WorldWideScience

Sample records for aesculus carnea

  1. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. T...

  2. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  3. Comparative analysis of microspore size variability in the genus Aesculus (Hippocastanaceae

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    Ćalić-Dragosavac Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen size varies extensively among angiosperm species and partially reflects evolutionary adaptation of each species to the pollination and fertilization environment. Size of uninuclear microspores in Aesculus parviflora was analyzed and compared with the size of microspores in Aesculus hippocastanum, Aesculus carnea, and Aesculus flava. The microspores came from closed flower buds of different size (3, 4, and 5 mm isolated from lower (female flowers, middle (bisexual flowers, and upper (male flowers segments of inflorescences. Aesculus parviflora had smaller microspores than Aesculus carnea and Aesculus flava, but larger microspores than Aesculus hippocastanum. All analyzed microspores showed bimodal distribution in all investigated species of the genus Aesculus.

  4. Comparative analysis of microspore size variability in the genus Aesculus (Hippocastanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ćalić-Dragosavac Dušica; Zdravković-Korać Snežana; Miljković Danijela; Radojević Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Pollen size varies extensively among angiosperm species and partially reflects evolutionary adaptation of each species to the pollination and fertilization environment. Size of uninuclear microspores in Aesculus parviflora was analyzed and compared with the size of microspores in Aesculus hippocastanum, Aesculus carnea, and Aesculus flava. The microspores came from closed flower buds of different size (3, 4, and 5 mm) isolated from lower (female flowers), middle (bisexual flowers), and upper ...

  5. STUDY ON THE INFESTATION BY CAMERARIA OHRIDELLA ON AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM FOLIAGE FROM TIMIŞOARA, ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Eugenia ŞESAN; Mădălina SCURTU; Adina MATICA; Georgiana Valentina CIOCAN; Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2012-01-01

    Cameraria ohridella is the most important pest on the horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum) in Timişoara. Aesthetic damage is severe. In all cases regular and high infestation with the moth was recorded. Infestation levels increased after the fruiting phenophase. The dangerous and frequent fungus, disturbing horse chestnut leaves – Guignardia aesculi – was recorded. Aesculus x carnea sometimes shows infestation, if it is planted near heavily infested horse chestnut trees. We determin...

  6. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae......, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed....

  7. STUDY ON THE INFESTATION BY CAMERARIA OHRIDELLA ON AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM FOLIAGE FROM TIMIŞOARA, ROMANIA

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    Tatiana Eugenia ŞESAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameraria ohridella is the most important pest on the horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum in Timişoara. Aesthetic damage is severe. In all cases regular and high infestation with the moth was recorded. Infestation levels increased after the fruiting phenophase. The dangerous and frequent fungus, disturbing horse chestnut leaves – Guignardia aesculi – was recorded. Aesculus x carnea sometimes shows infestation, if it is planted near heavily infested horse chestnut trees. We determined the histoanatomical and ecophysiological parameters: leaf thickness (LT, leaf thickness lost (LTL, leaf relative water content (LRWC, leaf ash content (LAC, succulence(S and specific leaf aria (SLA. The development of galleries by Cameraria ochridella is achieved on leaf maturity, when their thickness exceeds 135μm. It is assumed that larvae did not show a preference for leaves of an urban area or green area. Our data indicate that stress resulting in simultaneous attacks carried out by Cameraria ochridella and Guignardia aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum leaf is combined with stress given by intense traffic. In the second and third decade of July increased level of infestation, more severe in urban areas with heavy traffic.

  8. Two new isospirostanol sapogenins from Reineckia carnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wang; Na Han; Ling Li Chen; Zhi Hui Liu; Li Bo Zou; Jun Yin

    2012-01-01

    Two new isospirostanol sapogenins named (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1o,3o)-diol (1) and (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1α,2α,3α,4α)-tetrol (2) were isolated from the whole herb ofReineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth.The structures of the sapogenins were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods.

  9. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Štajner; Popović, Boris M.; Dušica Ćalić; Marijana Štajner

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all th...

  10. Flavonoids from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The flavonoids, kaempferol derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside and quercetin derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum and identified. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a chemical analysis and spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H-, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS). The presence of free aglycones: kaempferol and quercetin was confirmed chromatographically by comparison with standards. PMID:21648195

  11. Comparative study of antioxidant status in androgenic embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popović, Boris M; Ćalić, Dušica; Št, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and (•)OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO(•) radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO(•), and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of (•)OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  12. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Štajner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo (leaves and seed embryos and in vitro (androgenic embryos antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free. Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Biradar sanjivkumar; Dhumansure Rajkumar; Patil Mallikarjun; Biradar Karankumar; K Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for ...

  14. Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Wang; Xiaoke Wang; Ping Zhao; Hua Zheng; Yufen Ren; Fuyuan Gao; Zhiyun Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Transpiration patterns of Aesculus chinensis in relation to explanatory variables in the microclimatic,air quality,and biological phenomena categories were measured in Beijing,China using the thermal dissipation method.The highest transpiration rate measured as the sap flux density of the trees took place from 10:00 am to 13:00 pm in the summer and the lowest was found during nighttime in the winter.To sort out co-linearity,principal component analysis and variation and hierarchical partitioning methods were employed in data analyses.The evaporative demand index (EDI) consisting of air temperature,soil temperature,total radiation,vapor pressure deficit,and atmospheric ozone (O3),explained 68% and 80% of the hourly and daily variations of the tree transpiration,respectively.The independent and joint effects of EDI variables together with a three-variable joint effect exerted the greatest influences on the variance of transpiration rates.The independent effects of leaf area index and atmospheric O3 and their combined effect exhibited minor yet significant influences on ace transpiration rates.

  15. Pavietin, a coumarin from Aesculus pavia with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Galeotti, Francesco; Dolci, Marcello; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2007-10-01

    A new prenylated coumarin, S-6-[2-(hydroxymethyl)butoxy]-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2 H-chromen-2-one ( 1), named pavietin, has been isolated from the leaves of an Aesculus pavia genotype along with three known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3- O-alpha-rhamnoside (quercitrin, 2), quercetin 3- O-alpha-arabinoside ( 3), and isorhamnetin 3- O-alpha-arabinoside (distichin, 4). The chemical structure of compound 1 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, inclusive of UV, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. It showed appreciable antimicrobial properties against several pathogens, displaying a significant antifungal activity toward one of the main fungal parasites of Aesculus species, Guignardia aesculi. The same biological tests performed with a mixture of flavonoids 2- 4 resulted in weak or no activity. Compound 1 was undetectable in Aesculus hippocastanum, a closely related species lacking resistance to fungal pathogens. The possible role of 1 in plant resistance is discussed. PMID:17914881

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

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    Biradar sanjivkumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for the extract is accurate, linear, precise, linear, specific and within the range. Further isolation and in-vitro studies are needed.

  17. Phytochemicals from Ipomoea carnea collected from Murree Hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipomoea carnea has been identified as a medicinal shrub and produces a variety of secondary metabolites. Present study deals with the isolation and identification of a naturally occurring new compound, dodecyl-p-coumarate (1), together with seven known compounds: methyl-p-coumarate (2), octyl-p-coumarate (3), umbelliferone (4), escopoletin (5), 3-oleanone (6), b-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8). The structures of all these compounds could be established by the combination of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, or by comparison with the literature values. Compounds 2-8 have been reported for the first time from this source. (author)

  18. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  19. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čukanović Jelena; Ninić-Todorović Jelena; Ognjanov V.; Mladenović Emina; Ljubojević Mirjana; Kurjakov A.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive m...

  20. A New Flavonol Oligosaccharide from the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new flavonol oligosaccharide, quercetin-3-O-[b-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?2)- a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)]-b-D-glucopyranoside-3¢-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, named aescuflavoside was isolated from Aesculus chinensis. It¢s structure was elucidated by spectra FAB-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC and HMBC techniques.

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  2. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L. conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive material which would be used for the intensive production of the high grade seedlings for the greening of the different area categories in urban areas, are distinguished.

  3. Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins, named isoescins IIIa (1) and IIIb (2) were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis and identified by spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Their structures were established as 21β -tigloyl-28-acetylbarringtogenol C-3β -O-[β -D-galactopyranosyl (1→ 2)] [β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→ 4)]-β -D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (1) and 21β -angeloyl-28-acetylbarringtogenol C-3β -O-[β -D-galactopyranosyl (1→2)] [β -D-glucopyrano-syl (1→4)]-β -D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (2), which are geometrically isomeric.

  4. Functional response of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Effect of prey and predator stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Hassanpour; Jafar Mohaghegh; Shahzad Iranipour; Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani; Annie Enkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey interactions has a pivotal role in biological control programs. This study evaluated the functional response of three larval instars of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), preying upon eggs and first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hilbner. The first and second instar larvae of C. carnea exhibited typeⅡ functional responses against both prey stages. However, the third instar larvae of C. carnea showed a typeⅡ functional response to the first instar larvae of H. armigera, but a typeⅢ functional response to the eggs. For the first instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on H. armigera eggs was significantly higher than that on the larvae, whereas the attack rate of the second instar C. carnea on H. armigera larvae was significantly higher than that on the eggs. For the third instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on the larvae was 1.015± 0.278/h, and the attack coefficient on the eggs was 0.036± 0.005. The handling times of the third instar larvae on larvae and eggs were 0.087± 0.009 and 0.071± 0.001 h, respectively. The highest predation rate was found for the third instar larvae of C. carnea on H. armigera eggs. Results of this study revealed that the larvae of C. carnea, especially the third instar, had a good predation potential in controlling H. armigera eggs and larvae. However, for a comprehensive estimation of the bio-control abilities of C. carnea toward//, armigera, further field-based studies are needed.

  5. Impact of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) on adults of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Based on the finding that Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) has direct negative effects on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate its toxicity to the adults. While the ingestion of GNA dissolved in an artificial diet did not affect adult longevity, there were concentration-dependent negative effects on the pre-oviposition period, daily fecundity and total fecundity (number of eggs laid). When GNA was ingested by larvae of C. carnea, it caused a significant extension of larval development time. Adults that had emerged from GNA-fed larvae did not differ from those that developed from control larvae in terms of adult fresh weight, pre-oviposition period and daily or total fecundity. However, fertility (proportion of hatching eggs) was significantly decreased in adults raised from GNA-treated larvae. Western blots revealed that GNA ingested by larvae of C. carnea was partly transferred to the adult stage and was subsequently excreted or digested within a few days. Our toxicity studies (Tier-1 tests) clearly established a hazard of GNA to adult C. carnea when administered to larvae or adults at high concentrations. Implications of these toxicity data for the non-target risk assessment of GNA-expressing transgenic crops are discussed.

  6. Two new triterpenoid glycosides isolated from Aesculus assamica GRIFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Xue; Gao, Hao; Wang, Nali; Jin, Sanlin; Cai, Bin; Yao, Xinsheng; Cai, Guoping

    2005-10-01

    Phytochemical study of the ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus assamica led to the isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins. The structure of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 28-O-acetyl-21-O-(4-O-angeloyl)-6-deoxy-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-O-[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-beta-glucuronopyranosyl]protoaescigenin (1), and 21-O-(4-O-angeloyl)-6-deoxy-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-O-[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-beta-glucuronopyranosyl]protoaescigenin (2). Their in vitro bioactivity against plant pathogenic fungus Pyricularia oryzae and cytotoxicity against K562 and HCT-15 cell lines were evaluated. PMID:16204989

  7. ISOLATION OF 12, 13-DIHYDRO-20, 20-DIHYDRO LUPEOL FROM THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM SEEDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Biradar Sanjivkumar; Gavani Usha; Malipatil Mallikarjun; K Sreenivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituets of aqueous extract pf Aesculus hippocastanum seeds. One compound was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum by column chromatography method. The spectral analysis revealed the isolated compound as 12, 13-dihydro-20, 20-dihydro lupeol and is belongs to saponins.

  8. ISOLATION OF 12, 13-DIHYDRO-20, 20-DIHYDRO LUPEOL FROM THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM SEEDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biradar Sanjivkumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituets of aqueous extract pf Aesculus hippocastanum seeds. One compound was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum by column chromatography method. The spectral analysis revealed the isolated compound as 12, 13-dihydro-20, 20-dihydro lupeol and is belongs to saponins.

  9. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  10. Ecological features of the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and characteristics of Aesculus L. pollen seasons under the conditions of central-eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Maria Tietze; Magdalena Michońska

    2012-01-01

    The content of Aesculus pollen in aeroplankton of Lublin, located in central-eastern Poland, was studied during the period 2001–2012. The volumetric method was used for the study. The following parameters were determined: start, end, and duration of the pollen season, days of maximum concentration, and total annual pollen counts. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the start of the pollen season and meteorological parameters. The study showed that during the period 2007–2012 the ...

  11. Anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant influence of Ipomoea carnea against anti-tubercular drugs induced acute hepatopathy in experimental rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Kumar Gupta; Ashok Kumar Gupta; Sudhansu Ranjan Swain; Vaishali; Gaurav Gupta; Saifuddin Khalid; Didagi Kulkarni Suresh; Rajnish Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) extract against antitubercular drug-induced liver toxicity in experimental animals. Methods: I. carnea extracts (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. body weight) were administered daily for 3d5r udg sin experimental animals. Liver toxicity was induced by combination of three antitubercular suspen(siisoonn ifaozr id 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin 10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide 35 mg/kg) given orally as drugs. 35 d in rats. Treatment groups received I. carnea extracts along with antitubercular aspartaTteh ea mhienpoattroapnrsofeteracstiev,e a alacntiivniet ya mwainso atrsasnessfseerda sues, ianlgk avlainrieo upsh obsipochhaetimsei caanl dp atortaaml ebtielirrsu bliikne. dMiesmanuwtahsiele a, nind- cvaivtaol aasnet iwoxeirdea mnte aascutirveidti eisn aras t lliipviedr pheormoxoigdeantaioten ,a rloendgu cweidth g lutathione, superoxide ATPase and G-6-Pase. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination. Results: Obtained results demonstrated that treatment with I. carnea extracts significantly h(Pecarnea extracts sacgiaeinntsifti claivlleyr siunpjpuoryrt, iwtsh tircahd itmioanya lb ues ea.

  12. Ecological features of the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and characteristics of Aesculus L. pollen seasons under the conditions of central-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of Aesculus pollen in aeroplankton of Lublin, located in central-eastern Poland, was studied during the period 2001–2012. The volumetric method was used for the study. The following parameters were determined: start, end, and duration of the pollen season, days of maximum concentration, and total annual pollen counts. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the start of the pollen season and meteorological parameters. The study showed that during the period 2007–2012 the onset of the Aesculus pollen season occurred on average 4 days earlier than in the years 2001–2006. The total annual pollen counts were in the range of 53–271, with an average number of 117. The average pollen counts did not differ significantly in the first and second year of a 6-year period of the study. The analysis of the correlation coefficients showed that there were significant positive correlations only between the season start date and minimum temperature of the first decade of May. The highest Aesculus pollen concentration occurred between 6 and 22 May. The flowers of A. hippocastanum demonstrate an ambophilous pollination strategy due to partial insect and wind pollination.

  13. Effect of pollination of strawberry by Apis mellifera L. and Chrysoperla carnea S. on quality of the fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Interiano Zapata; Carlos M. Bucio Villalobos; Manuel D. Salas Araiza; Eduardo Salazar Solís; Oscar A. Martínez Jaime; Robert Wallace Jones

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó la contribución de Apis mellifera L. y Chrysoperla carnea S. como polinizadores del cultivo de la fresa, utilizando flores primarias de la variedad Festival en un experimento realizado en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México. Los tratamientos utilizados fueron: autogamia (SF), polinización abierta (OP), Apis mellifera (AM) y Chrysoperla carnea (CC). La tasa de polinización mostró que hubo diferencias significativas en el tratamiento AM (85.20 ± 2.41) en comparación con SF (41.51 ± 3.92), OP...

  14. A New Triterpenoid Spaonin Isolated from the Seeds of Aesculus assamica Griff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wei LIU; Xin Sheng YAO; Nai Li WANG; Guo Ping CAI

    2006-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 21β-angeloylprotoaescigenin-3β-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-3)]β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid 1, was isolated from the seeds of Aesculus assamica Griff. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis.

  15. Isolation and identification of nystose from seeds of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Kahl, W.; Roszkowski, A.; Zurowska, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the seeds of the-horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanm L.), a tetrasaccharide containing 1 mol. of glucose and 3 mol. of fructose has been isolated and shown to be nystose Ip-D-Fruf-(2+ 1)-/?-D-Fruf-(2+ l)-B-D-Fruf-(2-l)a-D-Glcp - J3201.

  16. Identificação de princípios ativos presentes na Ipomoea carnea brasileira Identification of Brazilian Ipomoea carnea toxic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Schwarz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as espécies pertencentes à família das Convolvulaceae destacam-se as Ipomoeas, amplamente distribuídas por todo o mundo, bastante conhecidas e cultivadas devido ao aspecto ornamental que suas flores campanuladas e de cores vibrantes oferecem. É sabido porém que espécies de Ipomoeas são tóxicas. A Ipomoea carnea, espécie de nosso estudo, provoca emagrecimento, apatia, incoordenção motora, fraqueza progressiva e até mesmo a morte em animais de produção, se ingerida por período prolongado. Os alcalóides suainsonina e calisteginas presentes nesta planta são certamente responsáveis por tais efeitos tóxicos, já que inibem a ação das manosidases e glicosidases, enzimas fundamentais para um adequado metabolismo de carboidratos pelo organismo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar e caracterizar os constituintes químicos da I. carneabrasileira. Assim, empregando-se as cromatografias de camada delgada e líquida acoplada a detector de massas, além da ressonância nuclear de prótons e carbono, foram detectados no extrato aquoso obtido das folhas da planta, 0,09% de suainsonina, 0,11% de calistegina B2, 0,14% de calistegina B1, 0,06% de calistegina C1 e o aminoácido não protéico N-metil-trans-4-hidroxi-L-prolina.In the Convolvulaceae family, the Ipomoeas species are cultivated and found in all regions of the world because of their ornamental bright coloured flowers. It is well known that some Ipomoeas species are toxic. Ipomoea carnea, species of this study, causes depression, general weakness, loss of body weight, stagering gait and death of animals after prolonged periods of plant intake. These toxic effects are attributed to the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines present in the plant, wich promotes inhibition of galactosidases and manosidases, important enzymes for an adequate metabolism of carbohydrates in the organism. The objective of the present study was to detect and characterize the chemical

  17. Lack of detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins on the insect predator Chrysoperla carnea: a toxicological, histopathological, and biochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo-Simón, A.; Maagd, de R.A.; Avilla, C.; Bakker, P.L.; Molthoff, J.W.; González-Zamora, J.; Ferré, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis on the green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea) was studied by using a holistic approach which consisted of independent, complementary experimental strategies. Tritrophic experiments were performed, in which lacewing larvae were fed Helicoverpa armiger

  18. Qualidade de amostras comerciais preparadas com Aesculus hippocastanum L. (castanha-da-Índia) Quality of commercial samples of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Lopez de Prado Martins; Maria das Graças Lins Brandão

    2006-01-01

    As sementes de castanha-da-Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) são utilizadas na medicina tradicional em várias partes do mundo no tratamento de varizes. Muitos estudos, inclusive clínicos, comprovaram as atividades antiedematosa, anti-inflamatória e venotônica do extrato padronizado da planta. O componente ativo é uma mistura de saponinas, denominada aescina. Foram analisadas amostras de droga vegetal rasurada e em pó, extrato seco, cápsulas contendo pó vegetal e extrato e co...

  19. Qualidade de medicamentos fitoterápicos contendo extrato de Aesculus hippocastanum registrados no Brasil / Quality of phytotherapeutic drugs registered in Brazil containing Aesculus hippocastanum extract

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Elfriede Balbino; Luzia Helena Cunha; Maria Gorette Resende Duarte; Virginia Del Carmen T. Valenzuela; Juliana Elizabeth da Silva Rodrigues; Adriana Passos Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    As sementes de Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), conhecida como casta-nha-da-Índia, são utilizadas em várias partes do mundo no tratamento da insuficiência venosa crônica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de amostras co-merciais de medicamentos fitoterápicos contendo extrato de sementes de A. hippocas-tanum. O total de 16 amostras comercializadas no Brasil com registro válido em março de 2013 foram avaliadas quanto à correspondência com as especificações do do...

  20. In Vitro Antioxidant and free Radical Scavenging activity of the Ethanolic extract of Aesculus hippocastanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Geetha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract of Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chest nut. Highly reactive free radicals and oxygen species are present in biological systems from a wide variety of sources. These free radicals may oxidize nucleic acids, proteins, lipids or DNA and can initiate degenerative disease. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing phenolic compounds have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of Aesculus hippocastanum was studied using different in vitro free radical scavenging models like DPPH and Hydrogen Peroxide. The DPPH results have been compared with the standard Ascorbic acid .The extract showed good dose dependent free radical scavenging property in both the models used in this study.

  1. Consumption of Bt maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 does not harm adult green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176 pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea.

  2. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M.; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 t...

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant and free Radical Scavenging activity of the Ethanolic extract of Aesculus hippocastanum

    OpenAIRE

    GEETHA R.V; Anitha Roy; Sitalakshmi T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract of Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chest nut). Highly reactive free radicals and oxygen species are present in biological systems from a wide variety of sources. These free radicals may oxidize nucleic acids, proteins, lipids or DNA and can initiate degenerative disease. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Pla...

  4. Mikroorganismen an Aesculus hippocastanum – olfaktorische Perspektive von Cameraria ohridella (Deschka & Dimic)

    OpenAIRE

    Johne, A. Bettina; Weißbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 80s, the popular park- and city tree Aesculus hippocastanum has been infested with the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (DESCHKA & DIMIC 1986). Additionally, the pathogenic fungi Guignardia aesculi causes leaf blotch disease and Erysiphe flexuosa causes powdery mildew on horse chestnuts. Often, all three diseases occur in parallel at the same leaves leading to a situation of competition. Moreover, recently some endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaf tissue of A. hippocastanum. I...

  5. Acute urticaria and angioedema caused by horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum) ingestion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; OĞUZTÜRK, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Acute urticaria and angioedema, which can develop due to various causes, are common life threatening condition seen in emergency departments (EDs). The literature includes reports of angioedema cases developing after contacting various plants and seeds. We present the case of a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute urticaria and angioedema after eating horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum). The patient presented to the ED with redness and irritation spread around the body and swellin...

  6. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fran Poštenjak; Karmelo Poštenjak

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Materials and metho...

  7. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Chwil; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Aneta Sulborska; Magdalena Michońska

    2014-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, f...

  8. The nature and the content of carotenoid pigments from faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gino ROSCA; Sanda CRAPATUREANU; Socaciu, Carmen; Gavrila NEAMTU

    1995-01-01

    Faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L. harvested in October and November have a high and various content of carotenoids. The content of lutein and zeaxanthin is much higher in faded leaves than in the green ones, that is why they are recommended as an important natural source for extraction (at an industrial level) of the mentioned carotenoids. Faded leaves have a low biological value, because they have a low content of provitaminic A carotenoids. They have also a low content of hydrocarbo...

  9. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  10. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques. PMID:22312731

  11. Caratterizzazione via HPLC, HPLC.MS ed elettroforesi capillare di escina in soluzione standard e nell'estratto di castagne di Aesculus hipocastanum

    OpenAIRE

    Pintore, Giorgio Antonio Mario; Dessì, Giuseppina; Puddu, Giuseppe; Chessa, Mario; Usai, Marianna; Cerri, Riccardo

    2000-01-01

    L'escina è una molecola complessa di rilevante interesse farmaceutico e che viene comunemente estratta dai frutti Aesculus hipocastanum. In questo studio si è cercato di mettere a punto una tecnica analitica la più rapida possibile per la caratterizzazione e quantificazione dell'escina partendo da escina commerciale ed applicandola all'escina che si estrae dai frutti di Aesculus hipocastanum

  12. Estudio de la variación diaria de los derivados de ergolinas en Ipomoea carnea - Study of the daily variation of the derivatives of ergolines in Ipomoea carnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espartaco, Sandoval

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Ipomoea carnea es una planta perteneciente al género de las Ipomoeas, capaz de provocar una intoxicación en los caprinos caracterizada por daño hepático, trastornos nerviosos y muerte. Ante la presunción, de que esta planta no es toxica durante ciertos periodos del día, se realizo un estudio que contemplo muestreos de plantas, cada dos horas, entre las 6:00 am y 6:00 pm, posteriormente se realizó la extracción de alcaloides ergoticos con solventes orgánicos y se procedió a realizar tres pruebas para la detección de ácido d-Lisérgico: prueba de fluorescencia, prueba de color oensayo cromático y Cromatografía de capa fina. Los resultadosdemostraron que las concentraciones de alcaloides presentes en plantas de Ipomoea carnea, se mantienen estables y constantes durante todo el día representando un riesgo potencial para la salud de los rebaños caprinos. SummaryIpomoea carnea is a plant pertaining the genus of the Ipomoeas, able to generate a poisoning in the goats, it is characterized by hepatic damage, nervous upheavals and death. Before the presumption, this plant is not toxic during certain periods of the day, carry out one study which was contemplated samplings of plants, every two hours, between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., later was made the extraction of ergoticos alkaloids with organic solvent and it was come to make three tests for the d-Lysergic acid detection: fluorescence test, color test or chromatic test and Chromatography of fine layer. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of present alkaloids in plants of Ipomoea carnea, remain stable and constant during all day representing a potential risk for the health of the goat flocks.

  13. Nucleic acid content in the leaves of woody plants under urban and forest planting conditions. [Aesculus hippocastanum; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Tetenova, T.R.

    1973-01-01

    The nucleic acid content in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum and Rovinia pseudoacacia was studied under urban and forest planting conditions. At the beginning of the growth period, the DNA+RNA content was highest in leaves from plants located in the urban areas. By the end of the growth period, in July, the DNA+RNA content of the leaves of the urban Aesculus was greatly reduced. The author concluded that the reduction of DNA+RNA in the leaves was caused by urban air and soil pollutants. 13 references, 2 tables.

  14. The nature and the content of carotenoid pigments from faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino ROSCA

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L. harvested in October and November have a high and various content of carotenoids. The content of lutein and zeaxanthin is much higher in faded leaves than in the green ones, that is why they are recommended as an important natural source for extraction (at an industrial level of the mentioned carotenoids. Faded leaves have a low biological value, because they have a low content of provitaminic A carotenoids. They have also a low content of hydrocarbon carotenoids, but a high hydroxylic and epoxydic content.

