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Sample records for aeromonas

  1. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  2. Emerging pathogens: Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Knochel, S; Tomas, J M

    1995-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods of the family Vibrionaceae. They are normal water inhabitants and are part of the regular flora of poiquilotherm and homeotherm animals. They can be isolated from many foodstuffs (green vegetables, raw milk, ice cream, meat and seafood). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. have been classified following the AeroKey II system (Altwegg et al., 1990; Carnahan et al., 1991). The major human diseases caused by Aeromonas spp. can be classified in two major groups: septicemia (mainly by strains of A. veronii subsp. sobria and A. hydrophila), and gastroenteritis (any mesophilic Aeromonas spp. but principally A. hydrophila and A. veronii). Most epidemiological studies have shown Aeromonas spp. in stools to be more often associated with diarrhea than with the carrier state; an association with the consumption of untreated water was also conspicuous. Acute self-limited diarrhea is more frequent in young children, in older patients chronic enterocolitis may also be observed. Fever, vomiting, and fecal leukocytes or erythrocytes (colitis) may be present (Janda, 1991). The main putative virulence factors are: exotoxins, endotoxin (LPS), presence of S-layers, fimbriae or adhesins and the capacity to form capsules. PMID:8750664

  3. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial genus Aeromonas is currently listed on the USEPA's Candidate Contaminant List (CCL). Resistance to chemical disinfection is an essential aspect regarding all microbial groups listed on the CCL. This study was designed to determine the inactivation kinetics of Aeromo...

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila surveillance 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severly acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. The objectives of this presentation are to 1) present a summary of the biology of Aero...

  5. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  6. The main Aeromonas pathogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, J M

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  7. Aeromonas species in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isonhood, Jamie H; Drake, Maryanne

    2002-03-01

    Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. Most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. Aeromonads are not resistant to food processing regimes and are readily killed by heat treatment. A host of virulence factors are present, but the exact role of each in human disease has not been fully elucidated. PMID:11899061

  8. Cystitis Caused by Aeromonas caviae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Benwan, Khalifa; Abbott, Sharon; Janda, J. Michael; Huys, Geert; Albert, M. John

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. We report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by A. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.

  9. Aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. This review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of Aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. Antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. is also discussed. PMID:21163298

  10. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Phani Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  11. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  12. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  13. Characterization of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Pérez-Valdespino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury-resistant Aeromonas strains isolated from diarrhea were studied. Resistance occurs via mercuric ion reduction but merA and merR genes were only detected in some strains using PCR and dot hybridization. Results indicate a high variability in mer operons in Aeromonas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas strains.

  14. Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as food- and waterborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadström, T; Ljungh, A

    1991-04-01

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas have become increasingly recognized as human enteropathogens. Plesiomonas shigelloides has mainly been recovered from various sea foods, whereas Aeromonas sp. have also been cultured from pigs, broilers, eggs, milk and vegetables. Aeromonas sp. also multiply rapidly at +4 degrees C which is a significant risk in food storage. Aeromonas sp. have furthermore been recovered from fresh water sources, and some isolates are resistant to chlorination which makes it a further risk factor. No large food- or waterborne outbreaks have been reported so far with Aeromonas sp. Various virulence factors involved in intestinal infections are described such as enterotoxins, cytotoxins, and adhesins. PMID:1854599

  15. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

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    M. Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  16. [Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Rodríguez de García, R

    1997-03-01

    Some Aeromonas strains are well recognized enteropathogens according to microbiological, clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. The main source of infection seems to be untreated water, these microorganisms can be found in virtually all aquatic environments. Additionally, some Aeromonas, which include enterotoxigenic strains, are capable of rapid growth at 5 degrees C and even of producing toxins. Vegetable products irrigated with contaminated water may reach critical Aeromonas levels after being kept under refrigeration, this could represent a public health risk when they are consumed as uncooked salads. This study was pursued to evaluate such risk. Surface water samples were streaked on starch ampicillin and inositol-brilliant green-bile salts agar dishes. In addition, 100 ml of each sample were filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore membrane filter. The filters were incubated on alkaline peptone water as enrichment media during 24 h at 35 degrees C. Enrichment broth was then streaked on the selective agars above mentioned. Isolates from both tests were identified using the API 20 E System. The prevalence of Aeromonas strains in the analyzed samples was 17.8%. A higher isolation rate was observed after the enrichment technique. Starch ampicillin agar showed a higher recuperation rate. A Veronii biotype sobria (formerly A. sobria) was isolated with higher frequency. Since this species has been associated with the greatest virulence, the use of contaminated water to irrigate vegetable products that are to be kept under refrigeration and consumed without ulterior cooking may represent a risk to the public health. PMID:9429640

  17. AEROMONAS SPP. ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trials were conducted to examine the effect of commercial processing and refrigerated storage on Aeromonas bacteria in the native bacterial flora of broilers. The whole carcass rinse procedure was used to recover bacteria from prescalded, picked, prechilled, chilled, and refrigerated carcasses. Bact...

  18. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  19. Aeromonas spp.: An emerging nosocomial pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyam Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp.

  20. Quorum Sensing Regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Claussen, Anetta; Sneppen, Kim; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the...

  1. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae. PMID:27075453

  2. MONITORING FOR AEROMONAS SPECIES AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. To free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was determined. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Experiments using free chlorine indicated that the Aeromonas spp. ...

  3. Aeromonas distribution and survival in a thermally altered lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Par Pond is a thermally enriched monomictic southeastern lake which receives heated effluent from a production nuclear reactor. Fish populations in the lake have lesions of epizooty from which Aeromonas spp. are readily isolated. Distribution and population densities of Aeromonas in the water column were measured along an oxygen and temperature gradient as well as seasonally. Greater population densities of Aeromonas occurred below the oxygen chemocline when the lake was stratified. Survival of Aeromonas hydrophila under in situ conditions in both epilimnetic and hypolimnetic waters was determined through the use of polycarbonate membrane diffusion chambers during two separate reactor operating conditions. Survival levels of pure cultures of A. hydrophila corresponded to the distribution patterns of the naturally occurring Aeromonas-like populations. The greater survival of A. hydrophila during full reactor operation suggests that the fish populations may be exposed to Aeromonas for a longer period of time than when the reactor is not operating

  4. Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov., isolated from aquaria of ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, A J; Saavedra, M J; Mota, V R; Maier, T; Stackebrandt, E; Cousin, S

    2008-05-01

    During a survey to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas strains in water and skin of imported ornamental fish, 48 strains presumptively identified as Aeromonas were isolated but they could not be identified as members of any previously described Aeromonas species. These strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach including phylogenetic analysis derived from gyrB, rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, genotyping by RAPD and extensive biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests in order to determine their taxonomic position. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas aquariorum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MDC47T (=DSM 18362T =CECT 7289T) as the type strain. This is the first Aeromonas species description based on isolations from ornamental fish. PMID:18450708

  5. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  6. Aeromonas dhakensis, an increasingly recognized human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Lin eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations.

  7. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications. PMID:27039338

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  9. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  10. Draft genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic Gram-negative species causing disease in fish and mammals. The genus Aeromonas affects a variety of aquatic organisms and lives in diverse aquatic ecosystems (1). There are 39 A. hydrophila genomes currently available in GenBank. In the current study, we repo...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila occurs in freshwater environments and infects fish and mammals. In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila AL06-06, which was isolated from diseased goldfish and is being used for comparative genomic studies with A. hydrophila strains causing ba...

  12. Recurrent Aeromonas Bacteremia Due to Contaminated Well Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Morgan J.; Parrish, Nicole M.; Belani, Anusha; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Although they are ubiquitous to aquatic environments, Aeromonas species have traditionally been considered nonvirulent; however, in the past 30 years, they have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a wide spectrum of disease. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent Aeromonas bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient, and this exposure was linked to the patient's home well water supply. PMID:26495324

  13. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  14. Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, L C; Dropa, M; Matté, G R; Matté, M H

    2009-12-01

    Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. Aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlyA/aer complex and alt genes. Primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. Eighty-seven strains previously identified using phenotypic and genotypic tests as A. hydrophila (41) and A. jandaei (46) were analysed for the presence of the virulence genes using PCR. DNA fragments of expected size were purified and directly sequenced. Among the 41 strains of A. hydrophila 70.7% (29), 97.6% (40) and 26.8% (11) possessed act/hlyA/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Among the 46 strains of A. jandaei, 4.4% (2), 0% (0) and 32.6% (15) were positive for act/hly A/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Sequencing allowed for the confirmation of amplified products using BLAST. The present work proposes a specific and rapid diagnostic method to detect the main virulence determinants of Aeromonas, a genus potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:19590136

  15. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  16. Resistance of Salmonds Against Aeromonas Salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at Danish trout farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural...... over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility...... new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics....

  17. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  18. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 oC were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 oC up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  19. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  20. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos Contamination by Aeromonas spp. in poultry slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, F.N.; O.D. Rossi Júnior

    2002-01-01

    Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36%) amostras de penas, em 14 (56%) de fezes, em 18 (72%) de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80%) de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecim...

  1. Dynamics of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone-Rocha, S; Piveli, R P; Matté, G R; Dória, M C; Dropa, M; Morita, M; Peternella, F A; Matté, M H

    2010-12-01

    Aeromonas are widely distributed in the aquatic environment, and are considered to be emerging organisms that can produce a series of virulence factors. The present study was carried out in a sanitary sewage stabilization pond treatment system, located in Lins, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Most probable number was applied for estimation of the genus Aeromonas. Colony isolation was carried out on blood agar ampicillin and confirmed by biochemical characterization. Aeromonas species were isolated in 72.4% of influent samples, and in 55.2 and 48.3% of effluent from anaerobic and facultative lagoons, respectively. Thirteen Aeromonas species were isolated, representing most of the recognized species of these organisms. Even though it was possible to observe a tendency of decrease, total elimination of these organisms from the studied system was not achieved. Understanding of the pathogenic organism's dynamics in wastewater treatment systems with a reuse potential is especially important because of the risk it represents. PMID:20705981

  2. Hydrocarbon utilization by Brevibacterium, Azotomonas, Protaminobacterium, Mycococcus and Aeromonas spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsane, B.K.; Vadalkar, K.; Singh, H.D.; Baruah, J.N.

    1976-11-01

    Morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of 7 bacterial isolates, capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, reveal that 3 isolates belong to genus Aeromonas and one each to genera Brevibacterium, Protaminobacter, Mycococcus and Azotomonas. The isolates are studied for biomass formation on gas oil, substrate specificities for petroleum hydrocarbons and fermentation of gas oil by Brevibacterium sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing abilities of the strains of Protaminobacter, Azotomonas and Aeromonas are not known previously.

  3. Incidence and identification of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Huys, G; Uyttendaele, M; Swings, J; Debevere, J

    2000-11-01

    Sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic Aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. Numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from 10(5) cfu g(-1). GLC analysis of FAMEs was used to identify a selection of presumptive Aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. Aeromonas strains belonging to the Aer. caviae complex, which also includes the potentially pathogenic genospecies HG4, were mostly isolated from vegetables but were also found in meat, poultry and fish. In addition, three strains of the virulent taxon Aer. veronii biovar sobria HG8 were isolated from poultry and minced meat. All members of the Aer. hydrophila complex, predominant in the fish, meat and poultry samples, were classified in the non-virulent taxon HG3. Although the significance of Aeromonas in foods remains undefined, the isolation of Aeromonas HG4 and HG8 strains from a variety of retail foods may indicate that these products can act as possible vehicles for the dissemination of food-borne Aeromonas gastroenteritis. PMID:11069637

  4. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  5. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  6. Quorum sensing regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Claussen, Anetta; Sneppen, Kim; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the Escherichia coli monitor strain MH205), the C4-HSL production of A. hydrophila is interrupted by fusion of gfp(ASV). In the present in vitro study, we measure the response of the QS regulatory ahyRI locus in the monitor strain to predetermined concentrations of C4-HSL signal molecules. A minimal kinetic model describes the data well. It can be solved analytically, providing substantial insight into the QS mechanism: at high concentrations of signal molecules, a slow decay of the activated regulator sets the timescale for the QS regulation loop. Slow saturation ensures that, in an A. hydrophila cell, the QS system is activated only by signal molecules produced by other A. hydrophila cells. Separate information on the ahyR and ahyI loci can be extracted, thus allowing the probe to be used in identifying the target when testing QS inhibitors. PMID:20064524

  7. Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov., Isolated from Untreated Water and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Navarro, Aaron; Carvalho, M João; Aravena-Román, Max; Correia, Antonio; Figueras, M José; Saavedra, M José

    2016-06-01

    During previous studies to evaluate the phylogenetic diversity of Aeromonas from untreated waters and vegetables intended for human consumption, a group of isolates formed a unique gyrB phylogenetic cluster, separated from those of all other species described so far. A subsequent extensive phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence of seven housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD; 4705 bp), and ERIC-PCR, were performed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy position of these isolates. This polyphasic approach confirmed that they belonged to a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas lusitana sp. nov. is proposed, with strain A.11/6(T) (=DSMZ 24095(T), =CECT 7828(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26868258

  8. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  9. [Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, E V; Isaeva, N M; Balakhnin, I A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria of genus Aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. They are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. The greatest attention is paid by the researchers to Aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. That is why the review is, to more extent, concerned in the works of this trend made by the foreign and home researchers for the last decade. PMID:1406386

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia and muscle abscesses associated with immunosuppression.

    OpenAIRE

    Slevin, N J; Oppenheim, B A; Deakin, D. P.

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of septicaemia and muscle abscesses due to Aeromonas hydrophila. The patient was immunosuppressed due to Hodgkin's disease and treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The abscesses resolved after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Organisms that were once considered rarely pathogenic are emerging as increasingly important in causing potentially lethal infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila in 2010: Characteristics of Alabama outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a second year, epidemics associated with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size Alabama (AL) catfish. During this period, the Alabama Fish Farming Center diagnosed outbreaks of this strain of A. hydrophila on 25% (28/113) o...

  12. SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT AEROMONAS SPECIES TO COPPER AND SILVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas bacteria are common flora in surface and ground waters and are considered to be human pathogens. They can also be found in municipally treated drinking water, likely as a component of biofilms, as found in distribution system pipes and point of use water filters. It ...

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila: Observations of the Alabama industry in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the Alabama catfish industry experienced widespread mortality from infection by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. As soon as pond water temperatures warmed above 26 degrees centigrade (80 degrees fahrenheit) in 2010, epidemics have again occurred across the industry. This talk, which is a...

  14. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Høie, S.; Thornton, J.M.; Larsen, J.L.; O'Hici, B.; Powell, R.

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies. Ge...

  15. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Høie, S.; Thornton, J.M.; Larsen, J.L.; O'Hici, B.; Powell, R.

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  16. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.; Humphries, Romney M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  17. Production and properties of lipase of Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ito, Hidenobu; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Balakrish Nair, Gopinath; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2012-05-01

    Aeromonas have been isolated from a wide variety of aquatic environments. However the number of Aeromonas in sea water is extremely small compared to that in fresh water. In in vitro culture, Aeromonas can grow in mediums containing NaCl at a concentration of 3.0%, this concentration corresponding to that of sea water. It is unclear why the number of Aeromonas is low in sea water. Exoproteins of bacteria are thought to be important for bacterial growth and survival in the environment. Previously, the present authors have shown that mediums containing 3.0% NaCl suppress production of two proteases, serine protease and metalloprotease. In this experiment, other exoproteins whose production is influenced by the amount of NaCl in the medium were analyzed. A protein whose production is repressed in medium containing 3.0% NaCl was found and purified. Biological assay of the purified protein showed that it degrades tributyrin and hydrolyzes para-nitrophenyl-fatty acylesters. These results show that the protein is a lipase. Subsequently, the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the lipase was determined and the amount of mRNA of the lipase gene in the cells measured. It was found that transcription of the gene is not inhibited by NaCl in the medium. This result indicates that the lipase might be synthesized, but the folding process to become an active structure does not progress smoothly in a medium containing 3.0% NaCl. PMID:22376235

  18. Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Escarpulli, G; Figueras, M J; Aguilera-Arreola, G; Soler, L; Fernández-Rendón, E; Aparicio, G O; Guarro, J; Chacón, M R

    2003-07-15

    A total of 82 strains of presumptive Aeromonas spp. were identified biochemically and genetically (16S rDNA-RFLP). The strains were isolated from 250 samples of frozen fish (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) purchased in local markets in Mexico City. In the present study, we detected the presence of several genes encoding for putative virulence factors and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in bacterial infection. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial patterns of those strains. Molecular identification demonstrated that the prevalent species in frozen fish were Aeromonas salmonicida (67.5%) and Aeromonas bestiarum (20.9%), accounting for 88.3% of the isolates, while the other strains belonged to the species Aeromonas veronii (5.2%), Aeromonas encheleia (3.9%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (2.6%). Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genes encoding putative virulence factors common in Aeromonas, such as aerolysin/hemolysin, lipases including the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT), serine protease and DNases, revealed that they were all common in these strains. Our results showed that first generation quinolones and second and third generation cephalosporins were the drugs with the best antimicrobial effect against Aeromonas spp. In Mexico, there have been few studies on Aeromonas and its putative virulence factors. The present work therefore highlights an important incidence of Aeromonas spp., with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance, isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico City. PMID:12781953

  19. Clinical implications of species identification in monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jung Wu

    Full Text Available Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%, A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%, A. caviae (43, 28.1%, and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5% were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1, bla(MOX, or bla(CepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively. A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048. Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.

  20. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed. PMID:23890674

  1. Detection of hemolytic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and A . sobria along with other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I A; Jeyasekaran, G; Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, K T; Jeevithan, E

    2014-02-01

    Hemolytic strains of Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products were detected by multiplex PCR. The selected primers for the amplification of segments of ahh1, asa1 and 16S rRNA gene yielded products with the size of 130 bp, 249 bp and 356 bp, respectively. This assay was found to be highly sensitive, as it could detect 7 and 9 cells of Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria with a detection limit of 1 pg of pure genomic DNA. The assay, when screened for 73 commercial fish and fishery product samples consisting of freshwater, marine fish and shellfish, showed 56 % positive for Aeromonas spp., 16 % for Aeromonas hydrophila and 13 % for A. sobria. This assay provides specific and reliable results and can be a powerful tool for the simultaneous detection of hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila A. sobria and other Aeromonas spp. from fish and fishery products. PMID:24493904

  2. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Karabasil Neđeljko; Ašanin Ružica; Baltić Milan Ž.; Teodorović V.; Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cel...

  3. Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from a metropolitan water supply: seasonal correlation with clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, V.; J. Robinson; Gracey, M; Peterson, D.; Partridge, K

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the metropolitan water supply of Perth, Western Australia, Australia, was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Water within the distribution system conformed to international standards for drinking water but contained Aeromonas spp. in numbers comparable to those in raw surface water, although this water was free of Escherichia coli. Coliforms and E. coli were found in raw surface waters, and Aeromonas spp. were found in raw water...

  4. Study on Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) Profile of Aeromonas Strains using SDS- PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    N Sachan; Agarwal, R.K.; Singh, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Mesophilic aeromonads are being increasingly reported pathogen of humans and lower vertebrates. Water and foods are considered to be the chief source of Aeromonas spp. At present there are several techniques available for the detection of Aeromonas spp. from water and foods. However, there is still need to develop immunodiagnostics for rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. irrespective of their species or serotype. To meet out this requirement present study was undertaken to identify the common p...

  5. Study on Outer Membrane Protein (OMP Profile of Aeromonas Strains using SDS- PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sachan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesophilic aeromonads are being increasingly reported pathogen of humans and lower vertebrates. Water and foods are considered to be the chief source of Aeromonas spp. At present there are several techniques available for the detection of Aeromonas spp. from water and foods. However, there is still need to develop immunodiagnostics for rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. irrespective of their species or serotype. To meet out this requirement present study was undertaken to identify the common protein moiety in their OMPs by SDS-PAGE so, that immunoassays can be developed for efficient and rapid detection of Aeromonas spp. from foods. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 173-177

  6. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Di Bari; Hachich, Elayse M.; Adalgisa M.J. Melo; Sato, Maria I. Z.

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromona...

  7. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  8. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS): BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Kapetanović; Emin Teskeredžić

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples) of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 2...

  9. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Doganis, Dimitrios; Baka, Margarita; Tsolia, Maria; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Lebessi, Evangelia; Varvoutsi, Maria; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the ...

  10. Multiplex PCR method for detection of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingombe, Cesar I Bin; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay. PMID:19933350

  11. Endogenous Aeromonas Hydrophila Endophthalmitis in an Immunocompromised Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Hee Jin; Nam, Dong Heun; Kim, Yeon Suk; Paik, Hae Jung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila in a patient with distal common bile duct carcinoma and biliary sepsis. Methods A 72-year-old woman with distal common bile duct carcinoma, obstructive jaundice, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension had a 1-day history of blurred vision, redness, and eye discharges in the right eye. An ophthalmic examination showed no light perception vision, increased intraocular pressure, severe corneal edema, severe anterior ...

  12. Isolation of drug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila from aquatic environments.

    OpenAIRE

    McNicol, L A; Aziz, K. M.; Huq, I; Kaper, J B; Lockman, H A; Remmers, E F; Spira, W M; Voll, M. J.; Colwell, R R

    1980-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of Aeromonas hydrophila have been isolated from the natural environment in the Chesapeake Bay and areas surrounding Dacca and the Matlab region of Bangladesh. The Bangladesh strains carried resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracycline, and 57% of them had a multiple streptomycin-tetracycline resistance phenotype correlated with the presence of a large plasmid. The Chesapeake Bay strains were resistant to polymyxin B ane tetracycline, but showed ne...

  13. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G

    2001-10-22

    A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used. PMID:11759753

  14. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  15. Comparative genomics of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from an epidemic in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the etiologic agent infecting farmed channel catfish in 2009/2010, resulting in higher mortality rates than typical for motile Aeromonas septicemia with over 5 million pounds of catfish lost to this outbreak. The biochemistry, molecular phylogeny, an...

  16. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  17. Effect of copper sulfate on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonad Septicemia (MAS) results from primary or secondary infection with bacteria from Gram(-) Aeromonas spp., including Aeromonas hydrophila. Since 2009, an emerging strain of A. hydrophila has been associated, as a primary pathogen, with significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. c...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of High-Melanin-Yielding Aeromonas media Strain WS

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Baozhong; Wang, He; Chen, Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS and then analyzed genes potentially involved in melanin formation. The 4.2-Mb draft genome carries multiple genes responsible for pyomelanin synthesis and other candidate genes identified in our separate study, which have no homolog in other strains of Aeromonas species.

