields of design methodology, engineering psychology and human factors by studying the resistance of mental models to change. In this work the term cognitive resistance is introduced as the capacity to endure stimuli from the environment that contradict the mental model, and its episodic nature is investigated. Three main points have been addressed in the current research: the identification of the comp...

  17. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  18. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  19. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  20. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s-1). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at rest.

  1. How could preventive therapy affect the prevalence of drug resistance? Causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Amber; Colijn, Caroline; Lipsitch, Marc; Cohen, Ted

    2015-06-01

    Various forms of preventive and prophylactic antimicrobial therapies have been proposed to combat HIV (e.g. pre-exposure prophylaxis), tuberculosis (e.g. isoniazid preventive therapy) and malaria (e.g. intermittent preventive treatment). However, the potential population-level effects of preventative therapy (PT) on the prevalence of drug resistance are not well understood. PT can directly affect the rate at which resistance is acquired among those receiving PT. It can also indirectly affect resistance by altering the rate at which resistance is acquired through treatment for active disease and by modifying the level of competition between transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pathogens. We propose a general mathematical model to explore the ways in which PT can affect the long-term prevalence of drug resistance. Depending on the relative contributions of these three mechanisms, we find that increasing the level of coverage of PT may result in increases, decreases or non-monotonic changes in the overall prevalence of drug resistance. These results demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between PT and drug resistance in the population. Care should be taken when predicting population-level changes in drug resistance from small pilot studies of PT or estimates based solely on its direct effects. PMID:25918446

  2. Abiotic stresses affect Trichoderma harzianum T39-induced resistance to downy mildew in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatti, Benedetta; Perazzolli, Michele; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria

    2013-12-01

    Enhancement of plant defense through the application of resistance inducers seems a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling crop diseases but the efficacy can be affected by abiotic factors in the field. Plants respond to abiotic stresses with hormonal signals that may interfere with the mechanisms of induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. In this study, we exposed grapevines to heat, drought, or both to investigate the effects of abiotic stresses on grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) to downy mildew. Whereas the efficacy of T39-induced resistance was not affected by exposure to heat or drought, it was significantly reduced by combined abiotic stresses. Decrease of leaf water potential and upregulation of heat-stress markers confirmed that plants reacted to abiotic stresses. Basal expression of defense-related genes and their upregulation during T39-induced resistance were attenuated by abiotic stresses, in agreement with the reduced efficacy of T39. The evidence reported here suggests that exposure of crops to abiotic stress should be carefully considered to optimize the use of resistance inducers, especially in view of future global climate changes. Expression analysis of ISR marker genes could be helpful to identify when plants are responding to abiotic stresses, in order to optimize treatments with resistance inducers in field. PMID:23841621

  3. Drug resistance pattern in multidrug resistance pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the frequency of drug resistance profiles of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, against both the first and the second line drugs. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) ward of Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases (OICD), Karachi, from 1996 to 2006. Methodology: Culture proven MDR-TB cases (resistant to both isoniazid and Rifampicin) were retrospectively reviewed. Susceptibility testing was performed at the clinical laboratory of the Aga Khan University. Sensitivity against both first and second line anti-tuberculosis drugs was done. Susceptibility testing was performed using Agar proportion method on enriched middle brook 7H10 medium (BBL) for Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Streptomycin, Ethambutol, Ethionamide, Capreomycin and Ciprofloxacin. Pyrazinamide sensitivity was carried out using the BACTEC 7H12 medium. During the study period MTB H37Rv was used as control. Results: Out of total 577 patients, all were resistant to both Rifampicin and Isoniazid (INH). 56.5% isolates were resistant to all five first line drugs. Resistances against other first line drugs was 76.60% for Pyrazinamide, 73% for Ethambutol and 68.11% for Streptomycin. Five hundred and ten (88%) cases were MDR plus resistant to one more first line drug. Forty (07%) isolates were MDR plus Quinolone-resistant. They were sensitive to Capreomycin but sensitivity against Amikacin and Kanamycin were not tested. Conclusion: There were high resistance rates in MDR-TB to remaining first line and second line drugs. Continuous monitoring of drug resistance pattern especially of MDR isolates and treatment in specialized centers is a crucial need for future TB control in Pakistan. (author)

  4. A signaling protease required for melanization in Drosophila affects resistance and tolerance of infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle S Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms evolve two routes to surviving infections-they can resist pathogen growth (resistance and they can endure the pathogenesis of infection (tolerance. The sum of these two properties together defines the defensive capabilities of the host. Typically, studies of animal defenses focus on either understanding resistance or, to a lesser extent, tolerance mechanisms, thus providing little understanding of the relationship between these two mechanisms. We suggest there are nine possible pairwise permutations of these traits, assuming they can increase, decrease, or remain unchanged in an independent manner. Here we show that by making a single mutation in the gene encoding a protease, CG3066, active in the melanization cascade in Drosophila melanogaster, we observe the full spectrum of changes; these mutant flies show increases and decreases in their resistance and tolerance properties when challenged with a variety of pathogens. This result implicates melanization in fighting microbial infections and shows that an immune response can affect both resistance and tolerance to infections in microbe-dependent ways. The fly is often described as having an unsophisticated and stereotypical immune response where single mutations cause simple binary changes in immunity. We report a level of complexity in the fly's immune response that has strong ecological implications. We suggest that immune responses are highly tuned by evolution, since selection for defenses that alter resistance against one pathogen may change both resistance and tolerance to other pathogens.

  5. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

  6. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Banwari; Prutha Desai; Prahlad Patidar

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolong...

  7. Sitamaquine-resistance in Leishmania donovani affects drug accumulation and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, L; Cojean, S; Libong, D; Chaminade, P; Loiseau, P M

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the mechanism of sitamaquine-resistance in Leishmania donovani. Sitamaquine accumulated 10 and 1.4 fold more in cytosol than in membranes of wild-type (WT) and of sitamaquine-resistant (Sita-R160) L. donovani promastigotes, respectively. The sitamaquine accumulation was a concentration-dependent process in WT whereas a saturation occurred in Sita-R160 suggesting a reduced uptake or an increase of the sitamaquine efflux. Membrane negative phospholipids being the main target for sitamaquine uptake, a lipidomic analysis showed that sitamaquine-resistance did not rely on a decrease of membrane negative phospholipid rate in Sita-R160, discarding the hypothesis of reduced uptake. However, sterol and phospholipid metabolisms were strongly affected in Sita-R160 suggesting that sitamaquine-resistance could be related to an alteration of phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase and choline kinase activities and to a decrease in cholesterol uptake and of ergosterol biosynthesis. Preliminary data of proteomics analysis exhibited different protein profiles between WT and Sita-160R remaining to be characterized. PMID:25201056

  8. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  9. Time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring of salt-affected soil and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Kevin; Bentley, L. R.; Gharibi, M.

    2009-07-01

    In order to develop and test a methodology for incorporating time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) into the monitoring of salt-affected soil and groundwater, a multifaceted study including time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging, push tool conductivity (PTC), and core analysis was conducted to monitor the movement of a saline contaminant plume over the span of 3 years. The survey was done on a field site containing salt-affected soils and groundwater to depths of over 7 m. The site contained a tile drain system at approximately 2 m below ground level. Temperature and saturation changes were accounted for in electrical conductivity (EC) measurements to isolate changes in electrical conductivity due to changes in salt distribution. ERI inversion parameters were selected so that the inverse models gave the best match to PTC depth profiles and the best correlation with core EC data. A strong correlation between the core data and the ERI results was observed. Time-lapse ERI difference images showed that the subsurface EC distribution was consistent with preferential solute removal above the tile drains in some locations. The ERI-delineated reduction in solute concentration is consistent with nonuniform flushing due to depression-focused recharge. The addition of time-lapse ERI to the study allowed delineation of details of solute redistribution that would not have been possible with point measurements alone.

  10. Captures of MFO-resistant Cydia pomonella adults as affected by lure, crop management system and flight

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, D; Rodríguez, M.A.; Avilla, J.

    2015-01-01

    The main resistance mechanism of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in the tree fruit area of Lleida (NE Spain) is multifunction oxidases (MFO). We studied the frequency of MFO-resistant adults captured by different lures, with and without pear ester, and flights in orchards under different crop management systems. The factor year affected codling moth MFO-resistance level, particularly in the untreated orchards, highlighting the great influence of codling moth migration on the spread of resistan...

  11. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  12. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez; Valerio C. Andrés-Valeri; Miguel A. Calzada-Pérez; Ángel Vega-Zamanillo; Daniel Castro-Fresno

    2015-01-01

    Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asph...

  13. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Dawe, Adam; Pasqualini, Stefania; Quaglia, Mara; Xiong, Liming; Gehring, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens. PMID:25750645

  14. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  15. Does Culture Affect how People Receive and Resist Persuasive Messages? Research Proposals about Resistance to Persuasion in Cultural Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kolodziej-Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though persuasion has been a widely researched topic in consumer behavior, the great majority of these studies have involved American consumers and focused on persuasion itself, with very few addressing resistance to persuasive attempts. None has addressed resistance to persuasion in a cross-cultural context. We aim to contribute to closing this gap in the literature with this paper. Specifically, we aim to expand knowledge of the persuasive process by applying the cultural dimensions of self-construal and face negotiation theories to Gopinath and Nyer’s (2009 work conducted on American consumers about the effect of public commitment on resistance to persuasion. Our research focus is on why people from different ethnic/cultural backgrounds will receive or resist persuasive messages differently. We anchor this notion in face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 2005. This perspective addresses different types of facework behaviors that people choose in a multicultural environment, thus shedding light on processes underlying persuasion and resistance to persuasion mechanisms as influenced by culture. Understanding the effects of cultural differences on a person’s reception of, or resistance to, counter-attitudinal persuasion should be valuable to managers who make decisions about cultural adaptations and target audience changes.

  16. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting gastrointestinal parasite resistance in an experimental Angus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Silva, Marcos Vinicius G B; Gasbarre, Louis C; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2014-02-01

    DNA markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting host tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection are ideal targets for marker-assisted selection. However, few studies in cattle have attempted to identify this type of QTL due to the difficulty of generating accurate phenotypic data from a resource population with adequate statistical power for detection. For this effort, we amassed fecal egg count (FEC) measures from annual natural field challenges with GI nematodes that spanned 12 different contemporary groups of Angus calves (1992-2000) derived from a closed breeding population. FEC and blood pepsinogen measures were taken weekly over a 26-week period post-weaning, and the FEC data were Box-Cox transformed to normalize the distribution of phenotypes. These 305 test animals and more than 100 founding animals from the extended pedigree were genotyped across 190 microsatellites markers. The genome-wide analyses identified a suggestive genome-wide QTL on bovine chromosome (Chr) 8 (P cattle, and some corresponded to previously identified QTL locations for parasite-related traits in sheep to provide genome locations for further fine mapping of parasite resistance/susceptibility in Angus cattle. PMID:24303892

  18. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  19. The softened heat-affected zone in resistance spot welded tailor hardened boron steel: a material model for crash simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eller, T.K.; Greve, L.; Andres, M.T.; Medricky, M.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2016-01-01

    A hardness-based model for tailor hardened boron steel is presented that takes into account the softened heat-affected zone of resistance spot welds. The computational model is designed for crashworthiness simulation of fully and partially hardened components obtained by tailored tooling. Five diff

  20. Plasticity and fracture modeling of the heat-affected zone in resistance spot welded tailor hardened boron steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eller, T.K.; Greve, L.; Andres, M.T.; Medricky, M.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2016-01-01

    tFive hardness grades of 22MnB5 are considered, covering the full strength-range from 600 MPa in theferritic/pearlitic range to 1500 MPa in the fully hardened, martensitic state. These five grades form thebasis for a hardness-based material model for the heat-affected zone found around resistance sp

  1. Food Conditioning Affects Expression of Insect Resistance in Diploid Willows (Salix spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Björkman; Karin Eklund; Anna Lehrman; Stenberg, Johan A

    2013-01-01

    The high energy quota and versatility of use make willows (Salix spp.) attractive as bioenergy crops. Insect defoliation constitutes a threat to the profitability of willow growers. Hitherto, the breeding for resistance against the main insect pests has been hampered by the fact that all known resistant willow clones are polyploids, and existing molecular breeding tools work most effectively for diploids. Here, we firstly report diploid willows highly resistant to the main insect defoliator, ...

  2. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eHan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant wild-type gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn, which are associated with FQ resistance in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the wild-type gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ-resistant mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the wild-type strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ-resistant Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  3. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AxelCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  4. Insulin resistance in different forms of hyperketonemia and in cows affected by puerperal metritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    oestrus on day about ≥50 were inseminated and those not returning to oestrus were checked for pregnancy by rectal palpation on day 45-60 after AI. Resumption of ovarian activity was monitored by the means of individual milk progesterone profiles Based on BHB level and clinical examination cows were categorized in four groups: 1. Normoketonemic (NK) throughout the study (n = 9); 2. Transiently hyperketonemic (HK; n = 7); 3. Continuously HK (n = 7); 4. Continuously HK with severe puerperal metritis (HK+PM; n = 6). Cows with continuous HK showed lower insulin and leptin levels than their normoketonemic mates from day 4-10 before calving, and these tendencies existed throughout the study. The plasma leptin and insulin patterns of cows with transient ketone increase around parturition represented an intermediate situation. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) and maximal insulin response to glucose were significantly lower in the early postpartum period than in late pregnant or mid lactating animals (P 0.05). Normoketonemic cows ovulated earlier than cows from group 2, 3 or 4 (day 26.2 ± 3.34; 7 ± 4; 44 ± 4; 50.1 ± 5; P = 0.002). Insulin AUC and maximal insulin response in cows affected by HK and PM were still lower on d 70 pp (P = 0.051 and P = 0.23) than in normo- or hyperketonemic animals. In conclusion we showed that pancreatic β-cell function and the biological potency of insulin is impaired in cows with long-term hyperketonemia. Short term elevation in plasma BHB and free fatty acid may not potentially induce further increase in peripheral tissue IR in the early lactation. Severe puerperal genital diseases like puerperal metritis and mastitis can further accentuate insulin resistance in dairy cows, with long term effects on metabolism and reproduction. (author)

  5. Captures of MFO-resistant Cydia pomonella adults as affected by lure, crop management system and flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D; Rodríguez, M A; Avilla, J

    2016-02-01

    The main resistance mechanism of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in the tree fruit area of Lleida (NE Spain) is multifunction oxidases (MFO). We studied the frequency of MFO-resistant adults captured by different lures, with and without pear ester, and flights in orchards under different crop management systems. The factor year affected codling moth MFO-resistance level, particularly in the untreated orchards, highlighting the great influence of codling moth migration on the spread of resistance in field populations. Chemical treatments and adult flight were also very important but mating disruption technique showed no influence. The second adult flight showed the highest frequency, followed by the first flight and the third flight. In untreated orchards, there were no significant differences in the frequency of MFO-resistant individuals attracted by Combo and BioLure. Red septa lures baited with pear ester (DA) captured sufficient insects only in the first generation of 2010, obtaining a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo and BioLure. In the chemically treated orchards, in 2009 BioLure caught a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo during the first and third flight, and also than DA during the first flight. No significant differences were found between the lures or flights in 2010. These results cannot support the idea of a higher attractiveness of the pear ester for MFO-resistant adults in the field but do suggest a high influence of the response to the attractant depending on the management of the orchard, particularly with regard to the use of chemical insecticides. PMID:26497943

  6. Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verchot-Lubicz Jeanmarie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salicylic acid (SA regulates multiple anti-viral mechanisms, including mechanism(s that may be negatively regulated by the mitochondrial enzyme, alternative oxidase (AOX, the sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway. However, studies of this mechanism can be confounded by SA-mediated induction of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1, a component of the antiviral RNA silencing pathway. We made transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in which alternative respiratory pathway capacity was either increased by constitutive expression of AOX, or decreased by expression of a dominant-negative mutant protein (AOX-E. N. benthamiana was used because it is a natural mutant that does not express a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1. Results Antimycin A (an alternative respiratory pathway inducer and also an inducer of resistance to viruses and SA triggered resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. Resistance to TMV induced by antimycin A, but not by SA, was inhibited in Aox transgenic plants while SA-induced resistance to this virus appeared to be stronger in Aox-E transgenic plants. These effects, which were limited to directly inoculated leaves, were not affected by the presence or absence of a transgene constitutively expressing a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (MtRDR1. Unexpectedly, Aox-transgenic plants infected with potato virus X (PVX showed markedly increased susceptibility to systemic disease induction and virus accumulation in inoculated and systemically infected leaves. SA-induced resistance to PVX was compromised in Aox-transgenic plants but plants expressing AOX-E exhibited enhanced SA-induced resistance to this virus. Conclusions We conclude that AOX-regulated mechanisms not only play a role in SA-induced resistance but also make an important contribution to basal resistance against certain viruses such as PVX.

  7. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asphalt pavements, the Cantabro abrasion test was performed on 200 test samples after applying controlled oil spills. Three different types of binders were used: conventional bitumen, polymer-modified bitumen and special fuel-resistant bitumen. After analyzing the results, it was concluded that the most suitable bitumen to protect against oil leakages is the polymer-modified one, which is far better than the other two types of bitumen tested.

  8. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    OpenAIRE

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-01-01

    A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30), covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin r...

  9. ramR mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198

    OpenAIRE

    Baucheron, Sylvie; Le Hello, Simon; Doublet, Benoît; Giraud, Etienne; Weill, François-Xavier; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2013-01-01

    International audience A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n = 27), covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this ef...

  10. ramR mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n = 27), covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin...

  11. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    OpenAIRE

    Gourichon David; Legros Hélène; Thomas Aurélie; Leroux Sophie; Feve Katia; Pitel Frédérique; Coville Jean-Luc; Bed'hom Bertrand; Pinard-van der Laan Marie-Hélène; Repérant Jean-Michel; Rault Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the fi...

  12. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  13. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    OpenAIRE

    Huicong Liu; Min Yang; Zheng-Guo He

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smeg...

  14. Selective pressure affects transfer and establishment of a Lactobacillus plantarum resistance plasmid in the gastrointestinal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Schjorring, S.; Hammer, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different gastrointes......Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different...

  15. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourichon David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. Results The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Conclusion Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several

  16. Pyrosequencing for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis second-line drugs and ethambutol resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoma, Alicia; Molina-Moya, Barbara; Prat, Cristina; Pimkina, Edita; Diaz, Jessica; Dudnyk, Andriy; García-Sierra, Nerea; Haba, Lucía; Maldonado, Jose; Samper, Sofia; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Ausina, Vicente; Dominguez, Jose

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the diagnostic accuracy of pyrosequencing to detect resistance to fluoroquinolones, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, and ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains. One hundred four clinical isolates previously characterized by BACTEC 460TB/MGIT 960 were included. Specific mutations were targeted in gyrA, rrs, eis promoter, and embB. When there was a discordant result between BACTEC and pyrosequencing, Genotype MTBDRsl (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) was performed. Sensitivity and specificity of pyrosequencing were 70.6% and 100%, respectively, for fluoroquinolones; 93.3% and 81.7%, respectively, for kanamycin; 94.1% and 95.9%, respectively, for amikacin; 90.0% and 100%, respectively, for capreomycin; and 64.8% and 87.8%, respectively, for EMB. This study shows that pyrosequencing may be a useful tool for making early decisions regarding second-line drugs and EMB resistance. However, for a correct management of patients with suspected extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, susceptibility results obtained by molecular methods should be confirmed by a phenotypic method. PMID:26256417

  17. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p motivational correlates of resistance training. PMID:26506060

  18. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  19. Sputtering parameters affecting the corrosion resistance of CoCrPtTa thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistance of CoCrPtTa thin film media under high temperature and humidity environment (60 deg. C, 80 RH) was investigated. Effects of sputtering parameters, such as film thickness, Ar pressure, substrate bias, protective layer thickness and composition were studied. It is shown that Cr underlayer thickness and Ar pressure play important roles in the suppression of Co corrosion

  20. Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Marco; Erb, Matthias; Ton, Jurriaan; Brandenburg, Anna; Karlen, Danielle; Zopfi, Jakob; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance, and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil-grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E. aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the contrary, E. aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Furthermore, inoculation of seeds with E. aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculation of soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid is indirect and depends on the composition of the microbial community. PMID:24127750

  1. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Castner, Diobel M.; Clark, Susan J.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Rubin, Daniela A

    2016-01-01

    Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HR...

  2. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported...

  3. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  4. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  5. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.

  6. Identifying quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to congenital hypothyroidism in 129/SvJcl strain mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Hosoda

    Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase 2 (TPST2 is one of the enzymes responsible for tyrosine O-sulfation and catalyzes the sulfation of the specific tyrosine residue of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR. Since this modification is indispensable for the activation of TSH signaling, a non-functional TPST2 mutation (Tpst2(grt in DW/J-grt mice leads to congenital hypothyroidism (CH characterized by severe thyroid hypoplasia and dwarfism related to TSH hyporesponsiveness. Previous studies indicated that the genetic background of the 129(+Ter/SvJcl (129 mouse strain ameliorates Tpst2(grt-induced CH. To identify loci responsible for CH resistance in 129 mice, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis using backcross progenies from susceptible DW/J and resistant 129 mice. We used the first principal component calculated from body weights at 5, 8 and 10 weeks as an indicator of CH, and QTL analysis mapped a major QTL showing a highly significant linkage to the distal portion of chromosome (Chr 2; between D2Mit62 and D2Mit304, particularly close to D2Mit255. In addition, two male-specific QTLs showing statistically suggestive linkage were also detected on Chrs 4 and 18, respectively. All QTL alleles derived from the 129 strain increased resistance to growth retardation. There was also a positive correlation between recovery from thyroid hypoplasia and the presence of the 129 allele at D2Mit255 in male progenies. These results suggested that the major QTL on Chr 2 is involved in thyroid development. Moreover, since DW/J congenic strain mice carrying both a Tpst2(grt mutation and 129 alleles in the major QTL show resistance to dwarfism and thyroid hypoplasia, we confirmed the presence of the resistant gene in this region, and that it is involved in thyroid development. Further genetical analysis should lead to identification of genes for CH tolerance and, from a better understanding of thyroid organogenesis and function, the subsequent

  7. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  8. Mechanisms affecting performance of the BaBar resistive plate chambers and searches for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaBar experiment at PEPII relies on the instrumentation of the flux return (IFR) for both muon identification and KL detection. The active detector is composed of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Since the start of operation the RPCs have suffered persistent efficiency deterioration and dark current increase problems. The 'autopsy' of bad BaBar RPCs revealed that in many cases uncured linseed oil droplets had formed on the inner surface of the Bakelite plates, leading to current paths from oil 'stalagmites' bridging the 2 mm gap. In this paper, a possible model of this 'stalagmite' formation and its effect on the dark current and efficiency of RPC chambers is presented. Laboratory test results strongly support this model. Based upon this model we are searching for solutions to eliminate the unfavorable effect of the oil stalagmites. The lab tests show that the stalagmite resistivity increases dramatically if exposed to the air, an observation that points to a possible way to remedy the damage and increase the efficiency. We have seen that flowing an oxygen gas mixture into the chamber helps to polymerize the uncured linseed oil. Consequently, the resistivity of the bridged oil stalagmites increases, as does that of the oil coating on the frame edges and spacers, significantly reducing the RPC dark currents and low-efficiency regions. We have tested this idea on two chambers removed from BaBar because of their low efficiency and high dark current. These test results are reported in the paper, and two other remediation methods also mentioned. We continue to study this problem, and try to find new treatments with permanent improvement

  9. Strengths amidst vulnerabilities: the paradox of resistance in a mining-affected community in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, C Susana; Berman, Helene; Ray, Susan L; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Varcoe, Coleen

    2014-11-01

    The influence of large-scale mining on the psychosocial wellbeing and mental health of diverse Indigenous communities has attracted increased attention. In previous reports, we have discussed the influence of a gold mining operation on the health of a community in the Western highlands of Guatemala. Here, we discuss the community strengths, and acts of resistance of this community, that is, community processes that promoted mental health amidst this context. Using an anti-colonial narrative methodology that incorporated participatory action research principles, we developed a research design in collaboration with community leaders and participants. Data collection involved focus groups, individual interviews and photo-sharing with 54 men and women between the ages of 18 and 67. Data analysis was guided by iterative and ongoing conversations with participants and McCormack's narrative lenses. Study findings revealed key mechanisms and sources of resistance, including a shared cultural identity, a spiritual knowing and being, 'defending our rights, defending our territory,' and, speaking truth to power. These overlapping strengths were identified by participants as key protective factors in facing challenges and adversity. Yet ultimately, these same strengths were often the most eroded or endangered due the influence of large-scale mining operations in the region. These community strengths and acts of resistance reveal important priorities for promoting mental health and wellbeing for populations impacted by large-scale mining operations. Mental health practitioners must attend to both the strengths and parallel vulnerabilities that may be occasioned by large-scale projects of this nature. PMID:25353295

  10. The lion at the gate: an HIV-affected caregiver resists stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Cynthia Cannon

    2005-02-01

    This article examines two bounded stories of HIV stigma told by an older woman who took care of her adult son as he died of AIDS. Her self-definition as a protector of her dying son was challenged when she encountered ostracism and prejudice. Her words and expressions illuminate her confrontation and resistance to associative stigma. An expansion of Goffman's view of stigma management is necessary to understand this caregiver's experiences in the face of the larger cultural narrative of HIV stigma:This caregiver did not manage stigma, she actively fought it. PMID:15847239

  11. Jammed granular cones affect frictional resistive forces at the onset of intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jeffrey; Goldman, Daniel

    Characterizing the functional form of granular resistive forces has allowed for analysis of the locomotion of animals and robots on and within dry granular media. Resistive force theory (RFT) has been an effective tool in predicting these forces for various locomotive gaits within the ``frictional fluid'' regime, where intrusions are sufficiently slow such that granular inertial effects are negligible. These forces have been typically described by a linear dependence to submersion depth. However, recent experiments on robotic jumping [Aguilar & Goldman, Nature Physics, 2015] have revealed the importance of considering the nonlinear effects at the onset of intrusion to accurately predict robot kinematics. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis of sidewall grain flow during foot intrusion reveals a jammed granular cone that develops beneath the foot at the onset of intrusion. A geometric model of cone development combined with empirical RFT forces on angled conical surfaces was able to predict the non-linear force trajectory vs. depth for experimental intrusions of various foot sizes, suggesting that intruders experience non-linear frictional forces according to the shape of the granular jamming fronts that form at the onset of movement. This work was supported by NSF Physics of Living Systems, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and the Army Research Office.

  12. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  13. WATER RESISTANCE AND SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RICE STRAW FIBERBOARDS AFFECTED BY THERMAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Pan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw fiberboard was made using 12 wt % urea-formaldehyde (UF resin as binder and 1.0 wt % polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI and 1.2 wt % wax emulsion as water retardants. The prepared fiberboards were heat-treated at 120, 150, 185, and 210°C in the presence of steam in a high-temperature dry kiln, respectively for 90 min. The effect of water retardants and heat treatment on the water resistant and some mechanical properties of the fiberboards were investigated. It was found that the water resistance of the rice straw fiberboard could not be improved by adding wax emulsion. The use of pMDI to the system significantly increased the interfacial strength and reduced 24-h thickness swelling (TS compared to the boards with or without wax emulsion. After heat treatment, the TS was significantly decreased due to the decrease in the free reactive hydroxyl group content of rice straw fiber. Some mechanical properties of the fiberboards, such as the internal bonding strength, modulus of elasticity, and modulus of rapture were dramatically reduced with increasing temperature from 120°C to 210°C.

  14. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep; Bishai, William R

    2009-01-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, any fluoroquinolone, and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, capreomycin, or kanamycin). The definition has applicable clinical value and has allowed for more uniform surveillance in varied international settings. Recent surveillance data have indicated that the prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance has risen to the highest rate ever recorded. The gold standard for drug-susceptibility testing has been the agar proportion method; however, this technique requires several weeks for results to be determined. More sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are still unavailable in resource-limited settings. Clinical manifestations, although variable in different settings and among different strains, have in general shown that XDR tuberculosis is associated with greater morbidity and mortality than non-XDR tuberculosis. The treatment of XDR tuberculosis should include agents to which the organism is susceptible, and should continue for a minimum of 18-24 months. However, treatment continues to be limited in tuberculosis-endemic countries largely because of weaknesses in national tuberculosis health-care models. The ultimate strategy to control drug-resistant tuberculosis is one that implements a comprehensive approach incorporating innovation from the political, social, economic, and scientific realms. PMID:18990610

  16. Biochemical resistance of pyrogenic organic matter in fire-affected mineral soils of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, H.; González Vila, F. J.; Clemente Salas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Incorporated into the soil, naturally formed pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is considered as highly recalcitrant, but direct estimation of PyOM decomposition rates are scarce. With this aim in mind, we subjected organic matter (OM) of fire-affected and unaffected soils to biochemical degradation under laboratory conditions and monitored CO2 production over a period of seven months. The soils derived from fire affected and unaffected areas of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar and the Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Virtual fractionation of the solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the fire affected soils into fire-unaffected soil organic matter (SOM) and PyOM yielded charcoal C contributions of 30 to 50% to the total organic C (Corg) of the sample derived from the Aznalcóllar region. Fitting the respiration data with a double exponential decay model revealed a fast carbon flush during the first three weeks of the experiment. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy evidenced the contribution of aromatic moieties of the PyOM to this initial carbon release and to the biosynthesis of new microbial biomass. The input of PyOM resulted in an increase of the mean residence time (MRT) of the slow OM pool of the soil by a factor of 3 to 4 to approximately 40 years which rises doubts rises doubts about the presumed big influence of PyOM as an additional C-sink in soils. On the other hand, although being small the difference in turnover rates is evident and has some major implication with respect to long-term alteration of the chemical composition of OM in fire-affected soils. Based on the obtained results and the analysis of PyOM in other soil systems, a conceptual model is presented which can explain the different behavior of PyOM under different soil conditions.