  15. Rats offspring exposed to Ipomoea Carnea and handling during gestation: neurochemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Schwarz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the central monoamine levels of male and female adult rat offspring exposed orally by gavage to 0.0, 0.7, 3.0 and 15.0 mg/kg I. carnea aqueous extract daily, from gestation day (GD 5 to GD 21. Several alterations in the monoamine activity systems were observed. However, the major differences were noted between the 0.0 mg/kg and the no gavage control groups, showing that alterations showing that alterations were not due to the alterations to the aqueous extract. The control data showed that gavage and handling of dams were stressful enough to produce a significant decline in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC and an increase in vanilmandelic acid (VMA, indicating decreased dopamine (DA and enhanced norepinephrine (NE activity, respectively.Estudo anterior realizado em filhotes de ratas tratadas diariamente por gavage com 0,0, 0,7, 3,0 e 15,0 mg/kg de uma solução aquosa obtida de folhas frescas da Ipomoea carnea, do dia 5 ao dia 21 da gestação, mostrou poucas alterações comportamentais na prole em vida adulta. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade e níveis das monoaminas cerebrais nas proles masculina e feminina expostas ao mesmo tratamento acima descrito. As maiores alterações encontradas, entretanto, foram entre os grupos 0,0 mg/kg e controle negativo (no gavage, impedindo a atribuição das alterações encontradas à solução aquosa. O dados resultantes do grupo controle sugerem que o estresse provocado pela gavage e pelo manuseio das fêmeas enquanto prenhes é suficiente para produzir um importante declínio nos níveis do ácido 3,4 dihidroxifenilacético (DOPAC e um não menos importante aumento nos níveis do ácido vanilmandélico (VMA, promovendo maior atividade do sistema noradrenérgico (NE.

  16. Study of bark of chestnut tree Aesculus hippocastanum L. by two-dimensional decomposition of nuclear relax application; Badanie kory kasztanowca (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) metoda dwuwymiarowej dekompozycji funkcji relaksacji jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weglarz, W.; Haranczyk, H. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Water bound in the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied by two-dimensional decomposition of nuclear relaxation function. The aim of the work was to increase accuracy of relaxation function measurement. The work shows three components of relaxation function. 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

  17. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations.

  18. Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Zünd, Jan; Waldburger, Mario; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) pollen is highly nutritious and can be used by predatory arthropods to supplement or replace a carnivorous diet. We demonstrate that maize pollen can be utilized by larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions. Complete development on maize pollen was not possible, but 25% of neonates reached the third instar. When only one instar was fed with pollen and the other two instars with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 58-87% of the larvae reached the pupal stage. The experiments included pollen produced by nine cultivars: three genetically modified (GM) cultivars expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1, their corresponding non-transformed near-isolines, and three conventional cultivars. Maize cultivars were grown in two batches in a glasshouse. Their pollen differed by up to 59% in total protein content, 25% in C:N ratio, and 14% in grain diameter, but the differences were inconsistent and depended on the batch. Lacewing performance was not affected by maize cultivar. For environmental risk assessment of GM plants, in planta studies must consider the variability among conventional cultivars, individual plants, batches, and environmental conditions when evaluating the ecological significance of differences observed between GM and near-isolines. PMID:25082074

  19. Qualidade de medicamentos fitoterápicos contendo extrato de Aesculus hippocastanum registrados no Brasil / Quality of phytotherapeutic drugs registered in Brazil containing Aesculus hippocastanum extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Elfriede Balbino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae, conhecida como casta-nha-da-Índia, são utilizadas em várias partes do mundo no tratamento da insuficiência venosa crônica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de amostras co-merciais de medicamentos fitoterápicos contendo extrato de sementes de A. hippocas-tanum. O total de 16 amostras comercializadas no Brasil com registro válido em março de 2013 foram avaliadas quanto à correspondência com as especificações do dossiê de registro aprovado pela ANVISA. As amostras foram analisadas em Laboratório Oficial, quanto ao perfil cromatográfico, teor de escina, características macroscópicas e micros-cópicas e peso médio. A bula e a rotulagem foram avaliadas por especialista da ANVISA. Os resultados apontaram que 13 dos 16 medicamentos avaliados apresentavam ao me-nos uma não-conformidade. Portanto, é imprescindível a implementação de ações de vigilância sanitária efetivas, com foco no monitoramento e avaliação de medicamentos fitoterápicos ao longo de sua comercialização. ------------------------------------------------------------------- The seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae, known as horse-chestnut, have been used in several parts of the world to treat chronic venous insufficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial samples of herbal medicines containing extract of A. hippocastanum seeds. In total, 16 commercial samples from Brazilian market with a valid registration in March 2013 were analyzed for the concor-dance with the specifications contained in each application file approved by ANVISA. The fingerprint, the content of aescin, the mean weight and macro and microscopic analysis of these medicines were carried out in an official laboratory. Furthermore, the evalua-tion of the package leaflet and the packaging was achieved by an ANVISA specialist. The results showed that 13 of the 16 commercial

  20. Effect of pollination of strawberry by Apis mellifera L. and Chrysoperla carnea S. on quality of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Interiano Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la contribución de Apis mellifera L. y Chrysoperla carnea S. como polinizadores del cultivo de la fresa, utilizando flores primarias de la variedad Festival en un experimento realizado en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México. Los tratamientos utilizados fueron: autogamia (SF, polinización abierta (OP, Apis mellifera (AM y Chrysoperla carnea (CC. La tasa de polinización mostró que hubo diferencias significativas en el tratamiento AM (85.20 ± 2.41 en comparación con SF (41.51 ± 3.92, OP (77.98 ± 2.11 y CC (48.46 ± 2.97. Igualmente se encontraron diferencias significativas en el grado de malformación en AM (16.78 ± 1.20 en comparación con el SF (52.53 ± 1.54, OP (23.34 ± 1.03 y CC (47.88 ± 2.02. El total de antocianinas, peso, diámetro y sólidos totales solubles de los frutos fueron significativamente mayores en AM comparados con los tratamientos SF, OP y CC. El número de óvulos fertilizados se correlacionó positivamente con el peso de la fruta. Se considera a Chrysoperla carnea como deficiente polinizador, pero en contraparte se concluye que la utilización de Apis mellifera puede ser una alternativa para incrementar la producción y calidad de la fruta en los cultivos de la fresa establecidos en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.

  1. A modified version of fluctuating asymmetry, potential for the analysis of Aesculus hippocastanum L. compound leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickovic, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    My research interest was to create a new, simple and tractable mathematical framework for analyzing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Aesculus hippocastanum L. palmately compound leaves (each compound leaf with 7 obviate, serrate leaflets). FA, being random differences in the development of both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical character, has been proposed as an indicator of environmental and genetic stress. In the present paper the well-established Palmer's procedure for FA has been modified to improve the suitability of the chosen index (FA1) to be used in compound leaf asymmetry analysis. The processing steps are described in detail, allowing us to apply these modifications for the other Palmer's indices of FA as well as for the compound leaves of other plant species. PMID:18604782

  2. Vegetative propagation of Aesculus indica through stem cuttings treated with plant growth regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumtaz Majeed; M.A.Khan; A.H.Mughal

    2009-01-01

    Cuttage propagation of Aesculus indica was tested by treatments with different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm), indolebutyric acid (IBA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) and naphthlcetic acid (NAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) in dry formulation in the Forest Nursery, Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-K, Shalimar. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 4000 ppm and IBA @ 2000 ppm had a sprouting rate of 75% and 50%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of control and other treatments. The highest rooting rate (50%) was recorded in the cuttings with the application of IBA @ 4000 ppm. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 2000 ppm had 25% rooting rate. All other treatments along with control (talc powder) failed to induce rooting. It was concluded that IBA @ 4000 ppm was a better-applied concentration for vegetative propagation of A. indica under Kashmir conditions.

  3. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  4. The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process studied by means NMR method; Proces zamarzania wody zwiazanej w korze kasztanowca (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) badany metoda magnetycznej relaksacji jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Weglarz, W. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Inst. Fizyki, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process was studied by means NMR method. The measured relaxation time (as a function of temperature) shows two compounds. First from solid state water (T{sub 2}{sup *} 20 {mu}s) and the second one from liquid water (T{sub 2}{sup *} = 1 ms). This results are presented and discussed. 4 refs, 7 figs.

  5. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  6. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  7. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  8. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  9. Qualidade de amostras comerciais preparadas com Aesculus hippocastanum L. (castanha-da-Índia Quality of commercial samples of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lopez de Prado Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de castanha-da-Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae são utilizadas na medicina tradicional em várias partes do mundo no tratamento de varizes. Muitos estudos, inclusive clínicos, comprovaram as atividades antiedematosa, anti-inflamatória e venotônica do extrato padronizado da planta. O componente ativo é uma mistura de saponinas, denominada aescina. Foram analisadas amostras de droga vegetal rasurada e em pó, extrato seco, cápsulas contendo pó vegetal e extrato e comprimidos de extrato de castanha-da-Índia adquiridas no mercado nacional. Verificou-se a autenticidade (caracterização organoléptica, macroscópica e microscópica, a pureza (determinação de matéria estranha, água e cinzas totais, a presença e o teor de aescina, além das condições de prescrição e dispensação desses medicamentos. As análises confirmaram a autenticidade e pureza de todas as amostras. A aescina foi detectada mas os teores foram muito variáveis, estando abaixo do especificado na bibliografia em quase todas as amostras. Apesar de ser utilizada eficazmente em outros países, a pesquisa demonstrou que os produtos disponíveis no comércio brasileiro encontram-se fora das especificações necessárias para a atividade farmacológica. Esse quadro revela a necessidade urgente de melhoria da manipulação de fitoterápicos, de forma a promover a utilização adequada desses medicamentos.The seeds of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae have been used in traditional medicine in several parts of the world to treat chronic venous insufficiency. Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that A. hippocastanum extracts increase venous tonus. This activity is attributed to a mixture of saponins (aescin. In this study, samples of A. hippocastanum obtained from herbal shops, pharmacies and drug stores were analyzed and their authenticity (organoleptic properties, macroscopy and microscopy

  10. Seasonal changes of plant hydraulics, water relations and growth of Aesculus hippocastanum seedlings infested by the leafminer Cameraria ohridella

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    International audience The leaf miner Cameraria ohridella causes premature defoliation in Aesculus hippocastanum. The impact of the parasite on seasonal changes of water relations, hydraulics and growth of three-year-old A. hippocastanum seedlings was investigated. Leaf expansion was complete before the adults of the moth developed, so that growth of infested seedlings was similar to that of controls. Leaf conductance to water vapour of infested seedlings was reduced with respect to contro...

  11. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then anal...

  12. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ILIANA VELCHEVA; SLAVEYA PETROVA; LILYANA YURUKOVA

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were c...

  13. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  14. Lead pollution due to exhaust gases. [Celtis occidentalis; fraxinus angustifolia; aesculus hippocastanum; hedera helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinscek, P.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the changes in the lead content of trees and shrubs on the Margaret island in Budapest as a response to the reduction in motor-vehicle traffic introduced in 1974. Compared to samples of the control area (Vacratot) the Margaret island samples were found to have a considerable higher lead content. As a consequence of the traffic modifying measure a 30% decrease in the lead content of the samples was verified. The lead pollution did not involve changes in the chlorophyll content of samples. Accumulation of lead pollution is a specific feature. Lead pollution is accumulated to a great extent (multiple of other plants) by the pilose-leaved CELTIS occidentalis, the pinnate-leaved FRAXINUS angustifolia, ssp. pannonica and the undulate-leaved AESCULUS hippocastanum as well as from among the evergreen by the stellate-hair HEDERA helix. The green belt bordering the roads by its active lead cumulation plays an important role in lessening the plumb pollution of areas more distant from the road. 14 references 3 tables.

  15. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calić-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravković-Korać, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulović, Katarina; Radojević, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

    2010-05-01

    Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

  16. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

    2014-11-01

    Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 μm, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

  17. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  18. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2006-04-21

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

  19. Mechanism of formation of spiral grain in Aesculus stems: dissymmetry of deformation of stems caused by cyclic torsion

    OpenAIRE

    W. Pyszyński

    2015-01-01

    The reversibility of deformation of young (3-10-year-old) Aesculus hippocastanum stems was investigated after subjecting them to alternate torsion to the right and left as well as the orientation of the microfibrillar helix in the main S2 layer of the secondary cell wall in fibres. The studies demonstrated that residual torsions to the right are larger than to the left. The orientation of the fibrillar helix is always Z-wise. The dissymmetry of the mechanical properties of the stem may be res...

  20. Nitrogen metabolism of woody plants under various ecological conditions. [Robinia pseudoacacia; Aesculus hippocastanum; Tilia cordata; Quercus robur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Ignatenko, A.A.; Shatskaya, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    The leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia. Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia cordata, and Quercus robur were examined for content of total protein, amine, and nitrate N, and of 13 amino acids. The plants were grown under both urban and forest conditions and then their leaves were compared. The soil and air pollutants of the urban area caused a reduction in the level of arginine, valine, and methionine found in the leaves and an increase in the level of glutamic acid found in the leaves. 16 references, 4 tables.

  1. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Poštenjak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Material and Methods: The research was done in 7 settlements, in towns with the population of up to 75 000 inhabitants. The measured parameters were the morphological characteristics of trees, shoots, leaves and nuts. From the selected branches we measured the annual shoot (thickness and length, leaves, the number of flowers and nuts. The crown transparency was assessed according to the ICP Forest method. Results and Conclusion: The phenotype of the urban Horse chestnut significantly differs from its natural phenotype, and it is transformed by multiple radical pruning, what may be seen in the following ratios: the diameter at breast height - tree height, trunk height - tree height, crown height – tree height, crown width – crown height. The most significant characteristic of the tree is the vitality expressed by crown-damage classes. On the selected trees the worst crown damage class was “3b” and the best was “0”. The measured parameters of yearly shoot characteristics were defined. All measured parameters (trees, shoots, leafs and nuts show significant differences from the given average values.

  2. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  3. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiq Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs, comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane–carbon dioxide mixtures known as ‘biogas’. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea. The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10th or 11th day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust.

  4. Effects of escin mixture from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on obesity in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Gülcan; Küçükkurt, Ismail; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2010-03-01

    Escins, a triterpene glycoside mixture obtained from the ethanol extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae) seed, was evaluated for its in vivo effects on the plasma levels of some hormones (leptin, insulin, FT(3), FT(4)) and biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations) in mice fed with a high fat diet for 5 weeks. A high fat diet induced a remarkable increment in the plasma leptin (p <0.01), total cholesterol (p <0.01) and LDL-C (p <0.001) concentrations compared to control group animals. Combined administration of a high-fat diet with escins decreased leptin (31.6%) (p<0.05) and FT(4) (36.0%) (p<0.05) levels, increased HDL-C concentration (17.0%), while remained ineffective on LDL-C concentration in mice. Results have shown that escins may have beneficial effects in the understanding of obesity. PMID:20645808

  5. Mechanism of formation of spiral grain in Aesculus stems: dissymmetry of deformation of stems caused by cyclic torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pyszyński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reversibility of deformation of young (3-10-year-old Aesculus hippocastanum stems was investigated after subjecting them to alternate torsion to the right and left as well as the orientation of the microfibrillar helix in the main S2 layer of the secondary cell wall in fibres. The studies demonstrated that residual torsions to the right are larger than to the left. The orientation of the fibrillar helix is always Z-wise. The dissymmetry of the mechanical properties of the stem may be responsible for the formation of Z (right-oriented spiral grain in the stem of a tree undergoing torsions in various directions under the action of winds

  6. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were compared. Motor transport was found to be the major source of contaminants. It was found the significant contribution of some factors as urban gradient, canyon-street effect and wind rose in forming the urban air quality.

  7. Observation of soluble extraction fraction in bark chestnut trees Aesculus hippocastanum L. and pine Pinus silvestris L. with nuclear magnetic relaxation method; Obserwacjia rozpuszczalnej frakcji ekstrakcyjnej w korze kasztanowca (aesculus hippocastanum L.) oraz sosny (Pinus silvestris L.) metoda magnetycznej relaksacji jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Weglarz, W. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The work concerns application of magnetic nuclear relaxation for observation of extraction fraction in the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum and Pinus silvestris. Solubilization of extraction fraction and increase of the mobility of molecular groups in cellulose were observed. 5 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions. PMID:15149120

  9. Phenological development of fagus sylvatica L. and Aesculus hipocastanum L. in relation to mean monthly temperatures for the Kočevje locality during 1961-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhar, Urša; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2003-01-01

    Long-term phenological development of forest trees and shrubs is an important indicator of changes in the onset of specific phenological phase at different sites in relation to meteorological conditions. Correlation analysis and linear multiple regression were used to establish relationship between phenological phases for Fagus sylvatica and Aesculus hippocastanum and mean monthly air temperatures for the Kočevje locality in the period 1961-1990. Correlation coefficients between the onset of ...

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some physiological changes (photosynthetic and transpiration processes intensity) and biochemical (content of photo-assimilating pigments) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area. Pollutants monitored by the five stations are represented by gaseous (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and solid pollutants ...

  11. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Weronika Haratym

    2012-01-01

    The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić). Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland). Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light micr...

  12. Leaf micromorphology of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and damage caused by leaf-mining larvae of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Weronika Haratym

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a continuation of our research on the structure of healthy leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum and leaves damaged by larvae of Cameraria ohridella. In this study, the epidermal micromorphology of both leaf surfaces in A. hippocastanum was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy was used to examine on which side of the leaf blades eggs of Cameraria ohridella were laid. The characteristic features of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis were shown. In...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some morphological changes (presence and size of the surface both normal and necrotic) and biochemical (water content and dry matter) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area . These stations monitor the presence of gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone ) and solids (powders prone to sedime...

  14. Ultrastructure and molecular characterization of the microsporidium, Nosema chrysoperlae sp. nov., from the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) used for biological pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson, S; Steele, T; Hu, Q; Ellis, B; Saito, T

    2013-09-01

    Lacewing larvae are generalist predators that are commercially available for aphid control on a variety of crops in both Europe and North America. Although lacewings are known for their symbiotic association with yeasts and bacteria, there are few reports of microsporidia in these natural enemies. An undescribed microsporidium was found in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) during the routine examination of specimens that were obtained from a commercial insectary for biological pest control. The objective of this study was to describe the pathogen by means of ultrastructure, molecular characterization and tissue pathology. All stages of the microsporidium were diplokaryotic and developed in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Merogony and sporogony were not observed. Mature spores measured 3.49±0.10×1.52±0.05μm and had an isofilar polar filament with 8-10 coils that were frequently arranged in a single row, although double rows were also observed. Spores contained a lamellar polaroplast and a relatively small and inconspicuous polar vacuole was observed in the posterior region of about half of the spores that were examined. Tubular structures, similar in appearance to those in Nosema granulosis were observed in both sporonts and in spores. A cluster of small tubules was also observed in the posterior region of some spores. Microsporidian spores were observed in cells of the proventriculus, diverticulum and in epithelial cells of the posterior midgut. The Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum were heavily infected. Spores were also observed in the fat body, peripheral region of the ganglia, within and between the flight muscles, and beneath the cuticle. Although the tissues adjacent to the ovaries were heavily infected, microsporidian spores were not observed within the developing eggs. Pathogen transmission was not studied directly because it was difficult to maintain microsporidia-infected C. carnea in the laboratory. The presence of microsporidian spores

  15. Poškodbe mladih sadik navadnega divjega kostanja (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) zaradi sončevega ožiga

    OpenAIRE

    Žitnik, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Pri pregledu zdravstvenega stanja drevoreda navadnih divjih kostanjev (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) na Cesti v mestni log v Mestni občini Ljubljana smo opazili številne neprerasle poškodbe na deblih dreves zaradi sončevega ožiga. Za potrebe nadaljnjih raziskav je bilo meseca aprila 2009 iz drevoreda odstranjenih sedem dreves. Drevesa so bila podrobno preiskana, nato pa smo jihrazžagali na kolute iz katerih smo pridobili posamezne vzorce za naše raziskave. Vlažnost lesa smo določili gravimetričn...

  16. Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, A Bettina; Weissbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Larval stages of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum. This study investigated the effect of the degree of leaf browning caused by the insect's larvae on olfactory detection, aggregation, and oviposition of C. ohridella adults. The influence of A. hippocastanum flower scent on oviposition of the first generation was also evaluated. Utilizing gas chromatography coupled with parallel detection by mass spectrometry and electroantennography (GC-MS/EAD), more than 30 compounds eliciting responses from antennae of C. ohridella were detected. Oviposition and mining by C. ohridella caused significant changes in the profile of leaf volatiles of A. hippocastanum. After oviposition and subsequent mining by early larval stages (L1-L3), substances such as benzaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were emitted in addition to the compounds emitted by uninfested leaves. Insects were able to detect these compounds. The emitted amount of these substances increased with progressive larval development. During late larval stages (L4, L5) and severe loss of green leaf area, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), nonanal, and decanal were also released by leaves. These alterations of the profile of volatiles caused modifications in aggregation of C. ohridella on leaves. In choice tests, leaves in early infestation stages showed no significant effect on aggregation, whereas insects avoided leaves in late infestation stages. Further choice tests with leaves treated with single compounds led to the identification of substances mediating an increase or decrease in oviposition. PMID:17001531

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Soltuzu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper some morphological changes (presence and size of the surface both normal and necrotic and biochemical (water content and dry matter induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area . These stations monitor the presence of gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and solids (powders prone to sedimentation. Measurements were made "in vivo", as well on fresh material covering vegetation periods of years 2012 and 2013. The results are supporting the fact that the increased values of dry matter content do not correlate directly with the degree of necrosis of the leaves , which entitles us to believe that the biochemical and physiological modifications made by pollutants at this level are fast followed by defoliation events. The most critical situation is found at the samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. grown at the site of the traffic station Podul de Piatră, where SO2 and particulate solids in suspension are the predominating pollutants.

  18. Estimating ancestral distributions of lineages with uncertain sister groups: a statistical approach to Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis and a case using Aesculus L. (Sapindaceae) including fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.J. HARRIS; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical approach for using Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (DIVA) software to infer biogeographic histories without fully bifurcating trees. In this approach, ancestral ranges are first optimized for a sample of Bayesian trees. The probability P of an ancestral range r at a node is then calculated as P(rY)= Σnt=1 F(rY)tPt where Y is a node, and F(rY) is the frequency of range r among all the optimal solutions resulting from DIVA optimization at node Y, t is one of n topologies optimized, and Pt is the probability of topology t. Node Y is a hypothesized ancestor shared by a specific crown lineage and the sister of that lineage "x", where x may vary due to phylogenetic uncertainty (polytomies and nodes with posterior probability <100%). Using this method, the ancestral distribution at Y can be estimated to provide inference of the geographic origins of the specific crown group of interest. This approach takes into account phylogenetic uncertainty as well as uncertainty from DIVA optimization. It is an extension of the previously described method called Bayes-DIVA, which pairs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with biogeographic analysis using DIVA. Further, we show that the probability P of an ancestral range at Y calculated using this method does not equate to pp* F(rY) on the Bayesian consensus tree when both variables are < 100%, where pp is the posterior probability and F(rY) is the frequency of range r for the node containing the specific crown group. We tested our DIVA-Bayes approach using Aesculus L., which has major lineages unresolved as a polytomy. We inferred the most probable geographic origins of the five traditional sections of Aesculus and ofAesculus californica Nutt. and examined range subdivisions at parental nodes of these lineages.Additionally, we used the DIVA-Bayes data from Aesculus to quantify the effects on biogeographic inference of including two wildcard fossil taxa in phylogenetic analysis. Our analysis resolved the

  19. Remediation of textile azo dye acid red 114 by hairy roots of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and assessment of degraded dye toxicity with human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, N S

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation has proven to be the most desirable and cost effective method to counter textile dye pollution. Hairy roots (HRs) of Ipomoea carnea J. were tested for decolourization of 25 textile azo dyes, out of which >90% decolourization was observed in 15 dyes. A diazo dye, Acid Red 114 was decolourized to >98% and hence, was chosen as the model dye. A significant increase in the activities of oxidoreductive enzymes was observed during decolourization of AR114. The phytodegradation of AR114 was confirmed by HPLC, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The possible metabolites were identified by GCMS as 4- aminobenzene sulfonic acid 2-methylaniline and 4- aminophenyl 4-ethyl benzene sulfonate and a probable pathway for the biodegradation of AR114 has been proposed. The nontoxic nature of the metabolites and toxicity of AR114 was confirmed by cytotoxicity tests on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). When HaCaT cells were treated separately with 150 μg mL(-1) of AR114 and metabolites, MTT assay showed 50% and ≈100% viability respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry data showed that, as compared to control, the cells in G2-M and death phase increased by 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively on treatment with AR114 but remained unaltered in cells treated with metabolites.

  20. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on Chrysoperla carnea larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and the influence of rainfastness in their degradation pattern over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Jader Braga; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Medina, Pilar; Garzón, Agustín; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Viñuela, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    The predator Chrysoperla carnea is a model species for the study of non-target effects of pesticides under different scenarios: registration of plant protection products under the European Union and effects of the Bt toxin. Laboratory and persistence studies were carried out with six pesticides currently used in corn crops in Spain that were applied at their maximum field recommended concentrations. The assessed end-points were larval mortality, survivorship until adult stage, duration of the larval and pupal periods, fecundity, fertility and sex ratio of the emerged adults. Based on the total effect (lethal and sublethal) caused to L3 larvae in contact with fresh residues in the laboratory, pendimethalin was harmless (IOBC 1), lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin, and hexythiazox were slightly harmful (IOBC 2), deltamethrin was moderately harmful (IOBC 3) and chlorpyrifos was harmful (IOBC 4). Afterwards, the residues of the two most toxic pesticides in the lab (deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos) were aged under greenhouse conditions (22 ± 2 °C, 40 ± 10 % R.H., 16.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) UV radiation) in the presence and absence of artificial rainfall (10 l m(-2) h(-1), applied 24 h after pesticide application). Deltamethrin was classified as short lived (IOBC A) in both cases. However, degradation of chlorpyrifos residues was accelerated in the presence of rainfall, leading to the classification as slightly persistent (IOBC B), while in absence of rainfall it behaved as persistent (IOBC D). Every pesticide can be recommended for inclusion in corn IPM programs where the predator is present except chlorpyrifos that exhibited high direct toxicity in the lab and prolonged residual action even in the presence of rainfall. PMID:26975320

  2. Effect of sun-exposure of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) on the occurrence and number of parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic) in central Poland in 2004– 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tarwacki, Grzegorz; Bystrowski, Cezary; Celmer-Warda, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research on parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dymić, 1986) of the order Hymenoptera was conducted in the years 2004– 2006 in six locations in central Poland. The complex of para-sitoids was composed of 14 species. Minotetrastrichus frontalis (Nees) and Pnigalio agraules (Walker), (Hyme-noptera: Eulophidae) were the dominant species in all locations. It was noted that sun-exposure of the horse chest-nut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) had asignificant e...