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  20. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  1. Rapid detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas isolated from a trout farm by hexaplex-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, In-Young; Joh, Kiseong

    2007-08-01

    The detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas is a key component in determining potential pathogenicity because these factors act multifunctionally and multifactorially. In this study water samples were collected from a trout farm on a seasonal basis, and diseased fish and Aeromonas species were isolated and identified. For rapid detection of six virulence factors of isolated Aeromonas, a hexaplex-polymerase chain reaction (hexaplex-PCR) assay was used. The detected virulence factors include aerolysin (aer), GCAT (gcat), serine protease (ser), nuclease (nuc) lipase (lip) and lateral flagella (laf). The dominant strain found in our isolates was Aeromonas sobria, and the dominant virulence factors were aer and nuc for all seasons. We confirmed that A. sobria and two of the virulence genes (aer and nuc) are related. We proposed a method by which one can identify the major strains of Aeromonas: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, and A. veronii, using hexaplex-PCR. PMID:17846582

  2. Aeromonas detection and characterization using genus-specific PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare, Ana Paula Longaray; Lucena, Roberto Francisco; Thomazi, Guilherme; Ferrarini, Shana; Zacaria, Jucimar; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Based on sequence alignment, oligonucleotide primers targeting the Aeromonas extracellular lipase gene were developed for PCR detection of member of the genus. A pair of primers designed for conserved regions of the gene amplified a 276 bp sequence in all Aeromonas species and tested strains, but did not have a positive result with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing high specificity and sensitivity. Selective enrichment in alkaline peptone water, followed by centrifugation, and direct usage of cells suspension as template, detected initial populations of 10 c.f.u. ml⁻¹. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the PCR products allowed the characterization of Aeromonas strains with a high discriminatory power (Simpson's index = 0.988). The method presented here provides a useful tool for the rapid detection of Aeromonas and the characterization of Aeromonas isolates. PMID:22806741

  3. Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila infection with specific monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisarn Sithigorngul

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell of Aeromonas hydrophila 1234 was used for immunization to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Three different groups of MAbs specific to Aeromonas were obtained. The first group of MAbs demonstrated high specificity and bound to the A. hydrophila 1234 only but did not bind to the other two A. hydrophila isolates. This group of MAbs bound to a series of lipo-polysaccharides (LPS with molecular masses range from 10 to190 kDa. The second group of antibodies recognized A. hydrophila 1234 and 2798 isolates, and bound to a series of LPS with molecular masses range from 5-200 kDa. The third group of MAbs recognized all three isolates of A. hydrophila and two isolates of A. sobria, and lightly bound to A. caviae. This group of MAbs also bound to an unknown protein with molecular mass of 20 kDa. The MAbs in group 1 and group 2 can be used to detect the bacteria in tissues by immunohistochemistry. Both groups of MAbs bound to LPS at different sites in which the MAbs in group 2 bound to the side chain of O antigen while the MAbs in group 1 bound to the polymerization site at the core of oligosaccharide. All of the MAbs can be used to identify Aeromonas by dot blotting with the sensitivity range from 103-104 CFU/l. This study demonstrated a convenient immunological tool that can be used for simple and accurate identification of A. hydrophila, as well as for diagnosis of the A. hydrophila infection in animals. This immunological tool can replace costly and laborious biochemical tests.

  4. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganis, Dimitrios; Baka, Margarita; Tsolia, Maria; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Lebessi, Evangelia; Varvoutsi, Maria; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted. PMID:27200197

  5. Effect of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes of Aeromonas proteolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica was selected for studying the effects of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes because it produces an endopeptidase that is capable of degrading proteins and a hemolysin that is active in lysing human erythrocytes. Possible alterations in the rate of enzyme production in response to the test conditions are currently underway and are not available for this preliminary report. Completed viability studies are indicative that little difference exists among the survival curves derived for cells exposed to various components of ultraviolet irradiation in space.

  6. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doganis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted.

  7. Use of Aeromonas as a process indicator during swine carcass dressing and cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Yu, Linda S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Using starch ampicillin agar, qualitative and quantitative determinations of Aeromonas spp. were made at several sites during swine carcass dressing and cutting. Aeromonas spp. were observed at all sites surveyed. Levels increased during shackling and passage through the first and middle polisher/washers, and significantly decreased during the singeing steps. Passage through the final polisher/washer caused a small increase in levels in Aeromonas spp. and these levels then remained constant during the rest of the carcass dressing operation. Aeromonas spp. were also isolated from the room where the carcasses were cut into wholesale cuts and cuts for further processing. Presumptive Aeromonas spp. cultures isolated from the different sites were confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas and then speciated using the biochemical scheme of Joseph and Carnahan; 81% of the cultures were identified at A. hydrophila. Since most isolates were A. hydrophila, determination of the origin of isolates from different sites in the processing plant must await utilizing molecular biotyping techniques on the cultures. These results indicate the Aeromonas spp. occurs extensively in the swine dressing environment and thus represents a possible public health hazard and potential spoilage concern. Changes in cleaning and sanitizing of equipment may be necessary during swine carcass dressing and cutting to guard against this pathogen.

  8. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF AEROMONAS SPP. IN READY-TO-EAT FOODS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Montemurro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Aeromonas is constantly changing and it is important that strains are identified and carefully differentiate. The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. in RTE foods from supermarkets and sushi Take Away and stored at refrigeration temperature. Particular attention was given to the choice of culture media in order to assess their ability to differentiate Aeromonas spp. and to perform subsequent phylogenetic analysis and the characterization of the species isolated.

  9. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos

    OpenAIRE

    Costa F.N.; Rossi Júnior O.D.

    2002-01-01

    Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36%) amostras de penas, em 14 (56%) de fezes, em 18 (72%) de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80%) de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecim...

  10. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cell cultures. A cytotoxic effect was detected for all tested strains, but of different intensity.

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region. PMID:26971634

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in food and clinical Aeromonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palú, Angela Peres; Gomes, Luciana Martins; Miguel, Marco Antônio Lemos; Balassiano, Ilana Teruzkin; Queiroz, Mara Lucia Penna; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa; de Oliveira, Selma Soares

    2006-08-01

    This study highlights the incidence of resistance and the presence of plasmids in human and food isolates of Aeromonas in Brazil. A total of 83 Aeromonas spp. strains (28 isolated from human and 55 from fresh lettuce) were studied. Thirty-five were identified as A. hydrophila complex and 48 as A. caviae complex. All strains were shown to be susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was observed in strains of both food and clinical origin. The food strains were resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefoxitin and tetracycline, while the clinical strains presented resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were tested by agar dilution. Thirteen strains isolated from vegetables were resistant to tetracycline (MIC 16 microg ml-1). Two A. hydrophila strains and one A. caviae strain presented extracromosomal DNA (3 and 15 kb plasmids, respectively). The tetracycline resistance phenotype determinant was related to the 15 kb plasmid according to cure and transformation experiments. PMID:16943044

  13. HOST GENE CELL RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING VIRULENCE OF AEROMONAS SPP. COLLECTED FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is interested in assessing health risks associated with emerging or potential waterborne pathogens. To this end, the Agency has established a Candidate Contaminant List (CCL) that includes Aeromonas hydrophila an...

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.;

    2000-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42......% of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at <10(2) cells 100 ml(-1). Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the bacterial indicators (such as fecal...

  16. Fatal Aeromonas hydrophila Infection of Soft Tissue after Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Gastric Variceal Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ber-Ming Liu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, can cause severe infectionsin immune-compromised patients. We present a 45-year-old cirrhotic man who sufferedfrom hematemesis and received emergency endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EISfor gastric variceal bleeding. Twenty-one hours after EIS, painful swelling of the bilaterallower extremities and fever occurred. Severe soft-tissue infections with emergence of hemorrhagicbullae over the bilateral lower extremities followed. Even under aggressive treatment,the patient died of overwhelming sepsis 42 hours after EIS. Cultures of the blood andserosanguineous fluid from the hemorrhagic bullae revealed Aeromonas hydrophila. To thebest of our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal Aeromonas hydrophila infection afteremergancy EIS for gastric variceal bleeding reported in the English literature. It is worthemphasizing that physicians should consider Aeromonas hydrophila infection in cirrhoticpatients who develop soft-tissue infections after variceal bleeding whether emergency EIShas been performed or not.

  17. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few.Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the pr...

  18. Extended-spectrum -lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Aeromonas species in wild animals from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, C; Serra, C. R.; Simões, Lúcia C.; Simões, M.; Martinez-Murcia, A.; Saavedra, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas are Gram-negative, facultative-anaerobic, non-spore-forming, glucose-fermenting, oxidase- and catalase-positive rods (Martin-Carnahan and Joseph 2005). Apart from fish, which are widely reported hosts for Aeromonads, insects, crustaceans, reptiles, birds and mammals were also found to harbour Aeromonas species, both in healthy and disease state (Pearson and others 2000, Turutoglu and others 2005, Evangelista-Barreto and others 2006, Ceylan and others 2009). An increase in resistance...

  19. The Occurrence of Aeromonas in Drinking Water, Tap Water and the Porsuk River

    OpenAIRE

    Merih Kivanc; Meral Yilmaz; Filiz Demir

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey) was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux) and th...

  20. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains...

  1. Adhesion of Aeromonas sp. to cell lines used as models for intestinal adhesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirov, S M; Hayward, L. J.; Nerrie, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion to HEp-2 cells has been shown to correlate with enteropathogenicity for Aeromonas species. Such adhesion is thought to reflect the ability of strains to adhere to human intestinal enterocytes, although HEp-2 cells are not of intestinal origin. In this study strains of Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria isolated from various sources were investigated in parallel assays for their ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells and to an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Quantitative assays showed identica...

  2. Clonagem e expressão de uma potencial colagenase de Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaleiro, Eliana Marisa dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila é uma bactéria Gram-negativa que causa septicemia quer em peixes quer em humanos. Os principais patologias associados a infecções por Aeromonas são gastroenterites, infecção de feridas e doença sistémica. A patogenecidade deste organismo é multifactorial, possuindo factores na camada superficial proteica (camada S), diversos produtos extracelulares incluindo proteases, hemolisinas e enterotoxinas incluindo a acetilcolinesterase que contribui, significati...

  3. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  4. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aer...

  5. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michèle; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains (72%) and many of the Enterobacteriaceae (20%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. Singly nalidixic acid-resistant strains were frequent regardless of the sampling site for Aeromonas, whereas they were more common upstream from the discharge for enterobacteria. The most common resistances to antibiotics other than quinolones were to tetracycline (24.3%) and beta-lactams (20.5%) for Enterobacteriaceae and to tetracycline (27.5%) and co-trimoxazole (26.6%) for Aeromonas. The rates of these antibiotic resistances increased downstream from the discharge at similar degrees for the two bacterial groups; it remained at high levels for enterobacteria but decreased along the 30-km study zone for Aeromonas. Genetic analysis of representative strains demonstrated that these resistances were mostly (enterobacteria) or exclusively (Aeromonas) chromosomally mediated. Moreover, a reference strain of Aeromonas caviae (CIP 7616) could not be transformed with conjugative R plasmids of enterobacteria. Thus, the urban effluent resulted in an increase of the rates of resistance to antibiotics other than quinolones in the riverine bacterial populations, despite limited genetic exchanges between enterobacteria and Aeromonas. Quinolone resistance probably was selected by heavy antibiotic discharges of unknown origin upstream from the urban effluent. PMID:10618213

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, P; Crispino, M; Montuori, P; Stanzione, S

    2000-12-01

    A survey was carried out in Italy to ascertain the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods (vegetables, cheeses, meat products, and ice creams) and the level of molecular heterogeneity of the isolates found by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 46 (14.4%) of the 320 food samples examined were found positive for Aeromonas spp. The highest percentages of isolation were discovered in vegetables, particularly lettuce (45.0%), endive (40.0%), and rucola (20.0%). Ricotta was the only cheese type analyzed that showed a high frequency of isolation (45.0%). Among meat products, salami and raw ham (25.0% of samples positive) and, to a lesser extent, baloney (5.0%) were found positive for Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolate from foods of animal origin, whereas Aeromonas caviae was the dominant species in vegetables. No motile aeromonads were found in ice cream samples. Aeromonas isolates showed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, because 24 PFGE patterns were identified among 27 A. hydrophila strains and 20 PFGE patterns were found in 23 A. caviae isolates. In conclusion, consumers of ready-to-eat foods in Italy are regularly exposed to many genetically distinct strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae without evident signs of malaise, and therefore, few of these strains, if any, are likely to be pathogenic. PMID:11131903

  7. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar Praveen; Chanchal Debnath; Shashank Shekhar; Nirupama Dalai; Subha Ganguly

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competiti...

  8. Decolorisation of Congo Red by Aeromonas hydrophila Under Microaerophilic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 22 local bacterial isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Bolti fish showed a remarkable ability to decolorize congo red under microaerophilic conditions (98.8% in 48 hrs) without prior adaptation. The bacterium had the ability to grow and decolorized high concentrations of congo red which varied from 50 to 1000 mg/l , the decolorisation was irrelevant to bacterial growth. The strain was capable of decolorizing congo red under a wide range of temperatures (20-40 degree C), ph (3-8), NaCl (0-200 mg/l) and also had the ability to decolorized mono, di and poly azo dyes. This bacterium is notable in its ability to decolorized the diazo congo red under extreme conditions of temperature, ph, salinity and high dye concentrations which makes it suitable for decolorisation under extreme industrial conditions

  9. Bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)

  10. Mortality of therapeutic fish Garra rufa caused by Aeromonas sobria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juraj Majtn; Jaroslaverny; Alena Ofkan; Peter Tak; Milan Koznek

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate a case of mass mortality of Garra rufa (G. rufa) from a fish hatchery farm in Slovakia. Methods: Causative bacterial agent was swabbing out of affected fish skin area and subsequently identified using commercial test system. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Infected G. rufa was characterized by abnormal swimming behaviour, bleeding of skin lesions and local haemorrhages. Despite of using recommended aquatic antibiotic treatment no improvement was achieved and Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) was identified as a causative agent of fish mortality. Due to massive fish mortality, antibiotic susceptibility of pure isolated culture of A. sobria was evaluated employing eight antibiotics against human infections. A. sobria was resistant only against one antibiotic, namely ampicilin. Conclusions: These results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of G. rufa and may be a potential risk factor for immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients during the ichthyotherapy.

  11. BEHAVIOUR OF Aeromonas hydrophila IN SALTED SWORDFISH SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ziino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A challenge test for Aeromonas hydrophila in salted swordfish samples was carried out. Particularly, 24 samples (250g were experimentally contaminated, salted and stored at two different temperature regimes (fluctuating – F group - and non fluctuating – NF group – regime. The count of A. hydrophila, Enterobacteria and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as the determination of pH and aw were performed at 0, 19 43, 163, 187, 230, 320 and 368 hours whereas the temperature was monitored continuously by using 6 data-loggers. In both group, the mean concentrations of A. hydrophila did not exceed Log 3 cfu/g and decreased below the mean value of Log 1 cfu/g after 368 hours. However in the F group the A. hydrophila growth was slower and the decrease appeared slightly higher than NF group and this suggests the temperature fluctuations induces a more pronounced behaviour variability of A. hydrophila under stressing conditions.

  12. Comparação da sensibilidade de Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri a Aeromonas hydrophila e Aeromonas aquariorum

    OpenAIRE

    Chambel Martins, João

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Aquacultura apresentada à ESTM - Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Este trabalho teve como objectivo comparar a sensibilidade de três das principais espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce, Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri, a duas bactérias potencialmente zoonóticas para o Homem, Aeromonas hydprophila (SM 30016) e Aeromonas aquariorum (DSM 18362). De forma a efectuar a injecção intraperi...

  13. Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Aeromonas hydrophila (causative agent of motile aeromonas septicemia) and Edwardsiella tarda (causative agent of enteric septicemia) are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in aquatic environments, affecting many fish species worldwide, including channel catfish and tilapia. To control ba...

  14. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of the homogentisate pathway responsible for pyomelanin production, the major melanin constituents in Aeromonas media WS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    Full Text Available The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate. Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species.

  16. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  17. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  18. Lateral flagella are required for increased cell adherence, invasion and biofilm formation by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavín, Rosalina; Merino, Susana; Altarriba, Maria; Canals, Rocío; Shaw, Jonathan G; Tomás, Juan M

    2003-07-15

    Two types of flagella are responsible for motility in mesophilic Aeromonas strains. A polar unsheathed flagellum is expressed constitutively that allows the bacterium to swim in liquid environments and, in media where the polar flagellum is unable to propel the cell, Aeromonas express peritrichous lateral flagella. Recently, Southern blot analysis using a DNA probe based on the Aeromonas caviae Sch3N lateral flagellin gene sequence showed a good correlation between strains positive for the DNA probe, swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella by microscopy. Here, we conclude that the easiest method for the detection of the lateral flagellin gene(s) is by PCR (polymerase chain reaction); this showed good correlation with swarming motility and the presence of lateral flagella. This was despite the high degree of DNA heterogeneity found in Aeromonas gene sequences. Furthermore, by reintroducing the laf (lateral flagella) genes into several mesophilic lateral-flagella-negative Aeromonas wild-type strains, we demonstrate that this surface structure enhances the adhesion to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and the capacity for biofilm formation in vitro. These results, together with previous data obtained using Laf- mutants, demonstrate that lateral flagella production is a pathogenic feature due to its enhancement of the interaction with eukaryotic cell surfaces. PMID:12855171

  19. Multiplex PCR detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. from suspect food samples in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chang; Wang, Jan-Yi; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kao, Shu-Chen; Yang, Shang-Shyng; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih

    2008-10-01

    Aeromonads possess an array of virulence factors and are causative agents of a number of human infections. Among them, genes of one cytotoxic (Act) and two cytotonic (Alt, Ast) enterotoxins are implicated in a human diarrheal disease. A rapid, specific, simultaneous detection of these enterotoxin genes in suspected food poisoning samples is not yet reported. Hence, a multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile cytotonic (alt), and heat-stable cytotonic (ast) enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. The PCR assay was tested with 133 Aeromonas spp. isolated from suspect food poisoning samples and retail samples of poultry and fish from wet markets in and around Taipei, Northern Taiwan. The Aeromonas spp. isolates were divided into six genotypes based on absence or presence of one or more enterotoxin genes. Of these 133 isolates, Aeromonas caviae (52.5%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (43.4%) were the most frequently isolated species from food poisoning samples and retail samples, respectively. Among the species, A. hydrophila had a significantly higher proportion for harboring three enterotoxin genes than had the others, whereas Aeromonas encheleia, considered a nonpathogen, was found harboring three enterotoxin genes. The multiplex PCR assays are rapid and specific, and provide a useful tool for the detection and genotyping of enterotoxin genes of aeromonads. PMID:18939759

  20. Aeromonas spp. IN PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN AND DRINKING WATER OF GOIÂNIA-GO Aeromonas spp. EM PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM ANIMAL E EM ÁGUA DE CONSUMO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 53 samples of products from animal origin and drinking water was examined for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas occurred in 26.41% (14/53 of the samples. The raw products showed high frequency of contamination and relatively high count Aeromonas hydrophila was the dominating species, 57.5%, being followed of A. veroni (22.5%, A. sobria (17.5% and A. media (2.5%. None of the Aeromonas spp. was isolated from chlorinated or unchlorinated drinking water.

    KEY-WORDS: Aeromonas; animal origin products; drinking water.

    Um total de 53 amostras de produtos de origem animal e água de consumo foi examinado para se verificar a presença de Aeromonas spp. Desse total, 14/53 (26,41% amostras foram positivas para Aeromonas. Os produtos crus apresentaram maior freqüência de contaminação e contagem relativamente elevadas. A espécie Aeromonas hydrophila foi a mais freqüente (57,5%, seguida pelas espécies A. veroni (22,5%, A. sobria (17,5% e A. media (2,5%. Nenhuma amostra de água de consumo, clorada ou não clorada, mostrou-se positiva para Aeromonas ssp.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE: Aeromonas; produtos de origem animal; água de consumo.

  1. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  2. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: In the Wake of Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R; Figueras, Maria J; McGarey, Donald; Liles, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous "jack-of-all-trades," Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed. PMID:27610107

  3. Development of an Aeromonas hydrophila recombinant extracellular protease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Jiang, Ya-nan; Tang, Qian; Lin, Hui-xing; Lu, Cheng-ping; Yao, Huo-chun

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah) exists widely in the aquatic environment and infects a variety of animals. Extracellular protease (EPR) is an important protective antigen that induces a specific antibody response to resist Ah infection. In this study, two genes encoding extracellular protease epr2 and epr3 were linked within the expression vector pET32a to construct a recombinant pET-epr2-3 plasmid. The immunogenicity of the fusion protein epr2-3 was investigated as a subunit vaccine in ICR mice. The recombinant epr2-3 protein induced the production of high antibody titers. The survival rate against homogenous Ah J-1 challenge was significantly higher in the epr2-3 vaccinated group (≥80%) compared with the inactivated Ah vaccinated group and the challenge control group (P < 0.01), thus indicating that the recombinant epr2-3 protein provided significant protection against Ah infection. Therefore, the recombinant epr2-3 is a promising candidate for development as a vaccine against Ah infections. PMID:22874879

  4. Isolation and characterization of motile Aeromonas from human, food and environmental specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Y; Kishi, T

    1988-10-01

    From July 1985 to March 1987, the occurrence of motile Aeromonas sp. in stool, food and environmental specimens was investigated to assess their pathogenic significance and to determine sources and routes of infection. A total of 9366 stool specimens were examined; Aeromonas was isolated from 11.1% of diarrhoeal stools and 2.2% of normal stools (P less than 0.001). Aeromonas counts in food specimens, which included minced beef, pork and chicken, seafood and various vegetables and their products, were unexpectedly high suggesting that infection might be food-borne rather than water-borne. About 70% of the isolates from meat products were A. hydrophila and A. sobria, while A. caviae was the most common in sea-fish, vegetables and their products. Most A. hydrophila and A. sobria strains produced haemolysin, but haemagglutinin was found more frequently in A. sobria. PMID:3181307

  5. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.; Pasquale, V.; Baloda, Suraj B.; Figliuolo, G.

    2000-01-01

    coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis......A survey was undertaken to examine sea water and sediment for the presence of Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. along approximately 900 km of coast in Southern Italy during early and late summer. A quantitative analysis was also done to evaluate the water fecal contamination at the stations examined. The...... results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42...

  6. Sensitivity of planktonic and biofilm-associated Aeromonas spp. to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Aeromonas have the ability to adhere and form biofilms on food surfaces and food contact surfaces. Biofilm formation on foods and food contact surfaces is the major reason for contamination, cross contamination and post-processing contamination of the final food product leading to food spoilage, product rejection, economic losses and food-borne diseases. Biofilms have shown high resistance to heat, desiccation, acidic condition, high salt concentration, antibiotics and other food preservatives. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that ionizing radiation effectively inactivates Aeromonas in different food products. However, the relative efficacy of this process against biofilm associated cells versus free-living planktonic cells of Aeromonas is not well documented. Therefore, the dose of gamma radiation required to reduce the population by 90% (D10) was calculated for planktonic and biofilm-associated A. salmonicida Y567 and A. hydrophila A331 cells. Both A. hydrophila A331 and A. salmonicida Y567 expressed significant ability to attach and grow on glass surface following incubation at 30℃ in TSB. Ionizing radiation effectively reduced the populations of both planktonic and biofilm-associated cells for both the strains. Mean cell counts of survivors and surviving fraction of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells decreased with increased irradiation doses. The D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. salmonicida (Y567) were 232.65 Gy and 248.41 Gy, respectively; whereas, the D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. hydrophila (A331) were 249.2 Gy and 240.2 Gy respectively. No significant difference in the D10 values of planktonic and biofilm associated Aeromonas was observed. The influence of the cultured state of the organism, i.e., planktonic versus biofilm associated

  7. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  8. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism. PMID:26710336

  9. Cloning, mutagenesis, and nucleotide sequence of a siderophore biosynthetic gene (amoA) from Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Barghouthi, S; Payne, S M; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1991-01-01

    Many isolates of the Aeromonas species produce amonabactin, a phenolate siderophore containing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHB). An amonabactin biosynthetic gene (amoA) was identified (in a Sau3A1 gene library of Aeromonas hydrophila 495A2 chromosomal DNA) by its complementation of the requirement of Escherichia coli SAB11 for exogenous 2,3-DHB to support siderophore (enterobactin) synthesis. The gene amoA was subcloned as a SalI-HindIII 3.4-kb DNA fragment into pSUP202, and the complete n...