  17. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently - CORRIGENDUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2015-01-01

    glucose was observed in RSD fed pigs (203 mmol/h, P = 0.02). The NPF of total SCFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were high, intermediate, and low (P < 0.01) in AXD, RSD, and WSD fed pigs, respectively, with the largest relative increase for butyrate in response to arabinoxylan supplementation. In......The effects of increased colonic fermentation of dietary fibres (DF) on net portal flux (NPF) of carbohydrate-derived metabolites (glucose, SCFA and especially butyrate), hormones (insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP) and NEFA were studied in a healthy catheterised pig model. Six 59 ± 3.8 kg pigs were...... conclusion, RSD and AXD had different effects on net portal insulin and glucose flux, suggesting different impact of arabinoxylan and resistant starch on human health....

  18. CD38 expression and complement inhibitors affect response and resistance to daratumumab therapy in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Inger S; Casneuf, Tineke; van Velzen, Jeroen; van Kessel, Berris; Axel, Amy E; Syed, Khaja; Groen, Richard W J; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter; Minnema, Monique C; Zweegman, Sonja; Chiu, Christopher; Bloem, Andries C; Mutis, Tuna; Lokhorst, Henk M; Sasser, A Kate; van de Donk, Niels W C J

    2016-08-18

    The anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab is well tolerated and has high single agent activity in heavily pretreated relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, not all patients respond, and many patients eventually develop progressive disease to daratumumab monotherapy. We therefore examined whether pretreatment expression levels of CD38 and complement-inhibitory proteins (CIPs) are associated with response and whether changes in expression of these proteins contribute to development of resistance. In a cohort of 102 patients treated with daratumumab monotherapy (16 mg/kg), we found that pretreatment levels of CD38 expression on MM cells were significantly higher in patients who achieved at least partial response (PR) compared with patients who achieved less than PR. However, cell surface expression of the CIPs, CD46, CD55, and CD59, was not associated with clinical response. In addition, CD38 expression was reduced in both bone marrow-localized and circulating MM cells, following the first daratumumab infusion. CD38 expression levels on MM cells increased again following daratumumab discontinuation. In contrast, CD55 and CD59 levels were significantly increased on MM cells only at the time of progression. All-trans retinoic acid increased CD38 levels and decreased CD55 and CD59 expression on MM cells from patients who developed daratumumab resistance, to approximately pretreatment values. This resulted in significant enhancement of daratumumab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Together, these data demonstrate an important role for CD38 and CIP expression levels in daratumumab sensitivity and suggest that therapeutic combinations that alter CD38 and CIP expression levels should be investigated in the treatment of MM. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00574288 (GEN501) and #NCT01985126 (SIRIUS). PMID:27307294

  19. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S.; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  20. Rapid experimental evolution of pesticide resistance in C. elegans entails no costs and affects the mating system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C Lopes

    Full Text Available Pesticide resistance is a major concern in natural populations and a model trait to study adaptation. Despite the importance of this trait, the dynamics of its evolution and of its ecological consequences remain largely unstudied. To fill this gap, we performed experimental evolution with replicated populations of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to the pesticide Levamisole during 20 generations. Exposure to Levamisole resulted in decreased survival, fecundity and male frequency, which declined from 30% to zero. This was not due to differential susceptibility of males. Rather, the drug affected mobility, resulting in fewer encounters, probably leading to reduced outcrossing rates. Adaptation, i.e., increased survival and fecundity, occurred within 10 and 20 generations, respectively. Male frequency also increased by generation 20. Adaptation costs were undetected in the ancestral environment and in presence of Ivermectin, another widely-used pesticide with an opposite physiological effect. Our results demonstrate that pesticide resistance can evolve at an extremely rapid pace. Furthermore, we unravel the effects of behaviour on life-history traits and test the environmental dependence of adaptation costs. This study establishes experimental evolution as a powerful tool to tackle pesticide resistance, and paves the way to further investigations manipulating environmental and/or genetic factors underlying adaptation to pesticides.

  1. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  2. Developing mutant rice high in resistant starch fighting for diabetes-affected people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes is a major socio-economic cost and is a predisposing factor for early onset coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Type II diabetes reflects a failure of blood glucose regulation, leading to sustained high blood glucose concentrations that have numbers of metabolic effects predisposing to pathology. The risk of Type II diabetes is related to diet, especially the availability of readily digested, highly refined foods and excess energy intake. In the case of diabetes, the ready digestion of carbohydrates (particularly starches) leads to a rapid rise in blood glucose and a greater demand on the pancreas for insulin to normalize concentrations. Starch that is not absorbed in the small intestine but passes into the large bowel (Resistant starch, RS) is a key protector against serious disease (including cancer) in the latter region of the intestines, being fermented by the large bowel microflora yielding short chain fatty acids (SCFA) that promote normal colonic function. Multiple approaches were suggested to obtain high amounts of resistant starch, and most of is to physically modify starch structure through processing technology. Diabetes is also increasing in the Third World and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The current rice varieties low in resistant starch available to these individuals are not low in GI and the production of high resistant starch rices will be an attractive consumer option to this section of the population. The ability of subsistence farmers to be able sell high-RS rice lines will enable such farmers to continue to survive in those in these countries. The largest producers in the world are China and India with production at 120 and 80 million tonnes per annum respectively. The contents of RS in the hot cooked and processed rice are always below 3% by the traditionally domestic manners. This might lead to a higher glycemic index (GI) and lower butyrate content, subsequently increase the potential risk of metabolic

  3. Grassland management affects belowground carbon allocation in mountain grasslands and its resistance and resilience to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, Stefan; Augusti, Angela; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Bahn, Michael; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Future climate scenarios do not only forecast increased extreme events during summer, but also more frequent drought events in the early season. In mountain grasslands, different land uses may contribute to the response of the ecosystem to climate changes, like drought in May and June. In this study, we examined the drought response of two differently managed grasslands, 1) a more intensive used meadow and 2) a less intensive used abandoned area. Our aim was to highlight differences in both resistance and resilience of ecosystem functioning, based on carbon (C) belowground allocation as a key function in the plant-rhizosphere continuum. Therefore, we used an isotopic approach and in particular, we used 13C pulse labelling to track the fate of newly assimilated C from leaves, to roots and to soil, up to different microbial communities. We performed two 13C pulse labellings, the first during the acute phase of drought, when the water status of soil was drastically decreased compared to the control; and the second during the recovery phase, when the soil water status was restored to control level. We followed the kinetics of 13C incorporation in above- and below-ground bulk material as well as non-structural sugars, in general soil microbial biomass, in different soil microbial communities and in CO2 respired from roots, up to 5 days from each labelling. Preliminary results from the 13C analyses of bulk phytomass material and soil microbial biomass indicate, as expected, different kinetics of aboveground 13C incorporation and its belowground allocation. During the acute phase of drought, 13C incorporation shows a decrease compared to the control for both land uses, with generally higher reductions in meadow treatments. Root 13C tracer dynamics follow the leaf 13C enrichment with a delay. High label amounts are found in leaves directly after labelling, whereas in roots high 13C incorporation is found first after 24 hours, accompanied by a fast decrease of 13C label in

  4. Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munholland, Jonah L.; Mumford, Kevin G.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2016-01-01

    A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were completed in a two-dimensional flow cell to investigate gas production and migration during the application of electrical resistance heating (ERH) for the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Experiments consisted of heating water in homogeneous silica sand and heating 270 mL of trichloroethene (TCE) and chloroform (CF) DNAPL pools in heterogeneous silica sands, both under flowing groundwater conditions. Spatial and temporal distributions of temperature were measured using thermocouples and observations of gas production and migration were collected using front-face image capture throughout the experiments. Post-treatment soil samples were collected and analyzed to assess DNAPL removal. Results of experiments performed in homogeneous sand subject to different groundwater flow rates showed that high groundwater velocities can limit subsurface heating rates. In the DNAPL pool experiments, temperatures increased to achieve DNAPL-water co-boiling, creating estimated gas volumes of 131 and 114 L that originated from the TCE and CF pools, respectively. Produced gas migrated vertically, entered a coarse sand lens and subsequently migrated laterally beneath an overlying capillary barrier to outside the heated treatment zone where 31-56% of the original DNAPL condensed back into a DNAPL phase. These findings demonstrate that layered heterogeneity can potentially facilitate the transport of contaminants outside the treatment zone by mobilization and condensation of gas phases during ERH applications. This underscores the need for vapor phase recovery and/or control mechanisms below the water table during application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media during the co-boiling stage, which occurs prior to reaching the boiling point of water.

  5. A narrow quantitative trait locus in C. elegans coordinately affects longevity, thermotolerance, and resistance to paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eVertino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available By linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci, we previously identified at least 11 natural genetic variants that significantly modulate C. elegans lifespan, many of which would have eluded discovery by knockdown or mutation screens. A region on chromosome IV between markers stP13 and stP35 had striking effects on longevity in three interstrain crosses (each P < 1E–9. In order to define the limits of that interval, we have now constructed two independent lines by marker-based selection during 20 backcross generations, isolating the stP13–stP35 interval from strain Bergerac-BO in a CL2a background. These congenic lines differed significantly from CL2a in lifespan, assayed in two environments (each P<0.001. We then screened for exchange of flanking markers to isolate recombinants that partition this region, because fine mapping the boundaries for overlapping heteroallelic spans can greatly narrow the implicated interval. Recombinants carrying the CL2a allele at stP35 were consistently long-lived compared to those retaining the Bergerac-BO allele (P<0.001, and more resistant to temperature elevation and paraquat (each ~1.7-fold, P<0.0001, but gained little protection from ultraviolet or peroxide stresses. Two rounds of recombinant screening, followed by fine-mapping of break-points and survival testing, narrowed the interval to 0.18 Mb (13.35–13.53 Mb containing 26 putative genes and 6 small-nuclear RNAs – a manageable number of targets for functional assessment.

  6. Phenotypic instability of Arabidopsis alleles affecting a disease Resistance gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Eric J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana strain Columbia – cpr1, snc1, and bal – map to the RPP5 locus, which contains a cluster of disease Resistance genes. The similar phenotypes, gene expression patterns, and genetic interactions observed in these mutants are related to constitutive activation of pathogen defense signaling. However, these mutant alleles respond differently to various conditions. Exposure to mutagens, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and γ-irradiation, induce high frequency phenotypic instability of the bal allele. In addition, a fraction of the bal and cpr1 alleles segregated from bal × cpr1 F1 hybrids also show signs of phenotypic instability. To gain more insight into the mechanism of phenotypic instability of the bal and cpr1 mutations, we systematically compared the behavior of these unusual alleles with that of the missense gain-of-function snc1 allele in response to DNA damage or passage through F1 hybrids. Results We found that the cpr1 allele is similar to the bal allele in its unstable behavior after EMS mutagenesis. For both the bal and cpr1 mutants, destabilization of phenotypes was observed in more than 10% of EMS-treated plants in the M1 generation. In addition, exceptions to simple Mendelian inheritance were identified in the M2 generation. Like cpr1 × bal F1 hybrids, cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids and bal × snc1 F1 hybrids exhibited dwarf morphology. While only dwarf F2 plants were produced from bal × snc1 F1 hybrids, about 10% wild-type F2 progeny were produced from cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids, as well as from cpr1 × bal hybrids. Segregation analysis suggested that the cpr1 allele in cpr1 × snc1 crosses was destabilized during the late F1 generation to early F2 generation. Conclusion With exposure to EMS or different F1 hybrid contexts, phenotypic instability is induced for the bal and cpr1 alleles, but not for the snc1 allele. Our results suggest that the RPP5 locus can adopt different

  7. PARP1 gene knock-out increases resistance to retinal degeneration without affecting retinal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Sahaboglu

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness in humans. Previously, excessive activation of enzymes belonging to the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP group was shown to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration in the human homologous rd1 mouse model for RP. Since there are at least 16 different PARP isoforms, we investigated the exact relevance of the predominant isoform - PARP1 - for photoreceptor cell death using PARP1 knock-out (KO mice. In vivo and ex vivo morphological analysis using optic coherence tomography (OCT and conventional histology revealed no major alterations of retinal phenotype when compared to wild-type (wt. Likewise, retinal function as assessed by electroretinography (ERG was normal in PARP1 KO animals. We then used retinal explant cultures derived from wt, rd1, and PARP1 KO animals to test their susceptibility to chemically induced photoreceptor degeneration. Since photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 retina is triggered by a loss-of-function in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6, we used selective PDE6 inhibition to emulate the rd1 situation on non-rd1 genotypes. While wt retina subjected to PDE6 inhibition showed massive photoreceptor degeneration comparable to rd1 retina, in the PARP1 KO situation, cell death was robustly reduced. Together, these findings demonstrate that PARP1 activity is in principle dispensable for normal retinal function, but is of major importance for photoreceptor degeneration under pathological conditions. Moreover, our results suggest that PARP dependent cell death or PARthanatos may play a major role in retinal degeneration and highlight the possibility to use specific PARP inhibitors for the treatment of RP.

  8. Prevalence of resistance to second-line tuberculosis drug among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Viet Nam, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huong Thi Giang; Bui, Quyen Thi Tu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) represents an emerging public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 9.7% of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are defined as XDR-TB globally. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance to second-line TB drugs among MDR-TB cases detected in the Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey in Viet Nam. Methods Eighty clusters of TB cases were selected using a probability-proportion-to-size approach. To identify MDR-TB cases, drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for the four major first-line TB drugs. DST of second-line drugs (ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) was performed on isolates from MDR-TB cases to identify pre-XDR and XDR cases. Results A total of 1629 smear-positive TB cases were eligible for culture and DST. Of those, DST results for first-line drugs were available for 1312 cases, and 91 (6.9%) had MDR-TB. Second-line DST results were available for 84 of these cases. Of those, 15 cases (17.9%) had ofloxacin resistance and 6.0% were resistant to kanamycin and capreomycin. Five MDR-TB cases (6.0%) met the criteria of XDR-TB. Conclusion This survey provides the first estimates of the proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases in Viet Nam and provides important information for local policies regarding second-line DST. Local policies and programmes that are geared towards TB prevention, early diagnosis and treatment with effective regimens are of high importance. PMID:27508089

  9. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  10. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is next?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amita Jain; Pratima Dixit

    2008-11-01

    Drug resistant tuberculosis is a man made problem. While tuberculosis is hundred percent curable, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is difficult to treat. Inadequate and incomplete treatment and poor treatment adherence has led to a newer form of drug resistance known as extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). XDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, which is resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid among the first line anti tubercular drugs (MDR-TB) in addition to resistance to any fluroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second line anti tubercular drugs i.e. amikacin, kanamycin and/or capreomycin. Mismanagement of tuberculosis paves the way to drug resistant tuberculosis. Emergence of XDR-TB is reported world wide. Reported prevalence rates of XDR-TB of total MDR cases are; 6.6% overall worldwide, 6.5% in industrialized countries, 13.6% in Russia and Eastern Europe, 1.5% in Asia, 0.6% in Africa and Middle East and 15.4% in Republic of Korea. Better management and control of tuberculosis specially drug resistant TB by experienced and qualified doctors, access to standard microbiology laboratory, co-morbitidy of HIV and tuberculosis, new anti-TB drug regimens, better diagnostic tests, international standards for second line drugs (SLD)-susceptibility testing, invention of newer anti-tubercular molecules and vaccines and knowing the real magnitude of XDR-TB are some of the important issues to be addressed for effective prevention and management of XDR-TB.

  11. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    .3%) groups. All groups significantly increased HR strength pre- to posttraining (33%: 7.5 +/- 6.1%; 66%: 6.6 +/- 3.7%; 100%: 12.2 +/- 1.8%; 138%: 11.0 +/- 6.4%) except for the 0% (4.9 +/- 9.1%) group. There were no differences between groups. LLM increased significantly pre- to post-training in only the 138% group; there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eight wks of lower body resistive exercise training with eccentric overload resulted in greater increases in LP strength than training with eccentric loads of 66% or less. Post-training HR strength was not affected by eccentric training load, perhaps because of the predominance of Type I fibers typical in the gastrocnemius. Only 138% eccentric training significantly increased LLM. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For athletes or others desiring to maximize muscle strength and hypertrophy gains, training with eccentric loads greater than 100% of concentric resistance will provide greater increases in muscle strength and lean tissue mass in some muscle groups. In a rehabilitation or geriatric exercise setting that places primary emphasis on program adherence and moderate strength gains, training with an eccentric underload may provide strength increases comparable to those of traditional 1:1 training but with less muscle soreness and physiologic insult to the patient, but this has yet to be proven.

  12. Longer resistance of some DNA traits from BT176 maize to gastric juice from gastrointestinal affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects. PMID:17346434

  13. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huicong; Yang, Min; He, Zheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smegmatis. Overexpression of Ms4022 inhibited M. smegmatis growth and enhanced mycobacterial resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin (RIF). By contrast, the Ms4022-deleted mycobacterial strain has shown sensitive to RIF. Ms4022 recognized three 19 bp non-palindromic motifs containing a 9 bp conserved region at their 5' end and it directly regulated seven transport-related genes, which affects mycobacterial resistance to RIF. Overexpression of three of seven transport-related genes (Ms1448, Ms1613, and Ms5278) inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis. This study improves our understanding of the function of mycobacterial transport-related genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance. PMID:27271013

  14. Phenotypes and gene expression profiles of Saccharopolyspora erythraea rifampicin-resistant (rif mutants affected in erythromycin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicciato Silvio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from previous works that bacterial secondary metabolism may be stimulated by genetic manipulation of RNA polymerase (RNAP. In this study we have used rifampicin selection as a strategy to genetically improve the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Results Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif mutants were isolated from the parental strain NRRL2338 and two rif mutations mapping within rpoB, S444F and Q426R, were characterized. With respect to the parental strain, S444F mutants exhibited higher respiratory performance and up to four-fold higher final erythromycin yields; in contrast, Q426R mutants were slow-growing, developmental-defective and severely impaired in erythromycin production. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that these rif mutations deeply changed the transcriptional profile of S. erythraea. The expression of genes coding for key enzymes of carbon (and energy and nitrogen central metabolism was dramatically altered in turn affecting the flux of metabolites through erythromycin feeder pathways. In particular, the valine catabolic pathway that supplies propionyl-CoA for biosynthesis of the erythromycin precursor 6-deoxyerythronolide B was strongly up-regulated in the S444F mutants, while the expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster of erythromycin (ery was not significantly affected. In contrast, the ery cluster was down-regulated ( Conclusion Rifampicin selection is a simple and reliable tool to investigate novel links between primary and secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in S. erythraea and to improve erythromycin production. At the same time genome-wide analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays allowed information to be gained about the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory/inhibitory effects of the rif mutations on erythromycin production.

  15. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 β-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Händel

    Full Text Available The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  17. [Effect of immunomodulators on resistance to gas gangrene. The enhanced resistance of white mice to perfringens toxin type A as affected by prodigiozan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikova, R E; Stepanov, A V; Sviridov, L P

    1986-02-01

    Experiments on 575 noninbred white mice have revealed that the nonspecific resistance of the animals to type A C. perfringens toxin can be enhanced by the administration of Prodigiosan, a commercial immunostimulating agent. Prodigiosan, introduced in 3-4 injections (the last one made 24 hours before intoxication) has been found to enhance the resistance of the animals to the subcutaneous injection of type A C. perfringens toxin by 40-60% and to its intraperitoneal injection by 60-97%. PMID:2870596

  18. ▼Bedaquiline for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB management and control worldwide. It may result from improper use of antibiotics, including prescription of non-standard treatment regimens and poor adherence to drug therapy. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is defined as resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, with or without resistance to other first-line drugs. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) refers to resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, and to any fluoroquinolone, and to any of the three second-line injectables  (amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin). In 2012, DTB discussed the investigation, management and treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB. Earlier this year, ▼bedaquiline (Sirturo) and ▼delamanid (Deltyba) were authorised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) under its 'conditional market authorisation' scheme for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen for pulmonary MDR-TB in adult patients "when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed for reasons of resistance or tolerability." In this article, we review the evidence for bedaquiline in the management of MDR-TB. PMID:25395481

  19. Evidence of major genes affecting bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation for BCWD resistance in our rainbow trout population, and a family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated at the NCCCWA in 2005. The main objec...

  20. Evidence of major genes affecting resistance to bacterial cold water disease in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of segregation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation for BCWD resistance in our rainbow trout population, and a family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Col...

  1. Inter-electrode tissue resistance is not affected by tissue oedema when electrically stimulating the lower limb of sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, William K; Young, Joseph R; Ginz, Hans F

    2014-05-01

    ICU patients typically are given large amounts of fluid and often develop oedema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the oedema would change inter-electrode resistance and, thus, require a different approach to using non-invasive electrical stimulation of nerves to assess muscle force. Inter-electrode tissue resistance in the lower leg was measured by applying a 300 µs constant current pulse and measuring the current through and voltage across the stimulating electrodes. The protocol was administered to nine ICU patients with oedema, eight surgical patients without oedema and eight healthy controls. No significant difference in inter-electrode resistance was found between the three groups. For all groups, resistance decreased as stimulation current increased. In conclusion, inter-electrode resistance in ICU patients with severe oedema is the same as the resistance in regular surgical patients and healthy controls. This means that non-invasive nerve stimulation devices do not need to be designed to accommodate different resistances when used with oedema patients; however, surface stimulation does require higher current levels with oedema patients because of the increased distance between the skin surface and the targeted nerve or muscle. PMID:24758395

  2. Risk factors affecting nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when admitted in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiang; Zhuang Taifeng; Lin Ying; Xi Jingjing; Yao Gaiqi

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a risk factor for subsequent invasive MRSA infection,particularly in patients admitted for critical care.The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors affecting nasal colonization of MRSA in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU).Methods Between August 1,2011 and June 30,2012,we screened for MRSA nasal colonization in 350 patients by Real-time PCR within 24 hours of admission by means of swab samples taken from the anterior nares.According to the results of PCR,the patients were divided into 2 groups:the positive group with nasal MRSA colonization and the negative group without nasal MRSA colonization.The 31 (8.86%) patients were MRSA positive.The risk factors evaluated included thirteen variables,which were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and X2 test for discrete variables.The variables with significance (P <0.05) were analyzed with stepwise Logistic regression.Results There were differences (P <0.05) in four variables between two groups.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission in the positive group was (35.7±16.1) days,vs.(4.5±3.1) days in the negative group.The average blood albumin level was (28.4±2.9) g/L in the positive group,vs.(30.5±4.3) g/L in the negative group.Of 31 patients in the positive group,seven had been treated with antibiotics longer than seven days vs.34 of 319 patients in the negative group.In the positive group,four of 31 patients received treatment with more than two classes of antibiotics prior to admission in ICU,contrasted to 13 of 319 patients in the negative group.Furthermore,stepwise Logistic regression analysis for these four variables indicates that the duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission may be an independent risk factor.Conclusions MRSA colonization in ICU admission may be related to many factors.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission is an independent risk

  3. JNK1 in hematopoietically derived cells contributes to diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance without affecting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, Giovanni; Vilcu, Cristian; Neels, Jaap G; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Luo, Jun-Li; Naugler, Willscott; Grivennikov, Sergei; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Scadeng, Miriam; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Karin, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes, and Jun kinases (JNKs) are key negative regulators of insulin sensitivity in the obese state. Activation of JNKs (mainly JNK1) in insulin target cells results in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) at serine and threonine residues that inhibit insulin signaling. JNK1 activation is also required for accumulation of visceral fat. Here we used reciprocal adoptive transfer experiments to determine whether JNK1 in myeloid cells, such as macrophages, also contributes to insulin resistance and central adiposity. Our results show that deletion of Jnk1 in the nonhematopoietic compartment protects mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, in part through decreased adiposity. By contrast, Jnk1 removal from hematopoietic cells has no effect on adiposity but confers protection against HFD-induced insulin resistance by decreasing obesity-induced inflammation. PMID:17983584

  4. Development of a Geo-Referenced Database for Weed Mapping and Analysis of Agronomic Factors Affecting Herbicide Resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (Silky Windgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Massa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluate the role of agronomic factors in the selection for herbicide resistance in Apera spica-venti L. Beauv. (silky windgrass. During a period of three years, populations were collected in more than 250 conventional fields across Europe and tested for resistance in the greenhouse. After recording the field history of locations, a geo-referenced database has been developed to map the distribution of herbicide-resistant A. spica-venti populations in Europe. A Logistic Regression Model was used to assess whether and to what extent agricultural and biological factors (crop rotation, soil tillage, sowing date, soil texture and weed density affect the probability of resistance selection apart from the selection pressure due to herbicide application. Our results revealed that rotation management and soil tillage are the factors that have the greatest influence on the model. In addition, first order interactions between these two variables were highly significant. Under conventional tillage, a percentage of winter crops in the rotation exceeding 75% resulted in a 1280-times higher risk of resistance selection compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Under conservation tillage, the adoption of >75% of winter crops increased the risk of resistance 13-times compared to rotations with less than 50% of winter crops. Finally, early sowing and high weed density significantly increased the risk of resistance compared to the reference categories (later sowing and low weed density, respectively. Soil texture had no significant influence. The developed model can find application in management programs aimed at preventing the evolution and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations.

  5. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maarseveen van, N. M.; Andersson, Dan; Lepšík, Martin; Fun, A.; Schipper, P. J.; Jong de, D.; Boucher, Ch. A. B.; Nijhuis, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 29 (2012), s. 1-7. ISSN 1742-4690 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 37693 - HIV PI RESISTANCE Grant ostatní: Dutch AIDS Fund(XE) 2006028; (NWO) VIDI(XE) 91796349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HIV -1 * protease * Gag * resistance * cleavage Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.657, year: 2012

  6. Evaluation of the AID TB resistance line probe assay for rapid detection of genetic alterations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Lucke, K; Sirgel, F A; Warren, R W; van Helden, P D; Böttger, E C; Bloemberg, G V

    2014-03-01

    The rapid accurate detection of drug resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for optimizing the treatment of tuberculosis and limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. The TB Resistance line probe assay from Autoimmun Diagnostika GmbH (AID) (Strassburg, Germany) was designed to detect the most prevalent mutations that confer resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, amikacin, capreomycin, fluoroquinolones, and ethambutol. This assay detected resistance mutations in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from areas with low and high levels of endemicity (Switzerland, n=104; South Africa, n=52) and in selected Mycobacterium bovis BCG 1721 mutant strains (n=5) with 100% accuracy. Subsequently, the line probe assay was shown to be capable of rapid genetic assessment of drug resistance in MGIT broth cultures, the results of which were in 100% agreement with those of DNA sequencing and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Finally, the line probe assay was assessed for direct screening of smear-positive clinical specimens. Screening of 98 clinical specimens demonstrated that the test gave interpretable results for >95% of them. Antibiotic resistance mutations detected in the clinical samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. We conclude that the AID TB Resistance line probe assay is an accurate tool for the rapid detection of resistance mutations in cultured isolates and in smear-positive clinical specimens. PMID:24403306

  7. Pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy OCTG in CO2 environment as affected by chlorides and sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High general corrosion resistance of high-alloy OCTG (oil country tubular goods) to CO2 may be limited by pitting corrosion in presence of chlorides and sulfides. The pitting resistance of 13% Cr steel, duplex and high Ni austenitic stainless steels have been examined by electrochemical measurements in a high temperature, high pressure autoclave simulating the well conditions. Each steel shows the pitting potential in CO2-NaCl-H2O system, the value of which being less noble as the Cl- concentration and the temperature increase. The presence of H2S is also detrimental. High alloying additions of Cr and Mo enhance pitting resistance whether or not H2S is present. The corrosion potentials of these steels in the simulating well conditions in which oxygen is absent do not exceed the pitting potential. Therefore, pitting corrosion can not occur by the passivity break through mechanism

  8. Paromomycin affects translation and vesicle-mediated trafficking as revealed by proteomics of paromomycin -susceptible -resistant Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Increasing resistance towards antimonial drugs poses a great challenge in chemotherapy of VL. Paromomycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and is one of the drugs currently being used in the chemotherapy of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. To understand the mode of action of this antibiotic at the molecular level, we have investigated the global proteome differences between the wild type AG83 strain and a paromomycin resistant (PRr strain of L. donovani. Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC followed by quantitative mass spectrometry of the wild type AG83 strain and the paromomycin resistant (PRr strain identified a total of 226 proteins at ≥ 95% confidence. Data analysis revealed upregulation of 29 proteins and down-regulation of 21 proteins in the PRr strain. Comparative proteomic analysis of the wild type and the paromomycin resistant strains showed upregulation of the ribosomal proteins in the resistant strain indicating role in translation. Elevated levels of glycolytic enzymes and stress proteins were also observed in the PRr strain. Most importantly, we observed upregulation of proteins that may have a role in intracellular survival and vesicular trafficking in the PRr strain. Furthermore, ultra-structural analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated increased number of vesicular vacuoles in PRr strain when compared to the wild-type strain. Drug affinity pull-down assay followed by mass spectrometery identified proteins in L. donovani wild type strain that were specifically and covalently bound to paromomycin. These results provide the first comprehensive insight into the mode of action and underlying mechanism of resistance to paromomycin in Leishmania donovani.