  3. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh; Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam; Ahmad Naddaf; Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk; Viktoria Sergeevna Kislichenko

    2015-01-01

    urpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized ex...

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Soltuzu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper some physiological changes (photosynthetic and transpiration processes intensity and biochemical (content of photo-assimilating pigments induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area. Pollutants monitored by the five stations are represented by gaseous (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and solid pollutants (dust prone to sedimentation. Measurements were made "in vivo", as well on fresh material covering vegetation periods of years 2012 and 2013. The necrosis and   the inducted foliar chlorosis by polluting agents represent the clear materialization of some profound physiological modifications which disturb the photo-assimilating structures and assimilator  pigments. The results lead to the conclusion that the amount of chlorophyll a and b and the intensity of photosynthesis aren`t always correlated, as already known from literature. The most obvious results of pollutants influence occurred for the individuals situated at the traffic station Podul de Piatră, where SO2 and particulate solids in suspension are the predominating pollutants and this fact states that the traffic pollutants are the most destructive.

  5. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

  6. 欧洲七叶树的离体培养及快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Mass Propagation of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀立; 施季森

    2004-01-01

    对欧洲七叶树(Aesculus hippocastanum L.)离体培养和高效的组培快速繁殖体系进行研究.结果表明,高约2 cm的无菌苗在MS+0.6 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA或MS+0.4~0.6 mg/L ZT+0.1 mg/L NAA培养基上培养15 d左右可诱导出不定芽,分化频率为100%,平均每株产芽35.7个;MS+0.2 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+10 mg/L AD培养基有利于芽伸长;生根培养基为1/2MS+0.4 mg/L NAA+0.2 mg/L IBA时,生根率可达75%.

  7. Study on the Chromatographic Fingerprints of Reineckia carnea from Different Habitats by HPLC-ELSD%不同产地吉祥草药材HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金兆磊; 赵超; 陈华国; 赵杨; 周欣; 杨世林

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the HPLC-ELSD fingerprints of Reineckia carnea from different habitats and provide a theoretical evidence to evaluate its quality. Methods; The chromatographic conditions were Diamonsil(R)C|g column (4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5μm)by linear gradient elution using water and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min,column temperature at 25 ℃. and sample injection 30μL An Agilent 1260 infintiy ELSD operated at 85 ℃, ,gain 6 and 3. 5 bar nitrogen. Results; The HPLC-ELSD fingerprints were established with 6 common peaks and methodology reached the required standard. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid, accurate, and can be used for quality evaluation of Reineckia carnea from different habituts.%目的:利用HPLC-ELSD技术建立不同产地吉祥草药材的指纹图谱,为评价其质量品质提供理论依据.方法:采用Diamonsil (R)C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-水,梯度洗脱;流速0.8 mL/min;柱温25℃;ELSD检测器:漂移管温度85℃,氮气压力350 kPa,增益值为6.结果:建立不同产地吉祥草药材的HPLC-ELSD的指纹图谱,共找到6个共有峰.结论:该方法具有良好的重复性和稳定性,为有效控制吉祥草药材的质量提供了依据.

  8. Leaf micromorphology of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and damage caused by leaf-mining larvae of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a continuation of our research on the structure of healthy leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum and leaves damaged by larvae of Cameraria ohridella. In this study, the epidermal micromorphology of both leaf surfaces in A. hippocastanum was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Light microscopy was used to examine on which side of the leaf blades eggs of Cameraria ohridella were laid. The characteristic features of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis were shown. In the hypostomatic leaves of the studied species, the stomata occurred at a density of 173 × mm-2  and they represented the cyclocytic type. A striated layer of the cuticle was observed only in the adaxial epidermis in which glandular hairs were also present along the midribs. Non-glandular trichomes grew only on the surface of the midribs or in their axils in the abaxial epidermis. We found eggs of C. ohridella only on the adaxial surface of the epidermis. Using SEM, we also observed in the mines leaf tissues damaged by C. ohridella. We found palisade parenchyma to be absent, whereas in the spongy parenchyma there could be seen large intercellular spaces and at places a dense mass of organic matter, formed from damaged cells and larval excrement. The vascular bundles and calcium oxalate crystals remained in the feeding places. We found numerous bacteria, fungal spores and hyphae as well as cleistothecia of Erysiphales in the mines on the surface of the damaged mesophyll. The glandular trichomes occurring only locally on the leaves, the relatively thin cell walls of the epidermis and a not well-developed cuticle layer on their surface do not protect sufficiently these leaves against the invasion of C. ohridella. On the other hand, damaged tissue areas are a convenient place for the growth of bacteria and fungi.

  9. Growth,development and adult fecundity of Chrysoperla carnea feeding on different larval diets%猎物对普通草蛉发育和繁殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提·亚生; 阿克旦·吾外士; 牙生·沙力; 刘建; 阿孜古丽·热依木; 丁瑞丰

    2015-01-01

    为探讨不同猎物对普通草蛉[Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)]幼虫生长发育和成虫繁殖能力的影响,研究了普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)、萝卜蚜[Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)]、榆长斑蚜[Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky)]、截形叶螨(Tetranychus truncatus Ehara)、枸杞木虱(Poratrioza sinica Yang & Li)和麦蛾[Si-totroga cerealella (Olivier)]卵共6种食物时的生长发育和成虫繁殖能力。结果表明:幼虫取食棉蚜发育历期最短,为(9.66±0.13)d、取食麦蛾卵发育历期最长,为(11.35±0.26)d;取食麦蛾卵时蛹期最短,为(7.33±0.16)d、取食萝卜蚜时蛹期最长,为(8.85±0.25)d;幼虫取食棉蚜死亡率最低,为(20.05±0.2)%、取食萝卜蚜时死亡率最高,为(31.25±0.52)%;幼虫取食截形叶螨不能完成幼虫期生长发育;幼虫取食棉蚜时蛹最重,为(8.27±0.20)mg,取食枸杞木虱时蛹最轻,为(7.28±0.18)mg;幼虫取食枸杞木虱时羽化率最低,为(69.29±0.79)%、取食萝卜蚜时羽化率最高,为(77.25±1.94)%;幼虫取食麦蛾卵时雌虫寿命最长,为(71.54±1.87)d、取食榆长斑蚜时雌虫寿命最短,为(57.35±3.66)d。幼虫取食不同食物对普通草蛉成虫产卵前期和产卵量无显著影响。幼虫食物是影响普通草蛉生长发育和繁殖能力的重要因素之一,普通草蛉幼虫取食棉蚜最适合其生长发育和繁殖。%In order to explore the influences of different larval diets on the growth and reproductive capacity of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens),the growth,development and adult fecundity of the lacewing C .car-nea were investigated by feeding the lacewing larvae with the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach),Tinocallis saltans (Nevsky),Tetranychus truncatus ,Poratrioza sinica Yang

  10. Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2006-08-01

    An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The

  11. Разработка технологии получения сухого экстракта семян конского каштана обыкновенного (Aesculus hippocastanum L. ) и его стандартизация

    OpenAIRE

    О.Г. Жарова; В.И. Шейченко; Т.А. Сокольская; В.В. Вандышев

    2008-01-01

    The plants of Aesculus genus (Family Hippocastanaceae) have attracted much interests of phytochemists for many years due to the discovery of triterpene glycosides — escin with extraordinary antiinflammatory activity from horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seeds and the successful applications of its seeds extract for treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency now. The powdered seeds (with reduction range 3 mm) were extracted three times with 70% (v/v) aqueous EtOH under refl...

  12. Isolation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge var. chekiangensis%浙江七叶树种子中三萜皂苷成分的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀伟; 郭杰

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究浙江七叶树Aesculus chinensis Bunge var.chekiangensis(Hu et Fang)Fang种子中的化学成分.方法:采用大孔吸附树脂柱色谱、高效液相色谱等方法进行分离和纯化,根据化合物的谱学数据鉴定其结构.结果:从浙江七叶树种子的70%乙醇提取物中分离得到3个三萜皂苷类化合物,分别鉴定为七叶树皂苷(escins)Ⅳe和Ⅳh及七叶树皂苷(aesculuside)A.结论:这3个化合物皆为首次从浙江七叶树种子中分离得到.

  13. 七叶树花粉活力和柱头可授性变化的研究%Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莺; 陈鹏涛; 樊静静

    2012-01-01

    采用花粉离体萌发法研究不同蔗糖浓度、硼酸浓度和不同温度对七叶树花粉萌发的影响及花粉活力测定,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果表明:七叶树花粉萌发的最佳培养基是12%蔗糖+30 mg/L硼酸,花粉萌发的最适温度为25℃.雄花在开花当天花粉活力最高达75.69%,并在开花当天的上午10:00时,花粉活力最强,10:00~16:00花粉活力保持较高活力,是最佳授粉时段.两性花的柱头可授期持续时间较长,为8~9 d,开花3d达到最强,开花1~4 d柱头可授性保持较高水平,为授粉的最佳时间段.因此,从七叶树的花部特征、花粉活力与柱头可授性及花粉萌发的条件看,在长期的自然选择下七叶树在花部结构和开花生理上都是相配合的,以保障生殖成功.%In vitro pollen-germinating method was used to study the effects of different sucrose and boric acid concentrations, and temperatures on pollen germination and vitality of Aesculus Chinese. Benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method was used to assay stigma receptive. The results showed that the best sucrose and boric acid concentration for pollen germination was 12% and 30 mg/L,respectively,and the optimized temperature was 25℃. The pollen viability of male flowers maintained at higher levels from 10:00 to 16:00 and the highest (75. 69%) at 10:00 during the flowering day. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 10:00. The stigma receptivity of perfect flowers lasted about 8 - 9 d,the stigma receptivity maintained at high levels 1 -4 d after flowering and was the strongest 3 d after flowering. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 1- 4 d after flowering. According to the floral character,pollen viability,stigma receptivity and pollen germination of A. Chinensis, during long terms of natural selection, the floral structure was matched with flowering physiology of A. Chinensis in order to guarantee successful reproduction.

  14. Odvisnost med nastopom fenofaz pri bukvi in navadnem divjem kostanju v Kočevju ter povprečnimi mesečnimi temperaturami zraka v obdobju od leta 1961 do 1990: Phenological development of fagus sylvatica L. and Aesculus hipocastanum L. in relation to mean monthly temperatures for the Kočevje locality during 1961-1990:

    OpenAIRE

    Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Vilhar, Urša

    2003-01-01

    Long-term phenological development of forest trees and shrubs is an important indicator of changes in the onset of specific phenological phase at different sites in relation to meteorological conditions. Correlation analysis and linear multiple regression were used to establish relationship between phenological phases for Fagus sylvatica and Aesculus hippocastanum and mean monthly air temperatures for the Kočevje locality in the period 1961-1990. Correlation coefficients between the onset of ...

  15. 七叶树种子皂苷含量及其组分的产地变异分析%Variation of Escin Contents and Components in Aesculus Seeds among Different Origins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费学谦; 丁明; 周志春; 江志标

    2005-01-01

    Total contents and components of escin were studied in seeds of Aesculus chinensis, A. chinensis var. chekiangensis and A. wilsonii collected from 8 origins. Results showed that total escin content ranged from 71.43 mg-g to 112.69 mg'g , with the highest in origin of Mabian, Sichuan Province and the lowest in origin of Kangxian, Gansu Province. It was suggested that escin content was correlated with geological zone to a certain extent. A. wilsonii was richer than that of Aescu!us chinernis in escin content. The proportion of 4 types of escin varied dramatically among different origins. Component A in Mabian and Cangwang origin from Sichuan Province, Kangxian origin from Gansu Province, Mianxian origin from Shanxi Provifice and Xixia origin from Henan Province reached 35%-41% of total escin that was much higher than that of other components, while components D was below 15% that was only 1/3 of component A. Sum of Component A and C was nearly equal in Enshi, Hubei Province and Sangzhi, Hunan Province origins, which accounted for 58 % of the total content. Lin' an origins from Zhejiang Province only got 17.17% of component A while holding much higher proportion of component D. Statistical analysis also approved that the proportion of escin was correlated to geological zone.

  16. Cytohistological observation of somatic embryogenesis in Aesculus hippocastanum L.%欧洲七叶树体细胞胚发生的细胞组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀立; 施季森

    2013-01-01

    The origin and development of somatic embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum were observed by a paraffin method. The results showed that the embryonic cells had such characteristics as small and even size,dense kytoplasm,large karyon and obvious nucleolus as well as rapid division rate,while the non-embryonic cells had large size,small karyon,thin kytoplasm and much intercellular space and were not easy to agglomerate. The somatic embryogenesis mainly originated from surface unicells,and the regenerated plantlets were developed in turn as 2-cell proembryo,multicelluar proem-bryo,globular embryo,heart-shape embryo,torpedo-shape embryo and cotyledon embryo,being similar to a development process of zygotic embryo. The somatic embryos produced by in vitro culture had full-grown V-shaped vascular bundles,stem apex meristem and root tip meristem,possessing a distinct bipolarity and relative independence.%利用石蜡切片法对欧洲七叶树体细胞胚胎发生进行细胞组织学观察,结果表明:胚性细胞具有细胞小、大小均一、胞质浓、细胞核大、核仁明显等特点,且分裂速度快;而非胚性细胞体积较大、核小、细胞质稀薄、细胞之间间隙较多,不易成团.体细胞胚发生主要起源于表层的单细胞,依次经过2-细胞原胚、多细胞原胚、球形胚、心形胚、鱼雷形胚和子叶胚等与合子胚发育类似的过程,再生植株.欧洲七叶树离体培养产生的体细胞胚具备发育完善的V型维管束、茎尖分生组织以及根尖分生组织,具有明显的两极性和相对的独立性.

  17. ИНДИВИДУАЛЬНАЯ ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ КАШТАНА КОНСКОГО (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. ) В УЗБЕКИСТАНЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Сунгурова, Татьяна

    2012-01-01

    Рассматривается индивидуальная изменчивость морфометрических признаков листьев каштана конского (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) в условиях Узбекистана. Установлено, что из изученных показателей листьев каштана конского: число листьев, длина и ширина листьев, число жилок на листовой пластинке – слева, справа и число зубчиков, наиболее константными является – число зубчиков. Выдвинута гипотеза, том что показатель выступает как признак -фен, который генетически закреплен и наследуется в потомстве. Н...

  18. ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ СЕМЯН КАШТАНА КОНСКОГО (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. ) В УЗБЕКИСТАНЕ

    OpenAIRE

    ФАЗИЛОВА Н.Ф.; ЧЕРНОДУБОВ А.И.

    2013-01-01

    Проведен анализ индивидуальной изменчивости семян каштана конского (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) в Узбекистане (г. Ташкент). Выявлено, что наибольшим уровнем изменчивости по высоте и диаметру обладают семена в аллейных посадках улиц, при среднем уровне изменчивости С = 8,2-12,3%, чем в групповых (ботанический сад, парк). Наиболее крупные семена отмечены в уличных посадках – 24,9 + 0,5 мм при коэффициенте изменчивости по шкале Мамаева С.А. С = 8,6%. Такая же закономерность отмечена при обмере ди...

  19. Influence of extrahent on antioxidant capacity of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Kędzierski, Bartosz; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optimisation of horse chestnut seed extraction was performed to determine the best extraction solvent in the recovery of pharmacologically active escin from raw material. All extracts were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and were analysed for their antioxidant potential (DPPH test), phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay) and escin content (ESI-TOF-MS extracts profiling). Methanol was found to recover the highest amount of escin from the plant matrix as well as to produce the most active antiradical solutions rich in polyphenols. Radical scavenging properties of methanol extracts were calculated as 2 GAE in DPPH test and 23 GAE (mg/g) in FC assay. Quantitative analysis of extracts performed by ESI-TOF-MS measurements in ion-positive mode confirmed the presence of four major escin isomers in the extracts and showed that the high antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts went hand in hand with the highest content of escin (8.92%). PMID:25109836

  20. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  1. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; Monica ECOBICI

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  2. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts. Industrial horse chestnut wastewater can be used to obtain quercetine and kaempferol glycosides for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food supplement industries. PMID:17867637

  3. INFLUENCE OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PHOTOSYNTETIC FUNCTION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN VARIOUS PARTS OF DNERPROPETROVSK

    OpenAIRE

    Lashko V.V.; Rossikhina-Galycha A.S.; Boguslavskaya L.V.

    2012-01-01

    The state of the chestnut ordinary common to modify the content of chlorophyll and morphometric parameters in different environmental conditions and at different stages of ontogeny was investigated. The decline of the assimilation surface of trees, which is due to reduced leaf area and number, reducing the amount of chlorophyll pigments, the ratio of Chla / Chl b, which can be used as markers for stressful biological monitoring studies was set.

  4. HPLC Analysis of Esculin and Fraxin in Horse-Chestnut Bark (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Gordana; Juričić, Blaženka; Brkić, Dragomir

    1999-01-01

    Selective and sensitive HPLC method was used for simultaneous determination of esculin and fraxin in a methanolic extract of horse-chestnut bark (A. hippocastanum L.). The samples were separated on a LiChrospher RP 18 column (150 4 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of acetic acid, 1%, and methanol (84:16 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and quantified by measuring the UV absorbance at 340 nm. The assay of esculin and fraxin is linear over the range 0.02–2 mg/mL. It was shown that t...

  5. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  6. INFLUENCE OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PHOTOSYNTETIC FUNCTION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN VARIOUS PARTS OF DNERPROPETROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lashko V.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the chestnut ordinary common to modify the content of chlorophyll and morphometric parameters in different environmental conditions and at different stages of ontogeny was investigated. The decline of the assimilation surface of trees, which is due to reduced leaf area and number, reducing the amount of chlorophyll pigments, the ratio of Chla / Chl b, which can be used as markers for stressful biological monitoring studies was set.

  7. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oszmiański; Stanisław Kalisz; Wojdyło Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extra...

  8. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25225723

  9. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H. Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (−-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  10. Protective effect of aescin from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on liver injury induced by endotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Xin, Wenyu; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Leiming; Fan, Huaying; Du, Yuan; Li, Chong; Fu, Fenghua

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of aescin on acute liver injury induced by endotoxin, liver injury was established by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Animals were assigned to seven groups: the control group and groups treated with LPS (40 mg/kg), aescin (3.6 mg/kg), LPS plus dexamethasone (4 mg/kg) and LPS plus aescin (0.9, 1.8 or 3.6 mg/kg). Hepatic histopathological changes were examined under a light microscope. Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum were determined. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters in liver homogenate were measured. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) expressions in liver were determined by western blotting. Treatment with escin could inhibit immigration of inflammatory cells, alleviate the degree of necrosis, and decrease serum ALT and AST activities. Aescin also down-regulated levels of inflammation mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and NO) and 11β-HSD2 expression in liver, up-regulated GR expression, enhanced endogenous antioxidative capacity, but have no obvious effect on 11β-HSD1 expression in liver. The findings suggest aescin has protective effects on endotoxin-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms were associated with its anti-inflammatory effects, up-regulating GR expression, down-regulating 11β-HSD2 experssion, and antixoidation. PMID:21802269

  11. Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination

    OpenAIRE

    Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuol...

  12. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Green; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Federico Dorati; Helen Lovell; Dawn Arnold; Cottrell, Joan E.; Stephen Bridgett; Mark Blaxter; Edgar Huitema; Richard Thwaites; Sharp, Paul M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Sophien Kamoun

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains we...

  13. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  14. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Green

    Full Text Available A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae, is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae. On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae, isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  15. The Repetitive Somatic Embryogenesis of Aesculus hippocastanum In Vitro%欧洲七叶树体细胞次生胚重复发生研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀立; 施季森

    2006-01-01

    取欧洲七叶树体细胞胚的子叶诱导次生胚发生,表明:MS+ZT(0.5~2.0 mg/L)+BA 1.0 mg/L+IAA 0.2 mg/L培养基可直接诱导次生胚发生,诱导率超过80%;同一子叶的不同部位分化能力不同,靠近胚轴部位分化能力最强,其他部位比较弱.

  16. Advances in studies on extract from seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum%马栗树种子提取物制剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 陈蓉

    2011-01-01

    马栗树种子提取物(醇提物)为欧洲七叶树种子的提取物,为纯植物制剂,在临床应用中常用制剂有注射用七叶皂苷钠和迈之灵片,其主要成分是七叶皂苷(escin),具有理气宽中、和胃止痛、消肿、改善血液循环、增加静脉张力、抑制胃排空、清除活性氧和抗肿瘤等功效.主要用于术后水肿、肢体外伤所致的皮肤软组织肿胀、脑梗死、癌症等多种病症的治疗.从药理作用和临床应用等方面对马栗树种子提取物制剂的研究进展进行阐述.

  17. Survival and long-term maintenance of tertiary trees in the Iberian Peninsula during the Pleistocene. First record of Aesculus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Postigo Mijarra, Jose Maria; Gómez Manzaneque, Fernando; Morla Juaristi, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The Italian and Balkan peninsulas have been places traditionally highlighted as Pleistocene glacial refuges. The Iberian Peninsula, however, has been a focus of controversy between geobotanists and palaeobotanists as a result of its exclusion from this category on different occasions. In the current paper, we synthesise geological, molecular, palaeobotanical and geobotanical data that show the importance of the Iberian Peninsula in the Western Mediterranean as a refugium area. The presence of...

  18. 欧洲七叶树体细胞胚胎发生研究%Somatic Embryogenesis of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀立; 施季森

    2003-01-01

    以欧洲七叶树幼嫩叶片为外植体,在离体条件下成功诱导出体细胞胚胎(体胚).研究结果表明,诱导愈伤组织的适宜培养基是MS+2,4-D 2mg/L+KT 0.2mg/L,MS+BA 8mg/L +NAA 1mg/L有利于胚性愈伤的诱导和增殖,添加ZT 2mg/L或BA 5mg/L和NAA 0.2mg/L 的MS培养基有利于体胚发育和成熟.

  19. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

    2007-10-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

  20. Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf e centela (Centella asiatica (L. Urban Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabe Gomes de Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais, analisou-se dez amostras de castanha-da-índia, onze de capim-limão e seis de centela, comercializadas em farmácias da cidade do Recife, provenientes de indústrias de várias partes do país. Analisamos as informações técnico-científicas nos rótulos e/ou bulas de acordo com as exigências e obrigatoriedades da legislação brasileira (RDC n. 140 de 29/05/2003 e na RDC n. 102 de 30/11/2000, e embasamento da literatura científica. Também avaliou-se as características organolépticas, a autenticidade e a pureza dos produtos. Constatou-se ausência das informações obrigatórias em 92,59% das amostras. Dentre os termos vedados, foi comum a sugestão da inexistência de efeitos colaterais ou adversos. Quanto as indicações terapêuticas não se observou padronização técnica dos termos nem comprovação científica para algumas das atividades atribuídas pelos fabricantes. Todas as amostras foram consideradas autênticas com base nos testes fitoquímicos e farmacobotânicos. Na análise da pureza 59,26% das amostras foram reprovadas, devido principalmente ao elevado teor de umidade e cinzas totais. Constata-se que além dos produtos comercializados carecerem de informações e qualidade adequadas, há necessidade urgente de uma fiscalização efetiva por parte dos órgãos competentes.Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, coming from industries of several parts of the country. We analyzed the technical-scientific information on the labels and/or directions according to the requirements and obligations of Brazilian law (laws "RDC 140 of 29/05/2003" and "RDC 102 of 30/11/2000" and to scientific literature embasement. The products' organoleptic characteristics, authenticity, and purity were also evaluated. The absence of obligatory information was verified in 92.59% of the samples. Among the blacked terms, it was common to find products that suggested inexistent collateral or adverse effects. Technical terms were not standardized and the manufacturers did not provide scientific proof for some of the activities credited to the products. All samples were considered authentic based on the phytochemical and pharmacobotanical tests. The purity analysis considered 59.26% of the samples inappropriate, mainly due to the high total levels of humidity and ashes. It was verified that besides the lack of adequate information and quality of the commercialized products, there is an urgent need for an effective inspection by the suitable agencies.

  1. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  2. 吉祥草药材抗炎、止咳作用及谱效关系%Experimental Studies on Anti-Inflammatory and Antitussive Activity of Extract from Reineckia carnea and Associated Pharmacodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金兆磊; 赵超; 陈华国; 周欣; 杨世林

    2013-01-01

    研究了吉祥草药材不同提取部位抗炎、止咳活性.分别采用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀法、小鼠氨水引咳法,观察吉祥草药材不同提取部位抗炎、止咳作用.结果表明,吉祥草药材食用酒精提取物3个剂量给药组都有非常显著的抗炎作用(P<0.05),高、低剂量组明显延长咳嗽时间(P<0.05),高剂量组明显减少咳嗽次数(P<0.05);水提物3个剂量组同样具有明显抗炎作用(P<0.05),水提高剂量组能明显增多咳嗽次数(P<0.05),减少咳嗽时间(P<0.05);石油醚提取物各剂量组均没有显著抗炎及止咳作用.可见,吉祥草药材食用酒精提取物及水提物具有较好的抗炎、止咳活性.

  3. Conocimiento campesino sobre plagas asociadas al cultivo del chile poblano (Capsicum annuum L.) y evaluación de la toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), en San Matias Tlalancaleca, Puebla, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Aguayo, Ana Lilia

    2011-01-01

    El chile poblano (C. annuum), es un cultivo importante en el estado de Puebla, ya que es una especie de gran tradición en la alimentación regional y nacional, sin embargo, la realidad que enfrenta la producción de chile poblano en el municipio de San Matías Tlalancaleca perteneciente a la región de la Sierra Nevada del estado, se refleja en problemas fitosanitarios como la incidencia y daños causados por diversas plagas de insectos. A pesar de que se han realizado trabajos de investigación so...

  4. A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoextraction has shown great potential as an alternative technique for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to investigate cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction ability of high biomass producing weeds in comparison to indicator plant species. The pot study conducted with 10 to 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil indicated that Ipomoea carnea was more effective in removing Cd from soil than Brassica juncea. Among the five species, B. juncea accumulated maximum Cd, but I. carnea followed by Dhatura innoxia and Phragmytes karka were the most suitable species for phytoextraction of cadmium from soil, if the whole plant or above ground biomass is harvested. In the relatively short time of this experiment, I. carnea produced more than 5 times more biomass in comparison to B. juncea. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the shoot length and shoot mass of control and treated plants. - Ipomoea carnea was more effective in extracting cadmium than was Brassica juncea

  5. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp., horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair", honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst", and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet". These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.2 μgC g−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC

  6. 吉祥草总皂苷对实验性Freund's完全佐剂大鼠影响的实验研究%Experimental research of analgesic action effects of total saponins from Reineckia carnea agairtst Freund's arthritic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元; 胡一冰; 杜江; 林强

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察吉祥草总皂苷(TSRC)对实验性Freund's完全佐剂大鼠镇痛作用的影响,探讨其对抗类风湿性关节炎(RA)的镇痛作用及作用机制.方法:建立佐剂性关节炎(AA)动物模型,采用吉祥草总皂苷(高、中、低剂量组),并设立空白对照组、模型组、中药阳性对照组和西药阳性对照组治疗,观察TSRC对AA大鼠足肿胀度、关节炎指数的影响,并检测其痛阈、疼痛级别等的变化.结果:TSRC能有效抑制关节肿胀率及关节指数,提高AA大鼠痛阂水平.结论:TSRC具有显著的镇痛作用,其作用与所含的总皂苷有关.