  10. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.; Høie, S.; Thoresen, O.F.; Wichardt, U.P.; Wiklund, T.

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the...

  11. Flagellar motility is necessary for Aeromonas hydrophila adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingxue; Lin, Guifang; Chen, Wenbo; Xu, Xiaojin; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion to host surface or cells is the initial step in bacterial pathogenesis, and the adhesion mechanisms of the fish pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. First, a mutagenesis library of A. hydrophila that contained 332 random insertion mutants was constructed via mini-Tn10 Km mutagenesis. Four mutants displayed the most attenuated adhesion. Sequence analysis revealed that the mini-Tn10 insertion sites in the four mutant strains were flgC(GenBank accession numbers KX261880), cytb4(GenBank accession numbers JN133621), rbsR(GenBank accession numbers KX261881) and flgE(GenBank accession numbers JQ974982). To further study the roles of flgC and flgE in the adhesion of A. hydrophila, some biological characteristics of the wild-type strain B11, the mutants M121 and M240, and the complemented strains C121 and C240 were investigated. The results showed that the mutation in flgC or flgE led to the flagellar motility of A. hydrophila significant reduction or abolishment. flgC was not necessary for flagellar biosynthesis but was necessary for the full motility of A. hydrophila, flgE was involved in both flagellar biosynthesis and motility. The flagellar motility is necessary for A. hydrophila to adhere to the host mucus, which suggests flagellar motility plays crucial roles in the early infection process of this bacterium. PMID:27432325

  12. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.; Heum, M.; Thornton, J.M.; Powell, R.

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and five isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four genes. The chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular A-layer protein (AP), the serine protease (Sprot......-sets only. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for...

  13. Survival of Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh vegetables stored under moderate vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, S A; Gorris, L G

    1994-11-01

    Storage at 6.5°C under moderate vacuum effectively prevented growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on chicory endive, but had only a limited inhibitory effect on the growth of the organism on mung bean sprouts. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicory endive was strongly stimulated under these conditions, whereas it was decreased on mung-bean sprouts. PMID:24421192

  14. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R(VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  15. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  16. Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich) and Aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish. Currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by Ich and A. hydrophila on bacterial load and survival in channel catfish. Two trials were conducted in this stud...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Type Strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii ATCC 43700 is 4,356,858 bp, which encodes 3,842 proteins and contains 110 predicted RNA genes. PMID:26893413

  18. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  19. Flagellar apparatus gene sequences of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagellar apparatus genes of recent outbreak Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 isolate were sequenced and characterized. Total 28 flagellar genes were identified. The sizes of the genes range from 318 to 2001 nucleotides, which potentially encode different complex flagellar proteins. At nucleotide and...

  20. Cold Shock Exoribonuclease R (VacB) is Involved in Aeromonas hydrophila Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced a virulence-associated gene (vacB) from a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. We identified this gene based on our recently annotated genome sequence of the environmental isolate ATCC 7966T of A. hydrophila and the vacB gene of Shi...

  1. Over-expression, purification and immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 flagellar proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and causes many diseases in fish as well as human. Recent outbreaks of aeromonad diseases in channel catfish prompted us to investigate catfish immune responses during infection of A. hydrophila. In this communication, we report ...

  2. A Mouse Model for Characterization of Gastrointestinal Colonization Rates Among Environmental Aeromonas Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colonization rates of ten different environmental isolates of Aeromonas were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pre-treatment method. A novel streptomycin pre-treatment prepared animals with a transient alteration in colon flora that allowed colonization by Aeromon...

  3. 2010 Surveillance for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in the Alabama catfish industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was associated with severely acute to chronic mortality in catfish ponds in Alabama. This strain of A. hydrophila had not been previously identified in AL catfish. In a joint effort between the USDA ARS and Auburn University, a combination of appr...

  4. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  6. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Xavier B.; Fathima Syed Ali M.; Sheeba; Sheeba S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for bla(TEM) gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment. PMID:22927788

  8. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  9. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority of the...

  10. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  11. Virulence diversity among bacteremic Aeromonas isolates: ex vivo, animal, and clinical evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine of four species of Aeromonas blood isolates, including A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae were randomly selected for analysis. The species was identified by the DNA sequence matching of rpoD. Clinically, the patients with A. dhakensis bacteremia had a higher sepsis-related mortality rate than those with other species (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.028. Virulence of different Aeromonas species were tested in C. elegans, mouse fibroblast C2C12 cell line and BALB/c mice models. C. elegans fed with A. dhakensis and A. caviae had the lowest and highest survival rates compared with other species, respectively (all P values <0.0001. A. dhakensis isolates also exhibited more cytotoxicity in C2C12 cell line (all P values <0.0001. Fourteen-day survival rate of mice intramuscularly inoculated with A. dhakensis was lower than that of other species (all P values <0.0001. Hemolytic activity and several virulence factor genes were rarely detected in the A. caviae isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical data, ex vivo experiments, and animal studies suggest there is virulence variation among clinically important Aeromonas species.

  12. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Wienke, A.; Liu, D.; Straus, David L.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...

  13. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  14. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  16. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  17. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  18. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Aeromonas caviae in a patient with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deyu; Zhao, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Li, Zhongbin; Yang, Wucai; Chen, Guofeng

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of cirrhosis. Based on our current understanding of SBP, the most common etiologies for SBP in cirrhosis are Enterobacter and Streptococcal species. Th e Aeromonas species are ubiquitous in fresh or sea water. Aeromonas caviae is never identified as etiology in cases of SBP. A patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 1 year, presented with diarrhea. He had diarrhea 1 week later returned from coastal city. He was hospitalized and treated with norfloxacin after 7 days of severe symptoms, including fever, abdominal distention, and diarrhea. Analysis of the ascitic specimen revealed a white-cell count of 4.42 × 109 cells/L with 88% neutrophils. Analysis of stool specimen showed a white-cell count of 60 cells per high-power field. Th e patient started the injection of cefriaxone at a dose of 4 g/d. However, the situation was not improved. Th ree days later, stool and ascitic fluid culture showed positive for Aeromonas caviae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and cefoperazone-sulbactam were highly sensitive to the Aeromonas caviae. However, the bacilli resisted to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole. Ceftriaxone was then switched to imipenem. The patient was fully recovered 14 days later. Aeromonas caviae is a rare pathogen of SBP in cirrhosis. It resists to third-generation of cephalosporin and fluroquinolone, which are of frequently used dependent on clinical experience. It needs a special attention. PMID:25832540

  19. Detection of toxigenic strains of Aeromonas species in foods by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, K; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2010-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads are ubiquitous organisms found in meat, vegetables, drinking water and various other food items. They cause diarrhea and extra-intestinal infections in normal and immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of virulence-associated genes of Aeromonas including hemolysin (hlyA), aerolysin (aerA), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyl transferase (GCAT) alongwith a 16S rRNA gene. Internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with aerA primers, was also included in this study. The results showed that all cultures of Aeromonas were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity. A. hydrophila could be detected at a range of 10-50 CFU ml(-1) from experimentally spiked fish, chicken and milk samples following overnight enrichment in alkaline peptone water supplemented with 10 μg/ml ampicillin (APW-A) by this multiplex PCR (mPCR). When evaluated on a total of 74 naturally occurring food samples, four samples were identified to contain Aeromonas by mPCR. All these results were compared to the conventional culture, isolation and biochemical identification procedures. The high throughput and cost-effective mPCR method developed in this study could provide a powerful tool for detection of pathogenic Aeromonas spp. from food and environmental samples and in addition, the method has advantages in terms of specificity, sensitivity and ease of use compared to other reported PCR methods and DNA hybridization assays. PMID:23100820

  20. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Pearson, Marianne; Kämpfer, Peter; Denys, Rik; Cnockaert, Margo; Inglis, Valerie; Swings, Jean

    2003-05-01

    A group of seven sucrose-negative Aeromonas strains (referred to as group Au) isolated from the internal organs of septicaemic farmed frogs (Rana rugulosa) in Thailand was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequencing, microplate DNA-DNA hybridizations and extensive phenotypic characterization. Comparison of FAFLP and ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that the group Au isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila DNA hybridization group (HG) 1 in which they represent a genotypic subgroup closely affiliated to A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and subsp. dhakensis. One representative of the Au group exhibited > or = 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strains of the two A. hydrophila subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization with type and reference strains of all known Aeromonas taxa revealed that the Au group represented a homogeneous taxon that exhibited the highest relatedness with members of the two A. hydrophila subspecies, ranging from 75 to 93%. Phenotypic characterization on the basis of 152 features further revealed that the Au group isolates differed from A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila or subsp. dhakensis in a total of 13 biochemical properties. Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Aeromonas frog isolates of the Au group represent a new subspecies of A. hydrophila, for which the name Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov. is proposed. Its type strain is Au-1D12(T) (=LMG 19707(T) = CCUG 46211(T)). PMID:12807217

  2. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection. PMID:25411168

  3. Envolvimento de Aeromonas em surto de doença diarréica aguda em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco Aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No primeiro semestre de 2004, ocorreu um surto de diarréia em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco, registrando-se 2.170 casos. Nas 582 coproculturas realizadas, 145 (25% revelaram um enteropatógeno bacteriano, destacando 114 casos (19,5% com a participação de Aeromonas, representadas por Aeromonas caviae (57/9,8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23/3,9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15/2,6% e outras espécies (19/3,2%. Nos 31 episódios restantes (5,3%, foram detectados: V. cholerae O1 Ogawa toxigênico (18/3,1%, Salmonella spp (8/1,4%, Shigella spp (3/0,5% e Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139 (2/0,3%.An acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during January to July, 2004, in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients. Aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5% and the main isolates were Aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6% and other species (19-3.2%. The other isolated enteropathogens were Vibrio cholerae O1-Ogawa toxigenic (18-3.1%, Salmonella spp (8-1.4%, Shigella spp (3-0.5% and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (2-0.3%.

  4. Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Neyts, K; Vanderswalmen, H; Notebaert, E; Debevere, J

    2004-02-01

    Aeromonas is an opportunistic pathogen, which, although in low numbers, may be present on minimally processed vegetables. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of minimally processed prepacked vegetable mixes are not inhibitory to the growth of Aeromonas species, multiplication to high numbers during processing and storage of naturally contaminated grated carrots, mixed lettuce, and chopped bell peppers was not observed. Aeromonas was shown to be resistant towards chlorination of water, but was susceptible to 1% and 2% lactic acid and 0.5% and 1.0% thyme essential oil treatment, although the latter provoked adverse sensory properties when applied for decontamination of chopped bell peppers. Integration of a decontamination step with 2% lactic acid in the processing line of grated carrots was shown to have the potential to control the overall microbial quality of the grated carrots and was particularly effective towards Aeromonas. PMID:14751681

  5. Class D tetracycline resistance determinants of R plasmids from the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Pasteurella piscicida.

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance determinants of R plasmids from the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Pasteurella piscicida were classified as class D by their expression of resistance to tetracycline and minocycline and through their DNA structure.

  6. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly si...

  7. Identification and Characterization of Pathogenic Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria Associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fish in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Kühn, Inger; Huys, Geert; Swings, Jean; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Sparse information is available on the virulence factors of Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish, from the environment, and from humans. In the present study, 52 Aeromonas isolates obtained from epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) lesions in fish, from the aquatic environment, and from children with diarrhea in Bangladesh were identified by biochemical phenotyping (i.e., PhenePlate [PhP] typing) and DNA fingerprinting and then characterized with respect to certain putative virulence ...

  8. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  9. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  10. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Sheikhlar; Abd Razk Alimon; Hassan Daud; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diet...

  11. The usefulness of molecular techniques to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kingombe, César I; Huys, Geert; Howald, Denise; Luthi, Elisabeth; Swings, Jean; Jemmi, Thomas

    2004-07-15

    A total of 78 raw and 123 processed and ready-to-eat retail food samples were used to assess the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence genes (cytotoxic enterotoxin and hemolysin genes) using a recently described PCR method in comparison with the conventional cultivation method based on the use of Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar (ADA) medium. With the ADA-based method, 65/201 (32.3%) samples showed presumptive Aeromonas spp. colonies whereas the PCR method revealed the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring the targeted virulence genes in 51/201 (25.4%) of the tested samples. The rate of contaminated samples and the presence of pathogenic Aeromonas were significantly lower with both methods for processed than in case of raw samples. A polyphasic identification approach including biochemical and molecular techniques was applied to a selection of 34 PCR-positive presumptive Aeromonas isolates. Following fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, a total of 33 isolates (97%) could be identified to the DNA hybridization group (HG) level. The majority of these isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila HG3 (50%) and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (HG8/10) (38%). Molecular characterization of PCR amplicons obtained from these strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) fingerprinting and PCR-Amplicon Sequence Analysis (PCR-ASA) allowed classification of all strains in a known PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA type. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrate that the combined use of PCR-based virulence marker detection, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA offers a rapid, sensitive, and specific system to assess the presence and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in food samples. PMID:15193799

  12. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  13. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C.; Manaia, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies divers...

  14. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph; Raghul Subin Sasidharan; Harisree P Nair; Bhat, Sarita G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and...

  15. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  16. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial. PMID:26635240

  17. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Nihad A.M. El-Nashar

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined). Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7%) than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequentl...

  18. Determination of Microbial Diversity of Aeromonas Strains on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Typing, Phenotype, and Presence of Putative Virulence Genes ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Rosteghin, Marina; Manfrin, Amedeo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment, which represents their principal reservoir. Aeromonas spp. are commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. The primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the Aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. With the aim of ...

  19. [Detection of the first QnrS gene positivity in aquatic Aeromonas spp. isolates in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Tanrıverdi Çaycı, Yeliz; Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Çiftci, Alper; Balta, Fikri; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Altun, Soner; Söğüt Ünlü, Mehtap; Deveci, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are oxidase positive, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacilli that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. A.hydrophila, A.sobria and A.bestiarum may cause severe infections in both human and cold-blooded animals. Environmental persistance of quinolones that are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine plays an important role in the selection of resistant mutants. Plasmid-mediated resistance is one of the main mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance, and qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB genes are identified as resistance determinants. Determination of various types of qnr gene in different bacteria mainly in Enterobacteriaceae, suggests that they are widely distributed in nature. Recently, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was defined among Aeromonas species isolated from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of qnr genes among aquatic Aeromonas spp. in Turkey. A total of 45 Aeromonas strains isolated from water and fishes collected from three different geographical regions (Aegean, Mediterranean and Blacksea) in Turkey, were included in the study. The isolates were identified at species level by the use of 16S rDNA-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR). Among the isolates, 20 were identified as A.sobria, 10 as A.hydrophila, nine as A.salmonicida, four as A.bestiarum and two as A.veronii. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrS genes, were investigated by M-PCR, and sequence analysis was performed for nine qnr-positive isolates. According to the sequence analysis of the genes, qnr genes were characterized in six A.sobria, in two A.bestiarum and in one A.hydrophila isolate (9/45; 20%). When the sequence was compared with GenBank database, this gene was found as qnrS2. All qnrS-positive Aeromonas spp. isolates were ciprofloxacin-susceptible, while five of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  20. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2009-01-01

    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  2. Isolation of a lytic bacteriophage against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila from an organized equine farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Taruna; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Bera, Bidhan Ch; Singh, Jitender; Barua, Sanjay; Virmani, Nitin; K, Rajukumar; Yadav, Neeraj Kumar; Nagar, Dinesh; Singh, Raj K; Tripathi, B N

    2016-04-01

    A bacteriophage (VTCCBPA6) against a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the sewage of an organized equine breeding farm. On the basis of TEM analysis, phage belonged to family Myoviridae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of gp23 gene (encoding for major capsid protein) revealed phylogenetic resemblance to T4 like virus genus. Protein profiling by SDS-PAGE also indicated its resemblance to T4 like phage group. However, the comparison of its gp23 gene sequence with previously reported phages showed similarity with T4-like phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae instead of Aeromonas spp. Thus, to our knowledge, this report points toward the fact that a novel/evolved phage might exist in equine environment against A. hydrophila, which can be potentially used as a biocontrol agent. PMID:26748732

  3. EFFECT OF ORAL IMMUNOSTIMULANT ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND RESISTANCE TO AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN CATLA CATLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Xavier B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Andrographis paniculata in fish Catla catla, post challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fishes were divided into 2 groups, one received control diet, and another received Andrographis paniculata incorporated diet for 14 days. The heamatological parameters and serum protein level were analyzed between control and experimental. There is a significant increase in TEC (P<0.05 and TLC (P<0.01 in immune-stimulant incorporated diet (IS. Remarkable increase in Hb content and serum protein was noticed as 2.42 to 3.2g% and 0.52 to 0.98g% respectively. The immunostimulant administered Cata catla when challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila showed decrease in TEC and drastic increase in TLC (P < 0.01 and lymphocyte as 58% when compared to control.

  4. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  5. Phytoextracts-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mishra, Snehasish; Bosu, Ranadhir; Maurya, UK; Netam, Surya Prakash; Sarkar, Biplab

    2013-01-01

    Fish disease is a major stumbling block towards sustainable growth of the fisheries sector. Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a major infectious aquatic pathogen is reportedly the causative agent of ulcers, fin-rot, tail-rot, hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, and has reportedly developed resistance against many of the available antibiotics. In this context, the inhibitory function of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. hydrophila was studied to evaluate its possible application in aquaculture ...

  6. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables. PMID:16797762

  7. Isolation of enterotoxigenic, hemolytic, and antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila strains from infected fish in Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rahim; Sanyal, S C; Aziz, K M; Huq, M I; Chowdhury, A A

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish in Bangladesh were tested for enterotoxin production, hemolysin production, and any correlation between these two activities. We also tested the resistance patterns of A. hydrophila to different drugs, especially in relation to ampicillin. The A. hydrophila strains produced an enterotoxin that was related to their beta-hemolytic activities. Production of beta-hemolysin may thus be an indicator of enterotox...

  8. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Mizerska, Urszula; Fortuniak, Witold; Chojnowski, Julian; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are able to adhere to pipe materials, colonizing the surfaces and forming biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of our research was to study how the modification of materials used commonly in the water industry can reduce bacterial cell attachment. Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-crosslinking silanes with the native material. Both the native a...

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) : clinical communication

    OpenAIRE

    H. Turutoglu; S. Ercelik; M. Corlu

    2005-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey) was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin...

  10. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

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    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  11. Diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium species, and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, William A; Newman, Shelley J; Craig, Linden; Carter, Christopher; Czarra, Jane; Brown, J Paige

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female Xenopus laevis captured in Chile and transported to the United States. After approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. After euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and PCR analysis for B. dendrobatidis and Ranavirus. Clinically significant gross lesions included cutan...

  12. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue; Thomas Sawidis

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a f...

  13. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Ommi; Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Faham Khamesipour

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica) in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aer...

  14. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Rasooli; Masoud Sattari; Zohreh Ramezanpour; Javid Imanpour Namin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Isl...

  15. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Inconspicuous Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in an Immunocompromised Host

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    Kuo-Chun Liao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of serious necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila without a suggestive history of routes of pathogen invasion in a 60-year-old male. Despite prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensive surgical therapies, the patient died within 72 hours following initial presentation. Our experience suggests clinicians be highly alert to the disease when an immunocompromised patient featured fulminant soft-tissue infection in the endemic area.

  16. COMBINATION OF CONVENTIONAL AND IN-SILICO APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT ISOLATE OF AEROMONAS

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    Thungri Ghoshal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is required for various commercial applications while its production by standard process is immensely energy intense. Dairy industry on the other hand produces huge volume of effluent needing treatment before discharge. This study aims at developing an eco-friendly microbial approach for conversion of dairy industry effluent into ammonia under atmospheric pressure and 37°C temperature at laboratory scale. Thus the need for huge energy for ammonia production would be avoided. Moreover the dairy effluent would generate revenue while getting treated. This study is also an attempt to develop a bioinformatics approach for strain identification. Standard cultivation techniques and in-silico approach of analysis of draft genome was undertaken to decipher the identity of this industrially important strain. Aeromonas sp. MCC 2167 (isolated from active dairy sludge was capable of treating un-amended dairy effluent with 6% inoculum while producing ammonia as by product at a 11 folds higher rate than the modified Habers Process. Though the strain showed maximum identity with Aeromonas hydrophila, there were certain differences in terms of substrate utilization. Majority of the contigs showed identity with Aeromonas hydrophila, however there was significant difference among the two strains in terms of intergenomic distance (genome to genome distance calculator from DSMZ, inversion and frame shift (dot plot analysis as well as genome rearrangement (MAUVE analysis. As per the rapid annotation using subsystem technology analysis 53% of the contigs belong to the subsystem category while the remaining 47% do not match with existing sequences in the database. The above finding proposes bioinformatics validation of the wetlab based data pointing towards this industrially important strain to be a novel isolate of Aeromonas sp. This would lead to an energy efficient economically viable alternative for ammonia production while

  17. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  18. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon; Mst. Mousumi Khatun; Ariful Islam; Mst. Minara Khatun; Md. Ariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25) were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25), muscle (n=25) and intestine (n=25) samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW) water for enrich...

  19. Purification and Characterization of Aeromonas caviae ME-1 Xylanase V, Which Produces Exclusively Xylobiose from Xylan

    OpenAIRE

    Kubata, Bruno Kilunga; Suzuki, Tohru; Horitsu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Keiichi; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    1994-01-01

    A xylanase, which produces exclusively xylobiose from oat spelt and birch xylans, was isolated from the culture medium of Aeromonas caviae ME-1. The enzyme (xylanase V) was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction, and ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The homogeneity of the final preparation was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose gel electrofocusing. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of the x...

  20. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from charal (Chirostoma humboldtianum, Valenciannes, 1835)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luz Paniagua; Eric Monroy; Magdalena Perches; Erasmo Negrete; Octavio García; Sergio Vaca

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibilities of twenty Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of the charal (Chirostoma humboldtianum), an autochthonous Mexican fish, were analyzed. All strains produced #946;-lactamase and were resistant to penicillin and dicloxacillin, showing single peak for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions at 2000-4000 µg/mL and 500-1000 µg/ml, respectively. Ampicillin MIC distribution was bimodal with 20% resistant strai...