  9. Evolution of linked avirulence effectors in Leptosphaeria maculans is affected by genomic environment and exposure to resistance genes in host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P Van de Wouw

    Full Text Available Brassica napus (canola cultivars and isolates of the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans interact in a 'gene for gene' manner whereby plant resistance (R genes are complementary to pathogen avirulence (Avr genes. Avirulence genes encode proteins that belong to a class of pathogen molecules known as effectors, which includes small secreted proteins that play a role in disease. In Australia in 2003 canola cultivars with the Rlm1 resistance gene suffered a breakdown of disease resistance, resulting in severe yield losses. This was associated with a large increase in the frequency of virulence alleles of the complementary avirulence gene, AvrLm1, in fungal populations. Surprisingly, the frequency of virulence alleles of AvrLm6 (complementary to Rlm6 also increased dramatically, even though the cultivars did not contain Rlm6. In the L. maculans genome, AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 are linked along with five other genes in a region interspersed with transposable elements that have been degenerated by Repeat-Induced Point (RIP mutations. Analyses of 295 Australian isolates showed deletions, RIP mutations and/or non-RIP derived amino acid substitutions in the predicted proteins encoded by these seven genes. The degree of RIP mutations within single copy sequences in this region was proportional to their proximity to the degenerated transposable elements. The RIP alleles were monophyletic and were present only in isolates collected after resistance conferred by Rlm1 broke down, whereas deletion alleles belonged to several polyphyletic lineages and were present before and after the resistance breakdown. Thus, genomic environment and exposure to resistance genes in B. napus has affected the evolution of these linked avirulence genes in L. maculans.

  10. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Andre, Joshua J. Gann, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Joon J. Song, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT combined with phosphatidic acid (PA supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003, lean mass (p = 0.008, rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011], and lower-body strength (p 0.05. Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%, lean mass (71.3%, RF CSA (92.2%, and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial. When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  11. Cabozantinib Inhibits Growth of Androgen-Sensitive and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Affects Bone Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Holly M.; Nazanin Ruppender; Xiaotun Zhang; Lisha G. Brown; Gross, Ted S.; Colm Morrissey; Roman Gulati; Vessella, Robert L.; Frauke Schimmoller; Aftab, Dana T.; Eva Corey

    2013-01-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemis...

  12. Cabozantinib inhibits growth of androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and affects bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly M; Ruppender, Nazanin; Zhang, Xiaotun; Brown, Lisha G; Gross, Ted S; Morrissey, Colm; Gulati, Roman; Vessella, Robert L; Schimmoller, Frauke; Aftab, Dana T; Corey, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays containing normal prostate, primary PCa, and soft tissue and bone metastases, our data show that levels of MET, P-MET, and VEGFR2 are increasing during PCa progression. Our data also show that the expression of cabozantinib targets are particularly pronounced in bone metastases. To evaluate cabozantinib efficacy on PCa growth in the bone environment and in soft tissues we used androgen-sensitive LuCaP 23.1 and castration-resistant C4-2B PCa tumors. In vivo, cabozantinib inhibited the growth of PCa in bone as well as growth of subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, cabozantinib treatment attenuated the bone response to the tumor and resulted in increased normal bone volume. In summary, the expression pattern of cabozantinib targets in primary and castration-resistant metastatic PCa, and its efficacy in two different models of PCa suggest that this agent has a strong potential for the effective treatment of PCa at different stages of the disease. PMID:24205338

  13. Cabozantinib inhibits growth of androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and affects bone remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa, cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays containing normal prostate, primary PCa, and soft tissue and bone metastases, our data show that levels of MET, P-MET, and VEGFR2 are increasing during PCa progression. Our data also show that the expression of cabozantinib targets are particularly pronounced in bone metastases. To evaluate cabozantinib efficacy on PCa growth in the bone environment and in soft tissues we used androgen-sensitive LuCaP 23.1 and castration-resistant C4-2B PCa tumors. In vivo, cabozantinib inhibited the growth of PCa in bone as well as growth of subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, cabozantinib treatment attenuated the bone response to the tumor and resulted in increased normal bone volume. In summary, the expression pattern of cabozantinib targets in primary and castration-resistant metastatic PCa, and its efficacy in two different models of PCa suggest that this agent has a strong potential for the effective treatment of PCa at different stages of the disease.

  14. The Staphylococcus aureus Chaperone PrsA Is a New Auxiliary Factor of Oxacillin Resistance Affecting Penicillin-Binding Protein 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselin, Ambre; Manzano, Caroline; Biette, Alexandra; Reed, Patricia; Pinho, Mariana G; Rosato, Adriana E; Kelley, William L; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) phenotype results from the expression of the extra penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), which is encoded by mecA and acquired horizontally on part of the SCCmec cassette. PBP2A can catalyze dd-transpeptidation of peptidoglycan (PG) because of its low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics and can functionally cooperate with the PBP2 transglycosylase in the biosynthesis of PG. Here, we focus upon the role of the membrane-bound PrsA foldase protein as a regulator of β-lactam resistance expression. Deletion of prsA altered oxacillin resistance in three different SCCmec backgrounds and, more importantly, caused a decrease in PBP2A membrane amounts without affecting mecA mRNA levels. The N- and C-terminal domains of PrsA were found to be critical features for PBP2A protein membrane levels and oxacillin resistance. We propose that PrsA has a role in posttranscriptional maturation of PBP2A, possibly in the export and/or folding of newly synthesized PBP2A. This additional level of control in the expression of the mecA-dependent MRSA phenotype constitutes an opportunity to expand the strategies to design anti-infective agents. PMID:26711778

  15. Limitation of nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts seems to affect hormonal crosstalk, prime defense, and enhance disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gudrun; Reinhold, Thomas; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Conrath, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    When grown under short-day conditions at low light, leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Col-0) mutant with defects in the two genes encoding plastid ATP/ADP antiporters (so-called ntt1-2 null mutants) display a variety of physiological changes. These include the formation of necrotic lesions and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaves. Here, we show that, under short-day conditions, leaves of the ntt1-2 mutant display enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Resistance to these pathogens was associated with constitutively elevated levels of the plant hormone salicylic acid and, eventually, jasmonic acid, and constitutive or primed activation after pathogen attack of various defense genes that are dependent on these hormones. In addition, the antagonistic crosstalk between the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways seems to be affected in ntt1-2. Because the enhanced resistance of ntt1-2 to H. arabidopsidis was not seen when the mutant was grown under long-day conditions, our findings argue that nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts is crucial to keep A. thaliana from runaway activation of pathogen resistance. PMID:21039274

  16. Co-infection of long-standing extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 69-years-old Iranian HIV negative male patient, with long-standing pulmonary tuberculosis (eleven years co-infected with non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. Despite of initiation of first line anti-tuberculosis therapy after diagnosis the patient poorly respond because of low compliance with anti-TB treatment. After several incomplete treatments the smear was still positive and thus drug susceptibility tests were performed on isolated organism which revealed that the organisms was resistant not only against isoniazid and rifampin but also against Ofloxacin (OFX, Capreomycin (CAP, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS, ethionamide (ETH, Kanamycin (KAN, ciprofloxacin (Cip, amikacin (AMK and cycloserine (CYC. Persistence and resistance of infection had led us to do more investigation using molecular methods, which revealed co-infection with Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM. The patient is still alive with cough and shortness of breath.

  17. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    OpenAIRE

    Moore Daniel R; Areta Jose; Coffey Vernon G; Stellingwerff Trent; Phillips Stuart M; Burke Louise M; Cléroux Marilyn; Godin Jean-Philippe; Hawley John A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exerci...

  18. A population-based study of first and second-line drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden area of the Mexico/United States border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Caballero-Olín, Guillermo; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo; Nancy-Garza-Treviño, Elsa; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of 139 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from the city of Monterrey, Northeast Mexico, to first and second-line anti-TB drugs was analysed. A total of 73 isolates were susceptible and 66 were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Monoresistance to streptomycin, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol was observed in 29 cases. Resistance to INH was found in 52 cases and in 29 cases INH resistance was combined with resistance to two or three drugs. A total of 24 isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) resistant to at least INH and rifampicin and 11 MDR cases were resistant to five drugs. The proportion of MDR-TB among new TB cases in our target population was 0.72% (1/139 cases). The proportion of MDR-TB among previously treated cases was 25.18% (35/139 cases). The 13 polyresistant and 24 MDR isolates were assayed against the following seven second-line drugs: amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KAN), capreomycin (CAP), clofazimine (CLF), ethionamide (ETH), ofloxacin (OFL) and cycloserine (CLS). Resistance to CLF, OFL or CLS was not observed. Resistance was detected to ETH (10.80%) and to AMK (2.70%), KAN (2.70%) and CAP (2.70%). One isolate of MDR with primary resistance was also resistant to three second-line drugs. Monterrey has a high prevalence of MDR-TB among previously treated cases and extensively drug-resistant-MTB strains may soon appear. PMID:23579794

  19. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  20. Host age only partially affects resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idi, A; Permin, A; Murrell, K D

    2004-07-14

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of chickens' age on resistance to primary and secondary infections with Ascaridia galli. In Experiment I, three groups, each of 80 female Lohman Brown chickens, aged one day, one month, or four months were compared. Within each group, 54 chickens were infected orally with 500 embryonated eggs and 26 were kept as non-infected controls. Weights were recorded weekly and five chickens in each group were slaughtered every 2 weeks for worm counts. At week 10 post-infection, 17 of the infected chickens and 18 of the controls were challenged with 500 eggs. In a replicate experiment (Experiment II), 35 one-day-old and 53 one-month-old female Lohman Brown chickens were infected orally with 500 A. galli eggs. Weights and fecal egg counts were recorded every week and infected chickens were necropsied every two weeks for determination of the worm burden. Chickens infected at one month of age excreted significantly fewer A. galli eggs when measured at 14 weeks of inoculation. The worms recovered from the one-month-old age group were significantly shorter than those from the chickens infected at one day of age in the first experiment. Worm burden and female fecundity values, however, were not significantly different between age groups in both Experiments I and II. Weight gains of infected chickens were not significantly different from the controls' and only a few chickens exhibited occasional slight diarrhea in both experiments. The results from these experiments demonstrate that the chickens' age only partially influences resistance to A. galli infection. PMID:15219363

  1. Rec-8 dimorphism affects longevity, stress resistance and X-chromosome nondisjunction in C. elegans, and replicative lifespan in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas eAyyadevara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative trait locus (QTL in the nematode C. elegans, lsq4, was recently implicated by mapping longevity genes. QTLs for lifespan and 3 stress-resistance traits coincided within a span of <300 kbp, later narrowed to <200 kbp. A single gene in this interval is now shown to modulate all lsq4-associated traits. Full-genome analysis of transcript levels indicates that lsq4 contains a dimorphic gene governing expression of sperm-specific genes, suggesting effects on spermatogenesis. Quantitation of allele-specific transcripts encoded within the lsq4 interval revealed significant, 2- to 15-fold expression differences for 10 of 33 genes. Fourteen genes, implicated by both position and expression, were tested for RNA-interference effects on QTL-linked traits. In a strain carrying the shorter-lived allele, knockdown of rec-8 (encoding a meiotic cohesin reduced its transcripts 4-fold, to a level similar to the longer-lived strain, and extended lifespan 25–26% whether begun before fertilization or at maturity. The short-lived lsq4 allele also conferred sensitivity to oxidative and thermal stresses, and lower male frequency, traits reversed uniquely by rec-8 knockdown. A strain bearing the longer-lived lsq4 allele, differing from the short-lived strain at <0.3% of its genome, derived no lifespan or stress-survival benefit from rec-8 knockdown. We consider two possible explanations: high rec-8 expression may include increased leaky expression in mitotic cells, leading to deleterious destabilization of somatic genomes; or REC-8 may act entirely in germ-line meiotic cells to reduce aberrations such as nondisjunction, thereby blunting a stress-resistance response mediated by innate immunity. Replicative lifespan was extended 20% in haploid S. cerevisiae (BY4741 by deletion of REC8, orthologous to nematode rec-8, implying that REC8 disruption of mitotic-cell survival is widespread, reflecting antagonistic pleiotropy and/or balancing selection.

  2. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS. PMID:22734927

  3. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8, 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7, or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8 after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength. Whole-body protein turnover (Q, synthesis (S, breakdown (B, and net balance (NB were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g at regular intervals (~3h throughout the day.

  4. Study on Cultural Technologies and Salt-resistance of Nitraria sibirica in Coastal Areas with Serious Salt-affected Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJianfeng; XINGShangjun; SUNQixiang; XIJinbiao; SONGYumin

    2004-01-01

    In this research, five Nitraria sibirica provenances such as Dayilu were selected to do experiment of salt-resistance, combining fixed plots test with typical plot investigation, measuring survival rate and growth as main indicators. The experiments of main cultural technology were done on Nitraria sibirica in 4 types of site preparation, 3 types of planting, 3 designs for planting density. The Nitraria sibirica experiments for the effects of curbing salt and improving soil were done by testing soil nutrients, salt content, soil physical properties as focal points in typical site of 3-4 years woods. The experiment results showed that the Nitraria sibirica could survive well with soil salt content of 0.6%, and that survival rate declined distinctively as soil salt content exceeded 0.8%. However, high soil salt content did not influence growth in the year of planting. There were obvious differences in salt-tolerance among Nitraria sibirica provenances; Dayilu was the best on salt-tolerance, the other 4 provenances had no differences, and obviously inferior to Dayilu. The different types of site preparation clearly influenced planting survival rate, conserving rate and growth. The method of two-ploughing-two-harrowing was the best among all 4 types of site preparation. Seed forestation was largely limited, bared-rooted seedling forestation may be popularised when soil salt content was less than 1% and soil moisture content was better in spring. Forestation with container seedling was suited to coastal saline soil in rainy season. The optimum planting density of Nitraria sibirica was 2 505/ha in the Yellow River Delta area in view of coverage rate, yield of fruits and cost of planting. Generally speaking,Nitraria sibirica could effectively refrain soil from accumulation of salt in the surface soil, decrease salt content and increase soil nutrient, and heighten soil capillary pore rate.

  5. Multi Drug Resistant (MDR and Extensively Resistant (XDR Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Cesur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis that is resistant to resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (namely, amikacin, kanamicin, or capreomycin. MDR-TB and XDR- TB are great dangers that threaten the public health. XDR-TB has been reported from many countries including the United States. In Turkey, among newly diagnosed cases, it was reported that the number of MDR-TB patients was 101 (3.1%, MDR-TB rate in the retreatment cases was 17.7% (90 patients, and MDR-TB rate in all cases was 5.1 (191 patients in 2005. The percentages were calculated through the number of patients who were tested in terms of susceptibility for both isoniazide and rifampin. In 2009, it was reported that the number of MDR-TB patients was 99 (2.7% among newly diagnosed cases, it was 123 (20.5 % in the retreatment cases and the total number of MDR-TB cases was 222 (5.1%. The first patient with XDR-TB was identified in 2010 in Turkey. Diagnosis of XDR TB takes several weeks by using conventional culture-based methods, although (however some molecular test can detect it rapidly. Treatment of XDR-TB patients is difficult and usually requiring at least 18-24 months of four to six second-line anti-TB drugs. The success rate with the treatment is about 30-50%, and mortality rate is higher in HIV-infected patients. Prevention of contact to XDR-TB patients is more complicated by the lack of a proven effective preventive treatment for XDR latent tuberculosis infection. Rapid diagnostic tests and new anti-TB drugs are needed to control the spread of this worldwide public health problem. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(4.000: 72-76

  6. Does vancomycin prescribing intervention affect vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection and colonization in hospitals? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Lee W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE is a major cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and may be associated with greater morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs than vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus. Current guidelines for the control of VRE include prudent use of vancomycin. While vancomycin exposure appears to be a risk factor for VRE acquisition in individual patients, the effect of vancomycin usage at the population level is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine the impact of reducing vancomycin use through prescribing interventions on the prevalence and incidence of VRE colonization and infection in hospitals within the United States. Methods To identify relevant studies, we searched three electronic databases, and hand searched selected journals. Thirteen studies from 12 articles met our inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized for study setting, design, patient characteristics, types of intervention(s, and outcome measures. The relative risk, 95% confidence interval, and p-value associated with change in VRE acquisition pre- and post-vancomycin prescription interventions were calculated and compared. Heterogeneity in study results was formally explored by stratified analysis. Results No randomized clinical trials on this topic were found. Each of the 13 included studies used a quasi-experimental design of low hierarchy. Seven of the 13 studies reported statistically significant reductions in VRE acquisition following interventions, three studies reported no significant change, and three studies reported increases in VRE acquisition, one of which reported statistical significance. Results ranged from a reduction of 82.5% to an increase of 475%. Studies of specific wards, which included sicker patients, were more likely to report positive results than studies of an entire hospital including general inpatients (Fisher's exact test 0.029. The type of intervention

  7. Transgenic insect-resistant corn affects the fourth trophic level: effects of Bacillus thuringiensis-corn on the facultative hyperparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prütz, Gernot; Brink, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad

    2004-09-01

    As hyperparasitoids may have a considerable influence on the control of herbivorous arthropods, analyzing the host-mediated impact of Bacillus thuringiensis-plants (“Bt-plants”) on hyperparasitoids is of interest. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in order to assess the potential effect of Bt-corn leaf material on the facultative hyperparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), mediated through the herbivore Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its primary parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In the Bt-group, significantly less C. flavipes larvae per host spun cocoons and pupated than in the control, and the mean fresh weight of a single C. flavipes cocoon was significantly reduced compared to the control. All C. flavipes cocoons of one host formed cocoon clusters. T. howardi females of the Bt-group parasitized significantly less cocoon clusters than in the control. Moreover, significantly fewer C. flavipes cocoons per cocoon cluster were successfully parasitized as compared to the control. As a consequence, T. howardi females of the control had more offspring than in the Bt-group. Adult female T. howardi offspring of the Bt-group weighed significantly less than in the control, but there was no significant weight difference between males of both groups. Our results suggest that transgenic insect-resistant plants could affect hyperparasitoids indirectly. However, it remains to be determined whether facultative hyperparasitoids prefer to develop as primary or secondary parasitoids under field conditions.

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AV-PCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cM) were scored and corrected by GENOPROB prior to QXPAK analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL. (author)

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL. PMID:22221026

  10. pbp2229-Mediated Nisin Resistance Mechanism in Listeria monocytogenes Confers Cross-Protection to Class IIa Bacteriocins and Affects Virulence Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Gravesen, Anne; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Holmstrøm, Kim; Høiby, Poul Erik; Ramnath, Manilduth; Knøchel, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    It was previously shown that enhanced nisin resistance in some mutants was associated with increased expression of three genes, pbp2229, hpk1021, and lmo2487, encoding a penicillin-binding protein, a histidine kinase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively. In the present work, we determined the direct role of the three genes in nisin resistance. Interruption of pbp2229 and hpk1021 eliminated the nisin resistance phenotype. Interruption of hpk1021 additionally abolished the increase ...

  11. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P.; J. Muir

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation...

  12. How does acupuncture affect insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance? Study protocol of a prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yanhua; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Li, Juan; Wu, Xiaoke; Ma, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (IR) are key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome. The effect of 5 weeks of acupuncture treatment has been investigated in a completed prospective pilot trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01457209), and acupuncture with electrical stimulation applied to insulin-resistant rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS was shown to improve insulin sensitivity. Therefore, we now aim to conduct a prospective pilot study t...

  13. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin......-resistant E. coli. Since gentamicin is a first-choice drug for human bacteremia, this is of concern....

  14. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Multidrug Resistance 1 Genes: Parasite Risk Factors that Affect Treatment Outcomes for P. falciparum Malaria after Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia; Dahal, Prabin; Nsanzabana, Christian; Moriera, Clarissa; Price, Ric N; Mårtensson, Andreas; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Sutherland, Colin J.; Guérin, Philippe; Davis, Timothy M. E.; Ménard, Didier; Adam, Ishag

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clea...

  15. Ectopically expressed sweet pepper ferredoxin PFLP enhances disease resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum affected by harpin and protease-mediated hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Mang-Jye; Louh, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Feng, Teng-Yung; Huang, Hsiang-En

    2014-12-01

    Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) is a photosynthesis-type ferredoxin (Fd) found in sweet pepper. It contains an iron-sulphur cluster that receives and delivers electrons between enzymes involved in many fundamental metabolic processes. It has been demonstrated that transgenic plants overexpressing PFLP show a high resistance to many bacterial pathogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this investigation, the PFLP gene was transferred into Arabidopsis and its defective derivatives, such as npr1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1) and eds1 (enhanced disease susceptibility 1) mutants and NAHG-transgenic plants. These transgenic plants were then infected with the soft-rot bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora, ECC) to investigate the mechanism behind PFLP-mediated resistance. The results revealed that, instead of showing soft-rot symptoms, ECC activated hypersensitive response (HR)-associated events, such as the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), electrical conductivity leakage and expression of the HR marker genes (ATHSR2 and ATHSR3) in PFLP-transgenic Arabidopsis. This PFLP-mediated resistance could be abolished by inhibitors, such as diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 1-l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)-butane (E64) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), but not by myriocin and fumonisin. The PFLP-transgenic plants were resistant to ECC, but not to its harpin mutant strain ECCAC5082. In the npr1 mutant and NAHG-transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the eds1 mutant, overexpression of the PFLP gene increased resistance to ECC. Based on these results, we suggest that transgenic Arabidopsis contains high levels of ectopic PFLP; this may lead to the recognition of the harpin and to the activation of the HR and other resistance mechanisms, and is dependent on the protease-mediated pathway. PMID:24796566

  16. 泛耐药结核病的研究现状%Advance in study of extensively drip-resistant tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坚

    2008-01-01

    泛耐药结核病(extensively drug-resistant tuberculosiss,XDR-TB)是结核病患者感染的结核分枝杆菌对利福平和异烟肼耐药,同时对任何一个氟喹诺酮类药物耐药,以及至少对卷曲霉素、卡那霉素和阿米卡星中的一个耐药.XDR-TB的出现将使人类结核病控制面临新威胁和新挑战.本文对XDR-TB的定义、流行病学研究、临床特点和防控措施的研究现状进行综述.%Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis(XDR-TB) is caused by a strain of Mycobaeterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin (which defines multi-drug resistant tuberculosis) in addition to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the three following injectable drugs: capreomycin, kanamyein,and amikacin. The appearance of XDR-TB has made control o~ human tuberculosis challenging in global. This article reviews definition,epidemiology,clinical feature and prevention and control of tuberculosis.

  17. Constitutive expression of McCHIT1-PAT enhances resistance to rice blast and herbicide, but does not affect grain yield in transgenic glutinous rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Fang; Li, Lei; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To produce new rice blast- and herbicide-resistant transgenic rice lines, the McCHIT1 gene encoding the class I chitinase from Momordica charantia and the herbicide resistance gene PAT were introduced into Lailong (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica), a glutinous local rice variety from Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China. Transgenic lines were identified by ß-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining, PCR, and Southern blot analyses. Agronomic traits, resistance to rice blast and herbicide, chitinase activities, and transcript levels of McCHIT1 were assessed in the T2 progeny of three transgenic lines (L1, L8, and L10). The results showed that the introduction of McCHIT1-PAT into Lailong significantly enhanced herbicide and blast resistance. After infection with the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, all of the T2 progeny exhibited less severe lesion symptoms than those of wild type. The disease indices were 100% for wild type, 65.66% for T2 transgenic line L1, 59.69% for T2 transgenic line L8, and 79.80% for T2 transgenic line L10. Transgenic lines expressing McCHIT1-PAT did not show a significant difference from wild type in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves. However, after inoculation with M. oryzae, transgenic plants showed significantly higher SOD and PPO activities and lower MDA contents in leaves, compared with those in wild-type leaves. The transgenic and the wild-type plants did not show significant differences in grain yield parameters including plant height, panicles per plant, seeds per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Therefore, the transgenic plants showed increased herbicide and blast resistance, with no yield penalty. PMID:25639923

  18. Paromomycin Affects Translation and Vesicle-Mediated Trafficking as Revealed by Proteomics of Paromomycin –Susceptible –Resistant Leishmania donovani

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavna Chawla; Anupam Jhingran; Aswini Panigrahi; Stuart, Kenneth D.; Rentala Madhubala

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Increasing resistance towards antimonial drugs poses a great challenge in chemotherapy of VL. Paromomycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and is one of the drugs currently being used in the chemotherapy of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. To understand the mode of action of this antibiotic at the molecular level, we have investigated the global ...

  19. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding‐induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men

    OpenAIRE

    McGlory, Chris; Sophie L. Wardle; Lindsay S. Macnaughton; Oliver C. Witard; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J. Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; Hamilton, D. Lee; Tipton, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic–hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed...

  20. Changes in the Sterol Composition of the Plasma Membrane Affect Membrane Potential, Salt Tolerance and the Activity of Multidrug Resistance Pumps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2015), e0139306. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * ergosterol synthesis * multidrug resistance * membrane potential * diS-C3(3) assay Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  1. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruoxue Liu; Beibei Lü; Xiaomeng Wang; Chunling Zhang; Shuping Zhang; Jun Qian; Lei Chen; Haojie Shi; Hansong Dong

    2010-09-01

    The harpin protein HrpNEa induces Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid by activating the ethylene signalling pathway and by recruiting EIN2, an essential regulator of ethylene signalling, for a defence response in the plant. We investigated 37 ethylene-inducible Arabidopsis transcription factor genes for their effects on the activation of ethylene signalling and insect defence. Twenty-eight of the 37 genes responded to both ethylene and HrpNEa, and showed either increased or inhibited transcription, while 18 genes showed increased transcription not only by ethylene but also by HrpNEa. In response to HrpNEa, transcription levels of 22 genes increased, with AtMYB44 being the most inducible, six genes had decreased transcript levels, and nine remained unchanged. When Arabidopsis mutants previously generated by mutagenicity at the 37 genes were surveyed, 24 mutants were similar to the wild type plant while four mutants were more resistant and nine mutants were more susceptible than wild type to aphid infestation. Aphid-susceptible mutants showed a greater susceptibility for atmyb15, atmyb38 and atmyb44, which were generated previously by T-DNA insertion into the exon region of AtMYB15 and the promoter regions of AtMYB38 and AtMYB44. The atmyb44 mutant was the most susceptible to aphid infestation and most compromised in induced resistance. Resistance accompanied the expression of PDF1.2, an ethylene signalling marker gene that requires EIN2 for transcription in wild type but not in atmyb15, atmyb38, and atmyb44, suggesting a disruption of ethylene signalling in the mutants. However, only atmyb44 incurred an abrogation in induced EIN2 expression, suggesting a close relationship between AtMYB44 and EIN2.

  2. Sensitivity Pattern of Second Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To determine the current sensitivity pattern of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against clinical isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from November 2011 to April 2013. Methodology: Samples received during the study period were processed on BACTEC MGIT 960 system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture followed by first line drugs susceptibility testing of culture proven MTB isolates. On the basis of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, 100 clinical isolates of MDR-TB were further subjected to susceptibility testing against amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), ofloxacin (OFL) and ethionamide (ETH) as per standard BACTEC MGIT 960 instructions. Results: Out of 100 MDR-TB isolates, 62% were from male patients and 38% from female patients. 97% were sensitive to AMK, 53% to OFL, 87% to CAP; and 87% were sensitive to ETH. Conclusion: The majority of the MDR-TB isolates showed excellent sensitivity against AMK, CAP and ETH. However, sensitivity of MDR-TB isolates against fluoroquinolones like OFL was not encouraging. (author)

  3. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for non-stationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardio-vascular system functioning

    CERN Document Server

    Chefranov, S G

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis) pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardio-vascular system (CVS). We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydro-dynamic instability leading ...