  7. Environ: E00261 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TAX:43364] Same as: D08738 Sapindaceae (soapberry family) Aesculus hippocastanum seed Crude drugs [BR:br0830...5] Dicot plants: rosids Sapindaceae (soapberry family) E00261 Rosskastanien extract ...

  8. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAF LITTER OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Konoshina, S.; Khilkova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of heavy metal accumulation of leaf litter of woody plants: Aesculus hippocastanum Aesculus hippocastanum, heart-shaped linden Tilia cordata, Siberian larch Larix sibirica, mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia, warty birch Betula verrucosa, growing within Orel City is given. The kinds of woody plants, which leaf litter has the largest accumulation of heavy metals are determined. The maximum total content of heavy metals in leaf litter was observed in mountain ash and birch.

  9. 七叶树的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈西仓; 张振纲

    2003-01-01

    @@ 七叶树(Aesculus chinensis Beg.)又名梭椤树、娑罗子、梭椤子、梭罗果、开水果, 为七叶树科(Hippocastanaceae)、七叶树属(Aesculus L.)的落叶乔木.小叶5~9,因叶片掌状复叶,常为7个而得名.

  10. Флавоноїди у листі каштану кінського Aesculus hippocastanum L. як показник екологічного навантаження

    OpenAIRE

    Новза, Ю. А.; Національний авіаційний університет; Попова, Е. М.; Національний авіаційний університет; Вініченко, О.В.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2015-01-01

    Досліджено вміст флавоноїдів у листі каштану кінського зібраного, на території аеропорту Жуляни та Гідропарку м. Києва. Встановлено, що концентрація забруднювальних речовин впливає на вміст флавоноїдів у листі каштану. Вивчено рівень забруднення повітря навколишнього середовища у районах Гідропарку та Жулян. Встановлено, що вміст флавоноїдів зростає при збільшенні вмісту забруднювальних речовин у повітрі. Исследовано содержание флавоноидов в листьях каштана конского собранного, на территор...

  11. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, n...

  12. Allelopathic activity of tree species leaf litter, soil and coprolites in the dnepropetrovsk parks

    OpenAIRE

    Крючкова, Анжелина Илларионовна; Кульбачко, Юрий Люцинович

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the impact of leaf litter allelopathic properties and earthworms trophy metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the soil allelopathic properties under the Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. In the Dnepropetrovsk parks. It was established that earthworms trophy metabolic activity positively influenced on soils allelopathic status.

  13. Bloedingsziekte in paardenkastanje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der B.J.; Slingerland, L.; Kuik, van A.J.

    2010-01-01

    De kastanjeziekte in Aesculus wordt veroorzaakt door een bacterie (Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi) De ziekte is wijd verspreid aanwezig in paardenkastanjebomen in het openbaar groen in Nederland en lijkt verder toe te nemen.. Er zijn steeds meer berichten dat de ziekte zich ook manifesteert in de t

  14. Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

  15. Antifeedant and Toxicity Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Thaumetopoae solitaria Frey. (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer

    2006-01-01

    The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different plants of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Artemisia absinthum L. (Compositae), Alnus glutiosa Goertn. (Betulaceae), Origanum vulgare L., (Labiatae), Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) and Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae) are reported. The 95% ethanol extracts of plants ...

  16. Drug: D08738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us hippocastanum [TAX:43364] Same as: E00261 ATC code: C05CX03 Sapindaceae (soapberry family) Aesculus hippo...castanum seed Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C05 VASOPROTECTIVES C05C CAPI...LLARY STABILIZING AGENTS C05CX Other capillary stabilizi

  17. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  18. β-七叶皂甙钠对外伤性脑梗死患者早期康复的影响%Effect of sodium β-escin on early rehabilitation of the patients with traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银清; 陈汉民; 廖圣芳; 余锦刚

    2002-01-01

    Background:Sodium β escin is involved in Aesculus chinensis Bunge, could increase the tension of veins,improve blood rheology making the blood flow faster,fasten the absorption of the edema around the cerebral infarction,and improves blood supply in the cerebral infarction and around it,and promote the recovery of brain function.

  19. LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. (LEP: LYMANTRIDAE) ‘NIN LARVA GELİŞMESİ ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ ÖZÜTLERİNİN ANTİFEEDANT (İŞTAH KESİCİ) VE TOKSİK ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer; ŞEKEROĞLU, Vedat; ÜNAL, Hasan Umut; ARSLAN, hamit Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L., Family (Labiatae), Buxus sempervirens L., Familya (Buxaceae),Sambucus nigra L., Familya (Caprifoliaceae), Aesculus hippocastanum L, Familya (Hippocastanaceae), Hypericum perforatum L., Familya (Compositae), Viscum album L., Familya ( Loranthaceae), Diospyros kaki L., Familya (Ebenaceae), Ocimum basilicum L., Familya (Labiatae), Alnus glutinosa Goertn, Familya (Betulaceae) ve Achilea biebersteinii Willd., Familya (Compositae), bitkilerinden kaynaklanan insekdisit etki...

  20. The end of a myth—Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E.; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies. PMID:25161661

  1. The end of a myth-Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies.

  2. Newly Recorded Species of Plant to Gansu,China%甘肃省植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培亮; 杜诚; 卢元; 姜在民; 文建雷

    2013-01-01

    报道了甘肃省植物分布新记录2属5种.新记录属是紫金牛科(Myrsinaceae)的杜茎山属(Maesa)和紫金牛属(Ardisia).新记录种是湖北杜茎山(M.hupehensis)、紫金牛(A.japonica)、豆科(Leguminosae)的肉色土(圈)儿(A pios carnea)、凤仙花科(Balsaminaceae)的四川凤仙花(Impatiens sutchuenensis)和菊科(Asteraceae)的粗毛牛膝菊(Galinsoga quadriradiata).%Two genera and five species of plant are recorded to Gansu,China for the first time. The newly recorded genera are Maesa and Ardisia (Myrsinaceae). The newly recorded species are M. hupehensis,A. ja-ponica ,Apios carnea (Leguminosae), Impatiens sutchuenensis (Balsaminaceae) and Galinsoga quadriradi-ata (Asteraceae).

  3. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  4. Influence of Some Plant Extracts and Microbioagents on Some Physiological Traits of Faba Bean Infected with Botrytis fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Yehia A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Cuminum cyminum L., Allium sativum L. and Hyoscyamus muticus L. leaf extracts, and of Streptomyces exfoliatus (Waksman & Curtis) Waksman & Henrici (S) and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (T) in controlling Botrytis fabae, which causes chocolate spot disease in the faba bean. Laboratory studies supported the use of leaf extracts of E. citriodora (Ex. 1) and I....

  5. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant species of Genera arbutus l., Bruckenthalia rchb., Calluna salisb. and Erica l. (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Najpoznatiji i najviše korišćeni biljni uroantiseptik je list uve, Uvaeursi folium (Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Ericaceae. U tradicionalnoj medicini često se i druge vrste familije Ericaceae spominju u lečenju urinarnih infekcija. Provera antimikrobne aktivnosti izvršena je za sledeće biljne vrste ove familije koje samostalno rastu u flori Balkanskog poluostrva: Arbutus unedo, Bruckentalia spiculifolia, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea i Erica carnea.

  6. Direct effects of snowdrop lectin (GNA) on larvae of three aphid predators and fate of GNA after ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Petra A M; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2006-06-01

    Plants genetically modified to express Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) have been found to confer partial resistance to homopteran pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate direct effects of GNA on larvae of three species of aphid predators that differ in their feeding and digestive physiology, i.e. Chrysoperla carnea, Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata. Longevity of all three predator species was directly affected by GNA, when they were fed a sucrose solution containing 1% GNA. However, a difference in sensitivity towards GNA was observed when comparing the first and last larval stage of the three species. In vitro studies revealed that gut enzymes from none of the three species were able to break down GNA. In vivo feed-chase studies demonstrated accumulation of GNA in the larvae. After the larvae had been transferred to a diet devoid of GNA, the protein stayed present in the body of C. carnea, but decreased over time in both ladybirds. Binding studies showed that GNA binds to glycoproteins that can be found in the guts of larvae of all three predator species. Immunoassay by Western blotting of haemolymph samples only occasionally showed the presence of GNA. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed GNA accumulation in the midgut of C. carnea larvae. Implications of these findings for non-target risk assessment of GNA-transgenic crops are discussed.

  7. Conservation of bio-control agents in cotton, gossypium hirsutum l. field by food supplements for insect pests management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reports the use of artificial food sprays to conserve the parasitoids and predators for the management of insect pests in cotton field. Cotton crop was treated with bio-control agents, Chrysoperla carnea and Trichogramma chilonis alongwith different food attractants such as Protein hydrolysate and sugar alone and in combination in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was applied on one-acre field with three replications. Results showed that the chemicals tested helped in increasing the populations of beneficial insects including; C. carnea, T. chilonis and Orius spp., in the field. The populations of C. carnea and T. chilonis were found the highest in the combined treatment of protein hydrolysate and sugar as compared to other treatments where protein hydrolysate and sugar were used separately. However, the population of Orius spp. was higher in the treatment where only sugar solution was sprayed as food supplement. Consequently, incorporation of food supplements in the trial increased the establishment of natural enemies and subsequently the predation/ parasitism percentage enhanced on the insect pests of cotton. (author)

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DE EXTRATOS VEGETAIS NO CONTROLE DE MOSCA BRANCA EM TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO MARCUS FREIRE VIEIRA LIMA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to defense against herbivores, plants produce one versatile bioactive molecules synthesized in plant secondary metabolism. This paper aimed to evaluate the efficiency of plant extracts on the population level of whitefly nymphs on tomato cv. IPA 6, assess the number of fruits per treatment, fruit weight, ripeness and irregular pith. The experiment was installed in the field with the tomato crop IPA 6, block design, making use of substances extracted from plants, etanolic extract straw (Ipomoea carnea subsp. Fistulosa, etanolic extract castor (Ricinus communis L., aqueous extract tingui (Mascagnia rigida Griseb , aqueous extract Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L. and neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss for the control of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The spraying was carried out by spraying, between 16 and 18 h, with an interval of seven days. Statistical analysis performed by WinStat and percentage of treatment efficiency calculated by Abbott (1925. The straw (72.41% and neem oil (67.26% were the most effective on nymphs. The number and weight of tomato fruits did not differ significantly between treatments. In relation to irregular maturation, extracts of I. carnea and M. rigida were significant. The extracts of I. carnea, M. rigida and A. Mexicana shown to be effective in controlling the pith. All plant extracts used in this experiment show efficiency on nymphs of B. tabaci.

  9. ВПЛИВ АЕРОПОЛЮТАНТІВ НА ФОТОСИНТЕТИЧНУ ФУНКЦІЮ РОСЛИН AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. З РІЗНИХ РАЙОНІВ МІСТА ДНІПРОПЕТРОВСЬКА

    OpenAIRE

    Россихіна-галича, Г.; Богуславська, Л.; Лашко, В.

    2012-01-01

    Досліджено стан рослин гіркокаштану звичайного за зміною вмісту хлорофілів та морфометричних показників у різних екологічних умовах та на різних етапах онтогенезу. Встановлено зниження асиміляційної поверхні деревних рослин, яке обумовлено саме зниженням площі листків та їх кількості, зменшення суми хлорофільних пігментів, відношення Хл а/Хл b, що може використовуватися як стресові маркери у біомоніторингових дослідженнях....

  10. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF LEAF GALLS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Adina MATICA; Mădălina SCURTU

    2010-01-01

    The present study contains the results of our research on the galls makers that attack the woody species in the urban environment. The presence of a gall-forming arthropods within leaves has been observed on 8 species: Juglans regia, Prunus domestica, Malus domestica, Tilia tomentosa, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ribes rubrum and Vitis vinifera. We identified a number of 10 gall-forming species. These species belong to 8 different genera, from 5 families and 4 orders. Levels of in...

  11. Trace element content in urban tree leaves and SEM-EDAX characterization of deposited particles

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević Milica; Aničić Mira

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of common deciduous trees: Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade (Serbia) were studied as biomonitors of trace elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) air pollution. Using a scanning SEM-EDAX, the size, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were examined on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves. Morphological and chemical composition indicated that the most abundant particles...

  12. Der Einfluss von Blütenduftstoffen auf die Oviposition der Rosskastanienminiermotte Cameraria ohridella

    OpenAIRE

    Johne, A. Bettina; Sprauer, Susanne; Weißbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The larval stages of Cameraria ohridella develop mining in leaves of the horse chestnut tree Aesculus hippocastanum. The insect establishes three generations in Central Europe. During the appearance of the first generation the horse chestnut trees bloom. Further on, parallel to the flying time of all generations other plant species bloom. The olfactory detection of flower odour compounds and the influence on oviposition of C. ohridella were examined using trace analytical and electrophysiolog...

  13. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Stach; Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch; Alicja Zientarska

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated,...

  14. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Mihajel VEREȘ; Raluca Georgiana CATRINA; Ana-Maria PÎRVULESCU; Roxana Mădălina TĂNASE; Daniela Adina DATCU

    2015-01-01

    In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight) on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the le...

  15. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Vatľák; Adriana Kolesárová; Nenad Vukovič; Katarína Rovná; Jana Petrová; Viktória Vimmerová; Lukáš Hleba; Martin Mellen; Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-01-01

    In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix ...

  17. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  18. The invasive alien leaf miner Cameraria ohridella and the native tree Acer pseudoplatanus: a fatal attraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Péré, Christelle; Augustin, Sylvie; Ted C J Turlings; Kenis, Marc

    2012-01-01

    1. The horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella is an invasive moth in Europe and a serious pest of horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum. The moth also occasionally attacks sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus, when situated beside infested horse-chestnuts. 2. The main objective of the present study was to provide an overview of the relationship between C. ohridella and A. pseudoplatanus and to determine whether C. ohridella has the potential to shift to this native tree. 3. In the fiel...

  19. Free amino acids in the environment of the developing embryo (Dicotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryczkowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of the central vacule sap in ovules of Aesculus hybrida D.C. and A. hippocastanum L. (generally during the exponential phase of the embryo growth for free amino acids have been carried out. Some similarities and differences have been established referring the course of the total concentration changes of free amino acids resp. concentration changes of particular amino acids in the sap.

  20. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...

  1. Analýza genetické variability jírovce maďalu pomocí DNA markerů

    OpenAIRE

    Bačovský, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Some species of the genus Aesculus are every year heavily infested by horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), whose larvae are mining the leaves, and under appropriate conditions may damage up to 100% of the leaf area. The effect of lower defense capability of infested trees lead to invasion of fungal (Erysiphe flexuosa, Guignardia aesculi) and bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi) pathogens, and later to higher mortality of infected individuals. In this study were measured th...

  2. Free amino acids in the environment of the developing embryo (Dicotyledonous plants)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ryczkowski; M. G. Buijs; H. T. Van Dijk; H. Ryczkowska

    2015-01-01

    The analyses of the central vacule sap in ovules of Aesculus hybrida D.C. and A. hippocastanum L. (generally during the exponential phase of the embryo growth) for free amino acids have been carried out. Some similarities and differences have been established referring the course of the total concentration changes of free amino acids resp. concentration changes of particular amino acids in the sap.

  3. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch; Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was document...

  4. Struktura fizyczna gruntu, zawartość substancji organicznej oraz skład chemiczny gleb w podłożach 21 stanowisk zieleni miejskiej na terenie Poznania. Część II. Zawartość substancji organicznej w podłożu. Odczyn gleby

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasiewicz, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the continuation of a four-part series of publications describing the condition of soil environment in the area of broadly understood centre of Poznań. It presents the content of organic substance and the reaction of subsoils collected from under horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) growing in 21 locations in the city. The methodology of sample collection has been described in Part 1.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of plant defensins from seeds of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Hippocastanaceae and Saxifragaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R W; De Samblanx, G W; Thevissen, K; Goderis, I; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Attenborough, S; Rees, S B; Broekaert, W F

    1995-07-17

    From seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum, Clitoria ternatea, Dahlia merckii and Heuchera sanguinea five antifungal proteins were isolated and shown to be homologous to plant defensins previously characterised from radish seeds and gamma-thionins from Poaceae seeds. Based on the spectrum of their antimicrobial activity and the morphological distortions they induce on fungi the peptides can be divided into two classes. The peptides did not inhibit any of three different alpha-amylases. PMID:7628617

  6. 七叶皂苷的药理作用与临床应用%Pharmacological effects of aescin and its clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 周宏灏

    2010-01-01

    娑罗子为七叶树科植物欧洲七叶树(Aesculus hippocastannum)、日本七叶树(Aesculus turbinata Blume)和中国天师栗(Aesculus Wilsonii Rehd)的果实或种子.欧洲七叶树,又名欧马栗(horse chestnut),其种子和幼枝的外皮可入药,在欧洲应用广泛,早在18世纪即用于解热,19世纪后期可用于治疗痔疮.七叶皂苷是从娑罗子(七叶树种子)中提取的主要活性成分,属于三萜皂苷类药物.它具有抗渗、消肿、改善血液循环、增加静脉张力、抑制胃排空、清除活性氧和抗肿瘤作用.临床上可广泛应用于慢性静脉功能不全,痔疮、水肿、哮喘等.本文对七叶皂苷的药理作用及其临床应用进行综述.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  8. New records of six wild plants distributed in Jiangxi Province%江西省6种野生植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 彭玉娇; 张琪; 袁荣斌; 徐艳琴; 胡生福

    2016-01-01

    Based on field investigation, specimen identification and related literatures, six species belonging to six genera in six families were reported as new records in Jiangxi Province, viz. Polygonatum nodosum Hua, Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall., Pternopetalum heterophyllum Hand.-Mazz., Aristolochia foveolata Merr., Apios carnea ( Wall.) Benth. ex Baker and Goodyera velutina Maxim. In which, Hemiphragma Wall. is a newly recorded genus of wild plant in Jiangxi Province. Voucher specimens are deposited in Medicinal Plant Herbarium of School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine ( JXCM) .

  9. Taxonomic Evaluation of Fifteen Species of Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae from South-Western Nigeria using Foliar Micromorphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foliar micromorphological study was carried out on I. triloba, I. eriocarpa, I. alba, I. hederifolia, I. muricata, I. intrapilosa, I. asarifolia, I. batatas, I. aquatica, I. mauritiana, I. carnea, I.involucrata, I. nil, I. heterotricha and I. obscura to determine the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and search for useful and stable anatomical characters for the identification of the species. Leaf epidermal features that provided useful specific distinctions are cell shape, anticlinal wall pattern, stomata shape, stomata type, trichome, cuticular striations, crystal, granular periclinal wall, stomata size, stomata index, scale and tannin. The characters revealed interrelationships among the Ipomoea species and also suggest their monophyly.

  10. The rare Chrysopidae (Neuroptera) of southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canard, Michel; Letardi, Agostino; Thierry, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative surveys of the chrysopid fauna from southwestern Europe, namely the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, France south of 46° N, and the west-Mediterranean Islands, were analysed. A total of 56 species of Chrysopidae were reported, of which three species were abundant. These, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836) sensu lato, Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister, 1839) and D. flavifrons (Brauer, 1850), comprised a large percentage of the specimens. For the rarer species, comments are made on their distributions, the enhanced geographic range of exotic ones, and on levels of endemism and stenotopy.

  11. Inundative field releases and evaluation of three predators for Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) management in three vegetable crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alvin M. Simmons; Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a global pest on numerous crops, including vegetables. Weekly inundative releases of a coccineUid predator (Coccinella undecimpunctata L. [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae]), a common green lacewing predator (Chrysoperla carnea Stephen [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]), and a mirid predator (Macrolophus caliginosus [Wagner] [Hemiptera: Miridae]) were independently made in three vegetable crops (cabbage [Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.],cucumber [Cucumis sativus L.], and squash [Cucurbita pepo L.]) for the management of the sweetpotato whitefly. Approximately 1 million to 2.5 million larvae or nymphs of each predator were released in the vegetable crops during 20 weeks. Whitefly populations were reduced by ≈ 25%-45% during most of the season in each crop where each predator was released. The effect of each predator was similar on whitefly population reduction. Late in the season (October) when whitefly populations were low, generally no benefit was obtained from releasing the predators. Numbers of predators recovered during sampling in all crops were greatest for C. carnea, but this corresponded with the fact that more individuals of this predator were released than any other predator in the experiment. These results help define the utility of these natural enemies for managing B. tabaci in vegetable crops.

  12. Susceptibility of natural enemies of pests of agriculture to commonly applied insecticides in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)

  13. 3D cardiac motion reconstruction from CT data and tagged MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Mihalef, Viorel; Qian, Zhen; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for left ventricle (LV) endocardium motion reconstruction using high resolution CT data and tagged MRI. High resolution CT data provide anatomic details on the LV endocardial surface, such as the papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae. Tagged MRI provides better time resolution. The combination of these two imaging techniques can give us better understanding on left ventricle motion. The high resolution CT images are segmented with mean shift method and generate the LV endocardium mesh. The meshless deformable model built with high resolution endocardium surface from CT data fit to the tagged MRI of the same phase. 3D deformation of the myocardium is computed with the Lagrangian dynamics and local Laplacian deformation. The segmented inner surface of left ventricle is compared with the heart inner surface picture and show high agreement. The papillary muscles are attached to the inner surface with roots. The free wall of the left ventricle inner surface is covered with trabeculae carneae. The deformation of the heart wall and the papillary muscle in the first half of the cardiac cycle is presented. The motion reconstruction results are very close to the live heart video. PMID:23366825

  14. Рівень фенольних речовин у листі каштану кінського у різні періоди розвитку за екологічного стресу

    OpenAIRE

    Свідзінська, Н. Б.; Національний авіаційний університет; Попова, Е. М.; Національний авіаційний університет; Вініченко, О.В.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2015-01-01

    The changes accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves of horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L. in different periods of environmental stress on Victory Avenue near the city. Kyiv. Установлено изменение накопления фенольных веществ у листьях каштана конского Aesculus hippocastanum L. в разные периоды развития за экологического стресса в районе проспекта Победы г. Киева. Встановлено зміну накопичення фенольних речовин у листі каштану кінського Aesculus  hippocastanum L.  у різні ...

  15. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the Łukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Poznań, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  16. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Chauhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum, Allium cepa, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia stracheyi, Hamamelis virginiana Ruscus aculeatus, Terminalia chebula Vaccinium myrtillus, Verbascum thapus etc.

  17. Analiza odziva tkiv na mehanska poškodovanja pri navadnem divjem kostanju s tridimenzionalnim magnetno resonančnim slikanjem

    OpenAIRE

    Lavk, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Pri navadnem divjem kostanju (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) smo spremljali odziv tkiv na mehanska poškodovanja in vlažnostne spremembe. Vejice smo poškodovali tako, da smo skozi premer z baterijskim vrtalnikom zavrtali luknjo premera 3 mm. Vse vejice smo poškodovali 8. aprila 2010. Poškodovane segmente vejic smo preiskovali s pomočjo 3D MR slikanja, kar smo opravili v tedenskih intervalih. Takoj po mehanskem poškodovanju smo s 3D MR slikanjem opazili izsušitev tkiv v neposredni bližini rane. Med...

  18. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  19. Arboristični vidiki snegoloma v mestni občini Ljubljana v zimi 1999:

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Lena; Oven, Primož; Torelli, Niko

    2005-01-01

    As a result of heavy snow in February 1999, trees were damaged in the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Of the investigated 624 trees, 195 (31%) were damaged by snow. On average, 1.7 branch and top per tree were broken. Snow damaged 17 tree species, affecting particularly Aesculus hippocastanum L. and, to a lesser extent, Betula pendula ROTH. and Salix x sepulcralis SIMONK. Decay was the most frequent defect at the failure location and was often associated withincluded bark and vicinity of old mec...

  20. Primerjava poškodovanosti dreves v izbranih drevoredih Mestne občine Ljubljana v letu 2008 s stanjem v letu 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Slemenšek, Klemen

    2014-01-01

    Cilj naloge je bila analiza stanja poškodovanosti dreves v izbranih drevoredih mestne občine Ljubljana in njihova primerjava s stanjem v letu 1999. Analizirani so bili trije drevoredi na mestnih ulicah (Prule - Grudnovo nabrežje, Eipprova in Poljanski nasip) s pomočjo prirejene metode vizualnega ocenjevanja krošnje in ocene mehanske poškodovanosti dreves. Opisanih in primerjanih je bilo skupno 198 dreves. Od tega 117 navadnih divjih kostanjev (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), 47 ostrolistnih javor...

  1. [Rheologic properties of some pharmaceutical excipients in drug forms and cosmetic preparation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagareishvili, G V; Bashura, A A; Alekseeva, M A; Bashura, G S

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of mechanisms and principles of the formation of deformation (fracture) of spatial structure of bentonite solutions and various solutions and disperse systems is one or the most important problems of modern pharmaceutical technology. The article presents the results of a long-term research of influence of high-molecular compounds and surfactants on the properties of designed dosage drug forms and cosmetic preparation. Research data, as the basis for drug combinations "gel" with dekamitoksin, extract Aesculus hippocastanum L and probiotics. PMID:22859452

  2. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  3. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF LEAF GALLS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study contains the results of our research on the galls makers that attack the woody species in the urban environment. The presence of a gall-forming arthropods within leaves has been observed on 8 species: Juglans regia, Prunus domestica, Malus domestica, Tilia tomentosa, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ribes rubrum and Vitis vinifera. We identified a number of 10 gall-forming species. These species belong to 8 different genera, from 5 families and 4 orders. Levels of infestation with Cameraria ohridella are high.

  4. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.

    1973-01-01

    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  5. rboricultural aspects of snow-damage in the citz of Ljubljana in the winter 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Marion, Leon; Torelli, Niko; Oven, Primož

    2005-01-01

    As a result of heavy snow in February 1999, trees were damaged in the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Of the investigated 624 trees, 195 (31%) were damaged by snow. On average, 1.7 branch and top per tree were broken. Snow damaged 17 tree species, affecting particularly Aesculus hippocastanum L. and, to a lesser extent, Betula pendula ROTH. and Salix x sepulcralis SIMONK. Decay was the most frequent defect at the failure location and was often associated withincluded bark and vicinity of old mec...