  1. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

  2. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf

    2016-08-16

    An increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp., which are both fish and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. Quinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates are increasingly being observed in clinical and environmental settings, and this has been attributed primarily to target gene alterations, efflux, and transferable quinolone resistance. Thirty-four Aeromonas spp., obtained from freshwater aquaculture systems, were screened for the presence of GyrA and ParC substitutions, efflux activity and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac-6'-Ib-cr. Although 44% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, the majority were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The predominant GyrA substitution was Ser-83→Val among Aeromonas veronii isolates whilst Aeromonas hydrophila isolates displayed a Ser-83→Ile substitution, and Ser-80→Ile substitutions were observed in ParC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluoro(quinolones) were determined in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Addition of PAβN had no effect on the levels of fluoro(quinolone) resistance observed for these isolates. Although no aac-6'-Ib-cr variant genes were identified, qnrB and qnrS were detected for 41% and 24% of isolates, respectively, by Southern hybridization and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Quinolone resistance in these fish-associated Aeromonas isolates was related to mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of GyrA and ParC and presence of qnrB and qnrS. The presence of qnr alleles in Aeromonas spp. isolates may facilitate high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and potentially serve as reservoirs for the dissemination of qnr genes to other aquatic microbes. PMID:27180024

  3. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

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    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  4. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

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    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  5. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  6. Influence of Limonia acidissima L. against the biofilm forming Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fresh water fishes

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    Srinivasan Ponnuraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limonia acidissima is a medicinal plant commonly used for multitude of ailments. In this context, the validation of traditionally used medicinal plant that the fruit extracts of L. acidissima exhibit antibiofilm activity against the predominant fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was assessed. Among ten isolates of Aeromonas spp, KUAH1 showed strong biofilm formation and was studied further. The methanol (LA-M and ethyl acetate (LA-EA fraction of Limonia fruit extract clearly demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.005 antibiofilm activity of 58 to 94% and 54 to 77% respectively. Furthermore, the potential of Limonia fruit extracts against some of the biofilm associated factors were tested by swimming and swarming motility assay, XTT and anti-haemolytic activity assay. Extracellular protein analysis revealed differential protein expression at molecular weight corresponding to 30-60 kDa. This is the first report on antibiofilm activity of L. acidissima fruit extracts, signifying the scope for development of complementary medicine to treat Aeromonas biofilm-associated infections.

  7. Effectiveness of ultrasound, UV-C, and photocatalysis on inactivation kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy; Pillai, Suresh D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, bactericidal effects of 24 kHz ultrasound, ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst were studied on inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila, an emerging pathogen listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) candidate contaminant list. Metabolic activity (using the AlamarBlue dye) assays were performed to assess the residual activity of the microbial cells after the disinfection treatments along with culture-based methods. A faster inactivation rate of 1.52 log min(-1) and inactivation of 7.62 log10 was observed within 5 min of ultrasound exposure. Ultrasound treated cells repaired by 1.4 log10 in contrast to 5.3 log10 repair for UV-C treated cells. Ultrasound treatment significantly lowered the reactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila in comparison to UV-C- and UV-C-induced photocatalysis. Ultrasound appeared to be an effective means of inactivating Aeromonas hydrophila and could be used as a potential disinfection method for water and wastewater reuse. PMID:26301848

  8. A culture independent method for the detection of Aeromonas sp. from water samples

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    Fadua Latif-Eugenín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is present in a wide variety of water environments and is recognised as potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Members of this genus are often confused with Vibrio when using automated, commercial identification systems that are culture-dependent. This study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for Aeromonas that is culture- independent and that targets the glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat gene, which is specific for this genus. The GCAT-PCR was 100% specific in artificially inoculated water samples, with a detection limit that ranged from 2.5 to 25 cfu/mL. The success at detecting this pathogen in 86 water samples using the GCAT-PCR method was identical to the conventional culturing method when a pre-enrichment step was carried out, yielding 83.7% positive samples. On the other hand, without a pre-enrichment step, only 77.9% of the samples were positive by culturing and only 15.1% with the GCATPCR. However, 83.7% positive samples were obtained for the GCAT-PCR when the water volume for the DNA extraction was increased from 400 μL to 4 mL. The proposed molecular method is much faster (5 or 29 h than the culturing method (24 or 48 h whether performed directly or after a pre-enrichment step and it will enable the fast detection of Aeromonas in water samples helping to prevent a possible transmission to humans.

  9. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK METANOL RUMPUT LAUT (Euchema spinosum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Y Yunus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rumput laut secara tradisional telah lama dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan makanan, kosmetik dan obat-obatan, karena kaya akan mineral, elemen makro dan elemen  mikro lainnya, disamping itu rumput laut juga berfungsi sebagai bahan antimikroba seperti penyakit bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila yang sering menginfeksi ikan pada budidaya air tawar sehingga banyak merugikan petani. Oleh karena itu, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut yang efektif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsentrasi ekstrak metanol rumput laut Eucheuma spinosum yang tepat untuk menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophyla. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen, Pertama menggunakan Uji MIC  konsentrasi sebagai berikut : 25%; 12,5%; 6,25%; 3,125%; 1,56%; 0,78%; 0,39%; 0,195%; 0,098%; 0,049%; 0,025%; dan 0,0125%. Kedua menggunakan Uji Cakram konsentrasi 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, dan 0%  sebagai kontrol. Hasil uji MIC setelah dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif sangat rendah yaitu sebesar 0,049%, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi tersebut menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Aeromnas hydrophila. Pada hasil uji cakram kemampuan ekstrak rumput laut pada konsentrasi 3%, 6% dan 9% dalam menghambat bakteri Aeromons hydrophila bersifat bakteriostatik, sedangkan pada konsentrasi 12% bersifat bakteriosidal.  Kata Kunci : Eucheuma spinosum, Polifenol, Aeromonas hydrophila

  10. Detection of conjugation related type four secretion machinery in Aeromonas culicicola.

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    Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. Aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. Our previous study discovered that A. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we designated as pAc3249A, pAc3249B and pAc3249C. We investigated and report here the existence and genetic organization of a Conjugal Type IV Secretion System (TFSS in pAc3249A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDING: The complete operon is 11,061 bp in length and has G+C content of 47.20% code for 12 ORFs. The gene order and orientation were similar to those found in other bacteria with some differences. We have designated this system as AcTra for Aeromonas culicicola transfer system. BLAST results of ORFs and phylogenetic analysis showed significant similarity towards the respective proteins of the IncI2 plasmid R721 of E. coli. Other bioinformatics studies have been performed to predict conserved motifs/domains, signal peptides, transmembrane helices, etc. of the ORFs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BLAST results of ORFs and phylogenetic analysis showed significant similarity towards the respective proteins of the IncI2 plasmid R721 of E. coli.

  11. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3.9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO32, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb, Chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to >5 120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  12. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species.   Materials and Methods: Here, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs and explored the antibacterial activity of CuO NPs preparation. Results: Single crystalline nanoparticles of copper oxide having almost uniform particle size of 5-6 nm has been synthesized by a facile and versatile route. XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. The technique employed is free from toxic solvents, organics and amines, is based on a simple reaction of copper sulfate and de-ionized water (DI, and their bactericidal effects against of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966T bacteria were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC with liquid culture for all of the Aeromonas hydrophila culture Medias was done. Conclusion: Present study confirms that Copper oxide nanoparticles have great promise as antimicrobial agent against Aeromonas hydrophila

  14. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

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    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p<0.001, with concentrations that ranged from1 to 3.8 x104CFU/100ml (median=4.9x103CFU/100ml, respectively, from 1 to 6.9x102CFU/100 ml (median =58CFU/100 ml . The main species identified were A. hydrophila (22%, A. caviae (10.2%, A. veronii (6% and A. sobria(6% (using API 20NE galeries. Although the etiology was reported in 15.9%, chlorinated water quality was much betterthan that of untreated sources (χ 2=26.56; GL=1; p<0.001, with Odd.Ratio =0.12 (0.04 to 0.31; CI=95%. Comparativeevaluation of contamination of studied ecosystems showed a higher presence of these organisms in surface water than ingroundwater (χ 2=8.71; GL=1; p<0.003, Odd.Ratio=37 (1.4 to 8.9; CI=95%, with an increased risk of infectiontransmission through ingestion or contact. Pearson coefficient for the presence in groundwater of fecal pollutionindicators (coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci

  15. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  16. Mutation in the S-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxS) gene involved in quorum sensing affects biofilm formation and virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effec...

  17. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  18. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  19. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  20. Temperate bacteriophage ΦO18P from an Aeromonas media isolate: Characterization and complete genome sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 74 Aeromonas isolates from surface water of three ponds in Bielefeld, Germany was screened for prophage induction after UV irradiation. The phage ΦO18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. ΦO18P belongs to the Myoviridae phage family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the double stranded DNA genome of bacteriophage ΦO18P consists of 33,985 bp. The genome has 5' protruding cohesive ends of 16 bases. On the ΦO18P genome 46 open reading frames (orfs) were identified which are organized in the modules integration and regulation, replication, head, packaging, tail and lysis. Additionally the phage DNA includes a methylase gene. Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139

  1. Caracterização de Aeromonas Spp. Isoladas de Águas Não Tratadas para Consumo Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Maria Ermelinda de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    O género Aeromonas forma uma unidade monofilética dentro do sub-grupo gama -3 das Proteobactérias. Bactérias do grupo das Aeromonas surgem em diversos ambientes aquáticos. Está também comprovada a presença de Aeromonas spp. em águas para consumo humano, tratadas e não tratadas. Os organismos deste grupo são frequentemente referidos como “patogénicos emergentes” sendo pesquisados obrigatóriamente no Canadá, Itália e Holanda. Assim, pretende-se com este estudo, fazer uma avaliação da presença d...

  2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.;

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and five isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four genes. The chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular A-layer protein (AP), the serine protease (Sprot......), the glycerophospholipid:cholestrol acetyltransferase protein (GCAT), and the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). All the atypical A. salmonicida isolates could be assigned to 4 PCR groups. Group 1 comprised 45 strains which rested positive for PCR amplification, using the 16S rDNA, GCAT2, Sprot2, and AP primer......-sets only. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for...

  3. Modification of the bile salts-Irgasan-brilliant green agar for enumeration of Aeromonas species from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Notebaert, E; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J

    2000-06-15

    The present study evaluated the productivity of BIBG medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. from food and describes a modification of the BIBG medium (mBIBG) (increased pH (8.7), replacement of xylose by soluble starch as a carbon source, decreased concentration of bile salts) to increase its selectivity and electivity. Using the mBIBG medium, growth of the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae (9/10) was suppressed except for Citrobacter freundii. The mBIBG medium supported growth of Pseudomonas species but a clear distinction between Aeromonas and Pseudomonas colonies could be made. Interpretation of the mBIBG medium should be performed after 24 h of incubation. It was noted that three of the 27 Aeromonas strains tested did not develop on the mBIBG medium. The ability or inability to grow on a selective medium is strain-dependent. Enumeration of Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila LMG 3771, A. caviae LMG 3775, A. veronii biovar veronii LMG 9075, A. veronii biovar sobria LMG 13071) from artificially contaminated foods (shrimp, minced meat (beef/pork), precut leek, and shredded carrots) confirmed that the mBIBG medium is suitable for quantitative recovery of aeromonads (ca. 10(2)-10(7) cfu/g) in the presence of a high background flora (10(5)-10(6) cfu/g). Screening of naturally contaminated foods (vegetables, seafood, meat) for the presence of Aeromonas resulted in three out of 14 food samples showing presumptive Aeromonas colonies on mBIBG. PMID:10868682

  4. Comparison of ELISA and PCR vis-à-vis cultural methods for detecting Aeromonas spp. in foods of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Agarwal, R K; Bist, B

    2006-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the best method of the most commonly used methods for detection of aeromonads in foods of animal origin. With this objective an OMP based indirect plate ELISA and a duplex-PCR using primers targeting aerolysin gene and 16S rRNA gene and yielding amplicons of 252 bp and 599 bp, respectively, were standardized. The standardized protocols and the conventional cultural method were then compared for their respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting aeromonads from chicken and milk samples. Both the standardized assays were found to be highly specific for Aeromonas. The efficiency of the standardized indirect-ELISA and duplex-PCR protocols was assessed by artificial inoculation studies with varying concentrations of Aeromonas cells inoculated in chicken and milk samples followed by enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water supplemented with 10 mg/ml cephalothin (APW-C) for 12 h. The results revealed that indirect-ELISA was able to detect a minimum of 10(3) cells/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples, respectively. Whereas, duplex-PCR and cultural method were able to detect as low as 1 cell/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples. The developed assays were also tested for their efficiency to detect Aeromonas spp. in naturally contaminated milk and chicken samples. Out of a total 50 milk samples screened for presence of Aeromonas by the three methods viz., indirect-ELISA, duplex-PCR and cultural method only 1 (2%) turned out to be positive showing positive results by all three methods. Similarly, 50 samples of chicken were tested by all three methods. Three samples (6%) turned out to be positive and here again by all the three methods. PMID:16216375

  5. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-01-15

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies diversity were assessed based on the 16S rRNA, cpn60 and gyrB genes sequence analysis. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qnrVC; qepA; oqxAB; aac(6′)-Ib-cr; blaOXA; incU) were analyzed in function of the origin and taxonomic group. Most isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila (50% and 41%, respectively). The quinolone and the beta-lactamase resistance genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA, including gene blaOXA-101, identified for the first time in Aeromonas spp., were detected in 58% and 56% of the isolates, respectively, with identical prevalence in HE and UWTP wastewater. In contrast, the gene qnrS2 was observed mainly in isolates from the UWTP (51%) and rarely in HE isolates (3%), suggesting that its origin is not the clinical setting. Bacterial groups and genes that allow the identification of major routes of antibiotic resistance dissemination are valuable tools to control this problem. In this study, it was concluded that members of the genus Aeromonas harboring the genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA are relevant tracers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater habitats, while those yielding the gene qnrS2 allow the traceability from non-clinical sources. PMID:26546762

  6. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Homogentisate Pathway Responsible for Pyomelanin Production, the Major Melanin Constituents in Aeromonas media WS

    OpenAIRE

    He Wang; Yunqian Qiao; Baozhong Chai; Chenxi Qiu; Xiangdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), ty...

  7. DETECTED OF AERO GENE IN AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATES FROM SHRIMP AND PEELED SHRIMP SAMPLES IN LOCAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Kareem Niamah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 62 isolates were isolated from 33 samples of shrimp and peeled shrimp in three local markets in Basrah city. A 36 isolates were identified to be Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria depending on morphological, microscopic examinations and ten biochemical tests. 83.33% (30 isolates from isolates produced ß-haemolysis on tryptone soy agar with 5% sheep blood. Aero gene detection by polymerase chain reaction technique, Theband appearance in the amplified gene of bacteria shows the molecular weight of aerolysin (424 bp. A 100% (36 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates were contained Aero gene.

  8. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zeng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of more than two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours, abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14% and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–4.8. The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0–3.3 and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.3. Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30°C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking water.Conclusion: This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking water sources.

  9. Diabetic Foot Due to Aeromonas Hydrophila and Pseudomonas Oryzihabitans: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Talan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot infections are the most common cause of amputations in diabetic patients. The main predisposing reasons for the development of foot ulcers and subsequent infection in diabetic patients are sensory neuropathy, vascular insufficiency and immune system abnormalities due to hyperglycemia. Limb-threatening infections are often polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, enterococci and facultative gram-negative bacilli are the most common pathogens. Here, we present two cases of diabetic foot infected by extremely rare microorganisms: Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas (Flavimonas oryzihabitans. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 100-102

  10. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  11. Prianjanje bakterije Aeromonas hydrophila na staklene površine modificirane pomoću organosilana

    OpenAIRE

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Svrha je ovoga rada bila ispitati svojstvo prianjanja bakterije Aeromonas hydrophila na staklene površine modificirane pomoću silana s četiri vrste reaktivnih skupina, i to: (3-glicidoksipropil) dietoksilana, (3-N,N-dimetil-3-N-n-heksadecilaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida, (3-N,N,N-trietanolaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida i (3-N-N-dimetil-3-N-n-oktilaminopropil) trimetoksisilan klorida. U radu je korišten soj A. hydrophila LOCK0968, izoliran iz neklorirane vode uzorkovane iz distribu...

  12. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and plasmid carrying in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from two estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R; Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, C; Mondaca, M A; Zemelman, R

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and the presence of plasmids was investigated in eleven strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from samples of sea water and these strains isolated from Aulacomya ater. Transference of resistance to Escherichia coli was attempted by conjugation and transformation experiments. The strains showed multiple resistance toward beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents. Five strains harboured plasmids with molecular weights below 5.7 MD. It was not possible to relate the resistance of the strains with the presence of their plasmids. PMID:1593967

  13. Characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liezl; Chenia, Hafizah Y

    2007-03-20

    An increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst Aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. This can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 Aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. The plasmid content of each isolate was examined using the alkaline lysis protocol. Tet determinant type was determined by amplification using two degenerate primer sets and subsequent HaeIII restriction. The presence of integrons was determined by PCR amplification of three integrase genes, as well as gene cassettes, and the qacEDelta1-sulI region. Thirty-seven Aeromonas spp. isolates were differentiated into six species by aroA PCR-RFLP, i.e., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. encheleia, A. ichtiosoma, A. salmonicida, and A. media. High levels of resistance to tetracycline (78.3%), amoxicillin (89.2%), and augmentin (86.5%) were observed. Decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was observed for 67.6% of isolates. Although 45.9% of isolates displayed nalidixic acid resistance, majority of isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The MAR index ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, with majority of isolates indicating high-risk contamination originating from humans or animals where antibiotics are often used. Plasmids were detected in 21 isolates, with 14 of the isolates displaying multiple plasmid profiles. Single and multiple class A family Tet determinants were observed in 27% and 48.7% of isolates, respectively, with Tet A being the most prevalent Tet determinant type. Class 1 integron and related structures were amplified and carried different combinations of the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes ant(3'')Ia, aac(6')Ia, dhfr1, oxa2a and/or pse1. Class 2 integrons were also amplified, but the

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-[beta]-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.; Toney, J.H.; Fitzgerald, P.M.D. (Merck)

    2010-07-20

    The CphA metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 {angstrom}. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. A data set extending to 1.8 {angstrom} has been measured.

  15. Molecular Cloning of the Tryptophan Operon from an Aeromonas hydrophila Freshwater Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Anguita, Juan; Rivero, Octavio; Naharro, Germán

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila F9 was constructed by using pBR322 as a vector. From that, two DNA fragments (5.8 and 11.6 kb) were isolated containing genetic information to complement trpA and trpB defects (5.8-kb fragment) and to complement trpA, trpB, trpC, trpD, and trpE defects (11.6-kb fragment) in Escherichia coli mutants. Evidence of the existence of a secondary promoter is given.

  16. Purification and Properties of β-1, 4-Xylanase from Aeromonas caviae W-61

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Dung Nguyen; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Izaki, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae W-61, which was isolated from water samples at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, produced β-1, 4-xylanase (1,4-β-d-xylan xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) extracellularly. The xylanase was purified to homogeneity by using DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sephadex C-50, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 22,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme...

  17. INHIBITION OF Aeromonas hydrophila BY PROBIOTIC STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF Pterophyllum scalare

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Monroy-Dosta; T. Castro-Barrera; F. J. Fernández-Perrino; L. Mayorga-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    The effect of three dierent probiotic strains of Bacillus (B1, B2 and B3) isolated from the digestive tract of Pterophyllum scalare against Aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated. All the sh that where fed with the dierent probiotic strains obtained higher resistance to the pathogen inoculation since they did not developed any signs of illness nor lesions and they stayed healthy until the end of the experiment, with an observed survival of 100 %. On the other hand, the sh where the probiotic bact...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Indu; A.A.M. Hatha; C. Abirosh; U. Harsha; G Vivekanandan

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium cepa (onion) and Piper nigrum (pepper) has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against...

  19. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming units (CFU) of the mutants, no fish die...

  20. Construction, expression and characterization of eleven putative flagellar apparatus genes of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and is responsible for many human and fish diseases. The genome sequence of A. hydrophila is available in the GenBank database. Our ultimate goal is to develop the whole genome protein arrays of A. hydrophila. In this study, we ...

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF SIX VIRULENCE FACTORS IN AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM US DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A PCR IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys of finished drinking water conducted by the U.S. EPA during 2000-2001, revealed 7 out of 16 water utilities encompassing four states, were contaminated with Aeromonas species. A Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) based genetic characterization determined the presence of six...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome Analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain YL17, Isolated from a Compost Pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Roberts, Richard J; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we announce the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila strain YL17. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing was used to generate the complete genome sequence and the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of this environmental isolate. A total of five unique DNA methyltransferase recognition motifs were reported here. PMID:26941143

  3. Simultaneous Detection of Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnnare and Aeromonas Hydrophila by Multiplex-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila are three major bacterial pathogens of fish that cause diseases with significant economic impact on the aquaculture industry world-wide. Rapid detection of multiple infections with these bacteria in the same host is important f...

  4. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  5. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulence of three 2009 West Alabama isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila in the presence or absence of extracellular products (ECP) from overnight bacterial culture to channel catfish fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3g) was investigated by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal ...

  6. An in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative motile bacillus widely distributed in aquatic environments, is a causative agent of motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS). Although usually considered as a secondary pathogen associated with disease outbreaks, A. hydrophila could also become a primary pathogen, cau...

  7. Vaccination of channel catfish with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila provides protection against infection by the pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium, is one of the economically-important pathogens in modern aquaculture. Among various traits, extracellular products (ECP) secreted by the bacterium are considered to be essential factors for virulence. Whether vaccination with the ECP could produce imm...

  8. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...

  9. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  10. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  11. Potential Role of Specific Antibodies as Important Vaccine Induced Protective Mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Villumsen, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Inger; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil...

  12. Potential role of specific antibodies in vaccine-induced protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Dalsgaard, Inger; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has now been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic precautions against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid fish aquaculture. Ever since the introduction of...

  13. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.;

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furun...