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the genotype MTBDRsl assay for rapid diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontsevaya, Irina; Ignatyeva, Olga; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Balabanova, Yanina; Kovalyov, Alexander; Kritsky, Andrey; Matskevich, Olesya; Drobniewski, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The Russian Federation is a high-tuberculosis (TB)-burden country with high rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR), especially in HIV-coinfected patients. Rapid and reliable diagnosis for detection of resistance to second-line drugs is vital for adequate patient management. We evaluated the performance of the GenoType MTBDRsl (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) assay on smear-positive sputum specimens obtained from 90 HIV-infected MDR TB patients from Russia. Test interpretability was over 98%. Specificity was over 86% for all drugs, while sensitivity varied, being the highest (71.4%) for capreomycin and lowest (9.4%) for kanamycin, probably due to the presence of mutations in the eis gene. The sensitivity of detection of XDR TB was 13.6%, increasing to 42.9% if kanamycin (not commonly used in Western Europe) was excluded. The assay is a highly specific screening tool for XDR detection in direct specimens from HIV-coinfected TB patients but cannot be used to rule out XDR TB. PMID:23152552

  5. Adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to biocides used in the food industry affects biofilm structure, adhesion strength, and cross-resistance to clinical antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Miya, Satoko; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kimura, Bon

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of biocide-adapted Campylobacter jejuni strains that developed into biofilms and their potential to develop clinical resistance to antimicrobial compounds was studied. C. jejuni was grown in sub-lethal concentrations of five biocides used in the food industry. C. jejuni exhibited adaptation to these biocides with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations. The 3-D structures of the biofilms produced by the biocide-adapted cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed marked variability in biofilm architecture, including ice-crystal-like structures. Adaptation to the biocides enhanced biofilm formation, with significant increases in biovolume, surface coverage, roughness, and the surface adhesion force of the biofilms. Adaptation to commercial biocides induced resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. This study suggests that the inappropriate use of biocides may lead to cells being exposed to them at sub-lethal concentrations, which can result in adaptation of the pathogens to the biocides and a subsequent risk to public health. PMID:27353218

  6. Physiologic cold shock of Moraxella catarrhalis affects the expression of genes involved in the iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. It was previously shown that the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis are greatest in winter. The aim of this study was to investigate how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to upregulate pivotal survival systems in the pharynx that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results A 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes involved in transferrin and lactoferrin acquisition, and enhances binding of these proteins on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to 26°C upregulates the expression of UspA2, a major outer membrane protein involved in serum resistance, leading to improved binding of vitronectin which neutralizes the lethal effect of human complement. In contrast, cold shock decreases the expression of Hemagglutinin, a major adhesin, which mediates B cell response, and reduces immunoglobulin D-binding on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Conclusion Cold shock of M. catarrhalis induces the expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion. Thus, cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that enables the bacterium to target their host cellular receptors or soluble effectors and may contribute to enhanced growth, colonization and virulence.

  7. Changes in ganglioside content affect the binding of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin to detergent-resistant membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Seiko; Tamai, Eiji; Matsushita, Osamu; Minami, Junzaburo; Okabe, Akinobu; Miyata, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Epsilon-toxin (ET) of Clostridium perfringens, which causes fatal enterotoxemia in ungulates, was previously shown to bind to and form a heptameric pore within the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of MDCK cells. Depletion of cholesterol has also been shown to decrease the cytotoxicity of ET and its heptamerization. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in sphingolipids, other DRM components of MDCK cells, on the cells' susceptibility to ET. Treatment with fumonisin B1 and PDMP, inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid syntheses, respectively, increased the susceptibility, while D609, a sphingomyelin synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The exogenous addition of ganglioside G(M1) dramatically decreased the ET binding, heptamerization and cytotoxicity. These effects were shown not to be due to ET binding to G(M1) or to denaturation of ET. We also found that the ET cytotoxicity towards MDCK cells decreased with an increase in culture time. In accordance with the resistance observed for prolonged cultured cells, G(M3), a major ganglioside component, increased and sialidase treatment increased their susceptibility. These results suggest that membrane-anchored sialic acid of G(M3) within DRMs inhibits ET binding, leading to prevention of the heptamerization of ET and cell death. It is also suggested that sialidase produced by this organism aids the targeting of ET to MDCK cells. PMID:15781998

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Asho

    2015-02-26

    Improved molecular diagnostic methods for detection drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains are required. Resistance to first- and second- line anti-tuberculous drugs has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, these SNPs can vary between MTB lineages therefore local data is required to describe different strain populations. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 37 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB isolates from Pakistan and investigated 40 genes associated with drug resistance. Rifampicin resistance was attributable to SNPs in the rpoB hot-spot region. Isoniazid resistance was most commonly associated with the katG codon 315 (92%) mutation followed by inhA S94A (8%) however, one strain did not have SNPs in katG, inhA or oxyR-ahpC. All strains were pyrazimamide resistant but only 43% had pncA SNPs. Ethambutol resistant strains predominantly had embB codon 306 (62%) mutations, but additional SNPs at embB codons 406, 378 and 328 were also present. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with gyrA 91-94 codons in 81% of strains; four strains had only gyr B mutations, while others did not have SNPs in either gyrA or gyrB. Streptomycin resistant strains had mutations in ribosomal RNA genes; rpsL codon 43 (42%); rrs 500 region (16%), and gidB (34%) while six strains did not have mutations in any of these genes. Amikacin/kanamycin/capreomycin resistance was associated with SNPs in rrs at nt1401 (78%) and nt1484 (3%), except in seven (19%) strains. We estimate that if only the common hot-spot region targets of current commercial assays were used, the concordance between phenotypic and genotypic testing for these XDR strains would vary between rifampicin (100%), isoniazid (92%), flouroquinolones (81%), aminoglycoside (78%) and ethambutol (62%); while pncA sequencing would provide genotypic resistance in less than half the isolates. This work highlights the importance of expanded

  9. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:25868550

  10. Detection of violations in thermal cycle of electric arc welding of heat resistant steel 12Kh1MF using magnetic properties of a heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the magnetic characteristics of the 12Kh1M1F heat resistant steel are carried out in the zones of melting and thermal effect by different modes of the electric are welding and the new approach to calculating and forecasting the longevity of service of the steam pipe welded joints is proposed on the basis of the magnetic structuroscopy. The local step-by-step (with the 1-2 mm interval) measurement of the metal residual magnetization after magnetization through the point pole method is accomplished in the welded joint area after the removal of the weld reinforcement. The evaluating of the welding modes violations and the joint longevity forecast are given in the basis of the maximum and minimum measurement results or their distribution along the measurement line

  11. [CHANGES IN LIFESTYLE FACTORS AFFECT THE LEVELS OF NEUROPEPTIDES, INVOLVED IN THE CONTROL OF EATING BEHAVIOR, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND LEVEL OF CHRONIC SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IN YOUNG OVERWEIGHT PERSONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu; Mamontova, T; Baranova, A; Vesnina, L; Kaidashev, I

    2015-11-01

    The continuous rise of overweight and obesity is a major concern for present and future healthcare management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle changes on central regulatory mechanisms of maintaining energy homeostasis, insulin resistance and chronic systemic inflammation in 18-25 year old overweight patients. The anthropometric measurements were done for each patient, including body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI). Patients were divided into two groups according to their BMI. 20 males and 21 females with BMI > 25 kg/m2 were included in the first, study, group. The second, control, group consisted of 16 males and 11 females with BMI - 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2. Lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, ceruloplasmin, neuropeptides Agouti-related protein - AgRP and kokain- and amphetamine-mediated transcript - CART were examined at the beginning of the study (Day 1) and after 10 week treatment period (Day 70). During the 10 week treatment period, people in the study group underwent physical exercise programs of 40-60 minute duration three times per week, and brisk walking during the remaining days. The mean calorie expenditure during the exercise was 500 kcal/day. Each patient in the study group was given balanced, healthy diet with 20% calorie restriction from baseline diet. Our study reveled that negative energy balance caused a statistically significant decrease in AgRP, reduction of visceral fat stores, increase of HDL, reduction of TNF-α and dissolution of insulin resistance signs. Significant but not statistically significant reduction of CART level was observed after increased physical activity program and calorie restriction diet, which might play an important role in the mechanism of decreasing weight. However, further investigations are required in order to determine its place in body weight regulation. PMID:26656551

  12. Pyrosequencing for rapid detection of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical isolates and clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S-Y Grace; Rodwell, Timothy C; Victor, Thomas C; Rider, Errin C; Pham, Lucy; Catanzaro, Antonino; Desmond, Edward P

    2014-02-01

    Treating extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious challenge. Culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) may take 4 weeks or longer from specimen collection to the availability of results. We developed a pyrosequencing (PSQ) assay including eight subassays for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and concurrent detection of mutations associated with resistance to drugs defining XDR TB. The entire procedure, from DNA extraction to the availability of results, was accomplished within 6 h. The assay was validated for testing clinical isolates and clinical specimens, which improves the turnaround time for molecular DST and maximizes the benefit of using molecular testing. A total of 130 clinical isolates and 129 clinical specimens were studied. The correlations between the PSQ results and the phenotypic DST results were 94.3% for isoniazid, 98.7% for rifampin, 97.6% for quinolones (ofloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin), 99.2% for amikacin, 99.2% for capreomycin, and 96.4% for kanamycin. For testing clinical specimens, the PSQ assay yielded a 98.4% sensitivity for detecting MTBC and a 95.8% sensitivity for generating complete sequencing results from all subassays. The PSQ assay was able to rapidly and accurately detect drug resistance mutations with the sequence information provided, which allows further study of the association of drug resistance or susceptibility with each mutation and the accumulation of such knowledge for future interpretation of results. Thus, reporting of false resistance for mutations known not to confer resistance can be prevented, which is a significant benefit of the assay over existing molecular diagnostic methods endorsed by the World Health Organization. PMID:24478476

  13. Early Onset Inflammation in Pre-Insulin-Resistant Diet-Induced Obese Rats Does Not Affect the Vasoreactivity of Isolated Small Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Martin; Raun, Kirsten; Boonen, Harrie C M;

    2012-01-01

    myography, we tested the vascular function of isolated small mesenteric arteries. Results: DIO animals had significantly (p <0.05) increased body weight (721.2 ± 6.3 g) compared to age- and sex-matched controls (643.4 ± 14.6 g), as well as a significant increase (p <0.01) in body fat percentage (29.7 ± 1....... Our study aimed to investigate signs of inflammation and their relation to vascular dysfunction in rats receiving a high fat diet. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were used as a model since these rats exhibit a human pre-diabetic pathology. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests were......Background: Obesity is an increasing burden affecting developed and emerging societies since it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and consequent cardiovascular complications. Increasing evidence points towards a pivotal role of inflammation in the etiology of vascular dysfunction...

  14. High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Promotes Postexercise Hypotension Greater than Moderate Intensity and Affects Cardiac Autonomic Responses in Women Who Are Hypertensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Brito, Aline; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do S; Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio V; Sarmento da Nóbrega, Thereza K; Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz, Cláudia; da Cruz Santos, Amilton

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) sessions on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation, and forearm blood flow (FBF). Sixteen trained hypertensive women (n = 16, 56 ± 3 years) completed the following 3 experimental sessions: control (CS), RE at 50% (EX50%), and RE at 80% (EX80%) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Both EX50% and EX80% comprised a set of 10 repetitions of 10 exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Measurements were taken preintervention and postintervention (at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery). Reductions in systolic/diastolic BP after exercise were greater in EX80% (largest declines, -29 ± 4/-14 ± 5 mm Hg) than EX50% (largest declines, -18 ± 6/-8 ± 5 mm Hg, p ≤ 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) increased more in relation to pre-exercise values in EX80% than EX50% (largest increases 96 ± 3 vs. 90 ± 4 b·min, LF/HF = 1.77 ± 0.25 vs. 1.40 ± 0.20, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Increases in FBF and hyperemia was also higher in EX80% than EX50% compared with pre-exercise (4.97 ± 0.28 vs. 4.36 ± 0.27 ml·min·100 ml and 5.90 ± 0.20 vs. 5.38 ± 0.25 ml·min·100 ml; p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that RE of higher intensity promoted greater postexercise hypotension accompanied by greater increases in FBF, vasodilator response, HR, and cardiac sympathovagal balance. PMID:25992658

  15. Constitutive expression of pathogen-inducible OsWRKY31 enhances disease resistance and affects root growth and auxin response in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zhang; Youliang Peng; Zejian Guo

    2008-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors have many regulatory roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we isolated a rice WRKY gene (OsWRKY31) that is induced by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and auxin. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino-acid residues and belongs to a subgroup of the rice WRKY gene family that probably originated after the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. OsWRKY31 was found to be localized to the nucleus of onion epidermis cells to transiently express OsWRKY31-eGFP fusion protein. Analysis of 0sWRKY31 and its mutants fused with a Cal4 DNA-binding domain indicated that OsWRKY31 has transactivation activity in yeast. Overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene was found to enhance resistance against infection with M. grisea, and the transgenic lines exhibited reduced lateral root formation and elongation compared with wild-type and RNAi plants. The lines with overexpression showed constitutive expression of many defense-related genes, such as PBZ1 and OsSci2, as well as early auxin-response genes, such as OsIAA4 and OsCrll genes. Furthermore, the plants with overexpression were less sensitive to exogenously supplied IBA, NAA and 2,4-D at high concentrations, suggesting that overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene might alter the auxin response or transport. These results also suggest that OsWRKY31 might be a common component in the signal transduction pathways of the auxin response and the defense response in rice.

  16. Audiologic monitoring of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients on aminoglycoside treatment with long term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Malay

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis has emerged as a significant problem with the resurfacing of tuberculosis and thus the need to use the second line drugs with the resultant increased incidence of adverse effects. We discuss the effect of second line aminoglycoside anti-tubercular drugs on the hearing status of MDR-TB patients. Methods Sixty four patients were put on second line aminoglycoside anti-TB drugs. These were divided into three groups: group I, 34 patients using amikacin, group II, 26 patients using kanamycin and group III, 4 patients using capreomycin. Results Of these, 18.75% of the patients developed sensorineural hearing loss involving higher frequencies while 6.25% had involvement of speech frequencies also. All patients were seen again approximately one year after aminoglycoside discontinuation and all hearing losses were permanent with no threshold improvement. Conclusion Aminoglycosides used in MDR-TB patients may result in irreversible hearing loss involving higher frequencies and can become a hearing handicap as speech frequencies are also involved in some of the patients thus underlining the need for regular audiologic evaluation in patients of MDR-TB during the treatment.

  17. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation. PMID:25837301

  18. Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a child affected by rituximab-resistant autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta Chiara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children younger than 2 years of age is usually characterized by a severe course, with a mortality rate of approximately 10%. The prolonged immunosuppression following specific treatment may be associated with a high risk of developing severe infections. Recently, the use of monoclonal antibodies (rituximab has allowed sustained remissions to be obtained in the majority of pediatric patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Case presentation We describe the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian girl affected by a severe form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which required continuous steroid treatment for 16 months. Thereafter, she received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg/m2/dose associated with steroid therapy, which was then tapered over the subsequent 2 weeks. One month after the last dose of rrituximab, she presented with recurrence of severe hemolysis and received two more doses of rrituximab. The patient remained in clinical remission for 7 months, before presenting with a further relapse. An alternative heavy immunosuppressive therapy was administered combining cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days with methylprednisolone 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days, which was then tapered down over 3 weeks. While still on steroid therapy, the patient developed an interstitial pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which required immediate admission to the intensive care unit where extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was administered continuously for 37 days. At 16-month follow-up, the patient is alive and in good clinical condition, with no organ dysfunction, free from any immunosuppressive treatment and with a normal Hb level. Conclusions This case shows that aggressive combined immunosuppressive therapy may lead to a sustained complete remission in children with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. However, the severe life-threatening complication presented by our

  19. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  20. First evaluation of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Congo revealed misdetection of fluoroquinolone resistance by line probe assay due to a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aubry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Congo. However, data concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are lacking because of the insufficient processing capacity. So, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the resistance patterns and the strain lineages of a sample of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates collected in the two main cities of Congo. METHODS: Over a 9-day period, 114 smear-positive sputa isolated from 114 patients attending centers for the diagnosis and treatment of TB in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire were collected for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST. Detection of mutations conferring drug resistance was performed by using line probe assays (GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl and DNA sequencing. Strain lineages were determined by MIRU-VNTR genotyping. RESULTS: Of the 114 sputa, 46 were culture positive for MTBC. Twenty-one (46% were resistant to one or more first-line antiTB drugs. Of these, 15 (71% were multidrug resistant (MDR. The most prevalent mutations involved in rifampin and isoniazid resistance, D516V (60% in rpoB and S315T (87% in katG respectively, were well detected by MTBDRplus assay. All the 15 MDR strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolone and injectable second-line drug. No mutation was detected in the rrs locus involved in resistance to amikacin and capreomycin by both the MTBDRsl assay and DNA sequencing. By contrast, 9 MDR strains belonging to the same cluster related to T-family were identified as being falsely resistant to fluoroquinolone by the MTBDRsl assay due to the presence of a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data revealed a possible spread of a particular MDR clone in Congo, misidentified as fluoroquinolone resistant by MTBDRsl assay. Thus, this test cannot replace gold-standard culture method and should be interpreted carefully in view of the patient's native land.

  1. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  2. Táticas cotidianas e ação coletiva: a resistência das pessoas atingidas pela hanseníase Everyday tactics and collective action: how the people affected with Hansen's disease (leprosy politically resisted to the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fabrino Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da existência de uma considerável literatura sobre a história da hanseníase, predominam os estudos que enfocam a opressão e a dominação a que os antigos pacientes foram submetidos. Permanecem pouco estudadas as formas de resistência e as lutas políticas geradas por esses sujeitos. O presente artigo é um esforço nessa direção, abordando como a própria vida cotidiana e as lutas organizadas permitiram o questionamento de sentidos e práticas opressoras. O estudo está embasado em um processo de observação em antigos hospitais-colônia brasileiros, 12 grupos de conversação com moradores dessas instituições, entrevistas não-estruturadas com lideranças do Movimento de Reintegração das Pessoas Atingidas pela Hanseníase (Morhan e 45 edições do Jornal do Morhan.Despite the existence of a considerable literature about the history of leprosy, most studies focus on the oppression and domination to which former patients were subjected. The resistance and political struggles produced by these individuals remain underexplored. This paper is an attempt to introduce this issue, by discussing how everyday life and organized collective struggles have allowed the systematic challenge of oppressive meanings and social practices. The study is based on a observation process in former leprosy colonies, 12 conversation groups with colony dwellers, non-structured interviews with highly ranked activists from Morhan (Movement for the Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy, and 45 editions of Morhan's newsletter.

  3. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  4. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  5. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  6. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  7. The glutamate transport inhibitor DL-Threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) differentially affects SN38- and oxaliplatin-induced death of drug-resistant colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Elena Pedraz; Christensen, Sandra; Jensen, Anders A.; Jensen, Niels Frank; Bunch, Lennart; Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed; Brünner, Nils; Stenvang, Jan; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death globally and new biomarkers and treatments are severely needed. Methods Here, we employed HCT116 and LoVo human CRC cells made resistant to either SN38 or oxaliplatin, to investigate whether altered expression of the high affinity glutamate transporters Solute Carrier (SLC)-1A1 and -1A3 (EAAT3, EAAT1) is associated with the resistant phenotypes. Analyses included real-time quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluoresc...

  8. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  9. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, William L; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed ceftaroline-resistant strains (MIC, >1 μg/ml in 40/60 strains; EUCAST breakpoints, susceptible [S], ≤1 μg/ml; resistant [R], >1 μg/ml) were present from 1998 to 2003. The detected resistant strains predominantly belonged to sequence type 228 (ST228) (South German clonotype) but also to ST247 (Iberian clonotype). A sequence analysis of these strains revealed missense mutations in the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) allosteric domain (N146K or E239K and N146K-E150K-G246E). The majority of our ST228 PBP2A mutations (N146K or E150K) were distinct from ST228 PBP2A allosteric domain mutations (primarily E239K) recently described for MRSA strains collected in Thailand and Spain during the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) global surveillance program. We also found that similar allosteric domain PBP2A mutations (N146K) correlated with ceftaroline resistance in an independent external ST228 MRSA set obtained from the nearby University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, collected from 2003 to 2008. Thus, ceftaroline resistance was observed in our archived strains (including two examples of an MIC of 4 µg/ml for the Iberian ST247 clonotype with the triple mutation N146K/E150K/G246E), at least as far back as 1998, considerably predating the commercial introduction of ceftaroline. Our results reinforce the notion that unknown parameters can potentially exert selective pressure on PBP2A that can subsequently modulate ceftaroline

  10. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  11. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  12. Characterization of the genetic diversity of extensively-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Cáceres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peru holds the fourth highest burden of tuberculosis in the Americas. Despite an apparently well-functioning DOTS control program, the prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB continues to increase. To worsen this situation, cases of extensively drug resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB have been detected. Little information exists about the genetic diversity of drug-susceptible vs. MDR-TB and XDR-TB. METHODS: Cryopreserved samples of XDR strains from 2007 to 2009 (second semester, were identified and collected. Starting from 227 frozen samples, a total of 142 XDR-TB strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC; 1 isolate per patient were retained for this study. Each strain DNA was analyzed by spoligotyping and the 15-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit (MIRU-15. RESULTS: Among the 142 isolates analyzed, only 2 samples (1.41% could not be matched to any lineage. The most prevalent sublineage was Haarlem (43.66%, followed by T (27.46%, LAM (16.2%, Beijing (9.15%, and X clade (1.41%. Spoligotype analysis identified clustering for 128/142 (90.1% isolates vs. 49/142 (34.5% with MIRUs. Of the samples, 90.85% belonged to retreated patients. The drug resistant profile demonstrated that 62.67% showed resistance to injectable drugs capreomycin (CAP and kanamycin (KAN vs. 15.5% to CAP alone and 21.8% to KAN alone. The SIT219/T1 and SIT50/H3 were the most prevalent patterns in our study. The spoligoforest analysis showed that SIT53/T1 was at the origin of many of the T lineage strains as well as a big proportion of Haarlem lineage strains (SIT50/H3, followed by SIT47/H1, SIT49/H3, and SIT2375/H1, as opposed to the SIT1/Beijing strains that did not appear to evolve into minor Beijing sublineages among the XDR-TB strains. CONCLUSION: In contrast with other Latin-American countries where LAM sublineage is the most predominant, we found the Haarlem to be the most common followed by T sublineage among the XDR-TB strains.

  13. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, William; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed cef...

  14. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension. PMID:26935512

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others. For example, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance, including resistance to ACTs in the Greater Mekong subregion is an urgent public health concern that is threatening global efforts to reduce the burden of malaria. Although MDR-TB is a growing concern, it is still ...

  16. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    specific PCR to verify this genetic form of resistance, but in contrast to animals tested from various surface populations, we could not confirm the Y139C mutation in any of the sewer rats. Our findings could indicate that resistance in surface and sewer population may be caused by different mechanism or...

  17. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M; Nishiyama, K; Kohlhagen, G; Takimoto, C; Robey, R; Pommier, Y; Fojo, T; Bates, S E

    1999-01-01

    after camptothecin treatment. In addition to topotecan and SN-38, MXR-overexpressing cells are highly resistant to mitoxantrone and epirubicin. Because these compounds are susceptible to glucuronidation, we examined UDP-glucurono-syltransferase (UGT) activity in parental and resistant cells by TLC...

  18. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms ‘antibiotic resistance in Libya’, ‘antimicrobial resistance in Libya’, ‘tuberculosis in Libya’, and ‘primary and acqui...

  20. Genetic Resources for Disease Resistance in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hysing, Shu-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Bread wheat is affected by many diseases that cause yield and quality losses. The incorporation of resistance genes is a user- and environmentally friendly method to manage disease. It is highly desirable that the resistance is durable and that the genes have a positive or no influence on agronomic performance. The characterization of genetic resources for resistance is a prerequisite for their utilization in plant breeding. The aim of the present thesis was to characterize resistance against...

  1. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  2. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  3. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism. PMID:15473645

  4. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  5. The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on Complex Resistivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on complex resistivity (CR) measurements is studied in this paper. An equivalent circuit model for the receiver is developed to describe the effects. The model shows that CR measurements are severely affected even at relatively lo...... the contact resistance artificially increased by resistors. The results emphasize the importance of keeping contact resistance low in CR measurements....

  6. [Resistant fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, M J G T; Cornely, O A

    2015-11-01

    Particularly in the area of hematology/oncology and intensive care medicine, infections due to resistant fungi are to be expected. Emergence of resistance in fungi is a less dynamic process than in bacteria; it can, however, have an equally important impact on treatment strategies. In the following article, the most important resistance patterns of yeasts and molds (Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus, the order Mucorales and the genus Fusarium) will be presented and discussed. Their diagnosis mostly being based on blood cultures, resistance testing for yeasts is usually readily available. Culture-based therapeutic adjustments in mold infections are, however, only rarely possible, as most antifungal therapies for these infections are initiated on an empirical basis after identification of typical infiltrates on a CT scan. Response to therapy is then evaluated on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms in combination with follow-up CT scans. In case of therapeutic failure or appearance of suspicious infiltrates under antifungal prophylaxis, an open or CT-guided biopsy is recommended to allow efficient adaptation of antifungal treatment. In individual cases, particularly in patients diagnosed with mucormycosis, resection of the focus of infection may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory treatment response. PMID:26432089

  7. Resisting "Reason"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech;

    2016-01-01

    Social differences in health and illness are well documented in Denmark. However, little is known about how health practices are manifested in the everyday lives of different social classes. We propose acts of resistance and formation of health subjectivities as helpful concepts to develop our un...

  8. Tumor Resistance Explained by Hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced drug (GDC 0449) resistance in a mouse model for human medulloblastoma is shown in the present paper to act via an hormetic response. This has significant implications, imposing constraints on the quantitative features of the dose response of the chemotherapeutic agent, affecting optimal study design, mechanism assessment strategy, potential for tumor rebound, patient relapse and disease outcome.

  9. 浙江省耐多药结核病例中二线耐药状况分析%Analysis on second-line drug resistance situation of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松华; 王晓萌; 柳正卫; 何海波; 陈彬; 黄玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对肺结核病耐药状况和耐药趋势的调查研究,掌握浙江省目前主要二线抗结核药的耐药状况,为耐药结核病疫情控制提供科学依据.方法 在全省随机抽取30个县区作为样本县,将选例期间发现的1077例涂阳病例纳入耐药监测;按规定要求进行分离培养、分枝杆菌菌种初步鉴定,用H37RV标准菌株常规质控监测,先使用比例法筛选耐药病例,对人组二线抗结核药耐药监测病例的菌株再使用绝对浓度法检测.结果 在耐多药(MDR)病例中各种二线抗结核药物的耐药率卡那霉素(K)9.62%,卷曲霉素(CPM)11.54%,丁胺卡那霉素(AK)7.69%,环丝氨酸(CS)5.77%,氧氟沙星(OFLX)28.85%,对氨基水杨酸(PAS)32.69%.MDR病例中广泛耐药结核病(XDR )耐药率3.85%.结论 调查结果显示浙江省的二线抗结核药物耐药状况比较严重,耐药结核病的控制面临挑战,有必要在今后的工作中进一步提高现代结核病控制策略(DOTS)执行质量,加强实验室对MDR,XDR的检测能力,完善耐药结核病诊疗管理综合体系建设.%Objective To investigate mycobacteriutn tuberculosis drug resistance to second-line drugs in Zhejiang and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of drug-resistant TB epidemic. Methods We randomly selected 30 counties for the study. Samples from the selected counties were entered into the group of surveillance if the specimens were smear-positive. The procedures of mycobacteri-um isolation, culture and primary species identification were performed under the guidelines of the Laboratory Procedure of Diagnostic Bacteriology in Tuberculosis. Results The surveillance group had 1 077 smear-positive tuberculosis specimens. Among multiple drug resistant (MDR) cases, the rates of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance to second-line drugs were 9.62%, 11.54%, 7.69%, 5.77%, 28.85% and 32.69% respectively for kanamycin (K), capreomycin (CPM), amikacin (AK), cycloserine (CS

  10. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  11. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions...

  12. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.;

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has...... changed this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical...

  13. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Eduard Scheidt; Elisabeth Waller

    2015-01-01

    Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure di...

  14. The affect structure revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Elefant-Yanni, Véronique Rica; Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia

    2005-01-01

    In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the affect structure dimensions. Responding to the methodological criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex we found three bipolar independent dimensions and using only the PANAS semantic items, we found two uni...

  15. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new...... insights into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection...