  6. Determinação do teor de princípios ativos em matérias-primas vegetais Determination of active principles in vegetable raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa F. Bara; Paula A.M. Ribeiro; Maria do Carmo B. Arantes; Luci Ley S.S. Amorim; José Realino de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), hipérico (Hypericum perforatum L.), guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K.) e ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) fazem parte de formulações de medicamentos fitoterápicos muito comercializados no Brasil. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a qualidade de amostras de pós e extratos destas plantas. Para a determinação do teor de princípios ativos foram aplicados métodos farmacopéicos ou citados na literatura científica e os resultados demonstraram serem adequados para a a...

  7. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  8. Sumedėjusių augalų grybai ir kenkėjai Vilniaus universiteto botanikos sode

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnaitė, Banga

    2011-01-01

    2003–2011 m. Vilniaus universiteto Botanikos sode tirta 45 genčių sumedėjusių augalų fitosanitarinė būklė. Nustatytos 109 grybų rūšys. Plačiau išplitę ir kiekvienais metais aptinkami yra patogeniniai Diaphorte, Diplodia, Exobasidium, Erysiphe, Gymnosporangium, Guignardia, Laphodermium, Mycosphaerella, Monilinia, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Plasmopara, Rhytisma, Thedgonia genčių grybai ir kenkėjai lapinukai (Phyllobius). Labiausiai pažeidžiami šių genčių augalai: Acer, Aesculus, Caragana, Chaenom...

  9. Tree Species and Their Space Requirements in Six Urban Environments Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dahlhausen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees have gained in importance during recent decades, but little is known about the temporal dynamic of tree growth in urban areas. The present study investigated the allometric relationships of stem diameter, tree height, and crown radius for six different tree species in six metropolises worldwide. Increment cores of the trees were used for identifying the relationship of basal area and basal area increment and for extrapolating the temporal dynamics for each species in relation to the allometric parameters and growth extensions. Space limitation and its direct influence on growth were quantified, as well as the aboveground woody biomass and the carbon storage capacity. The results show that, among the investigated species, Quercus nigra and Khaya senegalensis have the highest growth rates for stem diameter and crown radius, whereas Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum remain on a lower level. A significant reduction of tree growth due to restricted non-paved area was found for Aesculus hippocastanum and Khaya senegalensis. Estimations of aboveground biomass were highest for Quercus nigra and lowest for Tilia cordata. These results show the species-specific allometries of urban trees over a projected time period. Thus, the data set is highly relevant for planners and urban green managers.

  10. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species. PMID:26096967

  11. 七叶树属药用植物的化学、药理和临床研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 王志伟

    2001-01-01

    七叶树属(Aesculus Linn.)共有植物约30余种,我国有16种。本属植物七叶树Aesculus chinensisBge.、浙江七叶树A.chinensis Bge.var.chekiangensis(Hu et Fang)Fang和天师栗A.wilsonii Rehd.的干燥成熟种子,在我国是传统的理气中药,称作娑罗子,有理气宽中、和胃止痛等功效,用于胸腹胀闷、胃脘疼痛等症。本属欧洲七叶树A.hippocastanum L.的种子和树皮在欧洲是传统的民间药物,其种子又名欧马栗(horse chestnut),从中提取的β-七叶皂甙,是一种良好的抗炎消肿药物,用于治疗痔疮、静脉性

  12. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  13. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  14. Analysis of vegetation dynamics and phytodiversity from three dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Mandal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the vegetation dynamics and plant diversity from the dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley. Species richness, regeneration, and change in community composition of these forests were studied and change was noticed with Shorea robusta as the main dominant species, and Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini, and Ehretia laevis as codominant tree species in all communities. The highest species richness and diversity rates were found to be increased with the decrease in tree density and basal area. The high Importance Value Index recorded in Thano (>150 indicates that the S. robusta forest is progressing toward the culmination stage, whereas the lower IVI values (100 and 150 in the other two sites (Selaqui – Jhajra and Asarori signify the heavy disturbance of these sites and further establishment of alien invasive species such as Cassia tora, Cassia occidentalis, Lantana camara, Urena lobata, Ipomoea carnea, Sida acuta, and Solanum torvum.

  15. Soil microbial abundances and enzyme activities in different rhizospheres in an integrated vertical flow constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Jiang, Qinsu; Min, Hang; Fan, Haitian; Zeng, Qiang; Chang, Jie [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Chongbang [School of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Yue, Chunlei [Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Rhizosphere microorganism is an important bio-component for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). Microbial abundance and enzyme activities in the rhizospheres of nine plant species were investigated in an integrated vertical-flow CW. The abundance of denitrifiers, as well as urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase activities were positively correlated to plant root biomass. The abundance of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, and phosphorus decomposers, related to nutrient removal efficiencies in CWs, greatly varied among rhizospheres of different plant species (p < 0.05). Significant differences in rhizosphere enzyme activity among plant species were also observed (p < 0.05), with the exception of catalase activity. The principal component analysis using the data of microbial abundance and enzyme activity showed that Miscanthus floridulus, Acorus calamus, and Reineckia carnea were candidates to be used in CWs to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Metal phytoremediation potential of naturally growing plants on fly ash dumpsite of Patratu thermal power station, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shikha Kumari; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Chakraborty, Sukalyan

    2016-01-01

    Three naturally growing plants Ipomoea carnea, Lantana camara, and Solanum surattense were found in fly ash dumpsite of Patratu thermal power station, Jharkhand, India. They were assessed for their metal uptake potential. The fly ash was slightly alkaline with very less nitrogen and organic carbon but enriched with phosphorus and heavy metals. Lantana camara and Ipomoea carnea showed good translocation from root to shoot for most of the metals except Mn and Pb. The order of metal accumulation in stem of both the plants were Fe(205mg/kg)>Mn(65mg/kg)>Cu(22.35mg/kg)>Pb(6.6mg/kg)>Cr(3.05mg/kg)>Ni(1 mg/kg)>Cd(0.5 mg/kg) and Fe(741 mg/kg)>Mn(154.05 mg/kg)>Cu(20.75 mg/kg)>Pb(6.75 mg/kg)>Ni(4.0 mg/kg)>Cr(3.3mg/kg)>Cd(0.05mg/kg), respectively. But Solanum surattense accumulated most of the metals in roots. The order was in the following order, Mn (382.2mg/kg) >Fe (264.1mg/kg) > Cu (25.35mg/kg) >Pb (5.95 mg/kg) > Ni (1.9 mg/kg) > Cr (1.8mg/kg) > Cd (0.55 mg/kg). The order of Bioconcentration factor (BCF) in root and shoot followed almost the same order as, Mn>Fe>Ni>Pb>Cu>Cr≈ Cd in all the three species. ANOVA showed significant variation in metal accumulation by root and stem between the species. Finally, it can be concluded that Solanum surattense can be used as phytostabilizer and other two species as phytoextractor of metal for fly ash dumpsite reclamation.

  17. Descripción de las especies del género Ipomoea presentes en el area de riego del río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina Description of the species of the genus Ipomoea in the irrigated area of Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. del V. Carrizo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue relevar y diferenciar especies del género Ipomoea presentes en diferentes fases de desarrollo, en el área de riego del Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Para ello fueron herborizados y fotografiados diversos ejemplares encontrados en la región. En el laboratorio, después del trabajo de identificación, fueron descritas las diversas fases de desarrollo de la planta: semilla, plántula y estado adulto, creándose códigos de identificación para cada fase. Se registraron ocho especies del género Ipomoea, I. alba; I. amnicola; I. cairica; I. carnea; I. grandifolia; I. nil; I. purpurea e I. quamoclit, algunas de las cuales se cultivan como ornamentales, otras aparecen como ruderales y algunas son malezas en cultivos de la región.The objective of this research was to describe and differentiate the stages of species of the genus Ipomoea in the irrigated area of Rio Dulce - Santiago del Estero - Argentina, under different growth stages. Species prototypes from the area were mounted in a herbarium, photographed and then identified with detailed descriptions of the seed, seedling and mature stages. A classification key was constructed to identify them under different growth stages. Eight species in the genus Ipomoea: (I. alba, I. amnicola, I. cairica, I. carnea, I. grandifolia, I. nil, I. purpurea and I. quamoclit were registered, some cultivated as ornamental, while others appear naturally or as crop weeds in the region.

  18. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN SOME IPOMOEA LINN. SPECIES USING POLLEN AND FLOWER MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde R. OLADUNJOYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted in search of constant morpho-anatomical characters to aid the identification and classification of commonly encountered Ipomoea species in south west Nigeria. Flower and pollen morphology as important repository of constant characters formed the focus of the investigation. Whole flowers were dissected to expose the carpel and stamens for study. For pollen study, after soaking in de-ionized water, the anthers were collected and crushed, stained and placed on a glass slide by needle for observation under light microscope. The lengths of styles and filament all varied in the seven species, highest length in styles was recorded in Ipomoea hederifolia (37.0-38.5mm while the minimum was recorded in Ipomoea vagans (16.5-19.0mm. United bract into a boat-shaped, doubly acuminate involucre distinguished Ipomoea involucrata from the remaining six species with free bracts. Pollen grains were found to be radially symmetrical; circular in outline, sculpture were echinate, circular aperture, pores equidistantly distributed, oblate, speriodal and oblate-spheriodal. Largest pollen size was recorded in Ipomoea aquatica (60.2-62.5µm, suggesting a less derived position whereas the minimum size (30.7-31.4µm was observed in Ipomoea hederifolia. The maximum spine length was recorded in Ipomoea involucrate (8.3-9.6µm and minimum was recorded in Ipomoea hederifolia (3.3-4.0µm. The phylogenetic tree resulting from cluster analysis suggests that the alien species I. aserifolia and I. carnea are sisters to the other native Ipomoea species. As the number of species increases, synapomorphies decrease whereas increased synapomorphies are associated with decreasing number of species.While both I. aserifolia and I. carnea may have naturalized, they represent new records for the Flora of West Tropical Africa.

  19. 秦岭种子植物区系新记录%Some Newly Recorded Spermatophytes to Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎斌; 李思锋; 袁永明; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    报道了秦岭种子植物区系4新记录属[杜若属(Pollia Thunb.)、美冠兰属(Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.)、常山属(Dichroa Lour.)和吊灯花属(Ceropegia Linn.)],8新记录种[川杜若Pollia miranda (Lévl.)Hara、长距美冠兰Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.、常山Dichroa febri fuga Lour.、肉色土(栾)儿 Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker、柳叶蓬莱葛Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.、显脉獐牙菜Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C,B.Clarke、皱果赤瓟Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi和宝兴吊灯花Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li].%Four genera and eight species are reported as new records of spermatophyte flora to Qinling Mountain.4 newly recorded genera are Pollia Thunb.,Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.,Dichroa Lour.and Ceropegia Linn..8 newly recorded species are Pollia miranda (Lévl.) Hara (Commelinaceae),Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.(Orchidaceae),Dichroa febrifuga Lour.(Saxifragaceae),Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker (Leguminosae),Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.(Loganiaceae),Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C.B.Clarke (Gentianaceae),Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi (Cucurbitaceae) and Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li (Asclepiadaceae).

  20. Transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies: a detailed review of laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, Gabor L; Andow, David A; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2009-04-01

    This review uses a data-driven, quantitative method to summarize the published, peer-reviewed literature about the impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on arthropod natural enemies in laboratory experiments. The method is similar to meta-analysis, and, in contrast to a simple author-vote counting method used by several earlier reviews, gives an objective, data-driven summary of existing knowledge about these effects. Significantly more non-neutral responses were observed than expected at random in 75% of the comparisons of natural enemy groups and response classes. These observations indicate that Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors often have non-neutral effects on natural enemies. This synthesis identifies a continued bias toward studies on a few predator species, especially the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, which may be more sensitive to GM insecticidal plants (16.8% of the quantified parameter responses were significantly negative) than predators in general (10.9% significantly negative effects without C. carnea). Parasitoids were more susceptible than predators to the effects of both Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors, with fewer positive effects (18.0%, significant and nonsignificant positive effects combined) than negative ones (66.1%, significant and nonsignificant negative effects combined). GM plants can have a positive effect on natural enemies (4.8% of responses were significantly positive), although significant negative (21.2%) effects were more common. Although there are data on 48 natural enemy species, the database is still far from adequate to predict the effect of a Bt toxin or proteinase inhibitor on natural enemies.

  1. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils. PMID:25254600

  2. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  3. Cameraria ohridella, ravageur des marronniers d’Inde

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Sylvie; Guichard, Sylvain; Courtin, Claudine; Lorme, Philippe; Roques, Alain

    2004-01-01

    La mineuse du marronnier Cameraria ohridella est une espèce invasive en Europe dont l’origine est inconnue. Sa dispersion est très rapide et cinq ans après son premier signalement aux frontières françaises, elle était présente en automne 2003 dans la plupart des départements. Son potentiel de développement est très important, et deux ou trois ans après son installation, elle peut, dès le début de mois de juillet, provoquer la chute des feuilles de son hôte préféré Aesculus hippocastanum. Les ...

  4. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  5. Research of β-sodium aescinate%β-七叶皂苷钠的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焱燚; 王永刚; 刘学源

    2009-01-01

    @@ β-七叶皂苷钠由欧洲七叶树(aesculus hippocastanum)的干燥成熟果实(中药娑罗子)中提取,具有明显的消肿、抗炎、抗渗出、增加静脉张力及改善微循环的药理作用.临床上广泛用于治疗慢性静脉功能不全(chronic venous insufficiency,CVI)、脑水肿、创伤或手术后引起的肿胀,也用于静脉回流障碍性疾病如痔疮、下肢静脉曲张、血栓性静脉炎等.近年研究发现其还具有抗氧化、清除自由基、抗肿瘤等作用.

  6. Possibilités de lutte contre La mineuse du marronnier, Cameraria ohridella

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    La mineuse du marronnier Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic est un lépidoptère dont l'origine est inconnue. Cette espèce, découverte en macédoine il y a plus de 20 ans, a ensuite colonisé progressivement toute l'Europe. Elle provoque d'importants dégâts sur le marronnier d'inde Aesculus hippocastanum L., mais d'autres espèces de marronniers et d'érables peuvent être attaquées. Les dégâts n'entraînent pas de risques immédiats de déclin des arbres mais posent des problèmes esthétiques et éc...

  7. [Physiological and biochemical characteristics of recalcitrant seed under the condition of true dormancy: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilevskaia, N A; Azarkovich, M I

    2007-01-01

    The review considers and sums up the results of studies of physiological and biochemical characteristics of dormant and germinating recalcitrant seed (the object of the study, the seed of common horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., is viewed as an exemplary case). The results of analysis of the proteomes of the axis and cotyledons have been studied and the effects of the stratification, assessed. Gene expression has been studied at the level of protein synthesis; the protein-synthesizing capacity of the cells of the embryonic axis and cotyledon storage parenchyma of mature seed and seed undergoing stratification. The extent to which the functionally active translation machinery of ripe seed depends on transcription has been assessed, and the ability to synthesize protein under the conditions of stratification has been established. It is concluded that the embryonic axis of dormant seed lacks innate dormancy and that the isolated axis exhibits diverse sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid and other physiologically active compounds. PMID:17619586

  8. Contribution to biomonitoring of some trace metals by deciduous tree leaves in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasević, M; Vukmirović, Z; Rajsić, S; Tasić, M; Stevanović, B

    2008-02-01

    Leaves of the deciduous tree species, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) were used as accumulative biomonitors of trace metal pollution in the urban area of Belgrade. Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the single leaf level (ten leaves per species, per month), during two successive years with markedly different atmospheric level of trace metals. Increased trace metal concentrations in the leaves of A. hippocastanum reflected elevated atmospheric trace metal pollution, whereas C. colurna L. did not respond accordingly. The contents of Pb and Zn in soil over the same period also followed this trend. Anatomical analyses, in young as well as in old leaves of both species, indicated typical foliar injuries of plants exposed to stressful air conditions. Water relations that correspond to leaf age may have contributed to the considerable trace metal accumulation in leaves. PMID:17505898

  9. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided. PMID:25544935

  10. The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, G; Kutlu, H M; Işcan, A

    2013-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras 5RP7 cell line by analyzing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and caspase-3 dependent activity. We have also shown structural and ultrastructural changes in these cell using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has significant inhibitory effects on cell growth and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with escin, and the micrographs confirmed that escin damaged these cells and induced apoptosis. PMID:22911540

  11. Contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves of woody plants under conditions of air contamination with industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Shatskaya, R.M.; Chernyshova, L.V.

    1971-01-01

    A study of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in leaves of woody plants was conducted against a background of different air and soil contamination with wastes of metallurgic and coke-chemical plants. It is found that content of total protein nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves of woody plants decreases with aging of the leaves (from spring to autumn) in all the plants under study. Air contamination causes at the beginning of the vegetation period an increase and then, under conditions of great contamination a drop in the content of total nitrogen in comparison with control. The drought resistant plants - Quercus robur L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. under conditions of air contamination with industrial wastes preserve exchange of nitrogen protein and phosphorus at a higher level in comparison with less resistant Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia parviflora Ehrh.

  12. Range Expansion of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea in Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Preda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The citrus flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa, a Nearctic species of Fulgoroidea: Flatidae, was accidentally introduced in Europe, first in Italy in the late 1970’s. In a few decades, Metcalfa pruinosa has spread over most of Europe, finally reaching the Black Sea coast in 2009. Hundreds of individuals of different life stages were observed for the first time in the southeastern part of Romania throughout the summer of 2009 on several host plants: Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum vulgare, Robinia pseudoacacia, Evonymus japonicus, Spirea x vanhouttei, Aesculus hippocastanum, Philadelphus coronarius, Ficus carica, Vitis vinifera, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The number of individuals observed and the area covered increased dramatically in 2010 as well as the number of host plants (110 species in 49 families, suggesting the planthopper is in the expansion phase of the invasion process.

  13. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  14. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  15. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kałczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  16. Risks of herbalism: a case report of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Meléndez González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of alternative medicines has lead to a greater awareness about the deleterious effects and interactions that these products can induce. Consequently, medical literature reports liver toxicity from Aloe, Camellia sinensis (green tea, Rhammus purshianus, Aesculus hippocastanum (buckeye and Valeriana officinalis (valerian, among others. This article reports a female patient who twice consumed Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L with a one-year interval between ingestions. Both times she developed diarrhea, jaundice and general malaise with impaired liver function tests. Other causes of liver disease were ruled out. Questionnaires were used to assess the possibility of drug-induced liver damage. Clinical information was collected from the patient’s medical record and the literature on the subject was reviewed. We conclude that, at least in this case, the most likely cause of liver toxicity was Argemone mexicana L consumption.

  17. Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

  18. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun.

  19. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  20. Revisión y bionomía del género Syncirsodes Butler 1882 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Revision and bionomy of the genus Syncirsodes Butler 1882 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA A. BOCAZ

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El género Syncirsodes Butler 1882, es redefinido y las especies son taxonómicamente revisadas y redescritas. Las especies que conforman el género son las siguientes: S. primata (Walker 1862, S. subornata (Walker 1863, S. straminea (Butler 1882, S. distictaria (Mabille 1885 y S. hyadesi (Mabille 1885. El ejemplar alotipo de la especie A. primata Walker (1862 corresponde a la hembra de S. distictaria. Las especies deustata Felder & Rogenhofer (1875 y arenosa, carnea, cinerea, squamosa y turbida descritas por Butler (1882 son los sinónimos junior de S. primata Walker (1862. La ausencia de la armadura genital del material tipo y la falta de otros ejemplares nos hace mantener como válida la especie S. subornata. El género se distribuye principalmente en la región Andina, solo S. subornata se encuentra en la provincia Pampa. Se describen además los estados inmaduros y la bionomía de S. distictaria y S. primata. Se entregan claves, dibujos de la genitalia, la distribución y fotografías de las diferentes especiesThe genus Syncirsodes Butler 1882 is redefined and its species are taxonomically revised and described. The species are as follows: S. distictaria (Mabille 1885, S. primata (Walker 1862, S. hyadesi (Mabille 1885, S. straminea (Butler 1882 and S. subornata (Walker 1863. The specimen allotype of A. primata Walker (1862 corresponds to the female of S. distictaria. The species deustata Felder & Rogenhofer (1875 and arenosa, carnea, cinerea, squamosa and turbida described by Butler (1882 are junior synonyms of S. primata Walker (1862. The absence of the genitalia of the type and the lack of other specimens make us maintain to S. subornata as a valid species. The genus is distributed mainly in the Andean region, only S. subornata is in the Pampa province. Immature stages and bionomy of S. distictaria and S. primata are described, and an identification key, data on the distribution as well illustrations of the adult moths are provided

  1. Redox state, reactive oxygen species and adaptive growth in colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, N W

    2001-06-01

    Colonial metazoans often encrust surfaces over which the food supply varies in time or space. In such an environment, adaptive colony development entails adjusting the timing and spacing of feeding structures and gastrovascular connections to correspond to this variable food supply. To investigate the possibility of such adaptive growth, within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Indeed, such colonies strongly exhibited adaptive growth, developing dense arrays of polyps (feeding structures) and gastrovascular connections in areas that were fed relative to areas that were starved, and this effect became more consistent over time. To investigate mechanisms of signaling between the food supply and colony development, measurements were taken of metabolic parameters that have been implicated in signal transduction in other systems, particularly redox state and levels of reactive oxygen species. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy of P. carnea cells in vivo, simultaneous measurements of redox state [using NAD(P)H] and hydrogen peroxide (using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) were taken. Both measures focused on polyp epitheliomuscular cells, since these exhibit the greatest metabolic activity. Colonies 3-5h after feeding were relatively oxidized, with low levels of peroxide, while colonies 24h after feeding were relatively reduced, with high levels of peroxide. The functional role of polyps in feeding and generating gastrovascular flow probably produced this dichotomy. Polyps 3-5h after feeding contract maximally, and this metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of oxidation and diminishes levels of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, 24h after feeding, polyps are quiescent, and this lack of metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of reduction and increases levels of reactive oxygen species. Within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out on

  2. Performance evaluation of natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, K.N.; Ramana, P.V.; Singh, R.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Inst., Gujarat (India)

    2000-07-01

    A natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal reactor has been described herein along with its performance details. Instead of releasing pyrogases into the atmosphere, these gases are burnt inside the charcoal reactor, offering better energy efficiency and environmental acceptability. Agricultural residues like arhar stalks (Cajanus cajan), saw mill woody waste, Ipomoea (Ipomoea fistulasa, Syn. Ipomoea Carnea) and babul wood (Acacia nilotica), all sun dried, were used as the feedstocks for charcoal making. Saleable charcoal (SC) yield was in the range of 28 to 47% dry basis (db) with the maximum from saw mill woody waste and the minimum from Ipomoea. Fixed carbon (FC) content in the SC varies from 69 to 77% (db) in the agricultural residues based charcoal. Babul wood charring gave the highest SC yield (50%, db) and the best quality charcoal in terms of FC (80%, db). Economic analysis revealed that if the system developed was operated annually for 4000 h, the user could have a net profit of around Rs.l,00,000/-(US $2500). (author)

  3. 中国豆科植物新资料%Contributions to the Leguminosae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨仁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国豆科5种及1变种的省级分布新记录,即肉色土囗栾儿在陕西、刺桐在海南、劲直刺桐在贵州、云南刺桐在西藏、渐尖叶鹿藿在贵州、黧豆在云南省的分布新记录;根据国际植物命名法规订正了锈毛两型豆和球穗千斤拔两个种的作者引证.%The present paper provided new provincial distribution data of several Leguminosae taxa for flora of China.Apios carnea is reported here for the first time from Shaanxi Province,furthermore,Erythrina variegata from Hainan Province,Erythrina stricta,Rhynchosia acuminatifolia from Guizhou;Erythrina yunnanensis from Xizang;Mucuna pruriens var.utilis from Yunnan genera are recorded,respectively.Research on history of naming showed that according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature,Amphicarpaea rufescence (Franch.) Y.T.Wei et S.Lee should be properly named as Amphicarpaea rufescence (Franch.) Thuan and Flemingia strobilifera (Linn.) Ait.as Flemingia strobilifera (Linn.) R.Br.

  4. Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-04-01

    In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids.

  5. Rostellularia REICHB, A NEWLY RECORDED GENUS IN ACANTHACEAE IN HEBEI PROVINCE%河北爵床科一新记录属--爵床属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金库

    2000-01-01

    @@ 爵床科植物在河北省记载有4属4种,均为栽培植物.即:穿心莲属的穿心莲Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.)Nees.;珊瑚花属的珊瑚花Cyrtanthera carnea (Lindl.) Bremek.;狐尾木属的虾衣草Beloperone guttata Brand.;牛舌兰属的牛舌兰 Adhatoda vasica Nee s..爵床属植物尚未见报道.作者在河北农大林学院校园内雪松下发现了爵床属的爵床(六角英),经过 3年的观察,每年都能正常开花结实,营正常生活.这一发现不仅丰富了河北省的植物种类和资源植物,而且为修订再版时的补遗和植物资源的开发利用提供了新信息 .

  6. 植物学实验教学改革初探%Exploration of experimental teaching reform of botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚发兴

    2012-01-01

    选择适宜的植物实验材料,是实验教学取得成功的基本保证。通过调查校园及周边地区若干种开花植物,从中筛选出一些形态结构比较典型的花材,如葱兰、吉祥草、千里光等作为植物学实验替代材料。同时,对我院的植物学实验教学现状进行了比较深入的分析,结合实验教学环境及条件,提出了改革思路。%Suitable materials selected in botany experimental teaching are basic guarantee of success. A number of species offlowering plants were investigated in campus and surrounding areas,from which we selected several plants whose morphologicalcharacteristics are typical as alternative experimental materials,such as Zephyranthes candida,Reineckia carnea,Senecio scan-dens etc. Meanwhile,botany experimental teaching status of our college were more in - depth analyzed. We put forward somesuggestions of experimental teaching reform.

  7. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  9. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  10. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  11. Determinação do teor de princípios ativos em matérias-primas vegetais Determination of active principles in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa F. Bara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., hipérico (Hypericum perforatum L., guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K. e ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. fazem parte de formulações de medicamentos fitoterápicos muito comercializados no Brasil. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a qualidade de amostras de pós e extratos destas plantas. Para a determinação do teor de princípios ativos foram aplicados métodos farmacopéicos ou citados na literatura científica e os resultados demonstraram serem adequados para a análise destes produtos farmacêuticos. Verificou-se que 60% das amostras analisadas de guaraná e ginkgo estavam em desacordo com as especificações farmacopéicas ou as declaradas pelos laudos dos fabricantes, em relação ao teor de princípios ativos. Além disso, 100% e 20%, respectivamente, das amostras de hipérico e de castanha-da-índia apresentaram teores abaixo das especificações. Os dados obtidos mostraram ser de grande importância e necessidade a implementação de técnicas quantitativas no controle de qualidade físico-químico de matérias-primas vegetais.Pharmaceutical preparations containing Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hypericum perforatum L., Paullinia cupana H.B.K. and Ginkgo biloba L. have large market. In this work the quality of the powder or extracts of these plants were evaluated. Pharmacopoeia methods or those cited on cientific literature for quantification of active substances were employed and the data showed them to be adequate for these analyses. The analytical results demonstrated that 60% of the samples of P. cupana and G. biloba, and 100% and 20%, respectively of samples of H. perforatum and A. hippocastanum were not in agreement with the specifications. This analysis showed to be valuable for herbal medicines quality control.