  14. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A; Shoemaker, Craig; Newton, Joseph C; Xu, De-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by an emergent, high virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using a waterborne challenge method, and the distribution of vAh over a time course was detected and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 77.8% of fish died within 48 h post challenge with mean day to death of 1.5 days. At 2 h post challenge, vAh (inferred from genomic DNA copies or genome equivalents) was detected in all external and internal tissues sampled. Gill had the highest vAh cells at 1 h post challenge. Spleen harbored the most vAh cells among internal organs at 4 h post challenge. The tissues/organs with most vAh cells detected at 8 h post challenge were adipose fin, blood, intestine, kidney and skin, while liver showed the highest vAh cells at 24 h post challenge. These results suggest that vAh was able to rapidly proliferate and spread, following wound infection, through the fish blood circulation system and cause mortality within 8-24 h. PMID:27044300

  15. Role of MshQ in MSHA pili biosynthesis and biofilm formation of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y X; Yan, Q P; Mao, X X; Chen, Z; Su, Y Q

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation of pathogen bacterium is currently one of the most widely studied topics; however, little is known regarding pathogen bacteria biofilms in aquaculture. Aeromonas hydrophila is a representative species of the genus Aeromonas, which has been recognized as a common pathogen, is associated with many diseases in aquatic animals, and causes significant mortality. The objectives of this study are i) to confirm that A. hydrophila can form biofilms on abiotic substrates and construct a biofilm growth curve for this bacterium; ii) to identify the genes that play crucial roles in A. hydrophila biofilm formation. The biofilm growth curve of A. hydrophila was constructed using a crystal violet assay, which showed that biofilm formation for this bacterium is a dynamic process. Next, a mutant library of pathogenic A. hydrophila B11 was constructed using the mini-Tn10 transposon mutagenesis system. A total of 861 mutants were screened, and 5 mutants were stably deficient in biofilm formation. Molecular analysis of the mutant B112 revealed that the open reading frame that encodes the protein MshQ was disrupted. Comparison of biological characteristics including growth, motility, and adhesion between the mutant B112 and the wild-type strain B11 suggested that MshQ is necessary for mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pilus biosynthesis of A. hydrophila, and that these pili play crucial roles in A.hydrophila adherence to a solid surface during the early stages of biofilm formation. PMID:25366789

  16. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Klena, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28]) in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results We identified 44 isolates (44%) as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae); 27 isolates (27%) as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23%) as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0%) as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer), cytolytic enterotoxin (act), and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast) were detected in 45 (87%), 4 (7.7%), and 9 (17%) of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt) was not detected. Conclusion The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae), and genes coding for toxin production are common among them. PMID:25216211

  17. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  18. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  19. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis. PMID:26889703

  20. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  1. In Vitro Phytochemical And Antibacterial Activity Test On Temu Putih Extract Curcuma Zedoaria Against Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Galang Prakosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium is one of the bacteria which frequently attack fresh water aquaculture and cause the farmer experience terrible loss. In order to cope with the diseases caused by A. hydrophila bacteria the usage of natural antibacteria was more recommended as it does not give negative effects to the environment. One natural antibacteria which can be used against A. hydrophila is from the white turmeric extract Curcuma zedoaria. The aim of this study is to know the active compound content in white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria to determine the most effective solvent and the effective maceration duration to extract Curcuma zedoaria as antibacteria against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion method. The study used descriptive and experimental method with treatments to 3 different solvents ethanol ethyl acetate and chloroform and 3 repetitions. The data acquired from the results of the study were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that Curcuma zedoaria extract from the phytochemical test contained saponins alkaloid and flavonoid. The best solvent was ethyl acetate with maceration for 2x24 hours and inhibition area width 11.34 mm.

  2. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  3. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35∘C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

  4. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  5. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  6. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase with a unique iterative-alternative-optional mechanism catalyzes amonabactin synthesis in Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Chevalier, Mickael; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the exploration of data generated by genome sequencing, a bioinformatics approach has been chosen to identify the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophores produced by Aeromonas species. The amonabactins, considered as a virulence factor, represent a family of four variants of catechol peptidic siderophores containing Dhb, Lys, Gly, and an aromatic residue either Trp or Phe in a D-configuration. The synthesis operon is constituted of seven genes named amoCEBFAGH and is iron-regulated. The cluster includes genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and incorporation of the Dhb monomer, and genes encoding specific nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which are responsible for the building of the peptidic moiety. The amonabactin assembly line displays a still so far not described atypical mode of synthesis that is iterative, alternative, and optional. A disruption mutant in the adenylation domain of AmoG was unable to synthesize any amonabactin and to grow in iron stress conditions while a deletion of amoH resulted in the production of only two over the four forms. The amo cluster is widespread among most of the Aeromonas species, only few species produces the enterobactin siderophore. PMID:27531515

  7. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.;

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the...... biochemical identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. Five laboratories examined 25 isolates of Aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographical locations including the reference strains of Aer. salmonicida subsp, salmonicida (NCMB 1102) and...... reactions. After standardization, improvement was obtained with the identification; however, disagreement was still observed between the different laboratories. These findings demonstrate the difficulties involved in a proper identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida and also that data presented in the...

  8. Distribution and phenotypic and genotypic detection of a metallo-β-lactamase, CphA, among bacteraemic Aeromonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Chin-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chiu, Yen-Cheng; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the distribution of cphA-related genes (cphA) encoding a CphA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among 51 consecutive Aeromonas blood isolates and to compare different phenotypic methods for detecting CphA. The presence of cphA was detected by PCR. Four phenotypic methods, the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test, imipenem-EDTA MBL Etest, agar dilution test and modified Hodge test (MHT), were used to detect imipenem susceptibility and MBL production. The results showed that 35 (69%) blood isolates had cphA. All (100%) of 16 Aeromonas aquariorum isolates and 12 Aeromonas veronii isolates, and 4 (80%) of 5 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates, carried cphA, but none of 15 Aeromonas caviae isolates did. With the standard inocula, irrespective of the presence or absence of cphA, all but one (50, 98%) isolates were susceptible to imipenem tested by disc diffusion, Etest and agar dilution (10(4) c.f.u. spot inocula), and did not exhibit MBL production by the imipenem-EDTA combined disc test and MBL Etest. By the agar dilution test using large inocula (10(7) c.f.u.), 34 (97%) of 35 cphA(+) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≥16 µg ml(-1), higher than the susceptible breakpoint (4 µg ml(-1)), and demonstrated positive results for the MHT, while one cphA(+) and all 17 cphA(-) isolates had imipenem MICs of ≤4 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, the distribution of cphA among aeromonads is species-specific, found in A. aquariorum, A. veronii and A. hydrophila, and the MHT may be a phenotypic screening test for CphA production. PMID:22322339

  9. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila = Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ±27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes por caixa. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectadoscom 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus écaracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinasplasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected byAeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 water tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the water tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoidedstressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 cfu of A. hydrophila fish-1, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24h before experimental infection and 24h after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus ischaracterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and monocytosis.

  10. Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Renibacterium salmoninarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonici...

  11. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M. Julia

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34melT belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The mos...

  12. The disulfide bond in the Aeromonas hydrophila lipase/acyltransferase stabilizes the structure but is not required for secretion or activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumlik, M J; van der Goot, F. G.; Wong, K R; Buckley, J T

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. secrete an unusual 35-kDa lipase that shares several properties with mammalian lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The Aeromonas hydrophila lipase contains two cysteine residues that form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Here we show that changing either of the cysteines to serine does not reduce enzymatic activity, indicating that the disulfide bond is not required for correct folding. However, when either of the cysteines is replaced, the enzyme is more readil...

  13. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  14. Aeromonas proteolyrica bacteria in aerospace environments. [possible genetic alterations and effects on man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight studies on Aeromonas proteolytica are reported to investigate the possibility of genetic alterations resulting in increased proteolysis in spacecraft environments. This organism may be present on human tissue and could pose medical problems if its endopeptidase and a hemolysin were to be produced in ususually high quantities or altered in such a way as to be more effective in their activities. Considered are: (1) Development of a nutrative holding medium for suspension of organisms; (2) the establishment of baseline information for the standardization of the assay for endopeptidase levels and hemolytic titers; (3) formulation of a method by which intracutaneous hemorrhage could be quantitated in guinea pig tissue; and (4) the responses of these organisms to parameters of spaceflight and experimentation.

  15. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phasin PhaPAh from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaPAh from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å

  16. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  17. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  18. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. PMID:26588876

  20. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Júnior O.D.; Amaral L.A.; Nader Filho A; Schocken-Iturrino R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  1. A novel method for the diagnosis of drowning by detection of Aeromonas sobria with PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Miwako; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Fukui, Kenji; Abe, Shuntaro; Sakai, Kentaro; Maebashi, Kyoko; Ochiai, Eriko; Nakamura, Mihoko

    2009-11-01

    The acid digestion method has been widely used for the diagnosis of death by drowning, but it is not always sensitive. However, there has been no definitive method to replace acid digestion until now. We speculate that bacteria are more useful markers than plankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. In this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific DNA fragments of Aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using PCR. The DNA fragments of the bacterium were detected from 27 of 32 cases with first round PCR or nested-PCR. The remaining 5 cases in which bacterial DNA was not detected had longer storage periods for the blood samples and shorter time intervals from drowning to death. These results indicate that the present method can be applied to the diagnosis of death by drowning. PMID:19766051

  2. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  3. Survival of Fish-Pathogenic Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila under Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Cai, Wenlong; Tao, Zhen; Arias, Cova R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The survival of Aeromonas hydrophila under low-nutrient conditions was investigated in this study. The behavior of three strains isolated from Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (China) and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus (USA) was compared when cells were starved at different temperatures (4, 15, 25, and 35°C) over a 4-week period. Temperature played a major role in cell survival, and cell viability decreased rapidly at 4°C. Conversely, cells stored at 15°C did not lose viability over time. Warmer temperatures (25°C and 35°C) decreased cell numbers by approximately one order of magnitude. Ultrastructural changes in cell morphology were observed in starved cells. Our data confirm that A. hydrophila can persist in the aquatic environment for extended periods, but survival is strongly influenced by temperature. Received December 13, 2013; accepted March 22, 2014. PMID:25229491

  4. Effect of starvation on survival and virulence expression of Aeromonas hydrophila from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Anna; Orlandi, Chiara; Barbieri, Federica; Sabatini, Luigia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sisti, Davide; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Magnani, Mauro; Citterio, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an aquatic bacterium responsible for several human illnesses. The aim of this work was to investigate the survival ability and virulence expression of two strains from different sources (fish, strain 87 and surface water, strain LS) maintained in a seawater microcosm. The strains were analyzed for the total and viable bacterial counts, adhesion ability to Hep-2 cells and aerA gene expression by qPCR throughout the experiment (35 days). Both strains reached a putative VBNC state and lost adhesive properties but exhibited a different behavior in the expression of aerA. This could be due to the different origin of the two strains; the former adapted to a habitat rich of nutrient and the latter already used to survive in a more hostile environment. Moreover, our results indicate that the quantitative determination of aerA mRNA can be a useful indicator of virulence expression under stress conditions. PMID:25533849

  5. Culture-independent methodologies to assess diversity and dynamics of Aeromonas communities

    OpenAIRE

    Calhau, Vera Mónica Tavares Vinhas

    2008-01-01

    As Aeromonas são bactérias autóctones em ambientes aquáticos e constituem um grave problema em sistemas de aquacultura devido à sua capacidade de provocar doença em peixes. Estas bactérias são actualmente consideradas patogéneos emergentes em humanos. Os surtos de doença podem estar associados à introdução de estirpes virulentas que evoluíram a partir de outros nichos ou da aquisição de determinantes de virulência do mesmo nicho, ou ainda como resultado de um desequilíbrio n...

  6. Complexity of β-lactamases among clinical Aeromonas isolates and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Chi-Jung

    2012-12-01

    Aeromonas species, aquatic Gram-negative bacilli, distributed globally and ubiquitously in the natural environment, may be implicated in a variety of human diseases. They can produce various β-lactamases which confer resistance to a broad spectrum of β-lactams, and therefore in vitro susceptibility testing must be used to guide antimicrobial therapy. However, conventional in vitro susceptibility tests may sometimes fail to detect these β-lactamases, and hence raise a therapeutic challenge. In this review article, two chromosomally mediated β-lactamases (i.e., AmpC β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases) and acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamases in aeromonads are reviewed, and the clinical implications of the complexity of β-lactamases are discussed. PMID:23031536

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  8. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) by Aeromonas hydrophila and Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘远征; 刘力平; 陈国强

    2003-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A.hydrophila) 4AK4 produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) with an almost constant 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) content of 10%-15% from lauric acid and/or soybean oil.Both A.hydrophila 4AK4 and recombinant Escherichia coli (E.coli) JMU193 (pBH32) produced PHBHHx with controllable 3HHx content when fed lauric acid and another co-substrate.With glucose or gluconate as the co-substrate, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by A.hydrophila 4AK4 was reduced slightly from 12% to 9%.However, the 3HHx content in the copolyester produced by E.coli JMU193 (pBH32) was significantly reduced from 9% to 2% with fructose as the co-substrate.These results show that regulation of 3HHx content in PHBHHx can be achieved using genetically engineered E.coli.

  9. Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziga, Dariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Maksylewicz, Anna; Czaja-Prokop, Urszula; Barylski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. PMID:26927173

  10. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball

  11. Isolation of bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and therapeutic effects of medicinal plants on its invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tareq-Uz-Zaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterial pathogen, was isolated form Pangasius hypophthalmus. For pathogenicity test, different doses were injected intramuscularly in Barbonymus gonionotus. Crude extracts were prepared from various parts Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, and Callotropis gigentia and applied to B. gonionotus for 7 days. Bath treatment was done up to their tolerance level and well ventilation was confirmed for aeration and 50% water was exchanged daily. Minimum inhibitory dose was detected as 7 mg/ml. High inhibitory effect was observed in case of A. indica and mixed extract of A. indica and C. gigentia. Both A. indica and C. gigentia showed the best result with 90-95% recovery of infected fish at a dose of 7 mg/l. C. zedoaria showed moderate to weak effect with 50-60% recovery at the same dose. The present study showed that medicinal plants would be an effective control measure against A. hydrophila.

  12. Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhariry, Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of Aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. Reference strain ATCC 7966 and biofilm strains TUB19, TUB20, and TUB21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). Attachment strength (S(R)) of these strains to the vegetable surface was also measured in the same time intervals. The ATCC 7966 and TUB19 had high ability to form biofilm in vitro compared with TUB20 and TUB21 in full strength tryptone soy broth or under starvation conditions in diluted tryptone soy broth (1:20, v/v). Cell surface hydrophobicity of the biofilm strains was lower than that of the reference strain. The biofilm of all tested strains on polystyrene surfaces differed from that on the vegetable surfaces. All strains studied rapidly attached to both green leafy vegetables (after 1 h). S(R) and cell populations (loosely and strongly attached cells) significantly (p 0.05) differences in cell populations were recorded after 4 and 24 h. The highest S(R) and cell population (log CFU cm⁻²) were recorded by TUB19. In conclusion, the use of A. hydrophila strains isolated from environmental biofilm samples may be more useful for understanding biofilm formation on green-leafy vegetables than the reference or laboratory strains. The attachment of A. hydrophila was significantly affected by the surfaces of green-leafy vegetables. Further studies are required to improve our understanding of the interaction between human microbial pathogens and surfaces of raw vegetables. PMID:21034267

  13. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  14. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Mizerska, Urszula; Fortuniak, Witold; Chojnowski, Julian; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    Disease-causing bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are able to adhere to pipe materials, colonizing the surfaces and forming biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of our research was to study how the modification of materials used commonly in the water industry can reduce bacterial cell attachment. Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-crosslinking silanes with the native material. Both the native and modified surfaces were tested using the bacterial strain Aeromonas hydrophila, which was isolated from the Polish water distribution system. The surface tension of both the native and modified surfaces was measured. To determine cell viability and bacterial adhesion two methods were used, namely plate count and luminometry. Results were expressed in colony-forming units (c.f.u.) and in relative light units (RLU) per cm(2). Almost all the chemically modified surfaces exhibited higher anti-adhesive and anti-microbial properties in comparison to the native surfaces. Among the modifying agents examined, poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(N,N-dimethyl-N-n-octylammoniopropyl chloride) methylsiloxane)] terminated with hydroxydimethylsilyl groups (20 %) in silicone elastomer gave the most desirable results. The surface tension of this modifier, was comparable to the non-polar native surface. However, almost half of this value was due to the result of polar forces. In this case, in an adhesion analysis, only 1 RLU cm(-2) and less than 1 c.f.u. cm(-2) were noted. For the native gumosil, the results were 9,375 RLU cm(-2) and 2.5 × 10(8) c.f.u. cm(-2), respectively. The antibacterial activity of active organo-silanes was associated only with the carrier surface because no antibacterial compounds were detected in liquid culture media, in concentrations that were able to inhibit cell growth. PMID:23397109

  15. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  16. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Belém-Costa; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  17. Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, J. M.; Trust, T. J.; Brooks, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Two-polymer aqueous-phase systems in which partitioning of biological matter between the phases occurs according to surface properties such as hydrophobicity, charge, and lipid composition are used to compare the surface properties of strains of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. The differential ability of strains to produce a surface protein array crucial to their virulence, the A layer, and to produce smooth lipopolysaccharide is found to be important in the partitioning behavior of Aeromonas salmonicida. The presence of the A layer is shown to decrease the surface hydrophilicity of the pathogen, and to increase specifically its surface affinity for fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol. The method has application to the analysis of surface properties crucial to bacterial virulence, and to the selection of strains and mutants with specific surface characteristics.

  18. Molecular phylogenetics and temporal diversification in the genus Aeromonas based on the sequences of five housekeeping genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorén, J. Gaspar; Farfán, Maribel; Fusté, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed to estimate both the relative and absolute rates of speciation and extinction within clades based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of evolutionary relationships, according to an underlying model of diversification. However, the macroevolutionary models established for eukaryotes have scarcely been used with prokaryotes. We have investigated the rate and pattern of cladogenesis in the genus Aeromonas (γ-Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteria) u...

  19. Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech: a Novel Model for Digestive Tract Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. Infections by Aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. The associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of H. medicinalis. Early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of...

  20. Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Dalam Mengendalikan Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwarsiella tarda dan Jamur Saprolegnia sp. Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lihardo

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to know antimicrobial potential of extract of sambiloto’s Leaf (Andrographis paniculata) against bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Saprolegnia sp. and to know the extract toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Sambiloto’s leaf was extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and n-Hexane. Antimicrobial activity test was done using diffusion discs method to know the compunds contained in the extract phytochemical test was conducted. The chemical compound...

  1. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. achromogenes, subsp, masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteases. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather...

  2. Determination of microbial diversity of Aeromonas strains on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phenotype, and presence of putative virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Rosteghin, Marina; Manfrin, Amedeo; Patarnello, Tomaso; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    The genus Aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment, which represents their principal reservoir. Aeromonas spp. are commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. The primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the Aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. With the aim of clarifying taxonomic relationships among the strains and phenotypes, a multilocus sequencing approach was developed and applied to characterize 23 type and reference strains of Aeromonas spp. and a collection of 77 field strains isolated from fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. All strains were also screened for putative determinants of virulence by PCR (ast, ahh1, act, asa1, eno, ascV, and aexT) and the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). In addition, the phenotypic fingerprinting obtained from 29 biochemical tests was submitted to the nonparametric combination (NPC) test methodology to define the statistical differences among the identified genetic clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) achieved precise strain genotyping, and the phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences delineated the relationship among the taxa belonging to the genus Aeromonas, providing a powerful tool for outbreak traceability, host range diffusion, and ecological studies. The NPC test showed the feasibility of phenotypic differentiation among the majority of the MLST clusters by using a selection of tests or the entire biochemical fingerprinting. A Web-based MLST sequence database (http://pubmlst.org/aeromonas) specific for the Aeromonas genus was developed and implemented with all the results. PMID:21642403

  3. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  4. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  5. Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2009-12-01

    We determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in Aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. Species were identified as A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. media using PCR-RFLP of the 16S rDNA. Selected isolates were further characterized by ERIC-PCR. Resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Integrons were detected by PCR amplification of the 5' conserved, variable, and 3' conserved regions. Sequencing of the variable regions revealed class 1 integrons with cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA15, dfrB4), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2, aadA1), oxacillin (oxa2) and chloramphenicol (catB3, cmlA4). Others had an open reading frame (orfD) or no insert at all. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of genes cmlA4 and dfrA15 in Aeromonas class 1 integrons. Not all the integron-linked cassettes conferred their associated resistances, which suggests the inactivity of some cassettes. Most integrons were chromosomally located. The presence of class 1 integrons similar to those found in a wide variety of bacterial genera from different origins, including environmental and fish-borne Aeromonas, confirms the stability and horizontal transfer of these genetic elements. PMID:19810047

  6. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed. PMID:24370627

  7. Detection and distribution of putative virulence associated genes in Aeromonas species from freshwater and wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-11-01

    The detection of genes responsible for Aeromonas virulence is a vital tool in establishing the potential pathogenicity of the bacteria, as these virulence genes may act alone or in synergy in the establishment of infections. Freshwater and wastewater mixed liquor samples were collected from Kat river and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized for the amplification of the different genes coding for virulence. All virulence associated genes screened (alt, lip, fla, aer, ast, hlyA) were detected in at least one Aeromonas isolates. In fresh water sample, virulence genes were distributed as follows: lip (67%), aer (43%), alt (33%), fla (62%), ast (10%), and hlyA (86%), while in wastewater samples the occurrence were as follows: lip (92%), aer (21%), alt (54%), fla (83%), ast (29%), and hlyA (88%). The presence of these virulence genes in environmental Aeromonas isolates is of concern to public health as these organisms are potential pathogens in the environment and the virulence determinants could be transferred to aquatic organisms and humans by one mechanism or the other. PMID:23322604

  8. Presence of Vibrios and Aeromonas strains and total psychrotrophs in hexagonal spotted grouper and Spanish Mackerel Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted on different parts of hexagonal-spotted grouper and Spanish mackerel fish from 10 major fishery shops in Riyadh city to assess the presence of vibrios and aeromonas using the API20E and Biolog system. Also, pH and total psychotrophs were assessed as two indexes of quality. Similar data were obtained from both identification systems except for Aeromonas media-like and Vibrio anguillarum which are not included in the API20E database. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. media-like, V. alginolyticus, V.anguillarum, V. damsel and V. fluvialis were recovered from fish samples A. medial-like and V. damsel most predominant. Unexpectedly, V. cholera and V. parahemolyticus were not recovered. The numbers of skin samples of grouper having more than 7 log CFU/gm were much higher than that of mackerel skin samples. Similar psychrotrophic counts were noticed in gut samples of the two fish types, indicating similarly in growth habitat. Most of the grouper fish samples had a pH in the range of >6.40-7.02, whereas 95% of mackerel samples had a pH at 6.40 or below. (author)

  9. First record of the rare species Aeromonas schubertii from mussels: phenotypic and genetic reevaluation of the species and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, María José

    2016-05-01

    In a study where the prevalence of Aeromonas in shellfish was analysed, three isolates of Aeromonas schubertii were identified, representing this the first report of this species from mussels. This species was originally described in 1988 from strains isolated from extra-intestinal human infections and since then has been cited in only 18 occasions. For many years, A. schubertii was the only mannitol-negative species of the genus. However, three additional mannitol-negative species (Aeromonas simiae, Aeromonas diversa and Aeromonas australiensis) have been described. This, together with the fact that A. schubertii is a rare human pathogenic species, motivated the present study to characterize its biochemical behaviour and differentiation from the other mannitol-negative species. The molecular similarity (16S rRNA, rpoD and gyrB genes) of the strains, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance were determined. All A. schubertii strains showed the same phenotypic behaviour, i.e. they use citrate, are positive for lysine decarboxylase and DL-lactate, but negative for production of mannitol, indole and acid from sucrose and could be easily differentiated from other mannitol-negative species. All strains carried the aerA and lafA virulence genes and showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested. Seafood could be a transmission route of this bacterium to humans. PMID:26825089

  10. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

    2012-05-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

  11. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  12. Growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on fresh vegetables stored under a controlled atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1989-09-01

    The effects of controlled-atmosphere storage (CAS) on the survival and growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on fresh asparagus, broccoli, and cauliflower were examined. Two lots of each vegetable were inoculated with A. hydrophila 1653 or K144. A third lot served as an uninoculated control. Following inoculation, vegetables were stored at 4 or 15 degrees C under a CAS system previously shown to extend the shelf life of each commodity or under ambient air. Populations of A. hydrophila were enumerated on the initial day of inoculation and at various intervals for 10 days (15 degrees C) or 21 days (4 degrees C) of storage. Direct plating of samples with selective media was used to enumerate A. hydrophila. The organism was detected on most lots of vegetables as they were received from a commercial produce supplier. Without exception, the CAS system lengthened the time vegetables were subjectively considered acceptable for consumption. However, CAS did not significantly affect populations of A. hydrophila which survived or grew on inoculated vegetables. PMID:2802601

  13. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  14. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  15. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase 125I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to 125I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein

  16. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  17. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm(-2) after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm(-2) at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm(-2) by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  18. Effect of plasma processing and organosilane modifications of polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Niedzielska, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene--a material commonly used in medicine and water industry--influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy) propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties. PMID:24605323

  19. Effect of Plasma Processing and Organosilane Modifications of Polyethylene on Aeromonas hydrophila Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study how the modifications of polyethylene—a material commonly used in medicine and water industry—influence bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation. The native surface was activated and modified using two-step process consisting in the activation of native surface with a H2O vapor plasma followed by its treatment with various organosilanes, namely, [3(tertbutylamine-2hydroxy propyloxypropyl] diethoxymethylsilane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctylmethyldimethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane, and isobutylmethyldimethoxysilane. The effect of polyethylene modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila LOCK0968 were studied in water with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods, and the viability of the adhered bacterial cells was evaluated using the colony forming units method. After two-week incubation the chemically modified materials exhibited better antiadhesive and antibacterial characteristics in comparison to the native surface. Among the examined modifying agents, dimethoxydimethylsilane showed the best desired properties.