  16. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    alternative interpretations of what liminality is, or could be, taking it to territories distant from its place of origin, quite the contrary: we are moving the concept back to its rightful place in intellectual history and back to the core of its significance, back to the centre of human emotions trembling......In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new and...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  17. X100抗大变形管线钢焊接热影响区的显微组织与冲击功%Microstructure and Impact Energy of Heat Affected Zone for X100 Pipeline Steel with High Deformation Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 李雪萍; 徐学利; 张骁勇; 高惠临; 刘彦明

    2015-01-01

    采用部分再结晶区加速冷却的方法获得了 X100抗大变形管线钢,利用焊接热模拟技术制备了不同热影响区试样并研究了其冲击功和显微组织.结果表明:X100抗大变形管线钢具有较强的极限应变能力,其组织为粒状贝氏体和多边形铁素体;模拟热影响区试样的冲击功随热循环峰值温度的升高而下降,当峰值温度为1300℃时,冲击功为247.9 J,比母材的降低了17.3%,冲击断裂方式也从韧性断裂转为解理断裂;热循环峰值温度升高使热影响区组织发生再结晶,并且晶粒粗化,降低了其韧性.%The X100 pipeline steel with high deformation resistance was obtained by the critical region accelerated cooling method.The impact energy and microstructures of the heat affected zone (HAZ)specimens prepared by means of welding thermal simulation technology were investigated.The results show that the ultimate strain capability of the X100 pipeline steel with high deformation resistance was strong and the microstructure was composed of bainite and ferrite.The impact energy of the HAZ specimens prepared by weld simulation decreased with the rise of the thermal cycle peak temperature.When the peak temperature was 1 300 ℃,the impact energy reached the lowest value of 247.9 J,which was reduced by 1 7.3% comparing to that of base material,and then the fracture mode changed from ductile fracture to cleavage fracture.The rise of the thermal cycle peak temperature resulted in the recrystallization and grain coarseness in HAZ microstructure,and then decreased the toughness.

  18. Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable anti-TB drug susceptibility analysis in 30 multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates%耐多药结核分枝杆菌临床分离株30株对氟喹诺酮类及二线注射类抗结核药敏感性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一典; 桂徐蔚; 景玲杰; 郝晓晖; 姚岚; 韩敏; 陈晋; 唐神结

    2013-01-01

    rate 63.33%) ; moxifloxacin resistance was 13 isolates (resistance rate 43.33%) ; levofloxacin resistance was 10 isolates(33.33%) ; Amikacin resistance was 9 isolates (30%) and with capreomycin 8 isolates (26.67%).The resistant rate of Ofloxacin was higher than that of levofloxacin and total of the three fluoroquinolones,and there was statistically significance(P =0.038).8 isolates were resistant to any one of fluoroquinolones and at least one of two injectable drugs (XDR-TB).11 isolates were resistant to any one of fluoroquinolones and also sensitive to two injectable drugs.2 isolates were sensitive to all three fluoroquinolones and resistant to at least one of two injectable drugs.The difference was statistically significant(P =0.001).Conclusions MDR-TB clinical isolates are resistant to fluoroquinolones seriously.Meanwhile,resistance to fluoroquinolones was a mainly form of pre-XDR-TB isolates.Therefore,Ofloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of MDR-TB.However,MDR-TB clinical isolates are more sensitive to amikacin and capreomycin which can be applied to the treatment of MDR-TB.

  19. Resistance training and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Cittadini, Antonio; Smart, Neil Andrew; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Aging is inexorably accompanied by a progressive decline of muscle mass, quality and strength. The resulting condition has been termed sarcopenia. Age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by a variety of factors including changes in the hormonal milieu, inactivity, poor nutrition, chronic illness, and loss of integrity and function in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The downstream mechanisms by which these risk factors cause sarcopenia are not completely understood. Exercise training (particularly resistance training) has long been identified as the most promising method for increasing muscle mass and strength among older people. New interventions aimed at preventing muscle atrophy, promoting muscle growth and ultimately, maintaining muscle functions during aging are discussed. Understanding how age affects muscle-related gene expression, protein recycling and resynthesis, post-translational modification and turnover will be crucial to identify new treatment options. PMID:27374049

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS Bacteria (NARMS) NARMS at Work Reports ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  2. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  4. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  5. Colors Can Affect Us!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2006-01-01

    Different colors affect us differently.The following will show us how they work. Experiment proves that math problems worked on yellow paper have fewer mistakes than problems written on other colors of paper.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  7. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  8. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  9. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed S.

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  10. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L; Tan, Ed S

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad's persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  11. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Gregorová; Peter Socha; Marína Maglovski; Jana Moravčíková; Jana Libantová; Roman Kuna; Pavol Hauptvogel; Matušíková Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively) are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was dete...

  12. Neuromodulation for treatment-resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mayberg, Helen S

    2012-01-01

    Treatment-resistant depression affects at least 1-3% of the US population. This article reviews the current state of focal neuromodulation therapies for treatment-resistant depression, focusing on those treatments published clinical data. These include transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation among others. Of these, only two (transcranial magnetic stimu...

  13. Monitoring forest soil properties with electrical resistivity

    OpenAIRE

    Paillet, Y.; Cassagne, N.; Brun, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and monitoring of soil fertility is a key issue for sustainable forest management. Vital ecosystem processes may be affected by management practices which change the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. This study is the first in Europe to use electrical resistivity as a non-invasive method to determine forest soil properties rapidly in the field in a monitoring purpose. We explored the correlations between electrical resistivity and forest soil properties on ...

  14. The Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Lara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade studies on affect and emotions have become relevant in the social sciences. This is not just a fad guideline, but instead a simultaneous reader of public life changes and subjective experience, from which it is also being transformed the knowledge production. Such a trend has been known as ‘The Affective Turn’ within the Anglophone Academy. Here we will translate it as ‘El Giro Afectivo’. This turn, so far, has not dabbled in the social science literature that is written in Spanish. This paper draws on a singular panorama of discussions about contemporary social studies of affect and emotion, and it’s vertebrate by some of its expressions in the contemporary academy.

  15. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance......-management that human individuation ties together modes of productions with affects and emotions. Introducing Spinoza's concept of ‘affect’, and Gilles Deleuze's reading of Spinoza's ethics focusing on the ‘affective turn’ in relation to the new economy and society, the paper argues for a more positive notion of...... biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...

  16. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    experiences within a club as a way of understanding the complexities of pleasure. The study does so by addressing experiences through the concept of affects, which is situated within a framework of a non-representational theory of space. Anxiety, pride, anger, shame and embarrassment are embodied...

  17. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nafees Ahmad; Arshad Javaid; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Long Chiau Ming; Izaz Ahmad; Amer Hayat Khan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are the backbone of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Despite the high burden of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in the country, little is known about drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients from Pakistan. Objective To evaluate drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosi...

  18. Neurotransmitters affecting time perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been demonstrated that dopamine and acetylcholine are the main neurotransmitters that affect time perception,which is also affected by other neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE:To summarize how the neurotransmitter affect the time perception,and put forward the perspectives for further study on time perception.RETRIEVE STRATEGY:An online search for related literatures published in English was conducted in Elsevier SDOL(ScienceDirect Online)database from May 1990 to March 2007 using key words of "timing neurotransmitter".Totally 69 literatures were collected,and they were primarily checked.Inclusive criteria:Reviews and experimental studies;correlative studies of timing neurotransmitter.Exclusive criteria:Repeated studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The literatures were mainly sourced from Cognitive Brain Research and Neuroscience,and they were analyzed according to the inclusive criteria.Nineteen of them were involved,and all were experimental studies and reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS:The studies on time perception are developed mainly concentrating on dopamine and acetylcholine.Dopamine D2 receptors mainly affect the speed of internal clock.Dopamine receptors play an important role in both timing excitation and inhibition,which suggests the bi-directional regulation of dopamine.Injection of dopamine agonist can affect the attention to timing information.Injection of BW813U(antagonist of acetylcholine) can induce memory disorder,which indicates the effect of acetylcholine on timing memory,and further study shows that it is the effect of acetylcholine in precentral medial area.In a word,the study on the neurotransmitters affecting time perception is still at the primary stage.CONCLUSION:Dopamine and acetylcholine are the neurotransmitters known to be related to time perception.Dopamine in the basal ganglia is related to internal-clock in the range of seconds and minutes;Acetylcholine in prefrontal cortex is related to the mechanisms of temporal memory and attention

  19. Breakdown of resistance to grapevine downy mildew upon limited deployment of a resistant variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellin Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disease resistance is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of controlling plant disease. Breeding programmes need to make sure that the resistance deployed is effective and durable. Grapevine downy mildew, caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola, affects viticulture and it is controlled with pesticides. Downy mildew resistant grapevine varieties are a promising strategy to control the disease, but their use is currently restricted to very limited acreages. The arising of resistance-breaking isolates under such restricted deployment of resistant varieties would provide valuable information to design breeding strategies for the deployment of resistance genes over large acreages whilst reducing the risks of the resistance being defeated. The observation of heavy downy mildew symptoms on a plant of the resistant variety Bianca, whose resistance is conferred by a major gene, provided us with a putative example of emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate in the interaction between grapevine and P. viticola. Results In this paper we describe the emergence of a P. viticola isolate (isolate SL that specifically overcomes Rpv3, the major resistance gene carried by Bianca at chromosome 18. We show that isolate SL has the same behaviour as two P. viticola isolates avirulent on Bianca (isolates SC and SU when inoculated on susceptible plants or on resistant plants carrying resistances derived from other sources, suggesting there is no fitness cost associated to the virulence. Molecular analysis shows that all three isolates are genetically closely related. Conclusions Our results are the first description of a resistance-breaking isolate in the grapevine/P. viticola interaction, and show that, despite the reduced genetic variability of P. viticola in Europe compared to its basin of origin and the restricted use of natural resistance in European viticulture, resistance-breaking isolates overcoming monogenic

  20. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...... ‘throwntogetherness’ (Massey 2005) or assemblage (Farias & Bender 2010) of perspectives bridging for instance the social and cultural experienced space investigated by the geographer and urban sociologist with the material and formal aesthetics of the architect and urban planner....... cultural geopgraphy. On this backdrop the paper states that affects and assemblages could serve as key notions for the reassembling the aesthetics of urban space. Thus, the paper suggest a less formal understanding of urban space and aesthetics, proposing an understanding of aesthetics as a...

  1. Comfortable bodies: sedentary affects

    OpenAIRE

    David Bissell

    2008-01-01

    Whilst to be comfortable is often equated with conservatism and complacency, this paper considers the various and often complex configurations of comfort as a desirable corporeal sensibility. Subsequently, this paper considers what corporeal comfort as an affective sensibility is and can do to theorisations of the sedentary body. The sensibility of corporeal comfort induced through the relationality between bodies and proximate objects is explored to trace through some of the affectual circul...

  2. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  3. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S; DiPietro, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  4. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides: an evolving phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitas, Osmel; Agbale, Caleb M; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is currently a real problem all over the world, making novel antimicrobial compounds a real research priority. Some of the most promising compounds found to date are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The benefits of these drugs include their broad spectrum of activity that affects several microbial processes, making the emergence of resistance less likely. However, bacterial resistance to AMPs is an evolving phenomenon that compromises the therapeutic potential of these compounds. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand bacterial mechanisms of resistance to AMPs in depth, in order to develop more powerful AMPs that overcome the bacterial resistance response. PMID:27100488

  5. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  6. Effect of physiological age on radiation resistance of some bacteria that are highly radiation resistant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological age-dependent variation in radiation resistance was studied for three bacteria that are highly radiation resistant: Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus sp. isolate C-3, and Moraxella sp. isolate 4. Stationary-phase cultures of M. radiodurans and isolate C-3 were much more resistant to gamma radiation than were log-phase cultures. This pattern of relative resistance was reversed for isolate 4. Resistance of isolate 4 to UV light was also greater during log phase, although heat resistance and NaCl tolerance after heat stresses were greater during stationary phase. Radiation-induced injury of isolate 4 compared with injury of Escherichia coli B suggested that the injury process, as well as the lethal process, was affected by growth phase. The hypothesis that growth rate affects radiation resistance was tested, and results were interpreted in light of the probable confounding effect of methods used to alter growth rates of bacteria. These results indicate that dose-response experiments should be designed to measure survival during the most resistant growth phase of the organism under study. The timing is particularly important when extrapolations of survival results might be made to potential irradiation processes for foods. 17 references

  7. Guías para el manejo de la tuberculosis resistente: OMS 2011 WHO guidelines for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis: 2011 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez D

    2012-06-01

    multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. However, most of them are based on expert opinion, without good evidence. The new guidelines are the following: I. Rapid sensitivity testing of isoniazid and rifampicin or of rifampicin alone is recommended over conventional testing or no testing at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis, subject to available resources. II. The use of sputum smear microscopy and culture rather than sputum smear microscopy alone is recommended for the monitoring of patients with MDR-TB during treatment. III. In the treatment of patients with MDR-TB the following rules are given: 1 a fluoroquinolone should be used; 2 a later-generation fluoroquinolone rather than an earlier-generation fluoroquinolone should be used; 3 ethionamide (or prothionamide should be used; 4 four second-line anti-TB drugs likely to be effective (including a parenteral agent from among the second-line injectables kanamycin, amika-cin or capreomycin, as well as pyrazinamide, should be included in the intensive phase of treatment; 5 regimens should include at least pyrazinamide, a fluoroquinolone, a parenteral agent (kanamycin, amikacin or capreomycin, ethionamide (or prothionamide, and either cycloserine or p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS if cycloserine cannot be used; 6 an intensive phase of 8 months' duration is recommended. 7 a total treatment duration of 20 months is recommended in patients without any previous MDR-TB treatment. IV.- Anti-retroviral treatment is recommended for all patients with HIV and drug-resistant TB requiring second-line anti-TB drugs, irrespective of CD4 cell count, as early as possible (within the first 8 weeks following initiation of anti-TB treatment. V.-Patients with MDR-TB should be treated using mainly ambulatory care rather than models of care based principally on hospitalization.

  8. The Affective Turn

    OpenAIRE

    Alí Lara; Giazú Enciso

    2013-01-01

    En la última década los estudios del afecto y las emociones han cobrado relevancia en las ciencias sociales. Esto no es simplemente una directriz de moda, es un indicador simultáneo de las modificaciones en la vida pública y de la experiencia subjetiva; a partir del cual se está transformando la producción de conocimiento. Tal tendencia ha sido conocida en la academia sajona como The Affective Turn, aquí traducido como “El giro afectivo” y que hasta el momento no ha incursionado como tal en l...

  9. Visual affect recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Stathopoulou, I-O

    2010-01-01

    It is generally known that human faces, as well as body motions and gestures, provide a wealth of information about a person, such as age, race, sex and emotional state. This monograph primarily studies the perception of facial expression of emotion, and secondarily of motion and gestures, with the purpose of developing a fully automated visual affect recognition system for use in modes of human/computer interaction. The book begins with a survey of the literature on emotion perception, followed by a description of empirical studies conducted with human participants and the construction of a '

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS Bacteria (NARMS) NARMS at Work Reports ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  11. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the disease progression and to minimize viral replication and mutation. However, a person may be initially infected with a drug-resistant HIV strain or drug resistance may develop during treatment, ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  13. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  14. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumo...

  15. The fitness of drug-resistant malaria parasites in a rodent model: multiplicity of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G.; Nelson, William; Read, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria infections normally consist of more than one clonally-replicating lineage. Within-host interactions between sensitive and resistant parasites can have profound effects on the evolution of drug resistance. Here, using the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse malaria model, we ask whether the costs and benefits of resistance are affected by the number of co-infecting strains competing with a resistant clone. We found strong competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated infections and...

  16. Ghrelin- and GH-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Krag, Morten B; Poulsen, Morten M;

    2013-01-01

    Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects....

  17. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  18. The effect of swimsuit resistance on freestyle swimming race time.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, A.P.; Taunton, D.J.; Hudson, D.A.; Forrester, A.I.J.; Turnock, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that swimming equipment (suit, cap and goggles) can affect the total resistance of a swimmer, and therefore impact the resulting swimming speed and race time. After the 2009 swimming world championships (WC) the international swimming federation (FINA) banned a specific type of full body suit, which resulted in an increase in race times for subsequent WC events. This study proposes that the 2009 suits provided a reduction in swimming resistance and aims to quantify this resistance...

  19. A greenhouse screening assay for Botrytis tulipae resistance in tulips

    OpenAIRE

    Straathof, T.P.; Mes, J.J.; Eikelboom, W; Tuyl, van, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    As a leaf pathogen, Botrytis tulipae severely affects tulip bulb production. Chemical control is not desired for environmental reasons. Thus, resistant cultivars can play an important role in the control of this disease. To select genotypes resistant to B. tulipae, a reliable screening assay is needed. A greenhouse test was developed to establish resistance at clonal level. Removal of the wax layer by soft rubbing of the leaves was essential to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the spore s...

  20. Contemporary food safety trends: Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Jelena; Milanov Dubravka; Ratajac Radomir

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a daunting public health threat affecting both human and animal health and it is a cause for concern wherever antimicrobial agents are in use. The usage of antimicrobial drugs in food producing animals could result in a significant food safety issue - antimicrobial resistance among zoonotic bacteria in these animals. The resistant bacteria may then be transmitted to humans through the food supply and increase risk of treatment failures. Campylobacter spp. and Salmo...

  1. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  2. Fate of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and staphylococci and resistance determinants in stored poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Evans, Sean L; Price, Lance B; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2009-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in commercial broiler poultry production results in the presence of drug-resistant bacteria shed in the excreta of these birds. Because these wastes are largely land-disposed these pathogens can affect the surrounding environment and population. In this analysis, we characterized the survival of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and staphylococci and resistance genes in poultry litter. Temperature, moisture, and pH were measured in the litter over a 120-day period from storage sheds at three conventional US broiler chicken farms, as well as colony-forming units of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. Selected isolates from each sampling event were tested for resistance to eight antimicrobials used in poultry feeds as well as the presence of resistance genes and mobile genetic elements. Temperatures greater than 60 degrees C were only intermittently observed in the core of the litter piles. Both antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and staphylococci, as well as resistance genes persisted throughout the 120-day study period. Resistance genes identified in the study include: erm(A), erm(B), erm (C), msr(A/B), msr(C), and vat(E). This study indicates that typical storage practices of poultry litter are insufficient for eliminating drug-resistant enterococci and staphylococci, which may then be released into the environment through land disposal. PMID:19541298

  3. Role of Affective Self-Regulatory Efficacy in Diverse Spheres of Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2003-01-01

    Examined influence of perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation with older adolescents. Found that self-efficacy to regulate affect related to high efficacy to manage academic development, resist social pressures for antisocial activities, and engage with empathy in others' emotional experiences. Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation…

  4. Is resistance futile? Changing external resistance does not improve microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Delina Y; Buret, Francois; Vogel, Timothy M; Monier, Jean-Michel

    2010-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) show promise as an alternative to conventional batteries for point source electricity generation. A better understanding of the relationship between the microbiological and electrical aspects of fuels cells is needed prior to successful MFC application. Here, we observed the effects of external resistance on power production and the anodic biofilm community structure. Large differences in the external resistance affected both power production and microbial community structure. After the establishment of the anodic microbial community, change in external resistance (from low to high and vice versa) changed the anodic microbial community structure, but the resulting community did not resemble the communities established at that same external resistance. Different microbial community structures, established under different external resistances, resulted in similar power production, demonstrating the flexibility of the MFC system. PMID:19783225

  5. A Comprehensive Insight into Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Kailong Huang; Junying Tang; Xu-Xiang Zhang; Ke Xu; Hongqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera cons...

  6. Proliferation resistance: issues, initiatives and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The vision of a nuclear renaissance has highlighted the issue of proliferation resistance. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance. The GenIV International Forum (GIF) and others have devoted attention and resources to proliferation resistance. However, the hope of finding a way to make the peaceful uses of nuclear energy resistant to proliferation has reappeared again and again in the history of nuclear power with little practical consequence. The concept of proliferation resistance has usually focused on intrinsic (technological) as opposed to extrinsic (institutional) factors. However, if there are benefits that may yet be realized from reactors and other facilities designed to minimize proliferation risks, it is their coupling with effective safeguards and other nonproliferation measures that likely will be critical. Proliferation resistance has also traditionally been applied only to state threats. Although there are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, technology can play a limited role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating many non-state threats. These and other issues are not academic. They affect efforts to evaluate proliferation resistance, including the methodology developed by GIF's Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group as well as the proliferation resistance initiatives that are being pursued or may be developed in the future. This paper will offer a new framework for thinking about proliferation resistance issues, including the ways the output of the methodology could be developed to inform the decisions that states, the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) and others will have to make in order to fully realize the promise of a nuclear renaissance.

  7. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways....... The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich...... demonstrates how the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  8. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the...... dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  9. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  10. Resisting Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an organization. The findings invite technologies, people, actions, practices and materiality to the discussions on support and resistance.

  11. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  12. Spectacles of resistance and resistance of spectacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Yiannis

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores organizational controls in an era dominated by spectacles, images and pictures and seeks to identify some forms of resistance that subvert and undermine these controls. It develops the metaphor of today’s organizations a ‘glass cages’ in juxtaposition to the Weberian ‘iron cages’ that summed up some of the qualities of organizations of yesteryear. The paper analyses new forms of resistance, such as whistleblowing and subvertizing, that are particularly aimed at besmirching...

  13. Genetics of metabolic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Otto; Langemann, Dirk; Beffa, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide resistance has become a major issue for many weeds. Metabolic resistance refers to the biochemical processes within organisms that degrade herbicides to less toxic compounds, resulting in a shift of the dose response curve. This type of resistance involves polygenic inheritance. A model is presented linking the biochemical pathway of amino acid synthesis and the detoxifying pathway of an inhibitor of the key enzyme ALS. From this model, resistance factors for each biotype are derived, which are then applied to a polygenic population genetic model for an annual weed plant. Polygenic inheritance is described by a new approach based on tensor products of heredity matrices. Important results from the model are that low dose regimes favour fast emergence of resistant biotypes and that the emergence of resistant biotypes occurs as abrupt outbreaks. The model is used to evaluate strategies for the management of metabolic resistance. PMID:27424952

  14. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  15. Effect of Pavement Conditions on Rolling Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Dipanjan Mukherjee

    2014-07-01

    be overlooked is that rolling resistance is affected by the characteristics of the pavement surface. Rolling resistance varies between different pavement surfaces. Hard and smooth surfaces produce lower rolling resistance than soft and rough surfaces. Rolling resistance is affected by both tyre and ambient temperature.

  16. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l(-1) and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1(R) allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1(R) and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1(V) or the duplicated ace-1(D) allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects. PMID:26463842

  17. The affective life of semiotics

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Hutta

    2015-01-01

    The paper challenges writings on affect that locate affective dynamism in autonomic bodily responses while positing discourse and language as "capturing" affect. To move beyond such "verticalism", the paper seeks to further an understanding of language, and semiotics more broadly, as itself affective. Drawing on participatory research conducted in Rio de Janeiro, it uses poetic expression as a paradigmatic case of the affective life of semiotics. Conceptually, it builds on Guat...

  18. How the Ability to Manage Change Affects Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed how the ability to manage change affects leadership style. The problem addressed in this project was the natural human tendency to resist change and how the inability to mange this tendency can interfere with the development of leadership skills. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how an individual's…

  19. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Steinbakk, Martin; Regmi, Sadie; Karkey, Abhilasha; Guerin, Philippe J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-01-01

    To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment. Onward transmission is affected by standards of infection control, sanitation, access to clean water, access to assured quality antimicrobials and diagnostics, travel, and migration. Strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance by removing antimicrobial selective pressure alone rely upon resistance imparting a fitness cost, an effect not always apparent. Minimising resistance should therefore be considered comprehensively, by resistance mechanism, microorganism, antimicrobial drug, host, and context; parallel to new drug discovery, broad ranging, multidisciplinary research is needed across these five levels, interlinked across the health-care, agriculture, and environment sectors. Intelligent, integrated approaches, mindful of potential unintended results, are needed to ensure sustained, worldwide access to effective antimicrobials. PMID:26603922

  20. Phorbol esters induce multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms responsible for broad-based resistance to antitumor drugs derived from natural products (multidrug resistance) are incompletely understood. Agents known to reverse the multidrug-resistant phenotype (verapamil and trifluoperazine) can also inhibit the activity of protein kinase C. When the authors assayed human breast cancer cell lines for protein kinase C activity, they found that enzyme activity was 7-fold higher in the multidrug-resistance cancer cells compared with the control, sensitive parent cells. Exposure of drug-sensitive cells to the phorbol ester phorbol 12,13-dibutyate [P(BtO)2] led to an increase in protein kinase C activity and induced a drug-resistance phenotype, whereas exposure of drug-resistant cells to P(BtO)2 further increased drug resistance. In sensitive cells, this increased resistance was accomplished by a 3.5-fold increased phosphorylation of a 20-kDa particulate protein and a 35-40% decreased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and vincristine. P(BtO)2 induced resistance to agents involved in the multidrug-resistant phenotype (doxorubicin and vincristine) but did not affect sensitivity to an unrelated alkylating agent (melphalan). The increased resistance was partially or fully reversible by the calcium channel blocker verapamil and by the calmodulin-antagonist trifluoperazine. These data suggest that stimulation of protein kinase C playus a role in the drug-transport changes in multidrug-resistant cells. This may occur through modulation of an efflux pump by protein phosphorylation

  1. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  2. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at...

  3. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors to...

  4. Management of resistant depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Warneke, L

    1996-01-01

    Treatment-resistant depression is a relative concept. It has been formally defined as a mood disorder that fails to respond to three adequate trials of antidepressants. However, treatment resistance is relative to the expertise and knowledge of the treating physician and the availability of resources, such as electroconvulsive therapy. Only about 7% of patients show absolute treatment resistance, and even they can be helped.

  5. Towards the Understanding of Resistance Mechanisms in Clinically Isolated Trimethoprim-resistant, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, K.; Lombardo, M; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has become an increasing problem in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically isolated trimethoprim-resistant strains reveal a double mutation, H30N/F98Y, in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). In order to develop novel and effective therapeutics against these resistant strains, we evaluated a series of propargyl-linked antifolate lead compounds for inhibition of the mutant enzyme. For the propargyl-linked antifolates, the F98Y mutation generates minimal (between 1.2- and 6-fold) losses of affinity and the H30N mutation generates greater losses (between 2.4- and 48-fold). Conversely, trimethoprim affinity is largely diminished by the F98Y mutation (36-fold) and is not affected by the H30N mutation. In order to elucidate a mechanism of resistance, we determined a crystal structure of a complex of this double mutant with a lead propargyl-linked antifolate. This structure suggests a resistance mechanism consistent both for the propargyl-linked class of antifolates and for trimethoprim that is based on the loss of a conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond.

  6. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  7. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    resistance. I attempt to determine how the basic resistance components contribute to resistance against powdery mildews. Furthermore, I propose an alternative strategy of achieving resistance to barley powdery mildew by application of peptide aptamers. Peptide aptamers are small proteins selected to...... specifically target conserved YxC motif of barley powdery mildew effectors. I present a proof-of-concept study in Arabidopsis, where overexpression of peptide aptamers significantly reduced the susceptibility to barley powdery mildew. Moreover, I set the discovery in a bigger context by summarizing genetic...

  8. Bacterial resistance to uncouplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K; Naroditskaya, V; Ferrante, A; Fokina, I

    1994-12-01

    Uncoupler resistance presents a potential challenge to the conventional chemiosmotic coupling mechanism. In E. coli, an adaptive response to uncouplers was found in cell growing under conditions requiring oxidative phosphorylation. It is suggested that uncoupler-resistant mutants described in the earlier literature might represent a constitutive state of expression of this "low energy shock" adaptive response. In the environment, bacteria are confronted by nonclassical uncoupling factors such as organic solvents, heat, and extremes of pH. It is suggested that the low energy shock response will aid the cell in coping with the effects of natural uncoupling factors. The genetic analysis of uncoupler resistance has only recently began, and is yielding interesting and largely unexpected results. In Bacillus subtilis, a mutation in fatty acid desaturase causes an increased content of saturated fatty acids in the membrane and increased uncoupler resistance. The protonophoric efficiency of uncouplers remains unchanged in the mutants, inviting nonorthodox interpretations of the mechanism of resistance. In E. coli, two loci conferring resistance to CCCP and TSA were cloned and were found to encode multidrug resistance pumps. Resistance to one of the uncouplers, TTFB, remained unchanged in strains mutated for the MDRs, suggesting a resistance mechanism different from uncoupler extrusion. PMID:7721726

  9. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  10. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  11. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarkRotteveel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  12. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  13. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  14. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  15. Application of Affect to CALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李露

    2006-01-01

    This essay mainly attempts to discuss some affective factors in CALL, with focus on affective influence on English (foreign language) learning and thus concludes that in the process of CALL related affect should be activated and made good use of to better foreign language teaching and learning.

  16. Stress-induced radiation resistance in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells have evolved biological defense mechanisms that can protect them against a variety of harmful environmental stress including ionizing radiation exposure. The authors have demonstrated that many stresses will induce radiation resistance in yeast. Recently it has become apparent that radiation resistance may be associated with the highly conserved 'stress response' mechanism that confers cellular resistance to a multitude of agents. A universal response to stress is the synthesis of a distinctive set of new proteins, although the function of many of these specific stress proteins is still unknown. One stress protein known to affect thermal tolerance in yeast is HSP104. This report has assessed involvement of HSP104 in the mechanism of radiation resistance by utilizing a yeast strain lacking HSP104 protein (a deletion mutant). It is previously demonstrated that radiation itself will induce yeast cells to develop radiation resistance and that the signal for the response is DNA damage. The nature of the DNA damage signal is important and it is reported that, per unit dose, low linear energy transfer (LET) 60Co gamma-rays induce a greater resistance response compared to high LET neutrons. Here is tested whether the dose rate also influences the signalling efficiency of a radiation inducing dose. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  17. Presence of tetracycline resistance genes in ecosystems with distinct levels of human impact

    OpenAIRE

    STEHLÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of tetracycline resistance genes in the environments with different levels of human impact were compared in this work. The experimental part included detection of eight tetracycline resistance genes in soils from manured and non-manured farms (representing man-affected environment) and soils from national parks (representing non-affected environment).