  12. The pollen spectrum of honeys of Lipnik Gmina (Świętokrzyskie Province

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    Ernest Stawiarz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978. There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0.3 and 28.4%. Among the nectariferous plant pollen, the highest pollen frequency (above 50% have been stated for Brassicaceae (with Brassica napus, Prunus type, Trifolium repens, Anthriscus type, Salix, Aesculus, Rubus type, Tilia, Taraxacum type, Galeopsis and Heracleum type, among non-nectariferous plans: Poaceae, Papaver and Fragaria. On average, a particular honey contained 16 pollen types of nectariferous plants (range 7-26 and 7 of non-nectariferous (range 1-13. Among the examined samples, there were 11 specific honeys: 7 compatible with the Polish Standard - 4 samples of Brassica napus honeys, 2 Robinia pseudacacia, 1 Tilia, and 4 samples of honeys out of his this standard. There were 3 Galeopsis honeys and 1 honey from Phacelia. The remaining 14 samples were classified as multifloral honeys compatible with the Polish Standard. The woods and scrubs as well as meadows and pastures supplied main sources of honeybee flow in the examined area.

  13. Situação do registro de medicamentos fitoterápicos no Brasil

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    Ana C. B. Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitoterápico é uma classe de medicamento largamente utilizada no país e constitui um mercado em potencial expansão. Este artigo busca traçar um panorama sobre os medicamentos fitoterápicos registrados no país e as espécies vegetais que lhe deram origem, enfocando o papel regulador da Anvisa. Realizou-se uma pesquisa nas seguintes bases de dados: Visalegis e site da Anvisa para verificar os medicamentos fitoterápicos registrados na Anvisa, obtendo-se os seguintes dados: há 432 fitoterápicos simples registrados e 80 compostos, as espécies vegetais com maior número de derivados registrados são o Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba e a Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, com 33 e 29 registros, respectivamente. O artigo traz ainda uma tabela com as espécies vegetais que possuem derivados registrados como fitoterápicos simples, sua classificação terapêutica, lista as espécies registradas em associação, as principais formas farmacêuticas registradas e os percentuais de registro e empresas por região do país, fornecendo assim um panorama da atuação da Anvisano setor de fitoterápicos.

  14. [Time lag characteristics of stem sap flow of common tree species during their growth season in Beijing downtown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiao-ke; Ni, Yong-ming; Ren, Yu-fen

    2009-09-01

    From April to September in 2008, the stem sap flow velocity (Js) of several common tree species (Ginkgo biloba, Aesculus chinensis, Magnolia denudata, Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus tabulaeformis and Cedrus deodara) in Beijing was measured by thermal dissipation method. Crosscorrelation analysis was used to estimate the time lag between the stem sap flow and the driving factors of canopy transpiration among the tree species. The Js of the six tree species was significantly correlated with the total radiation (Rs) and vapor pressure deficit (D), and the Js was lagged behind Rs but ahead of D. The maximum correlation coefficient of Js with Rs (0.74-0.93) was often higher than that of Js with D (0.57-0.79), indicating that the diurnal Js was more dependent on Rs than on D. The sampled tree species except P. tabulaeformis had a shorter time lag of Js with Rs (10-70 min) than with D (47-130 min), and there existed significant differences among R. pseudoacacia, P. tabulaeformis, and C. deodara. The time lag between the Js and the driving factors of canopy transpiration was mainly correlated with the tree features (DBH, tree height, canopy area, and sapwood area) and the nocturnal water recharge, regardless of tree species.

  15. Modulation of activity of the adipocyte aquaglyceroporin channel by plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cals-Grierson, M-M

    2007-02-01

    The plasma membrane protein, aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) is exclusively expressed in adipocytes and appears to be a channel for glycerol entry and exit. It is possible that by facilitating the opening of these channels, the loss of intracellular glycerol could be encouraged and thus reduce the size of the lipid reservoir. Human preadipocytes and mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to develop an adipocytic phenotype by culture in a semi-defined medium. After 7 days, the expression of AQP7 message had increased by 37-fold, a level which could be further up-regulated by troglitazone or retinoic acid or down-regulated by insulin. The mature adipocytes also expressed immunoreactive aquaporin (AQP) channel protein as assessed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. The addition of adrenaline to the culture medium stimulated the release of glycerol (blockable by HgCl(2)). Plant extracts, with potential anti-cellulite properties, were tested for their effect on glycerol elimination. These included wild yam root (Dioscorea opposita), cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao), horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed and bark and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Of these, D. opposita appeared to induce a dose-dependent glycerol release. The results show that our assay can help to identify modulators of AQP7 channel expression and activation in adipocytes. PMID:18489306

  16. 阿尔巴尼亚皂角覆沙育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽芬; 董维军

    2008-01-01

    阿尔巴尼亚皂角又名欧洲七叶树(Aesculus hippocastanum)原产于希腊北部和阿尔巴尼亚山区。为落叶乔木,喜光、稍耐荫、耐寒,喜深厚、肥沃而排水良好的土壤。树体高大雄伟,树冠宽阔,绿荫浓密,花序美丽,在欧美广泛作为行道树及庭院观赏树。西吉树木园自1986年做为品种树从外地引进,通过近些年的观察表明,该树种长势良好,适应当地气候环境条件,是一个很好的行道树及庭院观赏树种,有广阔的发展前景和推广价值。

  17. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25906387

  18. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status. PMID:20199625

  19. Esculin exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and regulated TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro through MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Xiumei; Mu, Qingli; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Esculin, a coumarinic derivative found in Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse-chestnut), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is designed to investigate the protective effects of esculin on various inflammation models in vivo and in vitro and to clarify the possible mechanism. Induced-animal models of inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mouse peritoneal macrophages were used to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of esculin. In present study, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy were attenuated by esculin. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant were reduced by esculin. Meanwhile, we found that esculin significantly inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro, which may involve the inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Esculin may be a promising preventive agent for inflammatory diseases in human. PMID:26391063

  20. Comparison of ultraviolet detection and charged aerosol detection methods for liquid-chromatographic determination of protoescigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Katarzyna; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Gruza, Mariusz; Jatczak, Kamil; Zagrodzki, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Escin, a complex mixture of pentacyclic triterpene saponins obtained from horse chestnut seeds extract (HCSE; Aesculus hippocastanum L.), constitutes a traditional herbal active substance of preparations (drugs) used for a treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and capillary blood vessel leakage. A new approach to exploitation of pharmacological potential of this saponin complex has been recently proposed, in which the β-escin mixture is perceived as a source of a hitherto unavailable raw material, pentacyclic triterpene aglycone-protoescigenin. Although many liquid chromatography methods are described in the literature for saponins determination, analysis of protoescigenin is barely mentioned. In this work, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method developed for protoescigenin quantification has been described. CAD (charged aerosol detection), as a relatively new detection method based on aerosol charging, has been applied in this method as an alternative to ultraviolet (UV) detection. The influence of individual parameters on CAD response and sensitivity was studied. The detection was performed using CAD and UV (200 nm) simultaneously and the results were compared with reference to linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection. PMID:25745765

  1. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

  2. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  3. Immunostimulating complexes incorporating Eimeria tenella antigens and plant saponins as effective delivery system for coccidia vaccine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskiy, A P; Tolmacheva, V P; Makhmudova, N R; Khudyakova, S S; Levandovskaya, S V; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Ermakova, O S; Aleksyuk, P G; Barfield, R C; Danforth, H D; Fetterer, R H

    2008-04-01

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique, multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids, and triterpene saponins of plant origin, and are an effective delivery system for various kinds of antigens. The uses of ISCOMs formulated with saponins from plants collected in Kazakhstan, with antigens from the poultry coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella, were evaluated for their potential use in developing a vaccine for control of avian coccidiosis. Saponins isolated from the plants Aesculus hippocastanum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were partially purified by HPLC. The saponin fractions obtained from HPLC were evaluated for toxicity in chickens and chicken embryos. The HPLC saponin fractions with the least toxicity, compared to a commercial saponin Quil A, were used to assemble ISCOMs. When chicks were immunized with ISCOMs prepared with saponins from Kazakhstan plants and E. tenella antigens, and then challenged with E. tenella oocysts, significant protection was conveyed compared to immunization with antigen alone. The results of this study indicate that ISCOMs formulated with saponins isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan are an effective antigen delivery system which may be successfully used, with low toxicity, for preparation of highly immunogenic coccidia vaccine. PMID:18564738

  4. Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests. PMID:18284739

  5. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  6. Effect of beta-escin sodium on endothelial cells proliferation, migration and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Jing-Rong

    2008-01-01

    beta-Escin, the major active compound in extracts of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum seed, has shown clinically significant activity in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Our previous studies had shown that beta-escin sodium inhibited angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in aortic disk assay. In this study, we explored the direct effect of beta-escin sodium on proliferation, migration and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and ECV304 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay showed that beta-escin sodium (10, 20, 40 microg/ml) inhibited endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation dose-dependently. beta-escin sodium also induced ECs apoptosis at 40 microg/ml. Cell migration was evaluated by an improved wound assay: barren spot assay. And the direct effect on cell motility excluding influence of cell proliferation was examined by High Content Screening (HCS, Cellomics) assay. The data indicated that beta-escin sodium suppressed ECs migration and cell motility. Western blot results suggested that beta-escin sodium acts on ECs possibly by increasing expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and decreasing expression of PKC-alpha and activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Our findings give the evidence that beta-escin sodium might have potential anti-angiogenic activity via its direct effects on ECs. PMID:18718875

  7. Synergistic protective effects of escin and low‑dose glucocorticoids on blood‑retinal barrier breakdown in a rat model of retinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fenglan; Li, Yuanbin; Zhang, Leiming; Mu, Guoying

    2013-05-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), has been demonstrated to possess glucocorticoid (GC)‑like anti‑edematous and anti‑inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects on blood‑retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GCs in a rat model of retinal ischemia. Low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone did not affect BRB permeability. However, when administered together, low‑dose escin and TA significantly reduced BRB permeability following ischemia. Furthermore, low‑dose escin and TA alone did not affect the expression of occludin in the ischemic retina; however, when administered together, they significantly increased occludin expression in the ganglion cell layer of the ischemic retina. This indicates that escin and GCs have synergistic protective effects on BRB breakdown and the molecular mechanisms may be correlated with the upregulation of occludin. Therefore, the administration of escin may allow a reduction in the dose of GCs for the treatment of macular edema. The combination of escin with GCs is potentially a beneficial treatment method for BRB breakdown and warrants further investigation. PMID:23525122

  8. Escin, a novel triterpene, mitigates chronic MPTP/p-induced dopaminergic toxicity by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Govindasamy Pushpavathi; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Rekha, Karamkolly R; Jayaraj, Richard L; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, chronic, and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons due to unknown factors. In the present study, we have evaluated if escin, a triterpene saponin from seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum), offers neuroprotection against chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced toxicity using a mouse model. Chronic administration of MPTP/p deteriorated the loss of TH immunoreactivity in striatum. Subsequently, MPTP/p also enhanced oxidative stress by mitochondrial complex I inhibition, thereby ensuing dopaminergic denervation via modulation of Bcl-2, Bax, Cyto-C, and cleaved caspases expressions. However, we observed that pretreatment with escin (4 mg/kg) significantly attenuated MPTP/p-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, behavioral studies and ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria and intracellular components were in support of these findings. Therefore, we speculate that escin might be a promising candidate for the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. PMID:24788336

  9. [Multicentric study on a topical compound with lymph-draining action in the treatment of the phlebostatic ulcer of the inferior limbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiummariello, S; De Gado, F; Monarca, C; Ruggiero, M; Carlesimo, B; Scuderi, N; Alfano, C

    2009-01-01

    Phlebostatic sore of the lower limbs is a typical chronic venous insufficiency complication and is still a widely controversial issue in its treatment. The common therapies, in fact, are not yet standardized and they not show complete efficacy. Since 2005 to 2007 a multicentric clinical trial was conducted at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of "Sapienza" University of Rome and at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, University of Perugia, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the Idrastin lymph-draining cream in patients with phlebostatic sores of the lower limbs. This study enrolled on 80 patients, split into 2 homogeneous groups of 40 patients: group A was treated by only elastocompressive therapy, group B by elastocompressive therapy and Idrastin. Multicentric analysis has considered the following parameters: local pain, perilesional flogosis , granulation tissue, perilesional tissue tropism healing time. In the group B results highlighted: reduction of the local pain, stopped in 72 hours; flogosis decrease disappeared in one week; tissue granulation growth in one week; lesion healing in 4 weeks. These results pointed out statistically significance of the variables considered. In our opinion Idrastin compounds such as phytoessence of hops and Hedera helix, had contributed to analgesia; Aesculus hippocastanum, and Vitis vinifera and Ruscus aculeatus phytoessence showed anti-flogistic action; allantoin and Centella asiatica and jaluronic acid aided to sore healing. Idrastin gives an effective support to the treatment of the phlebostatic sores warrants a faster and more effective healing process, than to the wounds treated by only the elastocompressive therapy. PMID:20109380

  10. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  11. Unified phenology model with Bayesian calibration for several European species in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. S. H.; Demarée, G.; Hamdi, R.; Deckmyn, A.; Deckmyn, G.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Plant phenology is a good bio-indicator for climate change, and this has brought a significant increase of interest. Many kinds of phenology models have been developed to analyze and predict the phenological response to climate change, and those models have been summarized into one kind of unified model, which could be applied to different species and environments. In our study, we selected seven European woody plant species (Betula verrucosa, Quercus robur pedunculata, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Symphoricarpus racemosus, Aesculus hippocastanum, Robinia pseudoacacia) occurring in five sites distributed across Belgium. For those sites and tree species, phenological observations such as bud burst were available for the period 1956 - 2002. We also obtained regional downscaled climatic data for each of these sites, and combined both data sets to test the unified model. We used a Bayesian approach to generate distributions of model parameters from the observation data. In this poster presentation, we compare parameter distributions between different species and between different sites for individual species. The results of the unified model show a good agreement with the observations, except for Fagus sylvatica. The failure to reproduce the bud burst data for Fagus sylvatica suggest that the other factors not included in the unified model affect the phenology of this species. The parameter series show differences among species as we expected. However, they also differed strongly for the same species among sites.Further work should elucidate the mechanism that explains why model parameters differ among species and sites.

  12. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAVEYA PETROVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Leaves of Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Betula pendula Roth. were sampled from urban areas with different type of anthropogenic pressure in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of the elements Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S were analyzed by ICP-MS. Health condition of trees in the city parks and suburban areas was acceptable, but in the central part and close to the industrial area it was non-satisfactory. This preliminary research pointed ecophysiological tools as useful to develop new criteria for sustainable urban arboriculture, including species selection (based on stress tolerance criteria, nursery hardening and preconditioning, and care after planting.

  13. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  14. The novel approach to the biomonitor survey using one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Tomašević, Milica; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2015-10-01

    To compare the applicability of the leaves of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and linden (Tilia spp.) as biomonitors of trace element concentrations, a coupled approach of one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks was applied for the first time. The self-organizing networks (SONs) and the self-organizing maps (SOMs) were applied on the database obtained for the element accumulation (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, V, As, Cd) and the SOM for the Pb isotopes in the leaves for a multiyear period (2002-2006). A. hippocastanum seems to be a more appropriate biomonitor since it showed more consistent results in the analysis of trace elements and Pb isotopes. The SOM proved to be a suitable and sensitive tool for assessing differences in trace element concentrations and for the Pb isotopic composition in leaves of different species. In addition, the SON provided more clear data on seasonal and temporal accumulation of trace elements in the leaves and could be recommended complementary to the SOM analysis of trace elements in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26353966

  15. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  16. The role of geography and host abundance in the distribution of parasitoids of an alien pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Petra; Holuša, Jaroslav; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are probably the most effective and abundant parasitoids of the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), an alien pest in Europe that lacks specialized enemies. We studied how the species richness and abundance of chalcids are influenced by altitude, direction of an alien spread and host abundance of C. ohridella. We quantified the numbers and species richness of chalcid wasps and the numbers of C. ohridella that emerged from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaf litter samples collected from 35 sites in the Czech Republic. Species richness of chalcids, which was considered an indicator of the possible adaptation of parasitoids to this alien host, was unrelated to C. ohridella abundance, direction of spread, or altitude. Chalcid abundance, which was considered an indicator of parasitism of the alien host, was strongly and positively related to C. ohridella abundance. Chalcid abundance was negatively related to direction of spread and positively related, although in a non-linear manner, to altitude. The relationship of chalcid abundance with direction of spread and altitude was weaker than that with C. ohridella abundance. The results provide evidence that biological control of the alien pest C. ohridella by natural enemies might develop in the future. PMID:26819849

  17. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  18. β-Aescin at subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) enhances susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to nystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiczek, Roman; Gleńsk, Michał; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Aescin (escin) derived from the seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a natural mixture of triterpene saponins exhibiting a wide variety of pharmacological properties, including antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. However, data concerning antifungal activities of these compounds are limited. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida glabrata clinical isolates to α-aescin sodium, β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium using the disk diffusion (DD) and broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Moreover, the influence of subinhibitory concentration (0.5×MIC) of β-aescins on the nystatin MIC was also studied. In general, the results obtained by the DD assay correlated well with those obtained by the BMD method. Both β-aescins effectively inhibited the growth of all 24 strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 8 to 32 μg/ml for β-aescin crystalline, whereas those of β-aescin sodium were slightly lower and ranged from 4 to 16 μg/ml. In contrast, α-aescin sodium was found to be completely ineffective against the strains studied. MIC values of nystatin were reduced 2-16-fold and 2-4-fold in the presence of subinhibitory concentration of β-aescin crystalline and β-aescin sodium, respectively. Results of the present study may suggest the additive interaction between β-aescin and nystatin. PMID:26092104

  19. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmon, A; Vexler, A; Berkovich, L; Earon, G; Ron, I; Lev-Ari, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23). Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s) of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF- κ B-related proteins (p65, I κ Bα, and p-I κ Bα) and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10-20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF- κ B-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF- κ B signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required. PMID:24282639

  20. Inhibition of viral RNA synthesis in canine distemper virus infection by proanthocyanidin A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Laura; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Galligioni, Viola; Bombardelli, Ezio; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a contagious and multisystemic viral disease that affects domestic and wild canines as well as other terrestrial and aquatic carnivores. The disease in dogs is often fatal and no specific antiviral therapy is currently available. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activity against CDV of proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2), a phenolic dimer belonging to the class of condensed tannins present in plants. Our results showed that PA2 exerted in vitro antiviral activity against CDV with a higher selectivity index compared to ribavirin, included in our study for the previously tested anti-CDV activity. The time of addition assay led us to observe that PA2 was able to decrease the viral RNA synthesis and to reduce progeny virus liberation, at different times post infection suggesting multiple mechanisms of action including inhibition of viral replicative complex and modulation of the redox milieu. These data suggest that PA2, isolated from the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum, has potential usefulness as an anti-CDV compound inhibiting viral replication. PMID:22020306

  1. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  2. Endothelium protectant and contractile effects of the antivaricose principle escin in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Omar F; Vidrio, Horacio

    2007-07-01

    The triterpene saponin escin is the active component of the extract of seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Escin is also used experimentally to increase membrane permeability in isolated cells. Since endothelial dysfunction is postulated to be involved in venous insufficiency, the possible endothelium-protectant effect of escin was explored in rat aortic rings, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Escin enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine when such relaxation had been reduced by exposure to the superoxide ion generator pyrogallol. This effect was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a calcium-dependent enzyme, activated by the increased endothelial cell permeability to calcium induced by escin. Another effect of escin thought to contribute to its therapeutic activity is its ability to produce venous contraction. The compound was found to induce concentration-related contraction also in rat aortic rings. This response was partially inhibited by removal of the endothelium or by preincubation with indomethacin, and was completely abolished by incubation in a calcium-free perfusion fluid. Contraction was considered to be due mainly to the aforementioned effect on calcium permeability, with some mediation by release of endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids. It was concluded that, in rat aorta, escin possesses an endothelium-protectant action and a direct contractile effect. The former could contribute to its beneficial effect in the treatment of venous insufficiency, while the latter could constitute a limiting side effect. PMID:17512261

  3. Using horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Pincombe, Jan; Foster, Gigi

    2006-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers affect approximately 0.6% of the western population, consuming millions of healthcare dollars every year. To determine whether an alternative venous ulcer treatment using horsechestnut seed extract-- Aesculus hippocastanum-- and conventional therapy involving dressings and compression was more cost-effective than using conventional therapy alone, a 12-week cost-benefit analysis of horsechestnut seed extract therapy was conducted. The study, using data from a 12-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in South Australia in 2002-2004, involved 54 patients with venous ulceration who received treatment through a large South Australian district nursing service. Taking into account the cost of horsechestnut seed extract, dressing materials, travel, staff salaries, and infrastructure for each patient, horsechestnut seed extract therapy combined with conventional therapy was found to be more cost-effective than conventional therapy alone with an average savings of AUD 95 in organizational costs and AUD 10 in dressing materials per patient. This study confirms that dressing change frequency has a significant impact on the total cost of wound care and suggests that district nursing service operation efficiency may be enhanced through the use of horsechestnut seed extract as a result of less frequent nursing visits. Further study of this treatment modality is warranted. PMID:16636364

  4. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlayıcı, Şerife; Pehlivan, Erol

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment. The influence of initial Cr(VI) concentration, time, and pH was investigated to optimize Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions and equilibrium isotherms and kinetic data. This influence was evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS for Cr(VI) was determined with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data was fitted to the Langmuir. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS was found to be 103.09 and 142.85 mg/g of adsorbent from a solution containing 3000 ppm of Cr(VI), respectively. The GS's capacity was considerably lower than that of the HCS in its natural form. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. The HCS was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26581609

  5. Ampelomyces hyperparasites – occurrence and effect on the development of ascomata of Erysiphales species under conditions of anthropopressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sucharzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Ampelomyces are the major antagonists of Erysiphales fungi being a significant group of phytopathogens. The hyperparasites attack various developmental stages of powdery mildews. As a result the infested ascomata do not reach the stage of maturity, do not form appendages nor ascospores, which is linked with a reduction of the source of primary infections. Studies conducted so far have mainly been devoted to Ampelomyces fungi application in the biological control of powdery mildews on crops, whilst a few only have been focused on the ecology of these mycoparasites on Erysiphales fungi infecting plants, especially in the urban environment. The present study addresses the natural occurrence and effect of Ampelomyces fungi on the development of ascomata of powdery mildews species. The material was collected in 2005–2009 in several cities of the northeastern Poland. First time ever Ampelomyces spores are reported in mature ascomata of Erysiphales with fully developed appendages. This phenomenon has been observed in the case of two species, viz.: Erysiphe flexuosa on Aesculus spp. and E. vanbruntiana var. sambuci-racemosae on Sambucus racemosa and is presumably linked with improved implementation, propagation and probably better survival during winter months.

  6. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  7. Trace element content in urban tree leaves and SEM-EDAX characterization of deposited particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade (Serbia were studied as biomonitors of trace elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb air pollution. Using a scanning SEM-EDAX, the size, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were examined on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves. Morphological and chemical composition indicated that the most abundant particles were soot and dust with minor constituents such as Pb, Zn, Ni, V, Cd, Ti, As, and Cu. Total element concentrations in the leaves were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. This investigation included spatial, seasonal, and temporal variations in leaves of the selected species. The leaves of A. hippocastanum showed a significantly higher elements concentration and more consistency in trend of element accumulation during the vegetation season in the period 2002-2006 than Tilia spp., so it may be considered as a more suitable species for the assessment of trace element atmospheric pollution, especially Pb and Cu which correlated with the bulk deposition data.

  8. Escin Chemosensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rimmon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies and drugs for pancreatic cancer that is highly resistant to radio-chemotherapy. Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut known in Chinese medicine as a plant with anti-inflammatory, antiedema, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is Escin (C54H84O23. Objective. To evaluate the effect of Escin alone and combined with chemotherapy on pancreatic cancer cell survival and to unravel mechanism(s of Escin anticancer activity. Methods. Cell survival was measured by XTT colorimetric assay. Synergistic effect of combined therapy was determined by CalcuSyn software. Cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by FACS analysis. Expression of NF-κB-related proteins (p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα and cyclin D was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results. Escin decreased the survival of pancreatic cancer cells with IC50 = 10–20 M. Escin combined with gemcitabine showed only additive effect, while its combination with cisplatin resulted in a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in Panc-1 cells. High concentrations of Escin induced apoptosis and decreased NF-κB-related proteins and cyclin D expression. Conclusions. Escin decreased pancreatic cancer cell survival, induced apoptosis, and downregulated NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, Escin sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. Further translational research is required.

  9. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  10. Plant development scores from fixed-date photographs: the influence of weather variables and recorder experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Croxton, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    In 1944, John Willis produced a summary of his meticulous record keeping of weather and plants over the 30 years 1913 1942. This publication contains fixed-date, fixed-subject photography taken on the 1st of each month from January to May, using as subjects snowdrop Galanthus nivalis, daffodil Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum and beech Fagus sylvatica. We asked 38 colleagues to assess rapidly the plant development in each of these photographs according to a supplied five-point score. The mean scores from this exercise were assessed in relation to mean monthly weather variables preceding the date of the photograph and the consistency of scoring was examined according to the experience of the recorders. Plant development was more strongly correlated with mean temperature than with minimum or maximum temperatures or sunshine. No significant correlations with rainfall were detected. Whilst mean scores were very similar, botanists were more consistent in their scoring of developmental stages than non-botanists. However, there was no overall pattern for senior staff to be more consistent in scoring than junior staff. These results suggest that scoring of plant development stages on fixed dates could be a viable method of assessing the progress of the season. We discuss whether such recording could be more efficient than traditional phenology, especially in those sites that are not visited regularly and hence are less amenable to frequent or continuous observation to assess when a plant reaches a particular growth stage.