  20. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turutoglu, H; Ercelik, S; Corlu, M

    2005-03-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are, however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey) was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles. PMID:15900900

  2. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AEROMONAS SPP ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY USING DIFFERENT SCREENING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Odeyemi et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening is important in investigating antimicrobial activities of bacteria in a quest to discover new antimicrobials. Various protocols are readily available and employed by researchers worldwide studying microbiostatic and microbicidal activities of bacterial. This research therefore aims at evaluating available protocols and suggesting a standardized model. For the purpose of these research, antimicrobial ability of Aeromonas spp isolated from estuary was investigated using agar well diffusion method, deferred method and agar disc diffusion method respectively. Result obtained reveals that five isolates were positive to antimicrobial production among fifteen bacteria screened. Result was depended on the protocol utilized. Agar well diffusion produced a visible result when compared to others. Next to this was agar disc method. Deferred method involving both cross streaking and spot on lawn could not produce result as of swarming nature of the positive isolates tested. Based on our results, protocols utilized were grouped into preliminary screening test (PST and confirmatory tests (CT respectively. Preliminary screening protocol (PST consists of deferred method – perpendicular cross streaking and spot-on-lawn while confirmatory protocols (CT are agar well diffusion and agar disc diffusion methods. Preliminary protocols are not enough to conclude existence or non-existence of antimicrobial activity in bacteria. Conclusively, both preliminary and confirmatory protocols should be employed while screening bacteria for antimicrobials as suggested in our model.

  3. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection. PMID:26119300

  4. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  5. Detection and genetic analysis of group II capsules in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Lau, Y L; Arakawa, E; Leung, K Y

    2003-04-01

    The genetic organization and sequences of the group II capsule gene cluster of Aeromonas hydrophila PPD134/91 have been determined previously. The purified capsular polysaccharides can increase the ability of avirulent strain PPD35/85 to survive in naive tilapia serum but have no inhibitory effect on the adhesion of PPD134/91 to carp epithelial cells. In this study, the presence of group II capsules among 33 randomly chosen A. hydrophila strains was examined by electron microscopy and genetic analysis. Ten strains were found to produce group II capsules. A PCR detection system was developed to identify two types of group II capsules (IIA and IIB) based on their genetic organization in the region II gene clusters. Group IIA capsules in the authors' collection of A. hydrophila strains are mainly found in the O : 18 and O : 34 serogroups, while group IIB capsules are found in the O : 21 and O : 27 serogroups. The presence of group II capsules in A. hydrophila strongly correlates with the serum and phagocyte survival abilities (seven out of ten strains). The results indicate that the authors' PCR detection system can constitute a reliable assay for the classification of group II capsules in A. hydrophila. PMID:12686647

  6. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, S E; Brosnahan, C L; Johnston, C; Wallis, R; Gudkovs, N; McDonald, W L

    2013-05-01

    A real-time PCR assay using a molecular beacon was developed and validated to detect the vapA (surface array protein) gene in the fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. The assay had 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 ± 0 fg (DNA), 2.2 × 10(4) ± 1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) (without enrichment) and 40 ± 10 CFU g(-1) (with enrichment) in kidney tissue. The assay was highly repeatable and proved to be robust following equivalency testing using a different real-time PCR platform. Following analytical validation, diagnostic specificity was determined using New Zealand farmed Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), (n = 750) and pink shubunkin, Carassius auratus (L.) (n = 157). The real-time PCR was run in parallel with culture and all fish tested were found to be negative by both methods for A. salmonicida, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity (95% confidence interval). The molecular beacon real-time PCR system is specific, sensitive and a reproducible method for the detection of A. salmonicida. It can be used for diagnostic testing, health certification and active surveillance programmes. PMID:23121198

  7. Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida by reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida is one of the major fish pathogens causing economically devastating losses in aquaculture. A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a typical A. salmonicida causing furunculosis, while the other subspecies are atypical strains causing ulcer diseases. PCR-based methods of detecting A. salmonicida suffer from the drawback that they do not distinguish living (pathogenic) from dead cells. In this study, a method of detecting A. salmonicida was developed based on reverse transcription-multiplex PCR (RT-MPCR) using two sets of primers, SV1/SV2 and SF1/SF2, specific to the vapA gene and the fstB gene of A. salmonicida respectively. This method was found to detect A. salmonicida specifically with detection limits of 10 CFU in pure culture and 30 CFU in the presence of tissue debris. It was also found distinguish not only between viable and nonviable cells but also between typical and atypical strains of A. salmonicida. Using RT-MPCR, two DNA fragments, of 542 and 1,258 bp, were amplified from RNA of typical A. salmonicida, whereas only one DNA fragment, of 542 bp, was amplified from the RNA of the atypical ones. The proposed assay was also used successfully to detect A. salmonicida in artificially infected rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). PMID:22484927

  8. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  9. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Dacks, Andrew M; Ryan, Kenneth J; Rio, Rita V M

    2016-05-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacteriumAeromonas veroniiis transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yetA. veroniican also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-boundA. veroniihad the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found thatA. veroniialters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporatesN-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  10. Early mucosal responses in blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) skin to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin; Su, Baofeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Peatman, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens are well-equipped to detect, adhere to, and initiate infection in their finfish hosts. The mucosal surfaces of fish, such as the skin, function as the front line of defense against such bacterial insults that are routinely encountered in the aquatic environment. While recent progress has been made, and despite the obvious importance of mucosal surfaces, the precise molecular events that occur soon after encountering bacterial pathogens remain unclear. Indeed, these early events are critical in mounting appropriate responses that ultimately determine host survival or death. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional consequences of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in the skin of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus. We utilized an 8×60K Agilent microarray to examine gene expression profiles at key early timepoints following challenge (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h). A total of 1155 unique genes were significantly altered during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation in a number of genes involved in diverse pathways including those involved in antioxidant responses, apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, immunity, and extracellular matrix protein diversity and regulation. Taken together, A. hydrophila coordinately modulates mucosal factors across numerous cellular pathways in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and infect the blue catfish host. PMID:23337110

  11. Fermentation and growth kinetic study of Aeromonas caviae under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Hwang, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2009-06-01

    Although Aeromonas caviae is pathogenic to a broad range of invertebrates including human, frequent in aquatic environments, and potentially vital for acidogenesis in anaerobic digestion, virtually no biokinetic information on its anaerobic growth is at hand. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating its anaerobic growth kinetics on glucose. To provide a set of relevant biokinetic coefficients for modeling, a combination of curve fitting and numerical modeling was used. Microcultivations were performed at eight different initial glucose concentrations of 0.1 to 2.5 g l(-1) to establish a function of specific growth rate versus substrate concentration. A batch anaerobic bioreactor was then operated to collect a data set for the numerical analysis. Kinetic coefficients were estimated from three different biomass growth profiles monitored by optical density, volatile suspended solids (VSS), or DNA measurement, and applied for simulating continuous operations at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Assuming the influent glucose concentration is 5,000 mg l(-1), the substrate utilization efficiency predicted to be 77.2% to 92.0% at 17 to 36 h HRTs. For the VSS-model-based simulation, the washout HRT was estimated to be 16.6 h, and similar for the other models. Overall, the anaerobic biokinetic coefficients of A. caviae grown on glucose were successfully estimated and found to follow a substrate inhibition model. PMID:19343339

  12. Evasion of mucosal defenses during Aeromonas hydrophila infection of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Ruijia; Su, Baofeng; Luo, Yupeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Beck, Benjamin; Peatman, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish serve as the first line of defense against the myriad of aquatic pathogens present in the aquatic environment. The immune repertoire functioning at these interfaces is still poorly understood. The skin, in particular, must process signals from several fronts, sensing and integrating environmental, nutritional, social, and health cues. Pathogen invasion can disrupt this delicate homeostasis with profound impacts on signaling throughout the organism. Here, we investigated the transcriptional effects of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish skin, Ictalurus punctatus. We utilized a new 8 × 60 K Agilent microarray for catfish to examine gene expression profiles at critical early timepoints following challenge--2 h, 8 h, and 12 h. Expression of a total of 2,168 unique genes was significantly perturbed during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation of genes involved in antioxidant, cytoskeletal, immune, junctional, and nervous system pathways. In particular, A. hydrophila infection rapidly altered a number of potentially critical lectins, chemokines, interleukins, and other mucosal factors in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and invade the catfish host. PMID:23219904

  13. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Plant, K.P.; Alcorn, S.; Ostland, V.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund’s complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection.

  14. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  16. Challenge of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fed diets supplemented with vitamins C and E by Aeromonas hydrophila under different temperature Desafio de pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) alimentados com dietas suplementadas com vitaminas C e E desafiados por Aeromonas hydrophila em diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, F.; F. R. Moraes; Martins, M. de L.

    2009-01-01

    Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus fed diets supplemented with three vitamins C and E levels (zero, 250, and 500mg vitamin/kg diet) were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila under different temperatures. Fish were kept in 300L plastic tanks and fed during the first 60 days with diets without vitamins C and E, in an attempt to reduce vitamin sources. After this period, fish were maintained at an initial density of 14 fish/tank and test diets were offered during 60 days. At the end of the experiment,...

  17. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  18. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  19. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (pvegetables. PMID:22300224

  20. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, M Teresa; Gibello, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, M Mar; Villarroel, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological and molecular analyses. Some of the animals died as a result of systemic coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:26155462

  1. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin;

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of...... Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...

  2. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  3. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  4. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2oC of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author)

  5. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  6. Phytoextracts-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mishra, Snehasish; Bosu, Ranadhir; Maurya, Uk; Netam, Surya Prakash; Sarkar, Biplab

    2013-12-01

    Fish disease is a major stumbling block towards sustainable growth of the fisheries sector. Aeromonas hydrophila, which is a major infectious aquatic pathogen is reportedly the causative agent of ulcers, fin-rot, tail-rot, hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, and has reportedly developed resistance against many of the available antibiotics. In this context, the inhibitory function of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. hydrophila was studied to evaluate its possible application in aquaculture as alternative to antibiotics. AgNPs were synthesized using the leaf extracts of subtropical plants Mangifera indica (Mango), Eucalyptus terticornis (Eucalyptus), Carica papaya (Papaya) and Musa paradisiaca (Banana). The absorbance maxima, size range and shape of the AgNPs as characterized by the UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were, Mangifera-442, 50-65 nm, ovular; Eucalyptus-465, 60-150 nm, oval; Carica-442, 25-40 nm, round, irregular; and Musa-454, 10-50 nm, round, irregular, respectively. Well-diffusion of these AgNPs for their antimicrobial characteristics exhibited that, the papaya leaf extract synthesized AgNPs had maximum antimicrobial activity at 153.6 μg/ml concentrations, and that from the eucalyptus leaves was least effective. As observed, the potency of the nanoparticles enhanced with the decrease in particle size, from 60-150 nm in eucalyptus to 25-40 nm in papaya. Due to its purely natural sourcing, phytosynthesized AgNPs can be applied as alternative to antibiotics and other biocides as a cost-effective and eco-friendly therapeutic agent against A. hydrophila stimulated diseases in aquatic animals. PMID:24426148

  7. Ecofriendly biosorption of dyes and metals by bacterial biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila RC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Siddhardha; Chatterjee, Rahul; Rajkumari, Jobina; Hnamte, Sairengpuii

    2016-03-01

    The ability of dried bacterial biomass in azo dye and heavy metal removal from aqueous solution was explored. Biosorption of three textile dyes, Eriochrome black T (EBT), Acid Red 26 (AR) and Trypan blue (TB) and heavy metals (Pb and Cr) by dried biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila RC1, was investigated in a batch system under various parameters such as dye concentration, contact time, concentration of biomass, pH, and temperature. The experimental results showed that the extent of biosorption for dyes increased with increase in initial concentration of dyes, biomass concentration, contact time, temperature and decreased with increase in pH. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The Langmuir model yielded good fit to the experimental data (R² approximately 0.794, 0.844 and 0.969 for the dyes, EBT, AR and TB, respectively) with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 58.8 mg g⁻¹ for AR. Similarly results were obtained for heavy metals and the data fit in Langmuir model (R² value of 0.849 and 0.787) with q(m) value of 40 mg g⁻¹ for Pb. The results fit in pseudo first order kinetics with removal upto 96.67 % for Pb. Involvement of the surface characteristics of the biomass in biosorption was studied using scanning electron micrographs, FTIR, EDX and XRD analysis. Thus, use ofA. hydrophila RC1 biomass can be extensively employed in water treatment plants in order to get desired water quality in the most economical way. PMID:27097447

  8. Hemerythrin is required for Aeromonas hydraphlia to survive in the macrophages of Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, W B; Chen, W B; Yan, Q P; Lin, G F; Qin, Y X

    2016-01-01

    Survival in host phagocytes is an effective strategy for pathogenic microbes to spread. To understand the mechanisms of Aeromonas hydrophila survival within host macrophages, a library of mini-Tn10 transposon insertion mutants was constructed. The M85 mutant, whose survival in host macrophages was only 23.1% of that of the wild-type (WT) strain, was utilized for further study. Molecular analysis showed that a 756-bp open reading frame (ORF) (GenBank accession No. CP007576) in the M85 mutant was interrupted by mini-Tn10. This ORF encodes for a 183-amino acid protein and displays the highest sequence identity (99%) with the hemerythrin (Hr) protein of A. hydrophila subspecies hydrophila ATCC 7966. The survival of the WT, M85 mutant, and complemented M85 (Hr) strains were compared in host macrophages in vitro, and the results showed that M85 exhibited defective survival, while that of M85 (Hr) was restored. To investigate the possible mechanisms of A. hydrophila survival in host macrophages, the expression of Hr under hyperoxic and hypoxic conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that the expression of this protein was higher under hyperoxic conditions than under hypoxic conditions, which indicates that Hr protein expression is sensitive to O2 concentration. Hydrogen peroxide sensitivity tests further suggested that the M85 mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress than the WT and M85 (Hr) strains. Taken together, these results suggest that the Hr protein may act as an O2 sensor and as a detoxifier of reactive oxygen species, and is required for A. hydrophila survival within host macrophages. PMID:27173333

  9. Biological approach to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

    2013-04-01

    Nanosized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. A novel, low-cost, green and reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was reported. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, AFM and FESEM with EDX. FTIR showed characteristic bands (1643 and 3430 cm-1) finds the role of carboxyl group Osbnd H stretching amine Nsbnd H stretch in the formation of TiO2 NPs. The XRD spectrum confirmed that the synthesized TiO2 NPs were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.47°, 31.77°, 36.11°, 41.25°, 54.39°, 56.64° and 69.54° were identified as 110, 100, 101, 111, 211, 220 and 301 reflections, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 40.50 nm. The morphological characterization was analyzed by FESEM and the analysis showed the NPs smooth shaped, spherical and uneven. GC-MS analysis showed the main compounds found in A. hydrophila were uric acid (2.95%), glycyl-L-glutamic acid (6.90%), glycyl-L-proline (74.41%) and l-Leucyl-d-leucine (15.74%). The potential glycyl-L-proline could have played an important role as a capping agent. A possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs has been proposed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized TiO2 NPs was assessed by well diffusion method toward A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and showed effective inhibitory activity against S. aureus (33 mm) and S. pyogenes (31 mm).

  10. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN LABEO ROHITA INFECTED WITH AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA: HAEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Annalakshmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreak of disease is an important limiting factor in aquaculture. Incorporation of herbal immunostimulants in diet is one of the widely followed methods to improve the general resistance in fish. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the Immunostimulatory potential of the medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus in fish. The experiment was carried out in two sets. In experiment-I, one group of Labeo rohita was fed with control diet (‘C’ diet and the other group was fed with Phyllanthus amarus incorporated diet (‘P’ diet for 14 days and the haematological parameters were analysed on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. Significant increase in Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb g%, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes with increase in the duration of the experiment. As there is positive response in the first experiment hence experiment-II was carried out. In experiment-II, One group of Labeo rohita were fed with ‘C’ diet and other group received ‘P’ diet for 14 days, post-infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and haematological parameters were analyzed on 1st, 3rd, 7th & 14th days after infection. Significant increase in TEC, Hb, TLC, lymphocytes and a steady population of monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes. On the other hand basophils and eosinophil count exhibited a fluctuating trend. Thus dietary incorporation of Phyllanthus amarus helps to improve the general health and resistance of the fish.

  11. Biological approach to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

    2013-04-15

    Nanosized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. A novel, low-cost, green and reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was reported. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, AFM and FESEM with EDX. FTIR showed characteristic bands (1643 and 3430 cm(-1)) finds the role of carboxyl group OH stretching amine NH stretch in the formation of TiO2 NPs. The XRD spectrum confirmed that the synthesized TiO2 NPs were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.47°, 31.77°, 36.11°, 41.25°, 54.39°, 56.64° and 69.54° were identified as 110, 100, 101, 111, 211, 220 and 301 reflections, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 40.50 nm. The morphological characterization was analyzed by FESEM and the analysis showed the NPs smooth shaped, spherical and uneven. GC-MS analysis showed the main compounds found in A. hydrophila were uric acid (2.95%), glycyl-L-glutamic acid (6.90%), glycyl-L-proline (74.41%) and L-Leucyl-D-leucine (15.74%). The potential glycyl-L-proline could have played an important role as a capping agent. A possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs has been proposed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized TiO2 NPs was assessed by well diffusion method toward A. hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and showed effective inhibitory activity against S. aureus (33 mm) and S. pyogenes (31 mm). PMID:23416912

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  13. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Sung, Kidon; Tran, Quynhtien; Kerdahi, Khalil; Steele, Roger

    2010-05-01

    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aerA), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), serine protease (ser), DNases (exu), elastase (ahyB) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template DNA. Oligonucleotide primers amplified a 231-bp region of the act gene from the template DNA of 97.0% of the isolates. Primers specific for the amplification of the aerA gene amplified a 431-bp region of the aerA gene from the template DNA of 96.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained ast or alt genes. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the amplification of lip, gcaT, ser and fla genes, amplified their respective amplicons from 85.0, 78.0, 82.0 and 80.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained exu or the elastase genes. Several of the isolates (48.0%) contained class I integrons that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics; various sizes between 0.6 and 3.1 kb were found. None of the isolates contained Class II integrons. Our results indicate that farm-raised catfish may be a source of pathogenic A. veronii and that the potential health risks posed by virulent strains of A. veronii should not be underestimated. PMID:20227596

  14. Simultaneous detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss by Duplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms have a significant impact on strategies and fish health management programs. Hence, in this study a duplex PCR assay based on the 16s rRNA gene for simultaneous detection of Aeromonas hydrophila RTICC 1032 and Escherichia coli RTICC 2325 from pure cultures, and challenged fish tissues was performed and their results were compared with the results of single PCR assays for each bacterium. For this purpose, an experiment with three treatments including artificially infected with A. hydrophila, E. coli and a mixture of them with a control group was designed. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of sterile physiological saline containing 106CFU/ml of the corresponding bacteria. Samples were collected from liver, kidney and spleen 48 hrs post-injection. A duplex PCR based 16S rRNA genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of A. hydrophila and E. coli. The PCR reaction conditions were optimized to permit detection of organisms from agar plates and fish tissues in less than 8 hrs. Each of the two pairs of oligonucleotide primers exclusively targeted 16S rRNA gene of the specific microorganism. When duplex PCR assay was used to simultaneous detection of the pathogens in asymptomatic fish, spleen and liver were negative for A. hydrophila, whereas kidney was positive for two bacteria. Samples that were duplex PCR negative were also negative by the culture method. On the whole, the duplex PCR has advantages in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, ease of use, time of length analysis and cost-effectiveness compared to the single PCR and traditional method.

  15. Small Protein B upregulates sensor kinase bvgS expression in Aeromonas veronii

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    Zhu eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies reveal that Small Protein B (SmpB, a class of well-conserved tmRNA-binding proteins, is essential for the trans-translation process, which functions as a system for translation surveillance and ribosome rescue. Here, we report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which SmpB alone positively regulates the expression of a sensor kinase, BvgS, in Aeromonas veronii. A reporter plasmid was constructed in which the promoter of bvgS was used to control the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene. When the reporter plasmid was co-transformed with a SmpB expression construct into E. coli, the relative fluorescence intensity increased about 3-fold. Transformation with a truncated form of smpB gene showed that the C-terminus had little effect, while N-terminus unexpectedly increased eGFP production. Next, a series of SmpB mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. When the mutants SmpB (G11S or SmpB (E32AG was used in the experiment, eGFP expression dropped significantly compared with that of wild type SmpB. Further,purified SmpB was shown to bind the promoter regions of bvgS in the agarose gel retardation assay. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that eGFP transcript levels increased approximately 25-fold in the presence of SmpB. Likewise, bvgS transcripts decreased significantly in smpB knockout A. veronii. Similar to BvgS inhibition, smpB knockout in A. veronii displayed a reduced capability in salt tolerance. Collectively, the data presented here will facilitate a deeper understanding of SmpB-mediated regulatory circuits as a transcriptional factor in A. veronii.

  16. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  17. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

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    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  18. Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (DETECTION OF AEROLYSIN GEN FROM AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN COMMON CARP FED WITH GARLIC EXTRACT

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    Iesje Lukistyowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative and opportunistic bacteria, which could cause fish mortalityin a short time from 80%-100%. One virulent factor of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Lthat could cause fish mortality is aerolysin. This research used a synthetic primers of oligonukleotide todetect aerolysin, a specific genomes of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. The commoncarps have been feed a woof that contain garlic extract during 30 days before they challenged with A.hydrophila. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used to detect an aerolysin gen from A. hydrophila. Theelectrophoresis result showed aerolysin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila from Veterinary Faculty of GadjahMada University (FKH-UGM isolate was amplified with 462 bp of molecule weight. While the aerolysingen was detected in the fish kidney with 900 bp of molecule weight. Further, DNA sequence analysis of thePCR product of A. hydrophila from FKH – UGM isolate showed homolog with isolate A. hydrophila subsphydrophila ATCC 7966 complete genome with score 55.4 (71%.