  18. Acid evaporation property in chemically amplified resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Itani, Toshiro; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Yamana, Mitsuharu; Samoto, Norihiko; Kasama, Kunihiko

    1997-07-01

    The lithographic performance of a chemically amplified resist system very much depends on the photo-generated acid structure. In a previous paper, we reported the molecular structure dependence of two typical photo-generated acids (aromatic sulfonic acid and alkyl sulfonic acid) from the viewpoints of lithographic performance and acid characteristics such as acid generation efficiency, acid diffusion behavior and acid evaporation property. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of the remaining solvent in a resist film on the acid evaporation property. Four types of two-component chemically amplified positive KrF resists were prepared consisting of tert-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC) protected polyhydroxystyrene and sulfonic acid derivative photo-acid generator (PAG). Here, a different combination of two types of PAGs [2,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid (aromatic sulfonic acid) derivative PAG and cyclohexanesulfonic acid (alkyl sulfonic acid) derivative PAG] and two types of solvents (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate; PGMEA and ethyl lactate; EL) were evaluated. The aromatic sulfonic acid was able to evaporate easily during post exposure bake (PEB) treatment, but the alkyl sulfonic acid was not. The higher evaporation property of aromatic sulfonic acid might be due to the higher vapor pressure and the longer acid diffusion length. Furthermore, the amount of aromatic sulfonic acid in the PGMEA resist was reduced by more than that in the EL resist. The amount of acid loss also became smaller at a higher prebake temperature. The concentration of the remaining solvent in the resist film decreased with the increasing prebake temperature. We think that the acid evaporation property was affected by the remaining solvent in the resist, film; the large amount of remaining solvent promoted the acid diffusion and eventually accelerated the acid evaporation from the resist film surface in the PGMEA resist. In summary, the acid evaporation property depends on both the acid

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  20. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  1. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  2. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  3. Drug resistance in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Parija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  5. Drug-resistant malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E

    2005-01-01

    In the past 21 years, a modest increase in the range of antimalarial drugs approved for clinical use has been complemented by a more impressive expansion in the analysis and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to these agents. Such resistance is a major factor in the increasing difficulty in controlling malaria, and important developments during this period are recounted here.

  6. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  7. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...

  8. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Langeveld; J.F.M.G. Aerts

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple sphingol

  9. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellat, Mathieu F; Raguž, Luka; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human-pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last-resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled "Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow" triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  10. Targeting imperfect vaccines against drug-resistance determinants: a strategy for countering the rise of drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Joice

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in major pathogens is outpacing discovery of new antimicrobial classes. Vaccines mitigate the effect of antimicrobial resistance by reducing the need for treatment, but vaccines for many drug-resistant pathogens remain undiscovered or have limited efficacy, in part because some vaccines selectively favor pathogen strains that escape vaccine-induced immunity. A strain with even a modest advantage in vaccinated hosts can have high fitness in a population with high vaccine coverage, which can offset a strong selection pressure such as antimicrobial use that occurs in a small fraction of hosts. We propose a strategy to target vaccines against drug-resistant pathogens, by using resistance-conferring proteins as antigens in multicomponent vaccines. Resistance determinants may be weakly immunogenic, offering only modest specific protection against resistant strains. Therefore, we assess here how varying the specific efficacy of the vaccine against resistant strains would affect the proportion of drug-resistant vs. -sensitive strains population-wide for three pathogens--Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus--in which drug resistance is a problem. Notably, if such vaccines confer even slightly higher protection (additional efficacy between 1% and 8% against resistant variants than sensitive ones, they may be an effective tool in controlling the rise of resistant strains, given current levels of use for many antimicrobial agents. We show that the population-wide impact of such vaccines depends on the additional effect on resistant strains and on the overall effect (against all strains. Resistance-conferring accessory gene products or resistant alleles of essential genes could be valuable as components of vaccines even if their specific protective effect is weak.

  11. Ecological aspect of the soil mechanical resistance in the oak forest of the steep bank

    OpenAIRE

    O. М. Kunah; Baldin, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The obtained data revealed that soil mechanical resistance is an important factor affected many essential ecological properties of the biogeocoenosis. The soil layer’s mechanical resistance of 5MP is a limitation factor for the projective cover of herbaceous vegetation. If the 5MP mechanical resistance spreads to upper soil layer up, then the the grass cover decreases. The development of the plants projective cover affects the soil animals’ trophic activity and soil electrical conductivity. T...

  12. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-12-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  13. Induction of mutations for nematode resistance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop resistance to root-knot nematodes in tomato by induction, selection and utilization of the newly created resistant strains. Seeds of two varieties of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum L., namely Amcopack and Supermarmande, were subjected to various doses of gamma rays ranging from 10 Krads to 40 Krads in an effort to gain resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood, the prevalent species of nematodes in Lebanon. The variety Supermarmande seemed not to be affected by irradiation while Amcopack gained some resistance with a corresponding increase in the dose of radiation. The data suggest that in a variety like Amcopack, irradiation may stimulate resistance while in others like Supermarmande, susceptibility is not reduced with a corresponding increase of dosage. Those alterations in reaction within varieties may be due to genetic differences which allow some varieties to acquire resistance to nematodes when exposed to certain dosages, while others to suffer seriously due to sensitivity. (author)

  14. EUV negative-resist based on thiol-yne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Masamitsu; Maki, Koichi; Okamura, Haruyuki; Kaneyama, Koji; Itani, Toshiro

    2011-04-01

    Non-conventional chemically amplified (CA) negative resist for EUV lithography was studied. We have designed negative-tone EUV resist based on thiol-yne stepwise radical reactions. OH groups of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) were modified with functional units bearing C-C triple bond structure. Resist was formulated as a mixture of modified-PHS, multifunctional thiol compound, and photoradical generator. The present resist was developable with standard 2.38 wt% TMAH aq. solution. Photo-sensitivity of the resist was obtained on irradiation at 254 nm and 13.5 nm. The resist was highly sensitive to EUV exposure. The sensitivity and the contrast were affected by the structure of modified-PHS and process conditions.

  15. Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions. Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

  16. Phytosphingosine can overcome resistance to ionizing radiation in ionizing radiation-resistant cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Taek; Choi, Jung A; Kim, Min Jeong; Bae, Sang Woo; Kang, Chang Mo; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yun Sil; Lee, Su Jae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Man [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although the majority of cancer cells are killed by inonizing radiation, certain types show resistance to it. We previously reported that phytosphingosine also induces apoptotic cell death in caspase dependent pathway in human cancer cells. In the present study, we examined whether phytosphingosine could overcome radiation resistance in the variant Jurkat clones. We first selected radiation-resistant Jurkat clones and examined cross-responsiveness of the clones between radiation and phytosphingosine. Treatment with phytosphingosine significantly did not affect apoptosis in all the clones, indicating that there seemed to be cross-resistance between radiation and phytosphingosine. Nevertheless, combined treatment of phytosphingosine with radiation synergistically enhanced killing of radiation-resistant cells, compared to radiation or phytosphingosine alone. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not completely inhibit the synergistic cell killing induced by combined treatment of ionizing radiation and phytosphingosine. These results demonstrated that apoptosis induced by combined treatment of radiation and phytosphingosine in radiation-resistant cells was associated with caspase independent pathway. We also found that apoptotic cell death induced by combined treatment of ionizing radiation and phytosphingosine correlated to the increases of ROS. The enhancement of ROS generation induced the loss of mitochondria transmembrane potential. In conclusion, ROS generation in combined treatment of phytosphingosine with radiation significantly induced the translocation of AIF to nucleus from mitochondria, suggesting a potential clinical application of combination treatment of radiation and phytosphingosine to radiation-resistant cancer cells.

  17. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  18. [Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants with multidrug resistance: history of origin, genetic and molecular mechanisms of resistance, and emerging challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorov, A A; Zaĭchikova, M V; Danilenko, V N

    2012-01-01

    The review summarizes the data on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutations that lead to multidrug resistance (MDR) to various antibiotics. MDR strains arose over the past 30 years as a variety of antituberculosis drugs were introduced in medicine, and they largely discount the results of chemotherapy for tuberculosis. The most dangerous of them are strains with extensive drug resistance (XDR), which are resistant to four or five different drugs on average. The molecular mechanisms that make a strain resistant are considered. XDR and MDR strains result from successive and usually independent resistance mutations, which arise in various regions of the mycobacterial genome. In addition, the formation of resistant strains is affected by the phenomenon of tolerance and mycobacterial latency in infected tissues. PMID:22567849

  19. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs and cats in Japan: current status of antimicrobial resistance and prevailing resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Arima, Sayuri; Niina, Ayaka; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    Seventy-three Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from dogs and cats in Japan to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms to anti-pseudomonal agents. Resistance rates against orbifloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, aztreonam and gentamicin were 34.2, 31.5, 20.5, 17.8, 12.3 and 4.1%, respectively. The degree of resistance to cefotaxime, orbifloxacin, and enrofloxacin was greatly affected by efflux pump inhibitors, indicating overexpression of efflux pump contributes to these resistances. Notably, orbifloxacin and enrofloxacin resistance was observed even in isolates without mutations in the target sites. This is the first report on cephalosporin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa from Japanese companion animals. PMID:22188523

  20. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  1. Clinical Predictors of Resistance to Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza F. Yadgarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of treatment-resistant depression (TRD with positive affectivity. The article presents the results of the examination of 96 patients with TRD. The studied patients were divided into two groups: in the first group consisted of patients with TRD having positive affectivity (n=59, in the second group consisted of patients with curable depression (n=37. The study had shown the highest correlation value of such factors as frequency of depressive episodes, duration and severity of the first depressive episode, the quality of remission after the first depressive episode.

  2. Effects of Halides on Plasmid-Mediated Silver Resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Amit; Maynes, Maria; Silver, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Silver resistance of sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and resistance plasmid-containing J53(pMG101) was affected by halides in the growth medium. The effects of halides on Ag+ resistance were measured with AgNO3 and silver sulfadiazine, both on agar and in liquid. Low concentrations of chloride made the differences in MICs between sensitive and resistant strains larger. High concentrations of halides increased the sensitivities of both strains to Ag+.

  3. Association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Phylogenetic Lineage and Acquired Drug Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney M Yuen; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V.; Click, Eleanor S.; J Sean Cavanaugh; J Peter Cegielski

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to antituberculosis drugs during treatment (i.e., acquired resistance) can lead to emergence of resistant strains and consequent poor clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species and lineage affects the likelihood of acquired resistance. METHODS: We analyzed data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service for tuberculosis cases during 2004-2011 with a...

  4. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy: Implications for Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M.; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G.; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin res...

  5. Reversal of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by thioridazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Janne K; Skov, Marianne N; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Thioridazine has been shown to reverse oxacillin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thioridazine alone or in combination with oxacillin affects the transcription of the methicillin resistance gene...... that reversal of methicillin resistance by thioridazine in MRSA may be explained by a reduced transcription of mecA and blaZ, resulting in a reduced protein level of PBP2a....

  6. Whether Contexts Affecting TESOL Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马炳军; 杨晓丽

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to verify whether contextual theories affect TESOL teachers in Chinese local classrooms via observing three different English teachers’classroom behaviors by using qualitative method. The findings indicate that three major aspects usually affect English teachers:(1) The teacher’s education context affects their TESOL classroom contexts;(2) The institution’s requirements affect the teacher’s classroom contexts; (3) The spirit of quality-oriented education from the New National Stan-dards for English influences the classroom contexts, which have proved the context theories.

  7. Detection and monitoring of insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins have become one of the most important tools for managing corn and cotton insect pests in the US and other countries. The widespread adoption of transgenic Bt crops could place a high degree of selection pressure on the target insect populations and accelerate development of resistance, raising concerns about the long-term durability of Bt plants as an effective pest management tool. Conservation of Bt susceptibility in insects has become one of the most active research areas in modern agriculture. One of the key factors for a successful Bt resistance management plan is to have a cost-effective monitoring system that can provide information on: (i) the initial Bt resistance allele frequencies at low levels in field insect populations; and (ii) early shifts in Bt resistance allele frequencies so that proactive measures for managing resistance can be deployed well before field control failures. Developing such a monitoring program has been difficult because: (i) resistance traits that occur at very low frequencies are hard to detect; (ii) many factors affect the sensitivity and accuracy of a Bt resistance monitoring program; and (iii) monitoring resistance is costly. Several novel methods for detecting Bt resistance alleles developed during the last decade have made a cost-effective monitoring system possible. Future studies should focus on how to improve and standardize the methodologies for insect sampling and Bt resistance detection.

  8. Radon resistant new construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consist of the awareness about the ill effects of radon gas and the methods adopted to detect the presence of radon gas and to remove the radon gas. It explains the installation of radon resistant structures during home construction. Radon is commonly found in the air and water, where it poses little risk. But radon that creeps into your home from the soil can be a much greater risk. Radon-resistant construction combines common building techniques and materials to seal entry points and route the gases outdoors, helping to prevent radon from entering the home. The benefits due to radon resistant construction is also explained in this paper. (author)

  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  10. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  11. Multidrug resistance associated proteins in multidrug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Sodani; Atish Patel; Rishil J. Kathawala; Zhe-Sheng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters.These ABC transporters together form the largest branch of proteins within the human body.The MRP family comprises of 13 members,of which MRP1 to MRP9 are the major transporters indicated to cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by extruding anticancer drugs out of the cell.They are mainly lipophilic anionic transporters and are reported to transport free or conjugates of glutathione (GSH),glucuronate,or sulphate.In addition,MRP1 to MRP3 can transport neutral organic drugs in free form in the presence of free GSH.Collectively,MRPs can transport drugs that differ structurally and mechanistically,including natural anticancer drugs,nucleoside analogs,antimetabolites,and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.Many of these MRPs transport physiologically important anions such as leukotriene C4,bilirubin glucuronide,and cyclic nucleotides.This review focuses mainly on the physiological functions,cellular resistance characteristics,and probable in vivo role of MRP1 to MRP9.

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  14. Resistance to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gabriel; Wakelee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in adenocarcinoma of the lung has revolutionized the treatment of this disease. It is now standard of care to look for activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and translocations in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 in all newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the lung, and in many patients with squamous cell carcinoma as well. Recognition of multiple other lung cancer driver mutations has also expanded treatment options. Targeted treatments of these mutations lead to rapid and prolonged responses, but resistance inevitably develops. Until recently, traditional chemotherapy was the only alternative at that time, but better understanding of resistance mechanisms has lead to additional therapeutic options. These mechanisms of resistance and treatments are the focus of this chapter. Understanding of mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance is touched upon, along with a brief discussion of immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27535395

  15. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes Page Content On this page: ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, ...

  16. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea) During the past 50 years, the use ... Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae , a bacterium that can infect areas of the ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the ... Antimicrobials Resources for You Windows ...

  18. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, Szymon Maria

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  19. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resistance more real and understandable to veterinarians, livestock producers, lawmakers, consumer representatives and other key audiences. We ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & ... Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  3. Statin Resistance and Export

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Ana

    concentrations of natural statins will require the establishment of a non-destructive self-resistance mechanism to overcome the undesirable growth inhibition effects of statins. In an effort to resolve this challenge, two putative self-resistance genes, mlcD and mlcE, originating from the P. citrinum compactin...... at the right time, and is not due to the HMGCR being statin-insensitive. This model will require further validation by e.g. direct measurement of enzymes sensitivity to statins. Heterologous expression of mlcE, the second putative self-resistance gene from the compactin gene cluster, significantly....... Further testing of MlcE’s role as a self-resistance mechanism surprisingly showed that it was not only capable of protecting yeast from the negative effects of natural statins, but also semi-synthetic statins (i.e simvastatin).This work provides possible engineering strategies for improvement of future...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  5. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  6. Current Research in Affective Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Janet

    1985-01-01

    Current research concerning affective development in infants and children is selectively reviewed. The focus of findings and discussion is on three general and related topics: (1) expression of emotion and affective interaction in infancy; (2) socialization and regulation of emotion; (3) comprehension of emotions and empathy with others by…

  7. Affective modulation of recognition bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Phaf; M. Rotteveel

    2005-01-01

    A correspondence of processing on the familiarity-novelty and positive-negative dimensions, particularly in the earliest processing stages, is proposed. Familiarity manipulations should, therefore, not only influence affective evaluations (e.g., the mere exposure effect), but affective manipulations

  8. Calculation of skid resistance from texture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ueckermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of routine skid resistance measurement devices on the market. All of them are measuring the friction force between a rubber wheel and the wetted road surface. Common to all of them is that they are relatively complex and costly because generally a truck carrying a large water tank is needed to wet the surface with a defined water layer. Because of the limited amount of water they can carry they are limited in range. Besides that the measurement is depending on factors like water film thickness, temperature, measurement speed, rubber aging, rubber wear and even road evenness and curviness. All of these factors will affect the skid resistance and are difficult to control. We present a concept of contactless skid resistance measurement which is based on optical texture measurement and consists of two components: measurement of the pavement texture by means of an optical measuring system and calculation of the skid resistance based on the measured texture by means of a rubber friction model. The basic assumptions underlying the theoretical approach and the model itself based on the theory of Persson are presented. The concept is applied to a laboratory device called Wehner/Schulze (W/S machine to prove the theoretical approach. The results are very promising. A strong indication could be provided that skid resistance could be measured without contact in the future.

  9. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  10. Orobanche resistance in sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Höniges A.; Wegmann K.; Ardelean A.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the current knowledge of Orobanche resistance in sunflower from the breeder's standpoint and from the biochemists' standpoint. The parasitic relations in Helianthus annuus / Orobanche cumana associations differ in many respect from relations of other Orobanche spp. and their hosts. A major difficulty for the breeder is the fast development of new pathotypes of Orobanche cumana, which overcome the resistance of newly developed sunflower lines. The...

  11. Antiviral resistance: influenza B

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Patrícia; Guiomar, Raquel; Cristóvão, Paula; Pechirra, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Currently circulating influenza viruses are resistant to adamantanes and except for a low number of sporadic cases most are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (NI). Adamantanes are ineffective against influenza B viruses and although NI-resistant influenza B viruses have been rarely reported, recently in the United States was identified one cluster of influenza B viruses with reduced susceptibility to NI and with the I221V substitution in the active site of the neuraminidase. Despite the l...

  12. Understanding Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart-Touma, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance arises have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing antibiotics (Andersson DI et al.2011) and antibiotic cycling (Andersson DI et al. 2005, Bergstrom CT et al. 2004). Part of the problem may be that those effor...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Vittecoq, M.; Godreuil, S.; Prugnolle, Franck; Durand, P.; Brazier, L; Renaud, N; Arnal, A.; Aberkane, S.; Jean-Pierre, H.; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Thomas, F.; Renaud, F.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for human health and leads to growing economic costs. While it is increasingly hypothesized that wildlife could play an important role in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria dynamics, empirical data remain scarce. The present work builds on a systematic review of the available data in order to highlight the main information we have and to suggest research pathways that should be followed if we aim to fill the gaps in our current knowledg...

  14. Resistive ballooning mode equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.; Nelson, D. B.

    1978-10-01

    A second-order ordinary differential equation on each flux surface is derived for the high mode number limit of resistive MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks with arbitrary cross section, aspect ratio, and shear. The equation is structurally similar to that used to study ideal MHD ballooning modes computationally. The model used in this paper indicates that all tokamak plasmas are unstable, with growth rate proportional to resistivity when the pressure gradient is less than the critical value needed for ideal MHD stability.

  15. Strontium Ranelate affects signaling from mechanically-stimulated osteocytes towards osteoclasts and osteoblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Bakker; B. Zandieh-Doulabi; J. Klein-Nulend

    2013-01-01

    Strontium Ranelate (SrRan) is used to decrease the risk of bone fractures. Any factor that alters the release of paracrine signals by osteocytes in response to mechanical stimuli potentially affects bone mass and structure, and thus fracture resistance. We hypothesized that SrRan affects paracrine s

  16. Affect intensity and cardiac arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blascovich, J; Brennan, K; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M; Hughes, P; Coad, M L; Adlin, R

    1992-07-01

    Relationships between affect intensity and basal, evoked, and perceived cardiac arousal were investigated in 3 experiments. Affect intensity was assessed using Larsen and Diener's (1987) Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Cardiac arousal was evoked with exercise in the 1st study and with mental arithmetic in the 2nd and 3rd. Perceived cardiac arousal was measured under optimal conditions using a standard heartbeat discrimination procedure. Women as a group scored higher on the AIM. Affect intensity was unrelated to basal or evoked cardiac arousal and was negatively related to perceived cardiac arousal in all 3 studies. Data suggest that affect intensity, although unrelated to actual physiological arousal, is negatively related to the accuracy with which individuals perceive their own arousal. Results are discussed within the context of an expanded arousal-regulation model (Blascovich, 1990). PMID:1494983

  17. Copper amendment of agricultural soil selects for bacterial antibiotic resistance in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, J.; Tom-Petersen, A.; Nybroe, O.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to determine whether Cu-amendment of field plots affects the frequency of Cu resistance, and antibiotic resistance patterns in indigenous soil bacteria. Methods and Results: Soil bacteria were isolated from untreated and Cu-amended field plots. Cu......-amendment significantly increased the frequency of Cu-resistant isolates. A panel of isolates were characterized by Gram-reaction, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and resistance profiling against seven antibiotics. More than 95% of the Cu-resistant isolates were Gram-negative. Cu-resistant Gram......-negative isolates had significantly higher incidence of resistance to ampicillin, sulphanilamide and multiple (greater than or equal to3) antibiotics than Cu-sensitive Gram-negative isolates. Furthermore, Cu-resistant Gram-negative isolates from Cu-contaminated plots had significantly higher incidence of resistance...

  18. Youth, Arts and Education: Reassembling Subjectivity through Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey Moody, Anna

    2012-01-01

    How are the arts important in young people’s lives? Youth, Arts and Education offers a groundbreaking theory of arts education. Anna Hickey-Moody explores how the arts are ways of belonging, resisting, being governed and being heard. Through examples from the United Kingdom and Australia, Anna Hickey-Moody shows the cultural significance of the kinds of learning that occur in and through arts. Drawing on the thought of Gilles Deleuze, she develops the theory of affective pedagogy, which e...

  19. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Moran; Monica Arriaga; Gustavo Rodriguez; Segundo Moran

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese...

  20. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  1. Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Scherber, Christoph; Heimann, Juliane; Köhler, Günter; Mitschunas, Nadine; Weisser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The resistance of a plant community against herbivore attack may depend on plant species richness, with monocultures often much more severely affected than mixtures of plant species. Here, we used a plant–herbivore system to study the effects of selective herbivory on consumption resistance and recovery after herbivory in 81 experimental grassland plots. Communities were established from seed in 2002 and contained 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 plant species of 1, 2, 3 or 4 functional groups. In 2004, ...

  2. Evaluation of Popcorn Germplasm for Resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2005-01-01

    Popcorn adapted to Spanish conditions could be an interesting and profitable alternative to field corn. However, little is known about breeding popcorn germplasm for adaptation to Spain. Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre is the main insect pest affecting popcorn quality and yield under Spanish growing conditions. The objectives of the study were the search for sources of resistance to S. nonagrioides among popcorn germplasm and to study the genetics of the resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Ei...

  3. Modelling of air resistance during drying of wood-chips

    OpenAIRE

    Karaj, S.; Barfuss, Isabel; Schalk, J.; Reisinger, G.; Pude, R.; Müller, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the parameters that affect the drying process of wood chips at low air flow conditions. This objective was determined by measuring the air pressure resistance being produced by wood chips by examining different variables such as: air flow rate, air velocity, wood chip size, bulk density, bulk height and porosity. The air flow resistance was measured inside a 3 meter high cylindrical air duct constructed at University of Hohenheim. Physical proper...

  4. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J; Marson, A G; Hutton, J L

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001908. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Pereira J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Servico de Neurologia, Hospital de Santo Antonio, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal. Abstract BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, affecting almost 0.5 to 1 per cent of the population. Nearly 30 per cent of people with epilepsy are resistant to currently available drugs. Tiagabine...

  5. Mechanisms underlying extreme heat resistance of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    Food spoilage causes immense losses of food products worldwide and negatively affects human health due the production of toxic compounds, so-called mycotoxins. Worldwide economic costs related to fungal spoilage amounts billions of euro each year. Mild heat treatments are used to minimize fungal spoilage. As an example, pasteurized food products, especially canned fruit and fruit juices, are still prone to spoilage by fungi that produce extreme heat-resistant ascospores. Heat-resistant ascosp...

  6. Factors effecting drug selection for treatment resistant unipolar depression

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) is a common and debilitating disease affecting much of people during their lifetime and leads to significant reductions in quality of life. Up to two thirds of patients with major depression will not respond to the first antidepressant medication. However, a clear consensus regarding the criteria defining and assessing method of TRD is not developed yet in the psychiatric community. Many patients who are considered treatment resistant are actually misdiagn...

  7. Reproductive effort reduces specific immune response and parasite resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nordling, D.; Andersson, M.; Zohari, S.; Gustafsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    If a trade-off exists between reproductive effort and immune function, life-history decisions may have important implications for parasite resistance. Here, we report effects of experimental manipulation of reproductive effort on subsequent specific immune function and parasite resistance in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. Our results show that increased reproductive effort of females immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine negatively affected the ability to respond...

  8. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  9. The affective turn in ethnomusicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The affective turn, which has already questioned dominant paradigms in many disciplinary fields including cultural studies, philosophy, political theory, anthropology, psychology and neuroscience, has started to attract more attention in the field of ethnomusicology, becoming a particularly vibrant stream of thought. Drawing on the voices that call for the historicisation of and critical deliberation on the field of affect studies, the article strives to show how theories of affect might expand dominant paradigms in ethnomusicology and also points to their limitations.

  10. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  11. Evolution of herbicide resistance mechanisms in grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzrafi, Maor; Gadri, Yaron; Frenkel, Eyal; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2014-12-01

    Herbicide resistant weeds are becoming increasingly common, threatening global food security. Here, we present BrIFAR: a new model system for the functional study of mechanisms of herbicide resistance in grass weeds. We have developed a large collection of Brachypodium accessions, the BrI collection, representing a wide range of habitats. Wide screening of the responses of the accessions to four major herbicide groups (PSII, ACCase, ALS/AHAS and EPSPS inhibitors) identified 28 herbicide-resistance candidate accessions. Target-site resistance to PSII inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a known history of herbicide applications. An amino acid substitution in the psbA gene (serine264 to glycine) conferred resistance and also significantly affected the flowering and shoot dry weight of the resistant accession, as compared to the sensitive accession. Non-target site resistance to ACCase inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a history of herbicide application and from a nature reserve. In-vitro enzyme activity tests and responses following pre-treatment with malathion (a cytochrome-P450 inhibitor) indicated sensitivity at the enzyme level, and give strong support to diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden enhanced detoxification as NTS resistance mechanism. BrIFAR can promote better understanding of the evolution of mechanisms of herbicide resistance and aid the implementation of integrative management approaches for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25443832

  12. Tumor cell heterogeneity: impact on mechanisms of therapeutic drug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of these studies was to determine whether chemotherapy-resistant tumor cell sublines derived from a single starting cell population with identical treatment protocols, have the same mechanism of resistance. Methods and Materials: Twelve cyclophosphamide-resistant sublines were derived from KHT-iv murine sarcoma cells by repeated exposures to 2, 4, or 8 μg/ml doses of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-OOHCP). To investigate possible mechanisms of resistance, glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity were determined. In addition, studies with the GSH depletor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and the ALDH inhibitor diethylamino-benzaldehyde (DEAB) were undertaken. Results: Resistant factors to 4-OOHCP, assessed at 10% clonogenic cell survival, ranged from 1.5-7.0 for the various cell lines. Crossresistance to melphalan and adriamycin also were commonly observed. Increased GSH levels, GST activity and ALDH activity were detected in the sublines but not all exhibited the same pattern of biochemical alterations. The response to GSH and ALDH inhibitors also varied among the sublines; the resistance being reversible in some cell lines but not others. Conclusion: The present results indicate that when resistant sublines are derived simultaneously from the same starting cell population, the observed mechanisms of resistance may not be the same in each of the variants. These findings support the hypothesis that preexisting cellular heterogeneity may affect mechanisms of acquired resistance

  13. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio;

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  14. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  15. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP)

  16. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies....... This paper will highlight performance aspects which appear to be consistent with such an interpretation, as well as an important layman- expert knowledge asymmetry in affective categorization....

  17. A computational model of affects

    CERN Document Server

    Turkia, Mika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a simple logical structure, in which affective concepts (i.e. concepts related to emotions and feelings) can be defined. The set of affects defined is similar to the set of emotions covered in the OCC model (Ortony A., Collins A., and Clore G. L.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, 1988), but the model presented in this article is fully computationally defined.