  11. The role of geography and host abundance in the distribution of parasitoids of an alien pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Petra; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are probably the most effective and abundant parasitoids of the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), an alien pest in Europe that lacks specialized enemies. We studied how the species richness and abundance of chalcids are influenced by altitude, direction of an alien spread and host abundance of C. ohridella. We quantified the numbers and species richness of chalcid wasps and the numbers of C. ohridella that emerged from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaf litter samples collected from 35 sites in the Czech Republic. Species richness of chalcids, which was considered an indicator of the possible adaptation of parasitoids to this alien host, was unrelated to C. ohridella abundance, direction of spread, or altitude. Chalcid abundance, which was considered an indicator of parasitism of the alien host, was strongly and positively related to C. ohridella abundance. Chalcid abundance was negatively related to direction of spread and positively related, although in a non-linear manner, to altitude. The relationship of chalcid abundance with direction of spread and altitude was weaker than that with C. ohridella abundance. The results provide evidence that biological control of the alien pest C. ohridella by natural enemies might develop in the future. PMID:26819849

  12. [Time lag characteristics of stem sap flow of common tree species during their growth season in Beijing downtown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiao-ke; Ni, Yong-ming; Ren, Yu-fen

    2009-09-01

    From April to September in 2008, the stem sap flow velocity (Js) of several common tree species (Ginkgo biloba, Aesculus chinensis, Magnolia denudata, Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus tabulaeformis and Cedrus deodara) in Beijing was measured by thermal dissipation method. Crosscorrelation analysis was used to estimate the time lag between the stem sap flow and the driving factors of canopy transpiration among the tree species. The Js of the six tree species was significantly correlated with the total radiation (Rs) and vapor pressure deficit (D), and the Js was lagged behind Rs but ahead of D. The maximum correlation coefficient of Js with Rs (0.74-0.93) was often higher than that of Js with D (0.57-0.79), indicating that the diurnal Js was more dependent on Rs than on D. The sampled tree species except P. tabulaeformis had a shorter time lag of Js with Rs (10-70 min) than with D (47-130 min), and there existed significant differences among R. pseudoacacia, P. tabulaeformis, and C. deodara. The time lag between the Js and the driving factors of canopy transpiration was mainly correlated with the tree features (DBH, tree height, canopy area, and sapwood area) and the nocturnal water recharge, regardless of tree species. PMID:20030130

  13. Urban deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors of trace element (As, V and Cd atmospheric pollution in Belgrade, Serbia

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    KATARINA M. ŠUĆUR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum and linden (Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade were studied as biomonitors of trace element (As, V, and Cd atmospheric pollution. The May–September trace element accumulation in the leaves, and their temporal trends, were assayed in a multi-year period (2002–2006. Significant accumulation in the leaves was evident for As and V, but not so regularly for Cd. Slightly decreasing temporal trends of V and As ac-cumulated in the leaf tissues were observed over the years. During the time span, the concentrations of Cd remained approximately on the same level, except in May 2002 and September 2005, when a rapid increase was observed. The May–September accumulations of As and V were higher in horse chestnut than in linden, although both may be used as biomonitors for these elements, and optionally for Cd in conditions of its high atmospheric loadings.

  14. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

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    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  15. Reconstruction of late spring phenophases in Poland and their response to climate change, 1951–2014

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    Bartosz Czernecki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenology is primarily seen as an indicator of the impacts of climate change. The strongest biological signal of climatic change is revealed by phenological data from the period after 1990. Unfortunately, the Polish nationwide network of phenological monitoring was terminated in 1992, and was only reactivated in 2005. Here, we attempt to reconstruct late spring phenophases of flowering of Syringa vulgaris L. and Aesculus hippocastanum L. across several sites in Poland from 1951 to 2014 using the GIS-based approach (if observations from neighboring stations were available and multiple regression modeling with stepwise screening and bootstrap resampling. It was found that the air temperature and its indices explain over 60% of the variance, giving an accuracy of 3.0–3.4 days (mean absolute error and correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.78 for lilac and horse chestnut, respectively. Altogether, both plant species showed a statistically significant advancement in the onset of flowering with an average rate of 1.7 days per decade. We also found that the final trend is the result of rapid acceleration of the increase in air temperature after the 1990s, while most of the trends for late spring were ambiguous before that period.

  16. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  17. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

    2005-06-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

  18. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ingeri-las compulsivamente e, por facilitação social, induzem a outros animais da mesma espécie a ingeri-las. Os animais intoxicados apresentam pêlos arrepiados, perda de peso e sinais nervosos associados, principalmente, a lesões cerebelares e do tronco encefálico. Infertilidade, abortos, nascimento de animais fracos e maior susceptibilidade aos parasitas gastrintestinais são descritas tanto em casos agudos quanto em animais que deixaram de ingerir a planta e permanecem com sinais, mesmo que discretos. Atrofia cerebelar pode ser observada macroscopicamente em animais cronicamente afetados. As alterações histológicas caracterizam-se por vacuolização de neurônios, células epiteliais do pâncreas e dos túbulos renais, células foliculares da tireoide, hepatócitos e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Para o controle da intoxicação, os animais devem ser retirados imediatamente do local onde ocorre a planta. A única medida profilática consiste em evitar a ingestão da planta, eliminando a mesma das áreas infectadas ou mediante aversão alimentar condicionada.Swainsonine-containing plants comprise a very important group of toxic plants in Brazil, including Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia, which cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats, and with less frequency in cattle, horses, sheep, and deer. A characteristic of swainsonine

  19. 7种观赏植物对甲醛的净化效果及生理响应%The Capacity on Purifying Indoor Formaldehyde Pollution and Physiology Response of 7 Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂芳

    2012-01-01

    To select suitable plants for use in purified indoor formaldehyde pollution, seven species of ornamental plants were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing formaldehyde concentrations in a simulated fumigating box environment, and the absorption capacities were compared and ranked according to the net ratio of absorption and the reduction of formaldehyde in the unit leaf area. Meanwhile, the leaf plasma membrane permeability, MDA content and POD activity were measured to assess those plants' physiological responses to formaldehyde stress. The results indicated that the capacities of different plants in removing formaldehyde were different, and the order of the plants according to the absorption efficiency amount per unit of leaf area was Peperomia tetraphylla> Reineckea carnea> Aspidistra elatior> Crassula portulacea> Stromanthe sanguinea> Nidularium fulgens. The leaf relative conductivity, MDA content and POD activity of all the seven species changed after formaldehyde treatment and the resistances of different species to formaldehyde stress were different. According to formaldehyde removal capacity and the resistance measured in the experiment, 6 ornamental plants (including Peperomia tetraphylla, Reineckea carnea, Aspidistra elatior, Crassula portulacea, Stromanthe sanguine, Nidularium fulgens) had both higher removal capacities and higher resistance that were suitable to be used in indoor decoration.%为净化室内甲醛污染筛选出净化能力强的植物种类,以7种常见室内观赏植物为试材,采用气体密封舱熏气法,进行甲醛熏气处理,以净吸收率及单位叶面积甲醛减少量来比较植物吸收甲醛能力的大小,同时测定了熏气前后植物叶片的相对电导率、丙二醛含量及POD活性等指标.结果显示,被测植物在一定程度上均可以有效吸收甲醛,单位面积吸收量从大到小依次为椒草、吉祥草、一叶兰、燕子掌、紫背竹芋、锦巢凤梨、一品红.不同植物

  20. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

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    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  1. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  2. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoyda, Kathleen A.; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. Methods VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Results Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Conclusions Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future

  4. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  5. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

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    Andrew Wilby

    Full Text Available The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by

  6. Estudo da relação estrutura-atividade de saponinas hemolíticas e/ou imunoadjuvantes mediante uso de análise multivariada Study of the structure-activity relationship of adjuvant and/or hemolytic saponins by use of multivariate analysis

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    Samuel Kaiser

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre as diversas atividades biológicas relatadas para as saponinas, merecem destaque aquelas relacionadas ao aumento da resposta imune e a ruptura das membranas dos eritrócitos. No desenvolvimento de vacinas, ambas as propriedades exercem atividades antagônicas, contudo, as informações sobre as relações estrutura-atividade são relativamente escassas e, às vezes, conflitantes. O presente trabalho visa contribuir no estabelecimento das relações estruturais envolvidas com as atividades imunoadjuvante e hemolítica de saponinas triterpênicas. Para isso, foram selecionadas vinte saponinas de estrutura triterpênica, isoladas das espécies Aesculus hippocastanum, Dolichos lablab e Glycine max. A relação entre grupamentos substituintes do anel triterpênico e as atividades biológicas foi estudada mediante análise de agrupamentos e análise de componentes principais. Os resultados confirmam a importância da presença de açúcares em C-3 para a atividade hemolítica. Porém o efeito causado pela presença de uma hidroxila em C-16, de CH2OH em C-17, de uma acetila em C-22 e de um grupamento acila em C-21 sobre essa atividade parece ser mais acentuado. Já a presença de uma hidroxila em C-21, de uma metila em C-17 e de dois açúcares ligados à aglicona parece ser determinante para a atividade imunoadjuvante. Além disso, observa-se a existência de uma relação inversa entre as atividades hemolítica e imunoadjuvante.Among the various biological activities reported for saponins, those related with increase immune response and the destruction of the membrane of red blood cells deserve attention. In the development of vaccines, these properties exert antagonistic activities. However, the information about the structure-activity relationships is relatively scarce and sometimes contradictory. This paper aims to contribute to the establishment of structural relations involved with the hemolytic and adjuvant activities of triterpenic

  7. Pesquisa e atividades de extensão em fitoterapia desenvolvidas pela Rede FitoCerrado: uso racional de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos por idosos em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou realizar atividades de extensão em fitoterapia, a partir de um levantamento de dados sobre as plantas medicinais, fitoterápicos e medicamentos convencionais utilizados por 292 idosos frequentadores de um programa de Atividades Físicas e Recreativas para a Terceira Idade (AFRID, na cidade de Uberlândia-MG, utilizando como instrumento de investigação, um questionário semiestruturado. Dentre os entrevistados verificamos que 88% utilizavam medicamentos prescritos, principalmente para o controle da hipertensão. O uso de plantas medicinais foi relatado por 76,7% dos idosos, sendo as mais citadas: Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha sp., Rosmarinus officinalis, Plectranthus barbatus, Ocimum gratissimum, e Matricaria chamomilla. Dezesseis (5,5% idosos utilizavam fitoterápicos, principalmente preparados a partir de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Aesculus hippocastanum e Passiflora incarnata em associação com Crataegus oxyacantha e Salix alba. O uso concomitante de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos com medicamentos convencionais foi relatado por 86,2% e 81,3% dos idosos, respectivamente. Após a análise dos dados percebemos a necessidade do desenvolvimento de ações educativas para informar e conscientizar os idosos sobre o uso da fitoterapia. Elaboramos uma caderneta e uma cartilha para promoção da difusão dessas informações e o aprimoramento do uso da fitoterapia entre os idosos e, dessa forma, alcançar os profissionais de saúde sobre os riscos e benefícios dessa terapêutica; contribuindo assim para o uso seguro e racional da fitoterapia.

  8. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%-220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. PMID:25261868

  9. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  10. β-Escin sodium inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression via downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Deng Bo; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing Tao; Ran, Fu Xiang; Cui, Jing Rong

    2011-12-01

    β-escin, a triterpene saponin, is one of the major active compounds extracted from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed. Previous work has found that β-escin sodium has antiinflammatory and antitumor effects. In the present study, we investigated its effect on cell proliferation and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. β-escin sodium (5-40 µg/mL) inhibited cytokine mixture (CM)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in A549 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS. β-escin sodium suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 (Tyr701) and STAT3 (Tyr705) induced by CM but did not affect the activation of c-Jun and NF-κB. β-escin sodium inhibited the activation of protein tyrosine kinase JAK2. Pervanadate treatment reversed the β-escin sodium-induced downregulation of STAT3 and STAT1. β-escin sodium treatment enhanced an activating phosphorylation of the phosphatase SHP2. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SHP2 inhibited β-escin sodium-induced phospho-STAT dephosphorylation. Moreover β-escin sodium reduced the activation of p38 MAPK. Finally, β-escin sodium inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, did not change the cell membrane's permeability, nuclear morphology and size and the mitochondria's transmembrane potential of A549 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-escin sodium could downregulate iNOS expression through inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling and p38 MAPK activation in A549 cells. β-escin sodium has a marked antiproliferative effect on A549 cells at least in part by inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, but not by a cytotoxic effect. β-escin sodium would be useful as a chemopreventive agent or a therapeutic against inflammatory-associated tumor. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21400616

  11. An attempt to control Cameraria ohridella using an attract-and-kill technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukovata, Lidia; Czokajlo, Darek; Kolk, Andrzej; Slusarski, Sławomir; Jabłoński, Tomasz

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the efficacy of an attract-and-kill (A&K) technique to control the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), an invasive insect pest of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The A&K formulation was dispensed as 50 μl droplets of paste-like matrix, containing C. ohridella sex pheromone, (8E,10Z)-tetradeca-8,10-dienal (85% + pure; 0.16% w/w) and a fast acting contact toxicant, pyrocides (94% pure; 6% w/w), applied directly to the bark of the trees. It was tested in 2003 at rates of 30 and 45 droplets/tree at the Ostrobramska site and at rates of 30, 60 and 90 droplets/tree at the Woloska site in Warsaw, Poland, for the first insect generation. A set of untreated plots (0 droplets/tree) was established at each site as well. The treatment efficacy was estimated using two indices: (1) moth catches in pheromone traps and (2) the number of mines per leaf. Trap catches were significantly higher in the untreated plots than in the treated plots regardless of the application rate in all sites. However, there were no significant differences in leaf damage amongst all plots on each site. At the "Lazienki Krolewskie" park the attractiveness of two types of pheromone sources were compared: traps were baited with rubber septum lures or with A&K droplets. The catches of C. ohridella in traps baited with lures were lower than captures in A&K droplet-baited traps, but the difference was not significant. Possible reasons for the low efficacy of the A&K method in management of C. ohridella and reducing leaf damage are discussed. PMID:21654920

  12. Plant extracts inhibit ADP-induced platelet activation in humans: their potential therapeutic role as ADP antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagroop, Indera Anita

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plays a pivotal role in platelet activation. Platelet hyperactivity is associated with vascular disease and also has a key role in haemostasis and thrombosis. ADP activates platelets through three purinoceptor subtypes, the G(q)-coupled P2Y(1) receptor, G(i)-coupled P2Y(12) receptor and P2X(1) ligand-gated cation channel. Platelet ADP purinergic receptors are therefore suitable targets for antiplatelet drugs. Thienopyridines such as clopidogrel and ticlopidine, as well as other ADP receptor antagonists like prasugrel, ticagrelor, cangrelor and elinogrel have demonstrated clinical benefits via the inhibition of the selective purinergic ADP receptor, P2Y(12). However, they still have limitations in their mode of action and efficacy, like increased risk of bleeding. Thus, the ongoing pursuit to develop newer and more effective antiplatelet agents continues. There is a growing interest in the purinergic antiplatelet properties exhibited by plant extracts. This article considers the following: pomolic acid isolated from Licania pittieri, brazilin isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L, phylligenin isolated from the twigs of Muraltia vulpina, bark oil of Gonystylus velutinus, seed and bark extracts from Aesculus hippocastanum L. and red wine phenolics and catechins isolated from green tea. Moreover, the method used to investigate platelet purinergic receptors should be considered, since using a more sensitive, high-resolution platelet sizer can sometimes detect platelet variations when the light transmission method was not able to do so. The exact mechanisms by which these plant extracts work need further investigation. They all however inhibit ADP-induced activation in human platelets. This could explain, at least in part, the protective effect of plant extracts as antiplatelet agents. PMID:24190032

  13. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

    2010-01-20

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis. PMID:19879050

  14. Effects of extreme spring temperatures on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on extreme events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by temperatures. An arising question is how plants respond to an extreme warm spell when following an extreme cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This extreme weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced temperature difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of extreme warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to extreme warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.

  15. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzić, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and

  16. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure. PMID:22160501

  17. Полиморфизм соцветий каштана конского в Узбекистане

    OpenAIRE

    Фазилова, Нилюфар; Чернодубов, Алексей

    2013-01-01

    Представлены результаты изучения индивидуальной изменчивости соцветий каштана конского (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) в условиях Узбекистана. Объектами исследований послужили аллейные (уличные) посадки и биогруппы в Ботаническом саду НАН Узбекистана. Отмечается, что длина соцветий, число боковых осей в соцветиях имеют от очень низкого до среднего уровня изменчивости ( С...

  18. Leaves of higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 210Pb and 7Be) in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dragana; Popović, Dragana; Ajtić, Jelena; Nikolić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) were analysed as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air. Samples of soils, leaves and aerosols were collected in Belgrade, Serbia. Activities of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Pb and (7)Be in the samples were measured on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. "Soil-to-leaves" transfer factors were calculated. Student's t test and linear Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. Differences in local conditions at the sampling sites were not significant, and the mechanisms of the radionuclides' accumulation in both plant species are similar. Ceasium-137 was detected in some of the leaf samples only. Transfer factors for (137)Cs and (40)K were (0.03-0.08) and 1.3, respectively. The concentrations of (210)Pb and (7)Be in leaves were higher in autumn than in spring, and there were some similarities in their seasonal patterns in leaves and in air. Weak to medium correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb and (7)Be activities in leaves and aerosols. Large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activities in linden leaves and the mean activity in aerosols for the preceding months. Different primary modes of radionuclides accumulation in leaves were observed. Since large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activity in linden leaves and the mean in aerosols for the preceding months, mature linden leaves could be used as biomonitors of recent (210)Pb activity in air. PMID:22562351

  19. Escin exerts synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with low doses of glucocorticoids in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenyu; Zhang, Leiming; Sun, Fang; Jiang, Na; Fan, Huaying; Wang, Tian; Li, Zhen; He, Jie; Fu, Fenghua

    2011-02-15

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), had been demonstrated to possess anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic anti-inflammatory effects when combined with glucocorticoids. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleuritis in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of escin and glucocorticoid alone or combined. The carrageenan-induced paw edema was inhibited only when escin and corticosterone (Cort) were administered together. Co-administration of escin with Cort significantly reduced the volume of exudates and the number of white blood cells of exudates in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats with pleuritis, but treatment with escin or Cort alone at a suboptimal concentration did not show any effect on the pleuritis rats. After the murine macrophagic RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they were treated with escin, Cort or escin and Cort. Then nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) of cell culture supernatants were analyzed. Escin or Cort markedly reduced the content of NO, TNF-α and IL-1β secreted by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The combination of suboptimal concentrations of escin with Cort, which alone could not markedly inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, inhibited the secretion of NO, TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The findings suggest escin can synergize with glucocorticoids to enhance their anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:20850956

  20. Chemometrics in biomonitoring: Distribution and correlation of trace elements in tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Bjelajac, Anđelika; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Nikolić, Miroslav; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of 15 elements were measured in the leaf samples of Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia spp., Betula pendula and Acer platanoides collected in May and September of 2014 from four different locations in Belgrade, Serbia. The objective was to assess the chemical characterization of leaf surface and in-wax fractions, as well as the leaf tissue element content, by analyzing untreated, washed with water and washed with chloroform leaf samples, respectively. The combined approach of self-organizing networks (SON) and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) aided by Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA) was used in the interpretation of multiple element loads on/in the tree leaves. The morphological characteristics of the leaf surfaces and the elemental composition of particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector. The results showed that the amounts of retained and accumulated element concentrations depend on several parameters, such as chemical properties of the element and morphological properties of the leaves. Among the studied species, Tilia spp. was found to be the most effective in the accumulation of elements in leaf tissue (70% of the total element concentration), while A. hippocastanum had the lowest accumulation (54%). After water and chloroform washing, the highest percentages of removal were observed for Al, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb (>40%). The PROMETHEE/SON ranking/classifying results were in accordance with the results obtained from the GAIA clustering techniques. The combination of the techniques enabled extraction of additional information from datasets. Therefore, the use of both the ranking and clustering methods could be a useful tool to be applied in biomonitoring studies of trace elements. PMID:26748000

  1. Transpiration of urban trees and its cooling effect in a high latitude city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarska, Janina; Uddling, Johan; Holmer, Björn; Lutz, Martina; Lindberg, Fredrik; Pleijel, Håkan; Thorsson, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    An important ecosystem service provided by urban trees is the cooling effect caused by their transpiration. The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of daytime and night-time transpiration of common urban tree species in a high latitude city (Gothenburg, Sweden), to analyse the influence of weather conditions and surface permeability on the tree transpiration, and to find out whether tree transpiration contributed to daytime or nocturnal cooling. Stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration at day and night were measured on mature street and park trees of seven common tree species in Gothenburg: Tilia europaea, Quercus robur, Betula pendula, Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fagus sylvatica and Prunus serrulata. Transpiration increased with vapour pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation. Midday rates of sunlit leaves ranged from less than 1 mmol m-2 s-1 ( B. pendula) to over 3 mmol m-2 s-1 ( Q. robur). Daytime stomatal conductance was positively related to the fraction of permeable surfaces within the vertically projected crown area. A simple estimate of available rainwater, comprising of precipitation sum and fractional surface permeability within the crown area, was found to explain 68 % of variation in midday stomatal conductance. Night-time transpiration was observed in all studied species and amounted to 7 and 20 % of midday transpiration of sunlit and shaded leaves, respectively. With an estimated night-time latent heat flux of 24 W m-2, tree transpiration significantly increased the cooling rate around and shortly after sunset, but not later in the night. Despite a strong midday latent heat flux of 206 W m-2, a cooling effect of tree transpiration was not observed during the day.

  2. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with

  3. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  4. Аллелопатическая активность листового опада древесных растений, почвы и копролитов в парках г. Днепропетровск

    OpenAIRE

    Анжелина Илларионовна Крючкова; Юрий Люцинович Кульбачко

    2014-01-01

    В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae) на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв....

  5. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in leaves under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, John M

    2006-01-01

    While H2O2 has been implicated in numerous plant environmental responses, normal levels and variabilities are poorly established, and estimates of leaf tissue concentrations span more than three orders of magnitude, even in a single species under similar conditions. Here, leaf tissue H2O2 contents under natural conditions are reported after determining (i) that H2O2 in extracts was stable with time, (ii) that H2O2 added to the extract was recovered quantitatively, and (iii) that the H2O2 calibration curve was unaffected (or quantifiably affected) by the extract. The broad applicability of the protocol and variability in leaf concentrations were demonstrated using tissue collected from several habitats in association with three, more extensive, experiments. The first involved nychthemeral studies of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. Lowest H2O2 levels occurred in the early morning and near sunset, with higher levels both at midday and at night. Second, using five temperate species in Spring, concentrations were compared on a warm, sunny day and a cool, cloudy day. Higher concentrations were found on the warm day for Aesculus glabra Willd., Glechoma hederacea L., Plantago major L., and Viola soraria Willd., while there were no differences in Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Finally, the effects of elevated CO2 and ozone were examined in soybean, Glycine max L. Pioneer 93B15 under Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment (FACE) conditions. Both supplements led to elevated H2O2. Overall, mean leaf, midday, and mid-summer H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.67 micromol (gFW)(-1) in mangrove to 3.6 micromol (gFW)(-1) in A. glabra Willd. Greatest within-species differences were only 2.5-fold in any of the studies.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in leaves under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, John M

    2006-01-01

    While H2O2 has been implicated in numerous plant environmental responses, normal levels and variabilities are poorly established, and estimates of leaf tissue concentrations span more than three orders of magnitude, even in a single species under similar conditions. Here, leaf tissue H2O2 contents under natural conditions are reported after determining (i) that H2O2 in extracts was stable with time, (ii) that H2O2 added to the extract was recovered quantitatively, and (iii) that the H2O2 calibration curve was unaffected (or quantifiably affected) by the extract. The broad applicability of the protocol and variability in leaf concentrations were demonstrated using tissue collected from several habitats in association with three, more extensive, experiments. The first involved nychthemeral studies of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. Lowest H2O2 levels occurred in the early morning and near sunset, with higher levels both at midday and at night. Second, using five temperate species in Spring, concentrations were compared on a warm, sunny day and a cool, cloudy day. Higher concentrations were found on the warm day for Aesculus glabra Willd., Glechoma hederacea L., Plantago major L., and Viola soraria Willd., while there were no differences in Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Finally, the effects of elevated CO2 and ozone were examined in soybean, Glycine max L. Pioneer 93B15 under Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment (FACE) conditions. Both supplements led to elevated H2O2. Overall, mean leaf, midday, and mid-summer H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.67 micromol (gFW)(-1) in mangrove to 3.6 micromol (gFW)(-1) in A. glabra Willd. Greatest within-species differences were only 2.5-fold in any of the studies. PMID:16766599

  7. Diversity, Distribution and Prioritization of Fodder Species for Conservation in Kullu District, Northwestern Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the Indian Himalayan Region predominantly rural in character, livestock is one of the main sources of livelihood and integral part of the economy. Livestock mostly rely on fodder from wild.The diversity, distribution, utilization pattern, nativity,endemism, rarity, seasonality of availability, nutritive values, perceived economic values and pressure use index of livestock have not been studied. The present study attempts to enumerate 150 species of fodder representing trees (51 spp.), shrubs (54 spp.) and herbs (45 spp.). Poaceae (19 spp.) and Fabaceae (13 spp.) amongst families and Salix (6 spp.), Ficus,Clematis, and Desmodium (5 spp., each) amongst genera are rich in species. Maximum species were found in the 1801 ~ 2600 m zone, and the remaining two zones showed relatively low diversity. Out of the 150 species, 109 are used in summer, 5 winter and 36 throughout year. During rainy season, mostly grasses are used as fodder. Only 83 species are native to the Himalayan region, one species, Strobilanthus atropuroureus is endemic and 35 species are near endemic. The nutritive values of the fodder species were reviewed, and economic values and status of the species were also assessed. The pressure use index of the species was calculated on the basis of cumulative values of the utilization pattern,altitudinal distribution, availability, status, nativity and endemism. Amongst the species, Grewia oppositifoilia, Morus serrata, Indigofera heterantha,Quercus leucotrichphora, Ulmus villosa, U.wallichiana and Aesculus indica showed highest PUI indicating high preference and pressure. Season wise prioritization of the species for different altitudinal ones has been done. Appropriate strategy and action plan have been suggested for the conservation and management of fodder species.