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila as an agent of infection in alligators. Phase I, final report. Progress report, September 1, 1976--September 30, 1977, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alligators were exposed to various concentrations of young, washed cells of Aeromonas hydrophila under controlled conditions. Responses of all alligators were monitored on the basis of: observations of external lesions; immunoglobulin production; blood chemistry and hematology; bacteriology, parasitology, and pathology of internal organs, skeletal muscle and external lesions at necropsy. The findings are summarized.

  20. Molecular identfication and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama (USA) in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  1. A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

  2. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE WATER-BORNE PATHOGEN AEROMONAS USING WHOLE CELL ANALYSIS BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALDI-MS has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is investigating the potential of using this technique as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species in drinking water. A nu...

  3. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  4. THE USE OF MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. EPA is investigating the potential of using this technology as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species fo...

  5. Molecular identification and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  6. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  7. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  8. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  9. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  10. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Indu M.N.; Hatha A.A.M.; Abirosh C.; Harsha U.; Vivekanandan G.

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium cepa (onion) and Piper nigrum (pepper) has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against...

  12. Hemolysin, Protease, and EPS Producing Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain An4 Shows Antibacterial Activity against Marine Bacterial Fish Pathogens

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    Anju Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 was isolated from marine catfish and characterized with reference to its proteolytic and hemolytic activity along with SDS-PAGE profile (sodium dodecyl sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ECPs (extracellular proteins showing hemolysin (approximately 50 kDa. Agar well diffusion assay using crude cell extract of the bacterial isolate clearly demonstrated antibacterial activity against indicator pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus arlettae strain An1, Acinetobacter sp. strain An2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3, and Alteromonas aurentia SE3 showing inhibitory zone >10 mm well comparable to common antibiotics. Further GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed several metabolites, namely, phenolics, pyrrolo-pyrazines, pyrrolo-pyridine, and butylated hydroxytoluene (well-known antimicrobials. Characterization of EPS using FTIR indicated presence of several protein-related amine and amide groups along with peaks corresponding to carboxylic and phenyl rings which may be attributed to its virulent and antibacterial properties, respectively. Besides hemolysin, EPS, and protease, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 also produced several antibacterial metabolites.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, V; Arampatzis, S; Kourti, P; Tsolkas, T; Zarogiannis, S; Eleftheriadis, T; Giannopoulou, M; Stefanidis, I

    2011-02-01

    Most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. Polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. Aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in PD-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. These rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms have been isolated from wastewater drainage systems, food, vegetables, and soil. Herein we report a case of polymicrobial peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), due to a combination of Streptococcus viridans and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The patient was involved in gardening and was not compliant with her technique protocol. She did not wear a mask and omitted thorough hand washing. The patient was treated with i.p. vancomycin and ceftazidime and peritonitis was resolved. The patient's technique was reassessed, and she was retrained by our PD nurses. PMID:21269597

  14. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas spp. on fresh-cut produce packaged under equilibrium-modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Falcato, P; Debevere, J

    1999-10-01

    Storage experiments were conducted to follow the behavior of pathogens on fresh-cut vegetables (trimmed brussels sprouts, grated carrots, shredded iceberg lettuce, and shredded chicory endives) packaged under an equilibrium-modified atmosphere (EMA) (2 to 3% O2, 2 to 3% CO2, and 94 to 96% N2) and stored at 7 degrees C. As a comparison, fresh-cut vegetables were also packaged in a perforated high-barrier film (air conditions) and stored at 7 degrees C. In a first step, the shelf life of the vegetables in the two kinds of packages was determined by evaluating the microbiological quality as well as the sensorial quality (appearance, taste, and odor). In general, sensorial properties were faster in limiting the shelf life than microbiological criteria. The shelf life of the vegetables stored under an EMA was extended by 50% or more, compared with the air-stored vegetables. In a second storage experiment, the four fresh-cut vegetables were inoculated with a cocktail of psychrotrophic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas caviae [HG4]) and A. bestiarum (HG2) before packaging under an EMA and air at 7 degrees C. The inoculated pathogens were more influenced by the type of vegetable than by the type of atmosphere. No growth was detected on the brussels sprouts or on carrots (L. monocytogenes). Aeromonas spp. had a higher growth rate than L. monocytogenes on the shredded chicory endives and shredded iceberg lettuce at 7 degrees C. PMID:10528715

  15. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  16. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined. Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7% than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequently from well water (38.2% than chlorinated supplies (23.0%. A. hydrophilia was the most dominant species isolated from different kinds of samples (13.4%. Whereas A. sobria and A. caviae were isolated in much lower rates 4.7 and 2.1% respectively. There was significant association between the isolation of Aeromonas species from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water. All isolated strains were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. The data reported in this study indicates that the distributions of virulence factors, that regulate the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, are different in clinical and enviromental samples. Aeromonas isolates exhibited multi-drug resistanc amoxicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics against Aeromonas species isolated in this study were ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime. Essential oils have been tested for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Clove, Olive and Peppermint oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all strains used in this study, showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.00±0.8 to 14.82±0.41 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for selected oils ranged from 12.8 to 25.6 mg mL-1. Treatment of mice with essential oil for 15 days led to enhance antibody levels in all treated groups and significant clearance of A. hydrophilia from animals. The treated animals had

  17. Selective culturing and genus-specific PCR detection for identification of Aeromonas in tissue samples to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning. PMID:22497704

  18. Effect of Diuron on aquatic bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds with special reference to Aeromonas species studied by colony hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpono; Perotti, P; Belan, A; Forestier, C; Lavedrine, B; Bohatier, J

    2003-01-01

    Six laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds were filled with sediment and water obtained from a reference pond (a wastewater treatment plant located in a rural environment at Montel-de-Gelat, Puy-de-Dôme, France). They were kept at 20 degrees C, with alternative light and dark periods (12 h-12 h), and fed with raw effluent supplied weekly. Three of them were treated with Diuron (dissolved in DMSO) at a final concentration 10 mg/l, while the other three received only DMSO. Physico-chemical parameters, total bacteria, cultivable bacteria, and Aeromonas spp. were measured periodically until 41 days after the Diuron contamination. Total bacteria were treated with 4,6-diamidino 2-phenylindole (DAPI) and counted by epifluoroscence microscopy. The cultivable bacteria were quantified on plate count agar medium and Aeromonas spp. using colony hybridization. In the contaminated pilots, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), ammonium, phosphorus, and bacteria increased, but dissolved oxygen decreased. The abundance of total bacteria, cultivable bacteria (multiplied by 30), and Aeromonas spp. increased for two weeks after Diuron introduction, reverting to initial values three weeks later. The percentage of cultivable bacteria relative to total bacteria was 0.2% in controls and 1.2% in treated pilots, while the percentage of Aeromonas spp. relative to cultivable bacteria decreased from 6-10% to 2%. Our results suggest that Diuron, which acts on the photosystem II of phototrophs, supports the development of cultivable bacteria through new carbon sources derived from the decomposition of photosynthetic micro-organisms, but does not specifically support Aeromonas spp. PMID:12656266

  19. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO2(CH2)2SO4- in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of substituents in azo dyes all

  20. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  1. Diversity and Homogeneity among Small Plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Linked with Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attéré, Sabrina A.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Chanut, Romain; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1) related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D). As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5) in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend for pAsa3 and p

  2. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bor-Yann, E-mail: bychen@niu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of

  3. Exposure to pairs of Aeromonas strains enhances virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eMosser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections, and 5-10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Nine isolates were weak worm killers (median time to death, TD50, ≥7 days when administered alone. Two pairs showed enhanced virulence, as indicated by a significantly shortened TD50 after co-infection versus infection with a single strain. Enhanced virulence was also observed for five of the 14 additional experimental pairs, and each of these pairs included one strain from a natural synergistic pair. These experiments indicated that synergistic effects were frequent and were limited to pairs that were composed of strains belonging to different species. The genome content of virulence-associated genes failed to explain virulence synergy, although some virulence-associated genes that were present in some strains were absent from their companion strain (e.g., T3SS. The synergy observed in virulence when 2 Aeromonas isolates were co-infected stresses the idea that consideration should be given to the fact that infection does not depend only on single strain virulence but is instead the result of a more complex interaction between the microbes involved, the host and the environment. These results are of interest for other diseases in which mixed infections are likely and in particular for water-borne diseases (e.g., legionellosis, vibriosis, in which pathogens may display enhanced virulence in the presence of the

  4. Prevalence, Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles, and In-vitro Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Aeromonas Isolates from Stool Samples of Patients in the Venda Region of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Obi; Ramalivhana, J.; Samie, A.; Igumbor, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence, pathogenic indices, such as haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities, antibiograms, and in-vitro activities of local medicinal plants against Aeromonas isolates in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa, were studied using standard microbiological methods. In total, 309 diarrhoeic stool samples were collected from patients attending five health centres in the region during December 2004–May 2005. Aeromonas species were identified using the API 20E system. The hae...

  5. Pemanfaatan ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis l. sebagai bakterisida terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila yang menginfeksi ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to find out the effectiveness of henna leaf extract (Lawsonia inermis L. on A. hydrophila in vitro and its effect on the survival rate of Clarias gariepinus that infected by those bacterias in vivo. The research was conducted at chemistry laboratory of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Syiah Kuala University and at Microbiology laboratory, Brackishwater aquaculture Department Center, Ujong Batee on Avril to September, 2015. The research involved in vitro test with the inhibition zone as measured parameter and in vivo test with the survival rate value as measured parameter. The treated concentrations were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% of extract. The result of in vitro test showed that henna leaf extract was effective against A. hydrophila with the inhibition zone for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% extract were 5.45; 5.7; 6.5; 7.5; and 9.6 mm, respectively. The result of ANOVA test showed that henna leaf extract has a significant effect on the survival rate of catfish (P<0.05. The best survival rate was obtained at 4% of extract  concentration.   Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; henna leaf extract; catfish Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis L. terhadap A. hydrophila secara in vitro dan pengaruhnya secara in vivo terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus yang terinfeksi bakteri ini dengan cara perendaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium kimia, FKIP Unsyiah dan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Balai Budidaya Perikanan Air Payau (BBAP Ujong Batee pada dari bulan April hingga bulan September 2015. Penelitian ini meliputi uji in vitro dengan parameter uji berupa zona hambat ekstrak terhadap bakteri dan uji in vivo dengan parameter uji berupa nilai kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang pasca perlakuan dengan ekstrak. Konsentrasi perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5%. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun

  6. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino Enterotoxigenicity of Aeromonas sp. strains isolated from differents points in the cattle slaughtering processing line

    OpenAIRE

    O.D. Rossi Júnior; L.A. Amaral; A. Nader Filho; R.P. Schocken-Iturrino

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  7. A Rare Case of Aeromonas Hydrophila Catheter Related Sepsis in a Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Steroids and Dialysis: A Case Report and Review of Aeromonas Infections in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila (AH is an aquatic bacterium. We present a case of fifty-five-year-old gentleman with chronic kidney disease (CKD due to crescentic IgA nephropathy who presented to us with fever. He was recently pulsed with methyl prednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and discharged on maintenance dialysis through a double lumen dialysis catheter. Blood culture from peripheral vein and double lumen dialysis catheter grew AH. We speculate low immunity due to steroids and uremia along with touch contamination of dialysis catheter by the patient or dialysis nurse could have led to this rare infection. Dialysis catheter related infection by AH is rare. We present our case here and take the opportunity to give a brief review of AH infections in CKD patients.

  8. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the Malaysian Sea against coral (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rahimi; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2016-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the pathogenicity (hemolytic activity) on corals (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) of Aeromonas hydrophila from water, sediment, and coral. Samples were collected from coastal water and coral reef areas. One hundred and sixty-two isolates were successfully isolated. Out of 162, 95 were from seawater, 49 from sediment, and 18 from coral. Sixteen isolates were picked and identified. Isolates were identified using a conventional biochemical test, the API 20NE kit, and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences. Hemolytic activity was determined. Out of 16 isolates, 14 isolates were β-hemolytic and two isolates were non-hemolytic. Corals infected with A. hydrophila suffered bleaching. Similar effect was observed for both hemolytic and non-hemolytic isolates. Intramuscular injection of A. hydrophila into sea bass resulted in muscular bleeding and death. Higher infection rates were obtained from hemolytic compared to non-hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:27221587

  9. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Aeromonas veronii TH0426 with potential application in biosynthesis of pullulanase and chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuanhuan; Pan, Xiaoyi; Xu, Yang; Siddiqui, Shahrood A; Wang, Chunfeng; Shan, Xiaofeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-06-10

    Aeromonas veronii TH0426 is a pathogen of the farmed yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco but shows high-level expression of pullulanase and chitinase. Here, we present its genome sequence, which is the first reported complete genome of fish pathogen in A. veronii to date. Strain TH0426 harbors a single circular 4,923,009bp chromosome with a GC content of 58.25%. There are 4525 genes identified on its genome, including 4244 protein-coding genes, 32 rRNA genes, 120 tRNA genes, a noncoding RNA and 128 pseudo genes. We believe that the genomic information of A. veronii TH0426 would facilitate to reveal its pathogenic mechanism associated with yellow catfish, develop vaccine to decrease economic losses for fish farming, meanwhile explore the potential application in producing pullulanase and chitinase. PMID:27080448

  10. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  11. Detection of type III secretion system genes in Aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Castro, G A; Lopes, C O; Leal, C A G; Cardoso, P G; Leite, R C; Figueiredo, H C P

    2010-08-26

    The goals of this study were to develop a PCR technique to detect ascV and aopB genes from the type III secretion system (T3SS), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of A. hydrophila in Nile tilapia. The PCR assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ascV+/aopB+, ascV+/aopB-, and ascV-/aopB-. A higher frequency of ascV+/aopB+ was verified in isolates from diseased fish compared to those from aquaculture environments (PPCR technique was shown to be a specific and efficient tool for detection of T3SS, and this technique can be used for virulence typing of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:20185253

  12. Quantitative detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR using self-quenched, fluorogenic primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, José Luis; Vendrell, Daniel; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Gironés, Olivia; Múzquiz, José Luis

    2007-03-01

    In this study a real-time PCR assay using self-quenched primers labelled with a single fluorophore for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida was developed. Probe specificity was confirmed by amplification of 16 A. salmonicida strain templates and by the lack of a PCR product with 26 non-A. salmonicida strains. With a pure culture of A. salmonicida, the assay was linear over a range of 0.5 pg to 50 ng and was able to detect 16 c.f.u. per reaction. A similar sensitivity was observed in DNA extracted from a mixture of A. salmonicida and fish tissue. Results using artificially inoculated tissues and diseased fish from outbreaks indicated that the assay can provide sensitive species-specific detection and quantification of A. salmonicida in fish tissue. PMID:17314361

  13. Effect of Lactococcus lactis CLFP 100 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CLFP 196 on Aeromonas salmonicida Infection in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, José Luis; Vendrell, Daniel; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Múzquiz, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. This pathogen is important from an epizootic perspective because fish surviving an outbreak can remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers, serving as reservoirs of infection. As a result, the early detection and the control of infection are essential to prevent the spread of new furunculosis outbreaks. We have thus analyzed the effect of probiotic administration on the incidence of A. salmonicida in brown trout (Salmo trutta), that were subjected to temperature stress. Treatment with probiotic strains (Lactococcus lactis CLFP 100 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CLFP 196) resulted in a higher survival rate after challenge, activation of phagocytic cells in the head kidney, and a lower rate of pathogen proliferation in the intestine as determined by real-time PCR. PMID:19556745

  14. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the current contract year, the following results were obtained: (1) Data from field-generated studies have shown that hematocrit, hemoglobin, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and cortisol levels are significantly affected in largemouth bass with body conditions < 2.0, suggesting that stress, body condition, and the probability of bass acquiring red-sore disease are related. Laboratory studies appear to at least partially confirm these results. (2) Chemotaxis studies show that Aeromonas hydrophila is attracted to specific sugars and amino acids and that there appears to be a strain-related affect of fish mucous on A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions. (3) Immunologic and serologic tests suggest that A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions on bass from one lake system will not cross-react with antibodies in sera isolated from bass in another lake system, suggesting the existence of different strains in different lakes

  15. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  16. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2011-01-01

    Ideficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 productionwas...... an important virulence factor, AsaP1, without affecting bacterial growth, makes A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes an interesting target organism to study the effects of QS in disease development and QSI in disease control.......The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N...

  17. Strategies to Avoid Wrongly Labelled Genomes Using as Example the Detected Wrong Taxonomic Affiliation for Aeromonas Genomes in the GenBank Database

    OpenAIRE

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Hossain, Mohammad J.; Liles, Mark R.; Figueras, Maria-Jose

    2015-01-01

    Around 27,000 prokaryote genomes are presently deposited in the Genome database of GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and this number is exponentially growing. However, it is not known how many of these genomes correspond correctly to their designated taxon. The taxonomic affiliation of 44 Aeromonas genomes (only five of these are type strains) deposited at the NCBI was determined by a multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) and by pairwise average nucleotide ...

  18. TLR21's agonists in combination with Aeromonas antigens synergistically up-regulate functional TLR21 and cytokine gene expression in yellowtail leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Jirapongpairoj, Walissara; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Alamillo, Erika; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the TLR21 gene from yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) and its functional activity using TLR agonist stimulation and Aeromonas antigens. The TLR21 nucleotide sequence from yellowtail was obtained using the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method and bioinformatics tools. Basal TLR21 gene expression was analyzed in several tissues. Subsequently, the gene expression of TLR21 and cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α was evaluated in TLR agonist (CpG-ODN2006, LPS, and Poly I:C) exposing head kidney leucocytes, which were then subjected to Aeromonas antigen stimulation. The yellowtail full-length cDNA sequence of SlTLR21 was 3615 bp (980 aa) showing a high degree of similarity with the counterparts of other fish species and sharing the common structural architecture of the TLR family, including LRR domains, one C-terminal LRR region, and a TIR domain. Gene expression studies revealed the constitutive expression of TLR21 mRNA in all the analyzed tissues; the highest levels were observed in spleen and head kidney where they play an important role in the fish immune system. Transcripts of TLR21 and the downstream IL-1β and TNF-α cytokine genes were most strongly up-regulated after exposure to the TLR agonists following Aeromonas antigen stimulation, suggesting they are involved in immune response. The results indicated that TLR agonists, in combination with Aeromonas antigens in head kidney leucocytes, synergistically enhance TLR21 and cytokines in yellowtail. PMID:26987525

  19. Detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and AP-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekdas, Gurol; Aslan, Gonul; Tezcan, Seda; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Yildiz, Cilem; Ozturhan, Hakan; Durmaz, Riza

    2006-04-01

    The frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. We have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. Identification of bacterial colonies was done by conventional biochemical method and API ID 20E panel (BioMerieux-France). Molecular epidemiological discrimination of the isolates was done by AP-PCR. Aeromonas spp. was detected in 6 of 148 (4%) tap water samples from 8 different locations. Five isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and one isolate was identified as Vibrio fluvialis by conventional biochemical method. These data were also confirmed by API 20E panel. One of 6 isolates was resistant to gentamicin, 2 of 6 isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4 of 6 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam and all of 6 isolates were resistant to cephalothin. All isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin. All 6 strains of Aeromonas were discriminated by AP-PCR and were determined that all isolates were from different genotypic sources. Although the frequency of the isolates was under the standard limits, the results indicate that hemolytic A. hydrophila are present in municipally treated tap water samples in Mersin City. While all strains were genotypically distinct, all of them were resistant to first generation beta lactam antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:16427154

  20. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Tukmechi; Abdolghaffar Ownagh; Ali Mohebbat

    2010-01-01

    The ''in vitro'' antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms....

  1. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tukmechi, Amir; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mohebbat, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The “in vitro” antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. A...

  2. Development of highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, António Maximiano; Abdalhai, Mandour H; Ji, Jian; Xi, Bing-Wen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jiadi; Noeline, Rasoamandrary; Lee, Byong H; Sun, Xiulan

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the construction of new high sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth complex (MWCNT-Chi-Bi) and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas. Lead sulfide nanoparticles capped with 5'-(NH2) oligonucleotides thought amide bond was used as signalizing probe DNA (sz-DNA) and thiol-modified oligonucleotides sequence was used as fixing probe DNA (fDNA). The two probes hybridize with target Aeromonas DNA (tDNA) sequence (fDNA-tDNA-szDNA). The signal of hybridization is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) after electrodeposition of released lead nanoparticles (PbS) from sz-DNA on the surface of glass carbon electrode decorated with MWCNT-Chi-Bi, which improves the deposition and traducing electrical signal. The optimization of incubation time, hybridization temperature, deposition potential, deposition time and the specificity of the probes were investigated. Our results showed the highest sensibility to detect the target gene when compared with related biosensors and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection limit for this biosensor was 1.0×10(-14) M. We could detect lower than 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Aeromonas in spiked tap water. This method is rapid and sensitive for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and would become a potential application in biomedical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25127474

  3. The involvement of tetA and tetE tetracycline resistance genes in plasmid and chromosomal resistance of Aeromonas in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the involvement of tetA and tetE genes in the tetracycline resistance of 16 strains of genus Aeromonas, isolated from clinical and food sources. Polymerase chain reactions revealed that 37.5% of the samples were positive for tetA, and also 37.5% were tetE positive. One isolate was positive for both genes. Only the isolate A. caviae 5.2 had its resistance associated to the presence of a plasmid, pSS2. The molecular characterization of pSS2 involved the construction of its restriction map and the determination of its size. The digestion of pSS2 with HindIII originated two fragments (A and B that were cloned separately into the pUC18 vector. The tetA gene was shown to be located on the HindIII-A fragment by PCR. After transforming a tetracycline-sensitive strain with pSS2, the transformants expressed the resistance phenotype and harbored a plasmid whose size was identical to that of pSS2. The results confirmed the association between pSS2 and the tetracycline resistance phenotype, and suggest a feasible dissemination of tetA and tetE among strains of Aeromonas. This study suggests the spreading tetA and tetE genes in Aeromonas in Brazil and describes a resistance plasmid that probably contributes to the dissemination of the resistance.