  18. Rewards Affecting the Organizational Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Doina I. POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    To obtain and maintain a high-performing workforce, an enterprise must develop a well-conceived compensation program. In addition to a salary, employees may be rewarded with benefit plans, bonuses, perquisites, stock options, and other long-term incentives. The main purpose of this article is to study how rewards affect employee perceptions, attitudes, and behavior in a variety of ways. Also, the purpose of this article is to analyze how organizational efficiency and effectiveness are affecte...

  19. How braze flaws affect the thermal-hydraulic performance of the Tore Supra Phase-III outboard pump limiter. A case study of the effects of nonuniform thermal resistance on the peak heat flux to the coolant for tubes with one-sided heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-III Outboard Pump Limiter is a heat sink made of pyrolytic graphite armor brazed to water-cooled copper tubes. Around the inner wall of the tube wall, some of the water can be in the subcooled boiling regime. The central issue analyzed here is how the heat flow in the tube changes when the thermal resistance along the heated portion of the tube is redistributed. Cracks or braze flaws in the joint between the tile and tube cause this redistribution. Severe cracks or flaws reduce the power-handling capability of this assembly because the local peak heat fluxes increase and, for a given critical heat flux (CHF), the safety margin decreases. There were some surprises. The increase in local peak heat flux for the most common type of flaw encountered in the fabrication of this limiter was negligible up to a flaw size of nearly 50%. The examples presented are intended as a case study that illuminates the more general problem of how correlations for heat transfer and for CHF developed for uniform circumferential heating are applied to a case of one-sided heating. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  20. Quiescent cells: A natural way to resist chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchón, S. A.; Condat, C. A.

    2011-10-01

    Most chemotherapeutic treatments use drugs that target proliferating cancer cells. Therefore, they do not affect quiescent cells which are naturally resistant. Surviving cancer cells can reactivate their cell cycles in the intervals between doses, becoming proliferative again and thus restarting tumor growth. In this work, we present a mathematical model to study the impact of quiescent cells on chemotherapy effectiveness. Our simulations show that, although tumor growth is delayed after the beginning of each dose, the resistance of quiescent cells is enough to reactivate it due to accelerated repopulation, eventually causing therapy failure even in the absence of acquired resistance.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world's sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasovský, Dušan; Littmann, Jasper; Zorzet, Anna; Cars, Otto

    2016-08-01

    This commentary examines how specific sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected by antimicrobial resistance and suggests how the issue can be better integrated into international policy processes. Moving beyond the importance of effective antibiotics for the treatment of acute infections and health care generally, we discuss how antimicrobial resistance also impacts on environmental, social, and economic targets in the SDG framework. The paper stresses the need for greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and suggests steps towards a broader engagement of countries and United Nations agencies to foster global intersectoral action on antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27416324

  2. Assessment of resistance risk to fipronil and cross resistance to other insecticides in the Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Ijaz, Mamuna; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-06-15

    Fipronil, a phenyl-pyrazole insecticide has been used frequently for the control of disease vector house flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of fipronil resistance evolution along with cross resistance to other three insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the house fly strain developed 430-fold resistance to fipronil compared to a susceptible strain. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to fipronil was 0.05. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 30-90% house flies were selected then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 happened after 95.51-26.59 generations for fipronil (h(2)=0.05, Slope=2.34). At similar slope, if h(2)=0.15, then 31.84-8.86 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 30-90% selection intensity, respectively. Likewise, if h(2)=0.25, then similar would occur in 19.10-5.32 generations. Differences in any of the variable would affect the rate of resistance development. Selection with fipronil did not increase the level of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos and indoxacarb, suggesting no cross resistance to these insecticides. The results of our study concluded that house flies have the potential to develop resistances following continued selection pressure with fipronil. PMID:27198780

  3. Biophysical principles predict fitness landscapes of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João V; Bershtein, Shimon; Li, Anna; Lozovsky, Elena R; Hartl, Daniel L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2016-03-15

    Fitness landscapes of drug resistance constitute powerful tools to elucidate mutational pathways of antibiotic escape. Here, we developed a predictive biophysics-based fitness landscape of trimethoprim (TMP) resistance for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We investigated the activity, binding, folding stability, and intracellular abundance for a complete set of combinatorial DHFR mutants made out of three key resistance mutations and extended this analysis to DHFR originated from Chlamydia muridarum and Listeria grayi We found that the acquisition of TMP resistance via decreased drug affinity is limited by a trade-off in catalytic efficiency. Protein stability is concurrently affected by the resistant mutants, which precludes a precise description of fitness from a single molecular trait. Application of the kinetic flux theory provided an accurate model to predict resistance phenotypes (IC50) quantitatively from a unique combination of the in vitro protein molecular properties. Further, we found that a controlled modulation of the GroEL/ES chaperonins and Lon protease levels affects the intracellular steady-state concentration of DHFR in a mutation-specific manner, whereas IC50 is changed proportionally, as indeed predicted by the model. This unveils a molecular rationale for the pleiotropic role of the protein quality control machinery on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, which, as we illustrate here, may drastically confound the evolutionary outcome. These results provide a comprehensive quantitative genotype-phenotype map for the essential enzyme that serves as an important target of antibiotic and anticancer therapies. PMID:26929328

  4. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  5. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Şükran; Şengül YAMANEL

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  6. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  7. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further...

  8. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sourav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available While antiretroviral drugs, those approved for clinical use and others under evaluation, attempt in lowering viral load and boost the host immune system, antiretroviral drug resistance acts as a major impediment in the management of human immune deficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing has become an important tool in the therapeutic management protocol of HIV-1 infection. The reliability and clinical utilities of genotypic and phenotypic assays have been demonstrated. Understanding of complexities of interpretation of genotyping assay, along with updating of lists of mutation and algorithms, and determination of clinically relevant cut-offs for phenotypic assays are of paramount importance. The assay results are to be interpreted and applied by experienced HIV practitioners, after taking into consideration the clinical profile of the patient. This review sums up the methods of assay currently available for measuring resistance to antiretroviral drugs and outlines the clinical utility and limitations of these assays.

  9. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  10. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  11. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; FANG ZHU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  12. Omega 3 fatty acids chemosensitize multidrug resistant colon cancer cells by down-regulating cholesterol synthesis and altering detergent resistant membranes composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gelsomino, Giada; Corsetto, Paola A.; Campia, Ivana; Montorfano, Gigliola; Kopecka, Joanna; Castella, Barbara; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Rizzo, Angela M; Riganti, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which modulate cholesterol homeostasis in dyslipidemic syndromes and have chemopreventive effects in colon cancer, may affect the respo...

  13. Resisting religious coercive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2014-12-01

    Religious coercive control refers to the use of religious beliefs and doctrine as means to coercively control intimate partners. Scholars have shown that some abusive partners use the Christian doctrine of submission as a means of religious coercive control. I explore how victims who experience the doctrine of submission qua religious coercive control actively resist it. I argue that victims' successful resistance of the doctrine is contingent on their religious capital-that is, the knowledge and mastery that people have of a particular religious culture-and interpretive confidence-that is, people's subjective confidence in their interpretations of religious culture-related to the doctrine. PMID:25398370

  14. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  15. Corrosion resistant amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publication data on corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys and the methods of amorphization of surface layers of massive materials (laser treatment, iron implantation, detonation-gas spraying, cathode and ion sputtering, electrodeposition) was made. A study was made on corrosion properties of Fe66Cr11B10Si4 alloy in cast state and after laser irradiation, rendering the surface amorphous as well as the samples of Arenco iron and steel 20 with ion-plasma coatings of Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. It was established that amorphous coatings posses much higher corrosion resistance as compared to crystalline alloys on the same base

  16. Evaluation of aerodynamic and rolling resistances in mountain-bike field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William M; Rogier, Simon; Reiser, Raoul F

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic and rolling resistances are the two major resistances that affect road cyclists on level ground. Because of reduced speeds and markedly different tyre-ground interactions, rolling resistance could be more influential in mountain biking than road cycling. The aims of this study were to quantify 1) aerodynamic resistance of mountain-bike cyclists in the seated position and 2) rolling resistances of two types of mountain-bike tyre (smooth and knobby) in three field surfaces (road, sand and grass) with two pressure inflations (200 and 400 kPa). Mountain-bike cyclists have an effective frontal area (product of projected frontal area and drag coefficient) of 0.357 ± 0.023 m², with the mean aerodynamic resistance representing 8-35% of the total resistance to cyclists' motion depending on the magnitude of the rolling resistance. The smooth tyre had 21 ± 15% less rolling resistance than the knobby tyre. Field surface and inflation pressure also affected rolling resistance. These results indicate that aerodynamic resistance influences mountain-biking performance, even with lower speeds than road cycling. Rolling resistance is increased in mountain biking by factors such as tyre type, surface condition and inflation pressure that may also alter performance. PMID:23713547

  17. In Vitro Development of Resistance to Six and Four Fluoroquinolones in Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma hominis, Respectively

    OpenAIRE

    Gruson, D; S. Pereyre; Renaudin, H.; Charron, A.; Bébéar, C.; Bébéar, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Selection of resistant mutants in sequential subcultures with increasing concentrations of six and four different fluoroquinolones was studied for one reference strain each of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma hominis, respectively. All fluoroquinolones tested selected for resistance, with alterations affecting the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the four target topoisomerase genes.

  18. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen

  19. The resistivity imaging application in groundwater exploration: resistivity value and soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is rich in water resources. Water development has fueled socio-economic development of the country during the past decades. Dams and thousands of kilometers of pipes and canals divert water from the rivers to sustain domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Lately, the water situation for the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. The population growth and the expansion in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing rapidly growing demands and pressure on the water resources, besides contributing to the rising water pollution. Surface water resource, the traditional source of water supply in the past, has become inadequate in some areas. The problem becomes more acute in areas where surface water is affected by the increasing pollution from industrial and agricultural waste and where changes in land have adversely affected the quantity and quality of surface water supply. The development of groundwater as a source of water supply or as an alternative source is therefore a timely outlook. Lack in groundwater development will becoming disasters to country. Electrical resistivity had been used in groundwater exploration to get an accuracy result in a short time. This method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following: soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants and ground water. Variations in electrical resistivity may indicate changes in composition, layer thickness or contaminant levels. The resistivity values obtained from various groundwater exploration and experimental sites shows that the value differs also in related to the soil type. (Author)

  20. Positive affect and age as predictors of exercise compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is linked to individuals whose affect profiles are invariably positive and it induces anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic effects, buttressing blood–brain barrier intactness in both healthy individuals and those suffering from disorders accompanying overweight and obesity. In this regard, exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. In this brief report we present a self-reported study carried out on an adolescent and adult population (N = 280, 144 males and 136 females, which indicated that the propensity and compliance for exercise, measured as the “Archer ratio”, was predicted by a positive affect. This association is discussed from the perspective of health, well-being, affect dimensions, and age.

  1. Family Intimacy and Affection: A Sociology of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Floyd M.

    This paper deals with aspects of positive family affect in intimate family relationships such as: (1) the nuclear family of orientation, including the child-parent subgroup and the sibling subgroup; (2) the nuclear family of procreation, including the marital subgroup and parent-child subgroup; and (3) the dating relationship. Interpersonal…

  2. Behavioral Management: An Affective Approach. (Affective Education Trainers Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, John; Cole, Bob

    This manual provides a framework for training teachers who want to become more skilled in affective education. It is divided into three parts: teacher self-awareness, teacher-student interaction, and teacher-directed group activities. It is designed for use in a two-day workshop. Guidelines for discussions on expectations, responsibility,…

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice ...... acquired resistance genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter.......Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by...

  4. Breeding for insect resistance in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of cultivated cottons as fibre and food crops was discussed. More pest control research has been conducted on cotton than in any other crop plant. The different control measures such as use of chemicals, agronomic and cultural operations and utilization of parasites and predators were discussed in details. For breeding resistant cultivars the cooperation of the breeder and the entomologist is essential for a successful breeding programme. Plant resistance should be looked upon as the degree of interaction between the insect and its host plant under certain physiological, genetical and environmental conditions affecting both the insect and its host plant. Therefore more studies on the insect - plant relationship are to be carried out by the breeders and the entomologists. Breeding for jassid and bollworm resistance in the Sudan was discussed in details. The characters frego-bract, glabrous plant body, nectariless flower and leaf together with high gossypol content may confer resistance to, many insects in cotton. The possibilities of utilizing induced mutations in insect and host plants were discussed. (author)

  5. The stepwise evolution of the exome during acquisition of docetaxel resistance in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Ninel; Ehlers, Natasja Spring; Zhu, Shida;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resistance to taxane-based therapy in breast cancer patients is a major clinical problem that may be addressed through insight of the genomic alterations leading to taxane resistance in breast cancer cells. In the current study we used whole exome sequencing to discover somatic genomic...... concentrations of docetaxel. Whole exome sequencing performed at five successive stages during this process was used to identify single point mutational events, insertions/deletions and copy number alterations associated with the acquisition of docetaxel resistance. Acquired coding variation undergoing positive...... genomic event sufficiently predicts resistance to docetaxel, but require genomic alterations affecting multiple pathways that in concert establish the final resistance stage....

  6. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  7. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. Abrasion resistant tubular member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface of a tubular member made of an austenite stainless steel having a molybdenum content of from 2 to 3% is subjected to a low temperature ionization nitriding treatment in a gas atmosphere of N2: from 5 to 15% by volume, H2: from 95 to 85% by volume, at a temperature of from 400 to 470degC to form a nitride layer. Since the low temperature ion nitriding treatment is thus applied, generation of ε phase which lowers corrosion resistance can be suppressed. That is, the hardened layer (nitride layer) is provided with abrasion resistance, while the inside can keep the inherent characteristic of the austenite stainless steel having high toughness. In addition, this can avoid the tendency of lowering corrosion resistance due to the formation of a ε phase caused by exposure to high temperature for a long time in order to increase the thickness of the nitrided layer. When the thickness of the tube is 1.3mm, the less than 130μm is enough for the nitride layer. Abrasion resistance can be improved by thus applying ion nitriding treatment to the austenite stainless steel containing molybdenum under controlled temperature and atmosphere. (N.H.)

  10. Insect Resistant Maize 5307

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Syngenta Seeds Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Insect Resistant Maize 5307. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this corn event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  12. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner l

  13. Supporting IDP resistance strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poe Shan K Phan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether in hiding or living under military control, displacedvillagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burmahave shown themselves to be innovative and courageousin responding to and resisting military abuse. Theyurgently need increased assistance but it is they whoshould determine the direction of any such intervention.

  14. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  15. Resistance Management Research Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term sustainability of genetically modified corn expressing Bt relies on the validity of assumptions underlying IRM models used by the EPA and the ability of EPA to monitor, detect and react to insect resistance when it develops. The EPA is developing a multi-tiered approac...

  16. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e. the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities if these processes in EXTRAP may lead to the compression oscillations around and evolving rather stable equilibrium. The frequency of these oscillations is given. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. With 4 figures and 21 refs. (Author)

  17. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  18. Come, see and experience affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  20. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  1. Industrial applications of affective engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shiizuka, Hisao; Lee, Kun-Pyo; Otani, Tsuyoshi; Lim, Chee-Peng

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the industrial applications of affective engineering. The contributors cover new analytical methods such as fluctuation, fuzzy logic, fractals, and complex systems. These chapters also include interdisciplinary research that traverses a wide range of fields, including information engineering, human engineering, cognitive science, psychology, and design studies. The text is split into two parts: theory and applications. This work is a collection of the best papers from ISAE2013 (International Symposium of Affective Engineering) held at Kitakyushu, Japan and Japan Kansei Engineering Meeting on March 6-8, 2013.

  2. Affective Computing and Sentiment Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    This volume maps the watershed areas between two 'holy grails' of computer science: the identification and interpretation of affect -- including sentiment and mood. The expression of sentiment and mood involves the use of metaphors, especially in emotive situations. Affect computing is rooted in hermeneutics, philosophy, political science and sociology, and is now a key area of research in computer science. The 24/7 news sites and blogs facilitate the expression and shaping of opinion locally and globally. Sentiment analysis, based on text and data mining, is being used in the looking at news

  3. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  4. Manufacturing Panic: Affect and Contagion through Weather News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Okten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the intense emphasis on weather forecast news in the US media, this study will approach the news as “affective mediated phenomenon” in a search for the problems which motivates practices or depletions. Through the ontological readings of ‘affect’ in the recent literature on “affective turn”, it aims to open up a new platform to analyze the fundamentals of relationality within televised and online weather forecasting and their extension in the society. I will focus on the Facebook group “Stop the Weather Channel from naming Winter Storms” which was created as a resistance to the everyday production of affective threat-values of The Weather Channel (TWC’s naming of storms. I will analyze both the shared images from TV (via YouTube videos and user comments on them utilizing Brian Massumi’s notion of “affective facts” and Anna Gibbs’ notion of “affect-contagion”. I will argue that, weather news produces affective registers which trigger continuous processes of re-making of the bodies as if it is a real situation. Thus, through the affective reality of anticipated alternatives created by weather news, performative threat-value of the thought-signs increases. I will show instances of mimetic relations between the bodies as anxiety formation through the portrayals of practices of emptying supermarkets, showing “signs” through visualized narration of cloud movements, and live-connections to the “scene”. Media’s emphasis on faces, values and rhythms of resonance with the portrayed bodies in anxiety from the previous storms works as an activation contour of affect-contagion. Weather news produces a form of subjectivity through affective mediations of technical means which amplifies audiences.

  5. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-06-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry. PMID:25582732

  6. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, F A; Hall, A R; Buckling, A; Scanlan, P D

    2015-05-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite host range on host resistance evolution is less well understood. In this study, we tested the impact of parasite host range on host resistance evolution. To do so, we used the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a diverse suite of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage Φ2) with variable host ranges (defined here as the number of host genotypes that can be infected) as our experimental model organisms. Our results show that resistance evolution to coevolved phages occurred at a much lower rate than to ancestral phage (approximately 50% vs. 100%), but the host range of coevolved phages did not influence the likelihood of resistance evolution. We also show that the host range of both single parasites and populations of parasites does not affect the breadth of the resulting resistance range in a naïve host but that hosts that evolve resistance to single parasites are more likely to resist other (genetically) more closely related parasites as a correlated response. These findings have important implications for our understanding of resistance evolution in natural populations of bacteria and viruses and other host-parasite combinations with similar underlying infection genetics, as well as the development of phage therapy. PMID:25851735

  7. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  8. Electrical resistance tomography used in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes; ERT can also be used to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and clean-up processes (such as air injection in the saturated zone, steam injection, emplacement of subsurface barriers) can create changes in a soil's electrical properties that are readily measured. We use these measurements to calculate tomographs that show the spatial distribution of the subsurface resistivities. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: monitor the effectiveness of clean-up processes, characterize hydrologic processes affecting contaminant transport, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, demonstrate regulatory compliance, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers

  9. The compatibility of a nucleopolyhedrosis virus control with resistance management for Bacillus thuringiensis: co-infection and cross-resistance studies with the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, B; Sayyed, A H; Wright, D J

    2006-10-01

    The use of genetically modified crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can lead to the reduction in application of broad-spectrum pesticides and an increased opportunity for supplementary biological control. Bt microbial sprays are also used by organic growers or as part of integrated pest management programs that rely on the use of natural enemies. In both applications the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins is a potential problem. Natural enemies (pathogens or insects) acting in combination with toxins can accelerate or decelerate the evolution of resistance to Bt. In the present study we investigated whether the use of a nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) could potentially affect the evolution of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Plutella xylostella. At low toxin doses there was evidence for antagonistic interactions between AcMNPV and Cry1Ac resistant and susceptible insects. However, this antagonism was much stronger and more widespread for susceptible larvae; interactions were generally not distinguishable from additive for resistant larvae. Selection for resistance to Cry1Ac in two populations of P. xylostella with differing resistance mechanisms did not produce any correlated changes in resistance to AcMNPV. Stronger antagonistic interactions between Bt and AcMNPV on susceptible rather than resistant larvae can decrease the relative fitness between Bt-resistant and susceptible larvae. These interactions and the lack of cross-resistance between virus and toxin suggest that the use of NPV is compatible with resistance management to Bt products. PMID:16905146

  10. Durable resistance to Puccinia triticina by accumulation of resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual use of single race-specific resistance genes with major phenotypic effects has rarely provided lasting resistance. However, breeding and combining or pyramiding of resistance genes into individual cultivars has had considerable success, particularly in situations in which the pathogen does not reproduce sexually, as in the case of wheat leaf rust pathogen. In European-Mediterranean region perfomed international investigations of wheat leaf rust proved that breeding of new lines of wheat resistant to Puccinia triticina Eriks. for differentiation of pathogen population, as well as for sources of durable resistance is necessary. Breeding of such resistant lines has proved necessary due to the unsatisfatory survey results of these regions on standard isogenic Lr lines. It has become clear that these regions needed new, more efficient differential resistance genes, as well as sources of resistance. In the beginning, after extensive screening tests of several International Rust Nurseries, 18 donors of resistance had been selected as crosses with recurrent parents' varieties Princ and Starke. These hybrid lines had been comparatively tested with twenty six Lr single gene lines using twenty especially virulent cultures of P. triticina in order to check the presence of these known Lr genes in our hybrid lines. Considerable influence of recurrent parent to the number of resistant genes in used donors was demonstrated. On the other hand, considerable influence of the pathogen culture was established to the number of resistance genes in used donors. In order to enhance resistance and pyramiding genes in these hybrids, the most interesting selected eight lines have been crossed with only effective isogenic ones, containing the strong genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24. On the basis of different segregation rations of all crossing combinations it was proved that no one of resistant donors contained the applied strong resistant genes. It means that our

  11. From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Working paper serie RMT (WPS 10-06) , 17 p The development of emerging technologies encounters resistance among heterogeneous actors. A good understanding of that resistance phenomenon may help leaders to take decisions reflecting multiple interests. In particular, a better understanding of tenants of resistance may help defining strategic choices for further responsible developments of emerging technology. However only resistance of some actors, mainly the consumers, and some social movem...

  12. On the Primacy of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  13. Affective temperament and personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René

    2010-10-01

    The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood. PMID:20236706

  14. Affective Development in University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootenboer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…

  15. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  16. Cross resistances in spinosad-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee

    2014-03-01

    A Culex quinquefasciatus Say colony was selected for 45 generations at LC70-90 levels using Natular XRG, a granular formulation of 2.5% spinosad for induction of spinosad resistance. Resistance to spinosad was noticed in early generations (F1-F9). Resistance levels increased gradually from generations F11-F35, and elevated significantly from generation F37 through F47, when resistance ratios reached 2,845-2,907-fold at LC50 and 11,948-22,928-fold at LC90 The spinosad-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus colony was found not to be cross-resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a combination of Bti and Bacillus sphaericus, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, novaluron, temephos, or imidacloprid. However, it showed various levels of cross-resistance to B. sphaericus, spinetoram, abamectin, and fipronil. Conversely, a laboratory colony of Cx. quinquefasciatus that is highly resistant to B. sphaericus did not show cross-resistance to spinosad and spinetoram. Field-collected and laboratory-selected Cx. quinquefasciatus that showed low to moderate resistance to methoprene did not show cross-resistance to spinosad and spinetoram. Mechanisms of cross-resistance among several biorational pesticides were discussed according to their modes of actions. PMID:24724293

  17. Expression of Nucleolin Affects Microtubule Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Xavier; Place, Christophe; Delage, Helene; Mongelard, Fabien; Monier, Karine; Bouvet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolin is present in diverse cellular compartments and is involved in a variety of cellular processes from nucleolar structure and function to intracellular trafficking, cell adhesion and migration. Recently, nucleolin has been localized at the mature centriole where it is involved in microtubule nucleation and anchoring. Although this new function of nucleolin linked to microtubule regulation has been identified, the global effects of nucleolin on microtubule dynamics have not been addressed yet. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of nucleolin protein levels on global microtubule dynamics by tracking the EB3 microtubule plus end binding protein in live cells. We have found that during microtubule growth phases, nucleolin affects both the speed and life time of polymerization and by analyzing catastrophe events, we showed that nucleolin reduces catastrophe frequency. This new property of nucleolin was then confirmed in a cold induced microtubule depolymerization experiment in which we have found that cold resistant microtubules were totally destabilized in nucleolin depleted cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate a new function of nucleolin on microtubule stabilization, thus bringing novel insights into understanding the multifunctional properties of nucleolin in healthy and cancer cells. PMID:27309529

  18. Expression of Nucleolin Affects Microtubule Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gaume

    Full Text Available Nucleolin is present in diverse cellular compartments and is involved in a variety of cellular processes from nucleolar structure and function to intracellular trafficking, cell adhesion and migration. Recently, nucleolin has been localized at the mature centriole where it is involved in microtubule nucleation and anchoring. Although this new function of nucleolin linked to microtubule regulation has been identified, the global effects of nucleolin on microtubule dynamics have not been addressed yet. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of nucleolin protein levels on global microtubule dynamics by tracking the EB3 microtubule plus end binding protein in live cells. We have found that during microtubule growth phases, nucleolin affects both the speed and life time of polymerization and by analyzing catastrophe events, we showed that nucleolin reduces catastrophe frequency. This new property of nucleolin was then confirmed in a cold induced microtubule depolymerization experiment in which we have found that cold resistant microtubules were totally destabilized in nucleolin depleted cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate a new function of nucleolin on microtubule stabilization, thus bringing novel insights into understanding the multifunctional properties of nucleolin in healthy and cancer cells.

  19. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuyl Antoinette C

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SIR established by three characteristic retroviruses: Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV, Foamy Virus (FV, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. In addition, SIR is discussed with respect to HIV superinfection of humans. MuLV resistant mice exhibit two genetic resistance traits related to SIR. The cellular Fv4 gene expresses an Env related protein that establishes resistance against MuLV infection. Another mouse gene (Fv1 mediates MuLV resistance by expression of a sequence that is distantly related to Gag and that blocks the viral infection after the reverse transcription step. FVs induce two distinct mechanisms of superinfection resistance. First, expression of the Env protein results in SIR, probably by occupancy of the cellular receptors for FV entry. Second, an increase in the concentration of the viral Bet (Between-env-and-LTR-1-and-2 protein reduces proviral FV gene expression by inhibition of the transcriptional activator protein Tas (Transactivator of spumaviruses. In contrast to SIR in FV and MuLV infection, the underlying mechanism of SIR in HIV-infected cells is poorly understood. CD4 receptor down-modulation, a major characteristic of HIV-infected cells, has been proposed to be the main mechanism of SIR against HIV, but data have been contradictory. Several recent studies report the occurrence of HIV superinfection in humans; an event associated with the generation of recombinant HIV strains and possibly with increased disease progression. The role of SIR in protecting patients from HIV superinfection has not been studied so far. The phenomenon of SIR may also be important in the protection of primates that are vaccinated with live

  20. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  1. Genetic resistance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. I. Analysis of the mechanism of LeR resistance using radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that has been extensively studied in the rat. The Lewis rat is highly susceptible to the induction of EAE, while the Lewis resistant (LeR) rat is known to be resistant. In this paper, we demonstrate that the LeR rat, which was derived from the Lewis strain by inbreeding of fully resistant animals, is histocompatible with the Lewis strain. Radiation chimeras, a tool for distinguishing between immunologic and nonimmunologic resistance mechanisms, were utilized to analyze the cellular mechanisms involved in genetic resistance to EAE. By transplanting bone marrow cells from LeR rats into irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to EAE induction. Likewise, transplanting Lewis bone marrow cells into irradiated LeR recipients rendered LeR rats susceptible. Mixed lymphoid cell chimeras using bone marrow, spleen, and thymus cells in Lewis recipient rats revealed individual lymphoid cell types and cell interactions that significantly affected the incidence and severity of EAE. Our results suggest that LeR resistance is mediated by hematopoietic/immune cells, and that cells located in the spleen appear to play a critical role in the resistance/susceptibility to EAE induction. Depletion of splenic adherent cells did not change the patterns of EAE resistance. In vivo cell mixing studies suggested the presence of a suppressor cell population in the LeR spleen preparations which exerted an inhibitory effect on Lewis autoimmune responses. Thus, the mechanism of LeR resistance appears to be different from that in other EAE-resistant animals

  2. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend;

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing with...

  3. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  5. Rapid and Efficient Estimation of Pea Resistance to the Soil-Borne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by Infrared Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Rispail; Diego Rubiales

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilts are widespread diseases affecting most agricultural crops. In absence of efficient alternatives, sowing resistant cultivars is the preferred approach to control this disease. However, actual resistance sources are often overcome by new pathogenic races, forcing breeders to continuously search for novel resistance sources. Selection of resistant accessions, mainly based on the evaluation of symptoms at timely intervals, is highly time-consuming. Thus, we tested the potential of ...