  8. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Keijzer

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  9. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  10. Chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Porter, Elaine A; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2007-05-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins found in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Asparagus officinalis, Convallaria majalis, Digitalis purpurea and Ruscus aculeatus was studied by HPLC-MS using a C-18 reversed-phase column and aqueous acetonitrile or aqueous methanol mobile phase gradients, with or without the addition of 1% acetic acid. The behaviour was compared to that of triterpene saponins found in Aesculus hippocastanum, Centella asiatica, Panax notoginseng and Potentilla tormentilla. Inclusion of methanol in the mobile phase under acidic conditions was found to cause furostanol saponins hydroxylated at C-22 to chromatograph as broad peaks, whereas the peak shapes of the spirostanol saponins and triterpene saponins studied remained acceptable. In aqueous methanol mobile phases without the addition of acid, furostanol saponins chromatographed with good peak shape, but each C-22 hydroxylated furostanol saponin was accompanied by a second chromatographic peak identified as its C-22 methyl ether. Methanolic extracts analysed in non-acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases also resolved pairs of C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy furostanol saponins. The C-22 methyl ether of deglucoruscoside was found to convert to deglucoruscoside during chromatography in acidified aqueous acetonitrile, or by dissolving in water. Poor chromatography of furostanol saponins in acidified aqueous methanol is due to the interconversion of the C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy forms. It is recommended that initial analysis of saponins by HPLC-MS using a C-18 stationary phase is performed using acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phase gradients. The existence of naturally-occurring furostanol saponins methoxylated at C-22 can be investigated with aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases and avoiding methanol in the extraction solvent. PMID:17391684

  11. Suitability of different pollen as alternative food for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2013-11-01

    The predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot is used as a biological control agent against various pests in greenhouses. Pollen offered as supplementary food is reported to improve their fast establishment and performance. However, the nutritional suitability of different pollens for A. swirskii is not sufficiently known yet. Pollens of 21 plant species were offered to the mites as exclusive food during preimaginal development. Preimaginal mortality and developmental time have been assessed, followed by a life-table analysis of the emerged adults and a calculation of demographic parameters. Amblyseius swirskii can feed exclusively on pollen, but the nutritional value of the pollens differed significantly. Pollens of Lilium martagon and Hippeastrum sp. were toxic, causing 100 % preimaginal mortality, probably due to secondary plant compounds. Hibiscus syriacus pollen was absolutely incompatible for the juvenile and adult mites, possibly due to their external morphology, differing from all the other pollens tested and leading to 100 % preimaginal mortality also. Considering all parameters, feeding on Aesculus hippocastanum, Crocus vernus, Echinocereus sp. and Paulownia tomentosa pollens lead to the best performance of the mites. Feeding on most pollens resulted in no or low preimaginal mortality of A. swirskii, but affected significantly developmental time, adult longevity, and reproduction parameters. Commercial bee pollen was not able to improve life-table parameters compared to pure pollen of the plant species. Pollens of Helianthus annuus, Corylus avellana and a Poaceae mix were less suitable as food source and resulted in a poor performance of all tested parameters. Compared with literature data, 18 pollens tested proved to be a similar or better food source than cattail pollen, qualifying A. swirskii as a positively omnivorous type IV species. Pollens of Ricinus communis and Zea mays can be recommended as supplementary food offered as banker plants

  12. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb. bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeriğindeki; bitkilerinin kullanılan kısımları (drog, etken maddeleri, etki ve kullanılışları incelenmiştir. İncelenen bu bitkiler: Aesculus hippocastanum L., Amygdalus communis L., Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Capsicum annuum L., Cassia acutifolia Del. (C. angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica L., Cimicifuga racemosa L., Cola nitida (Vent. Schott & Endl., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Ginkgo biloba L., Hamamelis virginiana L., Harpagophytum procumbens DC, Hedera helix L., Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Mentha piperita L., Passiflora incarnata L., Pelargonium sidoides DC., Pinus brutia Tenn., Populus sp., Rheum officinale Baill., Ricinus communis L., Serenoa repens (W. Bart. Small, Silybum marianum L., Thymus vulgaris L., Triticum aestivum L., Valeriana officinalis L, Vitex agnus-castus L., Vitis vinifera L., Zingiber officinale (Roscoe' dir. Sonuç olarak, 2012 yılında Türkiye eczanelerinde Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı 44 tane bitkisel ilaç tespit edilmiştir.

  13. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  14. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  15. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  16. Air quality in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the quality of the surface atmosphere in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk (MCBRK) to treat by means of climate and landscape (TCL) of the patients suffering from bronchial asthma (PBA) [1]. 60 children (31 boys and 29 girls at the age of 9-11 years) were examined in the course of 34 days of the resort treatment in MCBRK, PBA (ICD-10 G45,0) in a remission stage. There have been used the data of the long-term bioclimatic monitoring (BCM) that is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol monitoring of IFA RAS, landscape monitoring of SNP in Kislovodsk Resort Park (KRP) as well as the data of medical monitoring, daily testing of meteopathic reactions (MPR), indicators dynamics of bronchial patency, cardiac rhythm, neurovascular reactivity, psychoemotional status of patients. TCL was carried out in the form of walks under the canopy of Betula pendula Roth., Salix f. pendula, acer platanoides globosum, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Phellodendron amurense, Tilia caucasica in KRP daily lasting from 1 till 2 hours. The results of a complex research showed that at TCL in KRP the favourable heat balance had 92% warm relations (TB300C), aerosol growth till 6-12 particles/cm3 in the blocking anti-cyclone. Conclusion: the surface atmosphere in KRP is mainly at the level of background rural territories, it is perspective for usage in the medical and improving purposes. Episodes of slightly polluted surface atmosphere are connected with forest fires, autopollution during the periods of the blocking anti-cyclones. References 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineral Vody region/Under the general edition of MD, prof. V.V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335p; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368p.

  17. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  18. Study on the Drought Resistance of Some Ornamental Plants on Roof%屋顶观赏植物的抗旱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小京; 刘进平; 吴小波; 李晓慧

    2011-01-01

    以佛甲草(Sedum lineare Thunb)、鸭跖草(Commelina communis L.)、太阳花(Portulaca grandiflora Hook.)、鸢尾(Iris tectorum Maxim.)、常春藤(Caulis hederae Sinensis)、吉祥草(Reineckea carnea Kunth)、露草(Mesembryanthemum cordifolium L.f.)等7种植物为试验材料进行耐旱性试验,筛选适合贵阳市屋顶绿化的植物材料,为当地今后屋顶绿化植物的应用提供科学的理论依据.结果表明,7种植物在干旱胁迫下,表现出相对含水量逐渐降低、可溶性糖与丙二醛含量逐渐升高、细胞膜透性逐渐增大、过氧化物酶活性与叶绿素含量先升后降的趋势.综合各植物的表现,7种植物的抗旱性从高到低依次为太阳花>佛甲草>常春藤>露草>吉祥草>鸢尾>鸭跖草.%The drought resistance of seven ornamental plants (Sedum lineare Thunb, Commelina communis L., Portulaca grctndiflora rlook., Iris tectorum Maxim, , Conlis hederoe Sinensis , Heineekea corneo Ivunth and. Itlesembryanthemiim cordifoli-urn L. F.) was studied in order to select perfect ornamental plants suited for Guiyang roof garden. The results showed that for seven plants under drought stress, the relative water content reduced; the content of soluble sugar and MDA increased; their plasma membranes penetrability increased gradually; POD activities and chlorophyll content increased firstly, and then decreased. Overall, the drought resistance degree from high to low of the seven plants was P. Grandiflora > S. Lineare > C. Hederae > M. Cordifolium > R. Cornea > I. Tectorum > C. Communis.

  19. Redox signaling in the growth and development of colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2003-02-01

    Redox signaling provides a quick and efficient mechanism for clonal or colonial organisms to adapt their growth and development to aspects of the environment, e.g. the food supply. A 'signature' of mitochondrial redox signaling, particularly as mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be elucidated by experimental manipulation of the electron transport chain. The major sites of ROS formation are found at NADH dehydrogenase of complex I and at the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III. Inhibitors of complex III should thus upregulate ROS from both sites; inhibitors of complex I should upregulate ROS from the first but not the second site, while uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation should downregulate ROS from both sites. To investigate the possibility of such redox signaling, perturbations of colony growth and development were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Oxygen uptake of colonies was measured to determine comparable physiological doses of antimycin A(1) (an inhibitor of complex III), rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Using these doses, clear effects on colony growth and development were obtained. Treatment with antimycin A(1) results in 'runner-like' colony growth, with widely spaced polyps and stolon branches, while treatment with CCCP results in 'sheet-like' growth, with closely spaced polyps and stolon branches. Parallel results have been obtained previously with azide, an inhibitor of complex IV, and dinitrophenol, another uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Perhaps surprisingly, rotenone produced effects on colony development similar to those of CCCP. Assays of peroxides using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluorescent microscopy suggest a moderate difference in ROS formation between the antimycin and rotenone treatments. The second site of ROS formation (the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III) may thus

  20. Importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas no Brasil

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    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas em animais domésticos no Brasil são revisadas. Com os dados dos laboratórios de diagnóstico de diferentes regiões do país, as perdas anuais por mortes de animais foram estimadas em 820.761 a 1.755.763 bovinos, 399.800 a 445.309 ovinos, 52.675 a 63.292 caprinos e 38.559 equinos. No Brasil, atualmente, o número de plantas tóxicas é de 131 espécies e 79 gêneros e aumenta permanentemente. No entanto, a maioria das perdas são causadas por poucas plantas, incluindo Palicourea marcgravii, Amorimia spp., Senecio spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Ateleia glazioviana e Cestrum laevigatum em bovinos, Brachiaria spp em bovinos e ovinos, Nierembergia veitchii, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ipomoea asarifolia em ovinos, plantas que contêm swainsonina (Ipomoea carnea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia em caprinos e Brachiaria humidicola e Crotalaria retusa em equinos. Os principais fatores epidemiológicos relacionados às intoxicações por plantas incluem palatabilidade, fome, sede, facilitação social, desconhecimento da planta, acesso a plantas tóxicas, dose tóxica, período de ingestão, variações de toxicidade e resistência/susceptibilidade dos animais às intoxicações. Quanto aos métodos de controle e profilaxia descrevem-se os resultados obtidos no Brasil com métodos recentemente desenvolvidos, incluindo controle biológico, aversão alimentar condicionada, utilização de variedades não tóxicas de forrageiras, utilização de animais resistentes às intoxicações e técnicas de indução de resistência.

  1. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e eqüídeos no Seridó Ocidental e Oriental do Rio Grande do Norte Toxic plants for livestock in the western and eastern Seridó, state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the Brazilian semiarid

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    Durval M. da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a ocorrência de diferentes intoxicações por plantas na região do Seridó Ocidental e Oriental do Rio Grande do Norte foram entrevistadas 82 pessoas, entre produtores e técnicos em 17 municípios. De acordo com esse inquérito as duas intoxicações mais importantes são as por Ipomoea asarifolia, que causa sinais nervosos em ovinos, caprinos e bovinos, e por Aspidosperma pyrifolium que, segundo os entrevistados, causaria abortos em caprinos, ovinos e bovinos. O efeito abortivo desta última planta foi comprovado em caprinos, mas não em bovinos e ovinos. Alguns entrevistados mencionaram, também, a intoxicação por A. pyrifolium como causa de sinais nervosos em bovinos e eqüídeos, o que ainda não foi comprovado. Intoxicações por plantas cianogênicas, incluindo Manihot spp, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (=Piptadenia macrocarpa, Sorghum bicolor e Sorghum halepense são importantes na região. São importantes, também, as intoxicações por Prosopis juliflora em bovinos e, com menor freqüência, em caprinos, por Crotalaria retusa em eqüinos, ovinos e bovinos e por Mascagnia rigida em bovinos. As intoxicações por Brachiaria decumbens e Enterolobium contortisiliquum ocorrem esporadicamente. Outras intoxicações menos importantes são as causadas por Indigofera suffruticosa, Ipomoea carnea e Ricinus communis. Diversos produtores descreveram a intoxicação por Marsdenia sp afetando ovinos e bovinos, além de um surto em suínos que foram alimentados com as raízes da planta. Foi demonstrado que tanto as raízes da planta quanto as folhas são tóxicas para ruminantes, causando sinais nervosos, mas sem lesões histológicas. Outra intoxicação relatada pelos produtores e comprovada experimentalmente foi a causada por Tephrosia cinerea em ovinos, que causa um quadro clínico de ascite, com lesões de fibrose hepática. Seis produtores descreveram a intoxicação por Nerium oleander, sempre em bovinos que tiveram

  2. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

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    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  3. Adaptability Evaluation on Tested Tree Species in The Middle Mountain Regions of Semi-arid Valleys in The Upper Minjiang River%岷江上游半干旱河谷中山区试验树种适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 程秦明; 冯正波; 邵慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The survival percentage,growth and adaptability of the ten tested tree species,which were cultivated at altitudes of 1 800 m~2 000 m in Dagou areas of Maoxian county,Sichuan,had been evaluated in this paper.The results revealed that the survival percentage of the tested tree species was affected by the heredity,ecological habit of its own,natural surroundings and interferences of mankind activities under the set and concrete habitat conditions.Acer davidii,Betula luminifera,Ailanthus altissima,Aesculus wilsonii were proved to be very adaptive to the local surroundings and can be used as materials restoring the local vegetation by means of measuring the high growth and making sure the differential sequence of tree species mentioned above,further combined field survey on the character of anti-adversity.Rhododendron davidii,Prunus davidiana,Liquidambar acalycina,Juglans cathayensis were proved to be adaptive to the local surroundings,but further study and observation were needed in order to ascertain the usage scheme.On the other hand,Ginkgo biloba and Davidia involucrate were proved that they couldn't be used as forestation materials.%本文评价了四川茂县大沟地区海拔1800~2000m的区段10个供试树种的成活率、生长量和适应性。结果表明:在设定的具体生境条件下,供试树种的成活率受到自身遗传、生态习性及其自然环境与人类活动干扰的影响,通过对高生长量的测试确定了上述树种的生长量差异序列,并进一步结合对抗逆性的现场调查确定青榨槭、光皮桦、臭椿、天师栗很适应当地的环境,可以作为当地植被恢复的材料使用;腺果杜鹃、山桃、枫香、野核桃适宜当地环境,但尚需作进一步研究观察,以便确定使用方案;而银杏与珙桐不能作为营林材料利用。

  4. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

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    Shrestha Keshab P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest

  5. Аллелопатическая активность листового опада древесных растений, почвы и копролитов в парках г. Днепропетровск

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    Анжелина Илларионовна Крючкова

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв.

  6. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

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    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  7. Екологічні особливості формування фітомеліоративного вкриття на Луцькому сміттєзвалищі у ранній весняний період

    OpenAIRE

    Попович, В. В.; Львівський державний університет безпеки життєдіяльності

    2014-01-01

    Досліджено формування фітомеліоративного вкриття на Луцькому сміттєзвалищі у ранній весняний період. Встановлено, що на поверхні сміттєзвалища рослинність відсутня у зв’язку із постійними неконтрольованими процесами відсипання сміття. Рослинність набуває розвитку на відстані 20 м від підніжжя звалища. При флористичних описах досліджуваних ділянок окрім аборигенних видів, виявлено фітоценози, які розвиваються поодиноко та не притаманні умовам місцезростань: Juglans regia L., Aesculus hippocast...

  8. The effect of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats.

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    Bertkova, I; Hijova, E; Chmelarova, A; Mojzisova, G; Petrasova, D; Strojny, L; Bomba, A; Zitnan, R

    2010-01-01

    Diet interventions and natural bioactive supplements have now been extensively studied to reduce risks of colon cancer, which is one of the major public health problem throughout the world. The objective of our investigation was to study the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, nutritional plant extract, and plant oil on selected biochemical and immunological parameters in rats with colon cancer induced by N,N dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male and female Wistar albino rats were were fed by a high-fat (HF) diet (10% fat in the diet) and were divided into 9 groups: Control group; PRO group - HF diet supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum to provide 3 x 109 c.f.u. of strain/1 ml of medium; PRE group - HF diet supplemented with inulin enriched with oligofructose (2% of HF diet); HES group - HF diet supplemented with plant extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (1% of HF diet); OIL group - HF diet comprised Linioleum virginale (2% of HF diet); and combination of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in the groups - PRO-PRE, PRO-HES, PRO-OIL, PRE-OIL. Carcinogenesis was initiated with subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) two times at week interval and dietary treatments were continued for the six weeks. Application of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in all treated groups significantly decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (p<0.001), the fecal bile acids concentration (p<0.01; p<0.001) and significantly increased serum TNFalpha level (p<0.001) in comparison to the control rats. The number of coliforms was reduced in PRO, PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups and significantly higher count of lactobacilli (p<0.05) was observed in PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups in compare with the controls. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH. PMID:20568896

  9. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

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    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with TmaxAesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work

  10. Beta-escin inhibits colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats and regulates the cell cycle growth by inducing p21(waf1/cip1) in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Jagan M R; Raju, Jayadev; Swamy, Malisetty V; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2006-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema, and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component beta-escin or aescin. Recent studies suggest that beta-escin may possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-histamine properties. We have evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of dietary beta-escin on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In addition, we analyzed the cell growth inhibitory effects and the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. To evaluate the inhibitory properties of beta-escin on colonic ACF, 7-week-old male F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 0.025%, or 0.05% beta-escin. After 1 week, the rats received s.c. injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks) or an equal volume of normal saline (vehicle). Rats were continued on respective experimental diets and sacrificed 8 weeks after the azoxymethane treatment. Colons were evaluated histopathologically for ACF. Administration of dietary 0.025% and 0.05% beta-escin significantly suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to approximately 40% (P < 0.001) and approximately 50% (P < 0.0001), respectively, when compared with control diet group. Importantly, rats fed beta-escin showed dose-dependent inhibition (approximately 49% to 65%, P < 0.0001) of foci containing four or more aberrant crypts. To understand the growth inhibitory effects, HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of beta-escin and analyzed by flow cytometry for apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Beta-escin treatment in HT-29 cells induced growth arrest at the G1-S phase, which was associated with the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1), and this correlated with reduced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Results also indicate that

  11. Optical properties of bud scales and protochlorophyll(ide) forms in leaf primordia of closed and opened buds.

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    Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2006-08-01

    The transmission spectra of bud scales of 14 woody species and the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra of the innermost leaf primordia of closed and opened buds of 37 woody species were studied. Pigment concentrations were determined in some species. Bud scales had low transmittance between 400 and 680 nm with a local minimum around 680 nm. Transmittance increased steeply above 680 nm and was > 80% in the 700-800 nm spectral region. Significant protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulation was observed in leaf primordia of tightly packed, closed buds with relatively thick, dark bud scales. In common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and Hungarian ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), the innermost leaf primordia of the closed buds contained protochlorophyll (Pchl) and Pchlide (abbreviated as Pchl(ide)), but no chlorophyll. We observed Pchl(ide) forms with emission maxima at 633, 643 and 655 nm in these leaves. Complete transformation of Pchlide(655) (protochlorophyllide form with maximum emission at 655 nm) into Chlide(692) (chlorophyllide form with maximum emission at 692 nm) occurred after irradiation for 10 s. The innermost leaf primordia of the buds of four species (flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) and common walnut (Juglans regia L.)) contained Pchl(ide)(633), Pchl(ide)(643) and Pchlide(655) as well as an emission band at 688 nm corresponding to a chlorophyll form. The Pchlide(655) was fully photoactive in these species. The outermost leaf primordia of these four species and the innermost leaf primordia of 28 other species contained all of the above described Pchl(ide) forms in various ratios but in small amounts. In addition, Chl forms were present and the main bands in the fluorescence emission spectra were at 690 or 740 nm, or both. The results indicate that Pchl(ide) accumulation occurs in leaf primordia in near darkness inside the tightly closed buds, where the bud scales and

  12. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

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    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  13. АЛЛЕЛОПАТИЧЕСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ ЛИСТОВОГО ОПАДА ДРЕВЕСНЫХ 20РАСТЕНИЙ, ПОЧВЫ И КОПРОЛИТОВ В ПАРКАХ Г. ДНЕПРОПЕТРОВСК

    OpenAIRE

    Крючкова, А.; Кульбачко, Ю.

    2014-01-01

    В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae) на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв.The article examines the impact of leaf litter allelopathic properties and earthworms t...

  14. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  15. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  16. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  17. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry: biocontrol potential of three predators and three parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  18. Utilização de fitoterápicos por idosos: resultados de um inquérito domiciliar em Belo Horizonte (MG, Brasil Herbal drug use by elderly people: results from a domiciliary survey in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianno D. P. Marliére

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fitoterápicos constituem uma modalidade de terapia complementar ou alternativa diante das necessidades de saúde e seu uso tem sido crescente na população idosa de diversos países. Entretanto, apresentam interações medicamentosas e reações adversas importantes e sua utilização não deve ser indiscriminada. Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o perfil de utilização de fitoterápicos por aposentados e pensionistas do INSS, com 60 anos e mais, residentes em Belo Horizonte, MG. A partir do cadastro do INSS, selecionou-se uma amostra aleatória de 881 idosos para entrevista. Investigou-se a prevalência de uso de fitoterápicos e interações medicamentosas potenciais. Um total de 667 (80,3% dos selecionados foi entrevistado. Setenta e um participantes (10,6% utilizaram fitoterápicos nos últimos 15 dias, principalmente aqueles preparados a partir de extratos de ginkgo (41,8%, aesculus (12,3% e isoflavonas de soja (8,2%. Mais de 60% dos fitoterápicos foram adquiridos em farmácias de manipulação. Aproximadamente 45% dos usuários de fitoterápicos estavam expostos a pelo menos uma interação medicamentosa potencial entre eles e medicamentos sintéticos, tais como entre ginkgo e diuréticos tiazídicos (14 e antiagregante plaquetário/anticoagulantes (8. São necessárias estratégias de orientação para o uso racional de fitoterápicos entre idosos, mais vulneráveis aos prejuízos decorrentes da utilização inadequada desses.The herbal drugs constitute an alternative or complementary therapy for the health needs and its use has been growing in the aged population of many countries. However, herbal drugs present important adverse effects and drug interactions and should not be indiscriminately used. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of herbal drug use by elderly and pensioner residents of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Eight hundred and eighty-one retirees were randomly selected from the Instituto Nacional do Seguro

  19. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

  20. Addition of tannins to ruminant feed: Investigation of the effects on ruminal microbiota by DGGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins are polymeric phenolic substances that show antimicrobial properties against filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria. They form complexes with proteins and polysaccharides. Protein complexation is supposed to reduce the availability of feed protein to ruminal microorganisms, and in turn increase the supply of aminoacids to the ruminant. In in vitro trials tannins were shown to bind cell walls of ruminal bacteria preventing growth and protease activity. In pure cultures they inhibited growth of predominant rumen bacteria, such as Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminoccus amylophilus, Streptoccus bovis. This study presents the effects of tannin addition to ruminant feed on the microbial community in the rumen in vivo. Two non-lactating fistulated Holstein cows were adapted for two weeks to a total mixed ration-concentrate diet fed in two equal meals per day. After the adaptation period samples were collected as control one hour before, and one, three, five and seven hours after morning feeding four and one day before tannin addition. The diet was then supplemented with 7.2 g/kg tannins from chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and fed for another two weeks. During this period samples were collected at day one, two and four, five hours after morning feeding. On day eight and ten, five consecutive samples were collected as described for the control. Rumen fluid was collected from the liquid phase by a pump and from the feed mat by hand squeezing. Parameters investigated were ammonia and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration, enzyme activities, and concentration of 16S (bacteria and archaea) and 18S rRNA (protozoa and fungi). The daily pattern of parameters investigated for two animals were similar and highly reproducible although the absolute concentration of some parameters (SCFA, isovalerate, 16S rRNA) differed between animals. The concentration of ammonia, enzyme activities and rRNA content, different between the liquid and meat

  1. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  2. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  3. Diversity and temporal dynamics of a litchi orchard arthropod community in Guangzhou%广州荔枝园节肢动物群落多样性及时空动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟翔; 欧阳革成; 刘慧; 黄寿山; 郭明昉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To provide a theoretical basis for forecasting and scientific biological control of major litchi orchard pests. [Methods] The structure and dynamics of the arthropod community in a litchi orchard in Conghua, Guangzhou was investigated in the field from 2012 to 2013. [Results] 3 542 arthropod specimens, belonging to 15 orders, 113 families and 204 species, were recorded. The main taxa were Hymenoptera, Homoptera and Araneae. Herbivorous species were predominant. Different micro-environments within the orchard could have a different community composition; the index of arthropod community diversity was higher in the canopy than in the herb layer but arthropod abundance in the canopy was lower than in the herb layer. There were two obvious peaks in species abundance with the main peak occurring between April and June. Herbivorous insects significantly increased during the green fruit and ripening periods. Seasonal variation in community composition was also relatively obvious in the canopy and herb layer. The dominant pest species were Tessaratoma papillosa, Cletus punctiger, Conopomorpha sinensis, Eriophyes litchii and Thalassodes proquadraria, and the dominant natural enemies were Leucauge magnifica, Oxyopes sertatus, Chrysopa carnea, Menochilus sexmaculataand Propylea japonica. [Conclusion] Litchi orchards have high arthropod species diversity. The number and occurrence of dominant pests and their predatory natural enemies are closely related to the growth and development of litchi fruit.%【目的】调查研究荔枝园节肢动物群落多样性及时空动态,为荔枝园主要害虫的预测预报和以天敌为主的科学防治提供理论依据。【方法】2012―2013年以广州市从化区黄围村的荔枝园为样地进行节肢动物群落系统调查及多样性动态规律分析。【结果】调查共获得节肢动物标本3542号,分属于15目113科204种。其中,以膜翅目、同翅目和蜘蛛目为主要类群。在营

  4. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    records vary from station to station. In some cases records were given in details including geographical details regarding the position of observed individual plant (orientation of the slopes) and the damages caused by frosts but this was not a general feature. All phenological observations were done on a voluntary basis. Moreover, even the stations that performed the observations for more than ten years changed the observed species from year to year. This makes the data sets quite fragmented with many gaps and the standard statistical characteristics of any station can be hardly obtained and their statistical significance is very low. As the standard statistical processing of the data sets was not possible, we tried to elaborate some descriptions that can characterize the distribution of phenological manifestation in space and time. Climatologic records available in the yearbooks were expressed as monthly mean values and totals. There are also gaps and missing data in the climatologic records. Nevertheless, these data sets enable us to get general characteristics of months and seasons. Next possible evaluation can follow the local phenological calendar. This was done also in 1874. As only three phenological phases were recorded, it was difficult to follow the development and growth of a particular plant. That is why only flowering of the plants characterizing start of early spring /Corylus Avellana/, full spring /Cornus mas, Salix alba and Prunus spinosa/, late spring /Syringa vulgaris, Aesculus Hippocastanum and Crataegus laevigata/ and early summer /Robinia Pseudoacacia and Sambucus nigra/ were considered. The full start of summer is indicated usually by flowering of Tilia platyphyllos. Three stations from the lowlands in northern region with relatively good data sets were selected in order to get this course of flowering. The northern most positioned station showed the delay in the beginning of flowering at the plants which flower in full spring and early summer while