  6. Environmental and genetic factors affecting mutability to aminoglycoside antibiotics among Escherichia coli K12 strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro A.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and genetic factors affecting the in vitro spontaneous mutation frequencies to aminoglycoside resistance in Escherichia coli K12 were investigated. Spontaneous mutation frequencies to kanamycin resistance were at least 100 fold higher on modified Luria agar (L2 plates, when compared to results obtained in experiments carried out with Nutrient agar (NA plates. In contrast to rifampincin, the increased mutability to kanamycin resistance could not be attributed to a mutator phenotype expressed by DNA repair defective strains. Kanamycin mutant selection windows and mutant preventive concentrations on L2 plates were at least fourfold higher than on NA plates, further demonstrating the role of growth medium composition on the mutability to aminoglycosides. Mutability to kanamycin resistance was increased following addition of sorbitol, suggesting that osmolarity is involved on the spontaneous mutability of E. coli K12 strains to aminoglycosides. The spontaneous mutation rates to kanamycin resistance on both L2 and NA plates were strictly associated with the selective antibiotic concentrations. Moreover, mutants selected at different antibiotic concentrations expressed heterogeneous resistance levels to kanamycin and most of them expressing multiple resistance to all tested aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, neomycin, amykacin and tobramycin. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the complex nature of aminoglycoside resistance and the emergence of spontaneous resistant mutants among E. coli K12 strains.

  7. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  8. Engineering disease resistance in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Custers, J.H.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic engineering of plants for increased pathogen resistance has engaged researchers and companies for decades. Until now, thenumberof crops with genetically engineered disease resistance traits which have entered the market are limited to products displaying virus and insect resistance. Development and registration of plants with increased broad-spectrum resistance to bacteria or fungi have failed due to limited efficacy or poor agronomic properties. This is largely due to the high di...

  9. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  10. Multi-polar resistance switching and memory effect in copper phthalocyanine junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper phthalocyanine junctions, fabricated by magnetron sputtering and evaporating methods, show multi-polar (unipolar and bipolar) resistance switching and the memory effect. The multi-polar resistance switching has not been observed simultaneously in one organic material before. With both electrodes being cobalt, the unipolar resistance switching is universal. The high resistance state is switched to the low resistance state when the bias reaches the set voltage. Generally, the set voltage increases with the thickness of copper phthalocyanine and decreases with increasing dwell time of bias. Moreover, the low resistance state could be switched to the high resistance state by absorbing the phonon energy. The stability of the low resistance state could be tuned by different electrodes. In Au/copper phthalocyanine/Co system, the low resistance state is far more stable, and the bipolar resistance switching is found. Temperature dependence of electrical transport measurements demonstrates that there are no obvious differences in the electrical transport mechanism before and after the resistance switching. They fit quite well with Mott variable range hopping theory. The effect of Al2O3 on the resistance switching is excluded by control experiments. The holes trapping and detrapping in copper phthalocyanine layer are responsible for the resistance switching, and the interfacial effect between electrodes and copper phthalocyanine layer affects the memory effect. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity. PMID:27179965

  12. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as it is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a...... series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, we show that the Reynolds stress is always positive and the Maxwell stress is always negative. Therefore, even in the presence of viscosity and resistivity, the total mean angular...... momentum transport is always directed outwards. We also find that, for any combination of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers, magnetic disturbances dominate both the energetics and the transport of angular momentum and that the total mean energy density is an upper bound for the total mean stress...

  13. Plasma resistant structural member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a plasma resistant ceramic material of a plasma confining device for a tokamak thermonuclear device. Namely, the structural member of the present invention comprises a ceramic-based fibrous composite material having a matrix mainly comprising SiC and fibers composited in the matrix, as a constitution undergoing heat fluxes from plasmas. It is constituted such that it undergoes heat fluxes from plasmas by way of a surface in the direction having the highest heat conductivity. Since the fibers are a reinforcing material for enhancing the toughness of the SiC matrix, SiC type fibers are used. With such a constitution, the structural member has excellent properties such as high temperature strength, high temperature creeping characteristics, high heat stability, elasticity, heat conductivity and sputtering resistance, in addition to provide a high melting point (high sublimation temperature) and a low atomic weight. (N.H.)

  14. AUXIN-PRODUCING BACTERIA AND UREASE ACTIVITY IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT SOYBEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated use of glyphosate on glyphosate-resistant crops has raised concerns regarding the potential environmental impacts of this herbicide. Glyphosate may affect microbial production of plant-growth-regulating compounds including hydrogen cyanide, phytohormones including auxins, and other unidenti...

  15. The fight against Antimicrobial Resistance: Important recent publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    this serious threat is no longer a mere forecast for the future. AMR is a contemporary problem in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. Consequently the WHO report concludes that antibiotic resistance is now a major threat to public health that...

  16. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are the backbone of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Despite the high burden of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in the country, little is known about drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients from Pakistan. Objective To evaluate drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a programmatic management unit of drug resistant tuberculosis, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. Two hundred and forty-three newly diagnosed multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients consecutively enrolled for treatment at study site from January 1, 2012 to July 28, 2013 were included in the study. A standardized data collection form was used to collect patients’ socio-demographic, microbiological, and clinical data. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results High degree of drug resistance (median 5 drugs, range 2–8 was observed. High proportion of patients was resistant to all five first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (62.6%, and more than half were resistant to second line drugs (55.1%. The majority of the patients were ofloxacin resistant (52.7%. Upon multivariate analysis previous tuberculosis treatment at private (OR = 1.953, p = 0.034 and public private mix (OR = 2.824, p = 0.046 sectors were predictors of ofloxacin resistance. Conclusion The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public–private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  17. Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun H.; Reaven, Gerald M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Recently, it has been suggested that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can exist in isolation and have differential impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD). To evaluate this suggestion, we assessed the degree of discordance between insulin sensitivity and insulin response in a healthy, nondiabetic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Insulin sensitivity was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during an insulin suppression test in 4...

  18. Steroid resistance in leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Darshan S; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    There are several types of leukemia which are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells from the myeloid or lymphoid lineage. Because of their lympholytic actions, glucocorticoids (GCs) are included in many therapeutic regimens for the treatment of various forms of leukemia. Although a significant number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients respond well to GC treatment during initial phases; prolonged treatments sometimes results in steroid-resistance. The exact mechanism of this resi...

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  20. Treatment Resistant Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elvan Ozalp; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu

    2015-01-01

    Many patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder respond incompletely or unsatisfactorily to available treatments. Defining refractoriness in bipolar disorder is a complex issue and should concern and include either every phase and pole or the disorder as a whole. There are only limited and sometimes confusing data on the treatment of refractory bipolar patients. The objective of this paper was to review the evidence for treatment options in treatment resistant patients on depressive, manic atta...

  1. Is Resistance Useless? Multidrug Resistance and Collateral Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew D.; Handley, Misty D.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    When cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapeutics, it is frequently conferred by the ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (MDR1, P-gp, ABCB1). P-gp can efflux a wide range of cancer drugs; thus its expression confers cross-resistance, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), to a wide range of drugs. Strategies to overcome this resistance have been actively sought for over 30 years, yet no clinical solutions exist. A less understood aspect of MDR is the hypersensitivity of resistant can...

  2. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  3. Resistance within hemodialysis shunts predicts patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trung D; Gordon, Ian L; Parashar, Amish; Vo, David; Wilson, Samuel E

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between patency after thrombectomy of clotted dialysis grafts and intraoperative measurements of flow (Q), pressure gradient (PGR), and longitudinal resistance (RL). Eighteen thrombosed arteriovenous (AV) grafts underwent 21 thrombectomies. Pressures at arterial (P1) and venous (P2) ends of the AV grafts were determined with 22-gauge catheters and standard transducers; flow was measured with transit-time probes; arithmetic averaging of waveforms was used to compute mean Q, PGR, and RL. Kaplan-Meier patency curves were analyzed by using log rank methods. Mean patency for all grafts was 164 +/-152 days. For each variable, the 21 measurements were split and the patency curve for the grafts with the 11 lowest value grafts was compared to the curve representing the 10 highest value grafts. The difference between high RL versus low RL patency curves was significant with high-resistance grafts having a median patency of 55 days and low-resistance grafts having a median patency greater than 151 days (p = 0.0089). In contrast, the high Q group median patency was 151 days versus 174 days for the low Q group (p = 0.86). Median patency for the low PGR group was 115 days compared to 62 days for the high PGR group (p = 0.162). Longitudinal resistance within AV grafts, but not flow or pressure gradient, showed a significant correlation with patency after thrombectomy. Increased resistance to flow within AV grafts appears to be an important factor affecting the propensity of dialysis grafts to thrombose. PMID:16959723

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  6. A Study on Kaolin and Titanium dioxide affecting Physical Properties of Electrocoating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wonseog; Hwang, Woonsuk [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The electrocoating for automotive bodies is pigmented with a mixture of titanium dioxide and kaolin. In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide and kaolin contents in coating on electrodeposition process, drying, and surface properties such as surface roughness, gloss, impact resistance and corrosion resistance were investigated. Titanium dioxide and kaolin in coating do not have a decisive effect on curing reaction during drying and corrosion resistance but on gloss, surface roughness, impact resistance and electrodeposition process of coating. According to its size and shape on coating surface, pigment contents increased during drying process. However, the contents of kaolin and TiO{sub 2} in coating didn't affect the corrosion resistance on zinc phosphated substrate, and the curing properties.

  7. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  8. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  9. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  10. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Simon L; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy. PMID:16418526

  11. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Gaviria Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: tuberculosis is an increasing problem of global health and the microbialdrug resistance a generating element of worry.Clinical case: 19 year-old patient, who admitted to the emergency room for presentinghemoptysis and who had history of pulmonary tuberculosis with irregular treatment.Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was documented and different strategies of availablemedical treatment were considered. Due to the increased epidemiological risk and thehistory of poor adherence to the treatment, an in-hospital treatment was carried outwith a satisfactory response.Conclusion: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a social risk, keeping the route oftransmission of the disease. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1:159-164RESUMEN:Introducción: la tuberculosis (TB pulmonar es un problema creciente de saludmundial y la resistencia a los antibióticos un elemento de preocupación.Caso clínico: paciente de 19 años, quien ingresó al servicio de urgencias por presentarhemoptisis. Antecedente de TB con tratamiento irregular. Se documentó resistenciaa varios medicamentos. Se consideraron las diferentes estrategias de tratamientodisponible. Debido al elevado riesgo epidemiológico y la historia de pobre adherencia altratamiento, se realizó manejo intrahospitalario con respuesta satisfactoria.Conclusiones: la tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB representa un riesgo parala comunidad, teniendo en cuenta la vía de transmisión de la entidad. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1:159-164

  12. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  13. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Hajer eRadhouani; Nuno eSilva; Patrícia ePoeta; Carmen eTorres; Susana eCorreia; Gilberto eIgrejas

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting...

  14. Effects of host plant and genetic background on the fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, B.; Wright, D. J.; Bonsall, M B

    2010-01-01

    Novel resistance to pathogens and pesticides is commonly associated with a fitness cost. However, measurements of the fitness costs of insecticide resistance have used diverse methods to control for genetic background and rarely assess the effects of environmental variation. Here, we explored how genetic background interacts with resource quality to affect the expression of the fitness costs associated with resistance. We used a serially backcrossed line of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylo...

  15. Activities of oral and parenteral agents against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Pankuch, G A; Visalli, M A; Jacobs, M. R.; Appelbaum, P C

    1995-01-01

    This study examined bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of oral and parenteral antibiotics for penicillin-susceptible and intermediately and fully penicillin-resistant pneumococci. beta-Lactamase inhibitors did not affect beta-lactam results. The activities of ampicillin, amoxicillin +/- clavulanate, WY-49605, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefixime, and cefaclor against two penicillin-susceptible, two intermediately penicillin-resistant, and two fully penicillin-resistant pneumoco...

  16. The Role of Hepatic FoxO1 in Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Alisha Viva

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major health concern in the US, affecting a third of all adults and amplifying the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The central pathophysiological root of metabolic syndrome is widely considered to be insulin resistance, though the mechanisms linking insulin resistance to this clinical constellation of obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hepatic steatosis are poorly understood. In insulin resistance, insulin suppression of the forkhead box protein O1 (F...

  17. Lytic phages obscure the cost of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Hall, Alex R

    2014-01-01

    The long-term persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria depends on their fitness relative to other genotypes in the absence of drugs. Outside the laboratory, viruses that parasitize bacteria (phages) are ubiquitous, but costs of antibiotic resistance are typically studied in phage-free experimental conditions. We used a mathematical model and experiments with Escherichia coli to show that lytic phages strongly affect the incidence of antibiotic resistance in drug-free conditions. Under pha...

  18. Affect and technology acceptance: A test of two mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Commercialization of new technologies may be hampered by stakeholder resistance and a sceptical public. Genetic modification (GM) has suffered particularly from such problems. At present, for example, practically no products exist on the shelves of European retailers that are labelled as containing...... resistant to all forms of communicative interventions. A study is presented in which the effectiveness and mechanisms of direct-experience interventions are experimentally tested. Results indicate that the positive affect evoked by a single trial of a high-quality genetically modified food can lead to...... practice, focusing on point-of-sale promotions that could be the key element in the launch of the first genetically modified foods in markets that are as yet GM-free....

  19. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  20. Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect shows how mediations of bodily vulnerability have become a strong political force in contemporary societies. In discussions and struggles concerning war involvement, healthcare issues, charity, democracy movements, contested national pasts, and climate change...... culture. Likewise, it presents a range of close empirical case studies in the areas of illness blogging, global protests after the killing of Neda Agda Soltan in Iran, charity communication, green media activism, online war commemoration and digital witnessing related to conflicts in Sarajevo and Ukraine......., performances of bodily vulnerability is increasingly used by citizens to raise awareness, create sympathy, encourage political action, and to circulate information in global media networks. The book thus argues that bodily vulnerability can serve as a catalyst for affectively charging and disseminating...

  1. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  2. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger;

    2015-01-01

    calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P < 0.001). Resistance was detected in 77.9% of......OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...

  3. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  4. Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A; Simmons Z

    2013-01-01

    Aiesha Ahmed, Zachary SimmonsDepartment of Neurology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) may occur in association with a variety of neurological diseases, and so may be encountered in the setting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. The psychological consequences and the impact on social interactions may be...

  5. Trade Finance Affects Trade Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    ARESPA CASTELLÓ, Marta; Gruber, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Existent literature is by no means conclusive on the effects of trade finance on trade and the economy. We propose a suitable framework to explore the linkages between international trade and finance based on an international real business cycle model where firms require external finance to import and can be financially constrained. We find that credit shocks do affect the dynamic properties of the economy and they have the potential to cause significant deviations in trade and economic perfo...

  6. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    OpenAIRE

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identifi...

  7. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  8. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, inters...

  9. Internal factors affecting brand performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Fiona J.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of effective branding, several recent trends have indicated the need for greater attention within the organisation than has traditionally been the case. With increased emphasis on corporate branding, the team responsible for managing a brand is becoming larger and more diverse and all staff, as the corporate brand's representatives, affect consumers' perceptions of the corporate brand. Furthermore, the shift in emphasis in the literature from the externally perceived brand image to t...

  10. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  11. 30 CFR 27.40 - Test to determine resistance to dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to dust. 27.40... determine resistance to dust. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by dust, such as coal or rock dust, shall be tested in an atmosphere containing...

  12. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications. PMID:25773634

  13. Cellular Accumulation and Activity of Quinolones in Ciprofloxacin-Resistant J774 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Michot, Jean-Michel; Heremans, Marie F.; Caceres, Nancy E; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is the substrate for a multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP)-like multidrug transporter in J774 mouse macrophages, which also modestly affects levofloxacin but only marginally affects garenoxacin and moxifloxacin (J.-M. Michot et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2429-2437, 2005). Two clones of ciprofloxacin-resistant cells were obtained by a stepwise increase in drug concentration (from 34 to 51 to 68 mg/liter) in the culture fluid. Compared to wild-type cells, ciprofl...

  14. Deep resistivity structure in southwestern Utah and its geothermal significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements in southwestern Utah have yielded a model of resistivity structure in this area to a depth of about 100 km. The MT observations are strongly affected by Great Basin graben sedimentary fill, which constitutes conductive upper-crustal lateral inhomogeneity and requires simulation using two- and three-dimensional modeling algorithms before deeper portions of the resistivity section can be resolved. Included in the model is a layer of low resistivity (20 ..cap omega..-m) residing from 35 to 65 km depth. Sensitivity tests of the data to the structure weigh strongly against the top of this layer being as shallow as 25 km and against the conductivity and thickness of the layer being highly correlated. No intra-crustal low-resistivity layer is indicated by the MT data.

  15. Insecticide Resistance in the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    assays used in this study appeared to have modest value for detecting resistance to methiocarb in field populations of F. occidentalis. The particular host plant of a polyphagous insect population may affect activity of detoxification enzymes and tolerance to insecticides. Another part of this study......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance to...... insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  16. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and molecular testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro eNishizawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the main factor affecting the efficacy of current treatment methods against infection caused by this organism. The traditional culture methods for testing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are expensive and require 10 to 14 days. Since resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, and tetracycline seems to be exclusively caused by specific mutations in a small region of the responsible gene, molecular methods offer an attractive alternative to the above-mentioned techniques. The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR is an accurate and rapid method for the detection of mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. This review highlights the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori and the molecular methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  17. The genetics of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, J A; Smith, M M; Vassilatis, D K; Avery, L

    2000-03-14

    The ability of organisms to evolve resistance threatens the effectiveness of every antibiotic drug. We show that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, simultaneous mutation of three genes, avr-14, avr-15, and glc-1, encoding glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) alpha-type subunits confers high-level resistance to the antiparasitic drug ivermectin. In contrast, mutating any two channel genes confers modest or no resistance. We propose a model in which ivermectin sensitivity in C. elegans is mediated by genes affecting parallel genetic pathways defined by the family of GluCl genes. The sensitivity of these pathways is further modulated by unc-7, unc-9, and the Dyf (dye filling defective) genes, which alter the structure of the nervous system. Our results suggest that the evolution of drug resistance can be slowed by targeting antibiotic drugs to several members of a multigene family. PMID:10716995

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by...... acquired resistance genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  19. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm

  20. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigas, Vytautas; Šulginas, Anatolijus; Žiliukas, Pranas

    2015-01-01

    Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke. PMID:27293479

  1. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Grigas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke.

  2. Roughness, resistance, and dispersion: Relationships in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Although relationships between roughness, flow, and transport processes in rivers and streams have been investigated for several decades, the prediction of flow resistance and longitudinal dispersion in small streams is still challenging. Major uncertainties in existing approaches for quantifying flow resistance and longitudinal dispersion at the reach scale arise from limitations in the characterization of riverbed roughness. In this study, we characterized the riverbed roughness in small moderate-gradient streams (0.1-0.5% bed slope) and investigated its effects on flow resistance and dispersion. We analyzed high-resolution transect-based measurements of stream depth and width, which resolved the complete roughness spectrum with scales ranging from the micro to the reach scale. Independently measured flow resistance and dispersion coefficients were mainly affected by roughness at spatial scales between the median grain size and the stream width, i.e., by roughness between the micro- and the mesoscale. We also compared our flow resistance measurements with calculations using various flow resistance equations. Flow resistance in our study streams was well approximated by the equations that were developed for high gradient streams (>1%) and it was overestimated by approaches developed for sand-bed streams with a smooth riverbed or ripple bed. This article was corrected on 10 MAY 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  4. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  5. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiliukas, Pranas

    2016-01-01

    Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke. PMID:27293479

  6. Linking Gut Microbiota and Inflammation to Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M J A; Santos, A; Prada, P O

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are the major predisposing factors to comorbidities, such as Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. The prevalence of obesity is still increasing worldwide and now affects a large number of individuals. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance/obesity. The human intestine is colonized by ∼100 trillion bacteria, which constitute the gut microbiota. Studies have shown that lean and overweight rodents and humans may present differences in the composition of their intestinal flora. Over the past 10 years, data from different sources have established a causal link between the intestinal microbiota and obesity/insulin resistance. It is important to emphasize that diet-induced obesity promotes insulin resistance by mechanisms independent and dependent on gut microbiota. In this review, we present several mechanisms that contribute to explaining the link between intestinal flora and insulin resistance/obesity. The LPS from intestinal flora bacteria can induce a chronic subclinical inflammatory process and obesity, leading to insulin resistance through activation of TLR4. The reduction in circulating SCFA may also have an essential role in the installation of reduced insulin sensitivity and obesity. Other mechanisms include effects of bile acids, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), and some other lesser-known factors. In the near future, this area should open new therapeutic avenues for obesity/insulin resistance and its comorbidities. PMID:27252163

  7. Evaluation of Factors Affecting IASCC of Reactor Internal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor internal of PWR is highly irradiated. The main damage mechanism of reactor internal has been considered as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). The effect of neutron irradiation on material has been studied by many researcher. Neutron irradiation depletes Cr content in grain boundary, induces hydrogen and helium, makes vacancy and dislocation loop. And the resistance of IASCC is decreased by neutron irradiation. These effects are different with materials and environment condition. To reduce IASCC, it is necessary to investigate which factor is the most important to IASCC. In this study, the relative importance of factors affecting IASCC is studied by artificial neural network method

  8. Controlling antibiotic resistance in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derde, L.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are frequently colonized with (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria, which may lead to healthcare associated infections. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (V

  9. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  10. Effects of pressure and temperature on thermal contact resistance between different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether pressure and temperature can affect thermal contact resistance, we have proposed a new experimental approach for measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Taking the thermal contact resistance between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites, cuprum, and aluminum as the examples, the influence of the thermal contact resistance between specimens under pressure is tested by experiment. Two groups of experiments are performed and then an analysis on influencing factors of the thermal contact resistance is presented in this paper. The experimental results reveal that the thermal contact resistance depends not only on the thermal conductivity coefficient of materials, but on the interfacial temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the thermal contact resistance between cuprum and aluminum is more sensitive to pressure and temperature than that between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites.

  11. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy: Implications for Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin resistance, such as the homeostatic model assessment and the euglycemic insulin clamp, can be impractical, expensive, and invasive. Abundant evidence exists that relates increased pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and vascular dysfunction with insulin resistance. We introduce a potential method of assessing insulin resistance that relies on a novel signal-processing algorithm, the intrinsic frequency method (IFM). The method requires a single pulse pressure wave, thus the term " wave biopsy." PMID:26183600

  12. Diet affects spawning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Michelle L; Rizzuto, Noel V; Brown, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Seven-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed four different diets to test the hypothesis that diet affects spawning success and resulting characteristics of eggs and offspring. The diets were: the recommended feeding regime for zebrafish (a mixture of Artemia, flake feed, and liver paste); Artemia; a flake feed; and a commercially available trout diet. The number of eggs laid and average egg diameter were significantly different as functions of male, female, and individual matings. Fish fed the flake diet produced significantly fewer eggs (mean, 116) than fish fed all other diets (means, 166-187). However, the percent hatch of eggs from fish fed the flake diet (62.5%) was significantly higher than from fish fed the trout diet (19.5%). The percentages of hatched eggs from fish fed the control diet (36.2%) or Artemia (35.6%) were not significantly different from each other or from fish fed the other two diets. Wet weight and diameter of eggs were not significantly affected by diet. Larval length was significantly higher from parents fed the flake diet (14.5 mm) compared to larvae from parents fed Artemia (13.7 mm). Length of larvae from fish fed the control or trout diets was intermediate and not significantly different from fish fed the flake diet or Artemia. Larval weight was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, but offspring from fish fed the flake diet were heavier than larvae from adults fed any of the other diets. Feeding adult zebrafish the flake diet alone resulted in more viable offspring and larger larvae and is a simpler feeding regime than the current recommendation. The authors recommend feeding adult zebrafish flake diets to satiation three times daily for maximum production of viable offspring. PMID:18041944

  13. Cross-resistance pattern and alternative herbicides for Cyperus difformis resistant to sulfonylurea herbicides in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Yong In; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kwon, Oh Do; Lee, Do Jin; Burgos, Nilda R; Jung, Sunyo; Guh, Ja Ock

    2004-01-01

    A Cyperus difformis L accession from Chonnam province, Korea was tested for resistance to the sulfonylurea herbicide, imazosulfuron. The accession was confirmed to be resistant (R) and was cross-resistant to other sulfonylurea herbicides, bensulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, the pyrimidinyl thiobenzoate herbicide, bispyribac-sodium, and the imidazolinone herbicide imazapyr, but not to imazaquin. Multiple resistance was tested using twelve herbicides with target sites other than acetolactate synthase (ALS). The R biotype could be controlled by other herbicides with different modes of action such as butachlor, carfentrazone-ethyl, clomeprop, dithiopyr, esprocarb, mefenacet, oxadiazon, pretilachlor, pyrazolate and thiobencarb, applied to soil at recommended rates. Several sulfonylurea herbicide-based mixtures can control both the R and S biotypes of C difformis, except sulfonylurea plus dimepiperate, molinate or pyriftalid, and pyrazolate plus butachlor. Although mixtures of sulfonylurea herbicides might be more effective, they should be avoided and used only in special cases. In terms of in vitro ALS activity, the R biotype was 1139-, 3583-, 1482-, 416-, 5- and 9-fold more resistant to bensulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron, imazosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bispyribac-sodium and imazapyr, respectively, than the S biotype. The in vivo ALS activity of the R biotype was also less affected by the sulfonylurea herbicides, imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, than the S biotype. Results of in vitro and in vivo ALS assays indicated that the resistance mechanism of C difformis to ALS inhibitor herbicides was primarily due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. Greenhouse experiments showed delayed flowering and reduced seed production of the R biotype, which could possibly result in reduced fitness. This unusual observation needs to be confirmed in field situations. PMID:14727745

  14. affective variables of language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  15. How indoor environment affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    , in the form of answers to 40 frequently asked questions. Our answers are based on the results of behavioral experiments conducted to date. We offer no opinions on long-term health effects of indoor environmental quality. We provide some references to relevant sources, but there is not enough space......As experienced researchers in the effects of thermal comfort and indoor air quality on performance, we are often asked to give our best estimate of how, and to what extent, performance is affected by different aspects of indoor climate. This article provides a brief summary of our personal opinions...

  16. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  17. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkis, Helio; Buckley, Peter F

    2016-06-01

    Although treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was described 50 years ago and has a gold standard treatment with clozapine based on well-defined criteria, there is still a matter of great interest and controversy. In terms of the underlying mechanisms of the development of TRS, progress has been made for the elucidation of the neurochemical mechanisms. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with TRS have significant reduction of the prefrontal cortex volume when compared with non- TRS. This article updates and enhances our previous review with new evidence mainly derived from new studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. PMID:27216902

  18. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  19. Downy mildew resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 in susceptible grapevines partially mimics transcriptional changes of resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perazzolli Michele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39 can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. A next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by T39 in Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir leaves. The long-term aim was to develop strategies to optimize the use of this agent for downy mildew control. Results More than 14.8 million paired-end reads were obtained for each biological replicate of T39-treated and control leaf samples collected before and 24 h after P. viticola inoculation. RNA-Seq analysis resulted in the identification of 7,024 differentially expressed genes, highlighting the complex transcriptional reprogramming of grapevine leaves during resistance induction and in response to pathogen inoculation. Our data show that T39 has a dual effect: it directly modulates genes related to the microbial recognition machinery, and it enhances the expression of defence-related processes after pathogen inoculation. Whereas several genes were commonly affected by P. viticola in control and T39-treated plants, opposing modulation of genes related to responses to stress and protein metabolism was found. T39-induced resistance partially inhibited some disease-related processes and specifically activated defence responses after P. viticola inoculation, causing a significant reduction of downy mildew symptoms. Conclusions The global transcriptional analysis revealed that defence processes known to be implicated in the reaction of resistant genotypes to downy mildew were partially activated by T39-induced resistance in susceptible grapevines. Genes identified in this work are an important source of markers

  20. Chitosan Microparticles Exert Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity against Antibiotic-Resistant Micro-organisms without Increasing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhengxin; Kim, Donghyeon; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Ko, Sanghoon; Galvao, Klibs; Jeong, Kwangcheol Casey

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is growing exponentially, increasing public health concerns for humans and animals. In the current study, we investigated the antimicrobial features of chitosan microparticles (CM), engineered from chitosan by ion gelation, seeking potential application for treating infectious disease caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms. CM showed excellent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including clinically important antibiotic-resistant pathogens without raising resistant mutants in serial passage assays over a period of 15 days, which is a significantly long passage compared to tested antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. In addition, CM treatment did not cause cross-resistance, which is frequently observed with other antibiotics and triggers multidrug resistance. Furthermore, CM activity was examined in simulated gastrointestinal fluids that CM encounter when orally administered. Antimicrobial activity of CM was exceptionally strong to eliminate pathogens completely. CM at a concentration of 0.1 μg/mL killed E. coli O157:H7 (5 × 10(8) CFU/mL) completely in synthetic gastric fluid within 20 min. Risk assessment of CM, in an in vitro animal model, revealed that CM did not disrupt the digestibility, pH or total volatile fatty acid production, indicating that CM likely do not affect the functionality of the rumen. Given all the advantages, CM can serve as a great candidate to treat infectious disease, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens without adverse side effects. PMID:27057922