  4. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  5. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  6. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  7. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) during Infection with Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Asim, Muhammad; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Wei, Shun; Chen, Nan; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yang; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR) was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection. PMID:25988382

  8. Predictive modelling of growth and measurement of enzymatic synthesis and activity by a cocktail of selected Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P; Sutherland, J P

    2005-11-25

    The possibility was examined of developing a predictive model that would predict food spoilage by combining microbial growth (increase in cellular number) with extracellular enzymatic activity of a cocktail of five strains of Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris and one Aeromonas hydrophila strain. Estimations of growth and enzyme activity were made within a three-dimensional matrix of conditions: temperature 2-20 degrees C, pH value 4.0-7.5 and water activity (a(w)) 0.95-0.995. A mathematical model was constructed which predicted growth based on increases in cell number. However, although notable effects of extracellular lipases and proteases were detected, it was not possible to model enzymatic activity and prepare a combined model because the data did not follow the characteristic profile that would allow curve-fitting. Nevertheless, the model for microbial growth and information relating to enzyme activity will be made freely available in a database on the internet. PMID:16154655

  9. Characterization of pathogenic Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii associated with ulcerative syndrome from Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Günther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Hu Cai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 273 bacterial strains were isolated from 20 Chinese longsnout catfish samples. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii on the basis of Vitek GNI+ card. Furthermore, 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences of the representative strain PY50 were sequenced and showed high similarity with A. veronii bv. veronii in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of the representative strain PY50 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 13 and 4 of the 21 antimicrobial agents tested. Extracellular products of strain PY50 contained gelatinase, lecithinase, elastase, most of lipase and lipopolysaccharide. Virulence of strain PY50 and extracellular products to Chinese longsnout catfish were also tested, and LD50 were about 3.47×10(4 CFU per fish and 11.22 μg per fish in intraperitoneal injection respectively. This is the first report that A. veronii bv. veronii was the pathogenic agent of ulcerative syndrome in Chinese longsnout catfish.

  10. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  11. Molecular analysis of type II topoisomerases of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish and levofloxacin-induced resistant isolates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruixue; Du, Na; Chen, Nan; Lin, Li; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of resistance to levofloxacin for Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish and selected in vitro were examined in this study. Levofloxacin-resistant mutants were obtained by selection of A. hydrophila in vitro. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes were sequenced in Lev(R) strains and reverse mutation strains. All Lev(R) strains carried a point mutation at codon 83 (Ser → Ile), and one strain (25 %) harbored a mutation at position 92 (Leu → Met) in the GyrA-QRDR. After being transferred in a levofloxacin-free medium, one strain of the mutants was successfully reversed and the reversion was related with mutations of GyrA-QRDR at positions 81 (Gly → Asp) and 83 (Ile → Ser). No amino acid alteration was found in the ParC-QRDR. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the mutants was lower in the presence of reserpine, and all mutants were also resistant to some of the other quinolones. It was found that the mechanism of levofloxacin resistance of A. hydrophila selected in vitro was related to gyrA of type II topoisomerase, and an efflux mechanism was involved in the resistance as well. PMID:26503714

  12. Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) Using Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4 Grown in Mixed Carbon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 张广; 陈金春; 华秀英; 陈国强

    2002-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4 was grown on mixed substrates of soybean oil and lauric acid for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). A maximal poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) content of 49.13% in dry cells was obtained in a shake flask culture. PHBHHx of 6.26 -g/L was produced in a fermentation experiment over 48 -h on a sole carbon source containing 100 -g/L soybean oil, while 12.40 -g/L PHBHHx was produced on a mixed carbon source containing 80 -g/L soybean and 20 g/L lauric acid over the same period of time, resulting in a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) productivity of 0.25 -g/(L*h). The results show that mixed carbon sources are suitable for industrialized production of PHBHHx from A. hydrophila 4AK4, as the mixed carbon sources also overcome the foaming problem that occurs when lauric acid is employed as a sole carbon source in PHBHHx production.

  13. Protective effect of probiotic diets on haematobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus (Jerdon 1849 against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Chelladurai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the protective effect of probiotic diets on haemotobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus (Sporolac, comprising about 0.1 g, 0.2 g and 0.3 g. Control group of fish were fed without L. acidophilus. After 60 d of feeding the fishes in experimental group were injected with 1 mL of A. hydrophila and were supplemented with probiotic diets. The control group fishes were injected with 1 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results: Blood samples were collected for haematobiochemical analysis, while samples of the liver, and gills were examined for path histology after 7 d of infection. The result showed that the growth parameters, weight gain, specific growth rate were better in infected group maintained on the probiotic diet compared to those in control group. The haematology parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell, white blood cell, total serum protein, Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl, glucose, cholesterol and total immunoglobulin concentration and the pathohistology of the liver, gills were better in the infected fish maintained on the probiotic diet than those in the group fed the control diet. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that L. acidophilus is useful as a probiotic agent in Mystus montanus against A. hydrophila.

  14. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M; Krossøy, Bjørn; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furunculosis. Fish were vaccinated with three different adjuvanted trivalent vaccines containing formalin killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a. These were 1) the commercial vaccine Alpha Ject 3000, 2) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil adjuvant, 3) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil in water adjuvant. Fish were then exposed to A. salmonicida challenge using i.p. injection, cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater (15 ppt) or combined fresh/saltwater cohabitation. Cohabitation reflects a more natural infection mode and was shown to give better differentiation of vaccine types compared to i.p. injection of live bacteria. The latter infection mode is less successful probably due to the intra-abdominal inflammatory reactions (characterized in this study according to the Speilberg scale) induced by i.p. vaccination whereby injected live bacteria more effectively become inactivated at the site of injection. Compared to cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater was less efficient probably due to reduced survivability of A. salmonicida in saltwater, which was also experimentally verified in vitro. PMID:25783001

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  16. Characterization of serum immunoglobulin in channa striata (BLOCH) and kinetics of its response to Aeromonas hydrophila antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, P R; Mohanty, J; Garnayak, S K; Sahoo, P K

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) from the serum of Channa striata was isolated by gel electroelution and characterized further to understand its nature and subsequent applications in studying the immune response. The purity of the sample was confirmed with the presence of a single band on native gradient PAGE and the molecular weight of ∼897 kDa was determined from the gel. In SDS-PAGE, C. striata Ig was reduced to produce two bands corresponding to H (heavy) (∼72 kDa) and L (light) (∼27 kDa) chain subunits. Polyclonal antiserum against the purified Ig was raised in a rabbit and adsorbed with 10% liver tissue homogenate of C. striata to enhance its specificity. By an indirect ELISA standardized using the adsorbed rabbit antiserum, the normal serum Ig concentration in C. striata was estimated to be 3.48 mg/mL. Further, a kinetic study of specific immunoglobulin response to formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila antigen was undertaken using another indirect ELISA, which showed a significant increase in serum immunoglobulin titer from day 2 onwards and reached its peak at day 14. Subsequently, the Ig titer was dropped from day 21 onwards till the completion of the experiment at day 42, although it was at a significantly higher level than the control. PMID:23656248

  17. Multiplex-PCR for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangala, Victor S; Shoemaker, Craig A; Van Santen, Vicky L; Dybvig, Kevin; Klesius, Phillip H

    2007-03-13

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. The m-PCR to amplify target DNA fragments from Flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), Edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and Aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. The lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-PCR reaction mixture. The sensitivity threshold for detection of the 3 bacteria in tissues ranged between 3.4 x 10(2) and 2.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) of tissue (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the m-PCR was evaluated with 10 representative isolates of each of the 3 bacteria and 11 other Gram-negative and 2 Gram-positive bacteria that are taxonomically related or ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Except for a single species (A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), each set of primers specifically amplified the target DNA of the cognate species of bacteria. m-PCR was compared with bacteriological culture for identification of bacteria in experimentally infected fish. The m-PCR appears promising for the rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium columnare, E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila in infected fish compared to the time-consuming traditional bacteriological culture techniques. PMID:17465305

  18. Hesperidin Inhibits Inflammatory Response Induced by Aeromonas hydrophila Infection and Alters CD4+/CD8+ T Cell Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz S. A. Abuelsaad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is associated with a number of human diseases. Hesperidin (HES has been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of HES treatment on inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila infection in murine. Methods. A. hydrophila-infected mice were treated with HES at 250 mg/kg b.wt./week for 4 consecutive weeks. Phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and CD14 expression on intestinal infiltrating monocytes were evaluated. The expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on stimulated HUVECs and RAW macrophage was evaluated. Results. Percentage of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal tissues of infected treated mice was highly significantly increased; however, phagocytic index, ROS production, CD8+ T cells percentage, and CD14 expression on monocytes were significantly reduced. On the other hand, HES significantly inhibited A-LPS- and A-ECP-induced E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on HUVECs and ICAM-1 expression on RAW macrophage. Conclusion. Present data indicated that HES has a potential role in the suppression of inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila toxins through downmodulation of ROS production and CD14 and adhesion molecules expression, as well as increase of CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio.

  19. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11

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    Kelly M. Fulton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11 were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-“like” receptor 5 (TLR5.

  20. Influence of clove oil on certain quorum-sensing-regulated functions and biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fohad Mabood Husain; Iqbal Ahmad; Mohammad Asif; Qudsia Tahseen

    2013-12-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This signalling pathway is considered as novel and promising target for anti-infective agents. In the present investigation, effect of the Sub-MICs of clove oil on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and Aeromonas hydrophila WAF-38 strain. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of the clove oil demonstrated statistically significant reduction of las- and rhl-regulated virulence factors such as LasB, total protease, chitinase and pyocyanin production, swimming motility and exopolysaccharide production. The biofilm forming capability of PAO1 and A. hydrophila WAF-38 was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at all tested sub-MIC values. Further, the PAO1-preinfected Caenorhabditis elegans displayed an enhanced survival when treated with 1.6% v/v of clove oil. The above findings highlight the promising anti-QS-dependent therapeutic function of clove oil against P. aeruginosa.

  1. Transcriptome profiling reveals insight into distinct immune responses to Aeromonas salmonicida in gill of two rainbow trout strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebl, Alexander; Korytář, Tomáš; Köbis, Judith M; Verleih, Marieke; Krasnov, Aleksei; Jaros, Joanna; Kühn, Carsten; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom

    2014-06-01

    The fish gills represent a crucial organ for the communication with the aquatic environment. Transcriptional changes in gills of two hatchery rainbow trout strains in response to injection with the potent pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida were detected by global gene expression profiling using a 4×44K oligonucleotide microarray. Emphasis was placed on "day 3 postinfection" representing a decisive time point for the resolution of inflammation. The comparison of features and pathways differentially regulated in branchial tissues revealed that the local breeding strain BORN and imported American rainbow trout apply common and specific immune strategies. In gills of infected BORN trout, we observed a dynamic regulation of genes controlling NF-κB pathways and the induction of factors promoting the development of myeloid cells, whereas an increased expression of lysozyme and immunoglobulin genes was obvious in gills of infected import trout. In order to prove the relevance of the array-predicted candidates as well as well-known immune genes for gill immunity, a subsequent in vitro experiment was conducted. Altogether, we uncovered dynamic but moderate changes in the expression of a broad range of immune-relevant features implying the gill's involvement in pathogen defense strategies. PMID:24122123

  2. Ascophyllum nodosum in the diet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and its effect after inoculation of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira T.L. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum brown seaweed meal (FAM on the health of Nile tilapia submitted to inoculation with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experiment was conducted for a period of 40 days using 120 Nile tilapia fingerlings, with age of 40 days, distributed in 20 tanks. A diet including Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed meal at 20g.kg-1 and a control diet (without FAM were provided which constituted the treatments. Thirty days after beginning the experiment, A. hydrophila was inoculated by bacterial inoculum diluted in sterile saline solution at a concentration of 10(6 CFU ml-1. Except for the width, which was greater for the treatment with the provision of FAM (P<0.05, there was no influence on the performance parameters of the fingerlings, but the occurrence of lesions in animals inoculated with A. hydrophila and fed with FAM was lower and they also exhibited a decline in the lesions in a shorter period of time than the control group. FAM prevents hepatopancreatic congestion in infected animals. Ascophyllum nodosum brown seaweed meal reduced the number of lesions in fish in a shorter time when compared to the control group.

  3. Protective effect of probiotic diets on haematobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus (Jerdon 1849) against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurusamy Chelladurai; Jebaraj Felicitta; Rathinasami Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the protective effect of probiotic diets on haemotobiochemical histopathology changes of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). and Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) (Sporolac), comprising about 0.1 g, 0.2 g and 0.3 g. Control group of fiinsjhe cwteedre wfeitdh w1i tmhoLu ot fL A. .a chiyddorpohpihluilsa. Aafntedr w60e rde osfu pfepeldeimnge nttheed fiwshitehs pinro ebxiopteirci mdieenttsa.l Tghroeu cpo nwterroel group fishes were injected with 1 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results: Blood samples were collected for haematobiochemical analysis, while samples of the lgirvoewr,t ha npda rgaimllse tweresr,e w eexiagmhti ngeadin f,o srp peactihfi ch igsrtoowlotghy raafttee rw 7e rde obfe itntefer citnio inn.f eTchtee dr egsruolut ps hmoawiendta tihnaetd t hone stheed ipmreonbtiaottiiocn d rieatt ec, ormedp abrleodo dto c tehlol,s ew hinit ec obnlotroodl gcreollu,p t.o tTahl es ehrauemm aptrooltoegiyn ,p Marga2m+, eCtear2+s,, Celr,y gthluroccoystee, cbheottleers tienr othl ea nindf etocttaeld i mfismh umnaoignlotabiunleidn ocnon tcheen ptrraotbioiont iacn ddi etht eth paant hthohosiset oinlo tghye o gf rtohuep l ifveedr ,t hgeil lcso wnterroel diet. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that L. acidophilus is useful as a probiotic agent in Mystus montanus against A. hydrophila.

  4. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia W Pridgeon; Phillip H Klesius; Gregory A Lewbart; Harry V Daniels; Megan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods:Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2) g] were 6.1í104 and 1.1í107 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4í107 and 5.6í107 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  5. Lethal dose and clinical signs of Aeromonas hydrophila in Arapaima gigas (Arapaimidae), the giant fish from Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcia K R; Sampaio, Luciana S; Proietti-Junior, Aldo A; Yoshioka, Eliane T O; Rodrigues, Dália P; Rodriguez, Anselmo F R; Ribeiro, Ricardo A; Faria, Fernando S E D V; Ozório, Rodrigo O A; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-05-30

    Aeromonas hydrophila is causing substantial economic losses in world aquaculture. This study determined the tolerance limit (LD50-96h) of A. hydrophila in Arapaima gigas, and also investigated the clinical signs after intradermal inoculation. Arapaima gigas fingerlings were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0 (control), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(6), 1.0×10(7), 1.0×10(9) and 1.0×10(10)CFU/mL of A. hydrophila for the determination of LD50-96h, which was 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL. In another trial with intradermal inoculation of 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL A. hydrophila, there was a 91.6% of mortality between 8 and 23h, and several clinical signs were found. As follows: depigmentation in the tegument, lesions in the tail and fins, loss of balance, reduction of respiratory movements, hemorrhagic foci, necrotic hemorrhages in the kidney, liver and swim bladder, splenomegaly, ascites in the abdominal cavity and hyperemia, enlargement of the gall bladder, among other clinical signs observed. The results showed that A. gigas has a relative tolerance to A. hydrophila when compared to other Neotropical fish species. PMID:27139024

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility, hemolysis, and hemagglutination among Aeromonas spp. isolated from water of a bovine abattoir Perfil de resistência/sensibilidade e virulência de espécies de Aeromonas isoladas de amostras de água obtidas em abatedouro bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Bizani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aeromonas spp. in food has been demonstrated. They are often introduced from water, which is the natural habitat of many species and is thought to be the main source of contamination. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. was investigated in 70 water samples of a bovine abattoir. Aeromonas spp. were present in 21.4% of water samples. A. hydrophila was isolated from 11.4% of supplying water samples and from 25.7% of the water drained from carcasses, whereas A. sobria was sole isolated from 5.7% of supplying water samples. Although greater number of positive samples were from water drained from carcasses, only A. hydrophila isolates were present. This suggests that the supplying water is the source of contamination. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed all strains were resistant to b-lactam antibiotics. However, the susceptibility to other antimicrobials was variable, being A. hydrophila more resistant than A. sobria strains. The investigation for virulence factors revealed positive reactions of hemolysis and hemagglutination. The results indicate that Aeromonas spp. are present in the supplying water system. These microorganisms may be a potential contaminant of carcasses and widespread in derived food.A presença de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas nos alimentos tem sido demonstrada. Normalmente destacam-se os alimentos que durante sua industrialização entraram em contato com a água, a qual é tida como habitat natural das diversas espécies e principal fonte de contaminação. Objetivando determinar a ocorrência de espécies de Aeromonas, bem como aspectos relacionados a sua virulência como capacidade de hemólise e hemoaglutinação, foram analisadas 70 amostras de água divididas entre água de abastecimento e de escoamento de lavagem das carcaças. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se a ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. em 21,4% das amostras. A. hydrophila obteve o maior índice de isolamento, 11,4% em

  7. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  8. Prevalence, pathogenesis, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and in-vitro activity of selected medicinal plants against Aeromonas isolates from stool samples of patients in the Venda region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, C L; Ramalivhana, J; Samie, A; Igumbor, E O

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence, pathogenic indices, such as haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities, antibiograms, and in-vitro activities of local medicinal plants against Aeromonas isolates in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa, were studied using standard microbiological methods. In total, 309 diarrhoeic stool samples were collected from patients attending five health centres in the region during December 2004-May 2005. Aeromonas species were identified using the API 20E system. The haemagglutinating and haemolytic activities of isolates on human, sheep, pig and chicken red blood cells were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates to several antibiotics and in-vitro activity of local medicinal plants were also ascertained using previously-reported schemes. Results showed that 104 (33.6%) of the 309 samples were positive for Aeromonas species, of which 89 (85.6%) were Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 (11.5%) A. sobria, and three (2.9%) A. caviae. All strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae produced haemolysis on sheep blood, while eight of the 12 A. sobria strains were haemolytic on sheep blood. The haemolytic activities of the isolates were variable on other red blood cells tested. High level of resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin, followed by cefuroxime (79%), chloramphenicol (74%), and erythromycin (65%). The carbapenems were the most active drugs with only 7% resistance to meropenem and 11% to imipenem. About 12% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The extracts of three of seven medicinal plants tested showed inhibitory activity against all Aeromonas isolates; these included acetone and hexane extracts of Pterocarpus angolensis, Syzygium cordatum, and Zornia milneana. The results suggest a high prevalence of Aeromonas species in the region. The isolates demonstrated multiple resistant profiles to different antibiotics tested. Some local medicinal plants were inhibitory to Aeromonas isolates, indicating a

  9. PEMBERIAN TOTAL FENOL TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra UNTUK MENINGKATKAN LEUKOSIT DAN DIFERENSIAL LEUKOSIT IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Suhermanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery commodities are most likely to be increased production of carp (Cyprinus carpio. Intensification of cultivation which raises new problems with fish disease outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Providing of immunostimulatory bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra can enhance non-specific immune responses in the goldfish as a mechanism of defense against disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and optimal dose of total phenols sea cucumber in enhancing non-specific immune response seen from the hematology parameters Extraction of bioactive components from sea cucumber prepared by using methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate solvent (v/v. Identification of total phenols in ethyl acetate fraction performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and infrared. Total phenol produced was tested on carp with intraperitonial injection, the concentration of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mg phenol/kg fish. Challenge test was done by using the Aeromonas hydrophila (107 cells/ml through the immersion method. The observations included hematological parameters and total plasma proteins.The observations of hematological parameters that Leukocytes, Neutrophils pre-and post-infection were significantly increased. Lymphocyte pre infection was increased significantly and post-bacterial infection was decreased significantly. Eosinophils, Monocytes pre-and post-bacterial infection were not differ significantly between treatment. The use of phenolic compounds at 0.09 mg / kg can be increase of non-specific immune response in carp (Cyprinus carpio. Key Words : Total phenol, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cyprinus carpio, nonspecific immune response 

  10. Effect of effluent from a nitrogen fertilizer factory and a pulp mill on the distribution and abundance of Aeromonas hydrophila in Albemarle Sound, North Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, T C; Esch, G W

    1983-01-01

    The density of Aeromonas hydrophila, standard count bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, and 18 physical and chemical parameters were measured simultaneously at six sites for 12 months in Albemarle Sound, N.C. One site was above and two sites were below the discharge plume of a Kraft pulping process paper mill. The fourth site was above and the remaining two sites were below the discharge point of a nitrogen fertilizer factory. The impact of the pulp mill on water quality was acute, whereas tha...

  11. Complete Sequences of IncU Plasmids Harboring Quinolone Resistance Genes qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr in Aeromonas spp. from Ornamental Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiasova, Hana; Videnska, Petra; Dolejska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of three IncU plasmids from Aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish are described. They had a typical IncU backbone for plasmid replication and maintenance functions, but conjugative transfer modules were disrupted. The gene qnrS2 was inserted into mpR as a mobile insertion cassette. Novel Tn3 family transposons carrying putative toxin-antitoxin and plasmid stability genes were identified. The study demonstrates high plasticity of IncU plasmids from aquatic environments. PMID:26525788

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. PMID:27540048

  13. The Characterization of Protein Profiles of the Aeromonas hydrophila and A. caviae Strains Isolated from Gull and Rainbow Trout Feces by SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    KÖRKOCA, Hanifi; BOYNUKARA, Banur

    2003-01-01

    Ten motile Aeromonads, including one Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7512, were used. Of the strains, five were isolated from gulls (one A. hydrophila strain and four A. caviae strains) and four from rainbow trout (three A. hydrophila strains and one A. caviae strain). Whole cell protein profiles of these strains were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Forty-five pairs were formed in comparing the protein profiles of each strain. Of the pairs, 17 (37.8%) were different, 18 (40%) were unclear and 10 (22.2%) were...

  14. Distribution of cphA or related carbapenemase-encoding genes and production of carbapenemase activity in members of the genus Aeromonas.

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Rossolini; Zanchi, A.; Chiesurin, A; Amicosante, G; Satta, G; Guglielmetti, P

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of the cphA gene or related carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated in 114 Aeromonas strains belonging to the six species of major clinical interest. A species-related distribution of cphA-related sequences was observed. Similar sequences were found in A. hydrophila, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii, and A. jandaei, but not in A. caviae, A. trota, or A. schubertii. However, a single A. caviae strain (of 62 tested) was found carrying cphA-related sequences, su...

  15. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  16. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₄-HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₆-HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₈-HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C₈-HSL, rather than C₆-HSL. Exogenous C₄-HSL and C₈-HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C₆-HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot. PMID:27420072

  17. Novel microbial route to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and their activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, C.; Rahuman, A. Abdul; Kirthi, A. Vishnu; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Bagavan, A.; Gaurav, K.; Karthik, L.; Rao, K. V. Bhaskara

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we describe a low-cost, unreported and simple procedure for biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using reproducible bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, AFM, NC-AFM and FESEM with EDX analyses were performed to ascertain the formation and characterization of ZnO NPs. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by a peak at 374 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles and AFM showed the morphology of the nanoparticle to be spherical, oval with an average size of 57.72 nm. Synthesized ZnO NPs showed the XRD peaks at 31.75°, 34.37°, 47.60°, 56.52°, 66.02° and 75.16° were identified as (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 0 2), (1 1 0), (1 1 2) and (2 02 ) reflections, respectively. Rietveld analysis to the X-ray data indicated that ZnO NPs have hexagonal unit cell at crystalline level. The size and topological structure of the ZnO NPs was measured by NC-AFM. The morphological characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was analyzed by FESEM and chemical composition by EDX. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was ended with corresponding well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in the ZnO NPs (25 μg/mL) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 ± 1.8 mm) and Aspergillus flavus (19 ± 1.0 mm). Bacteria-mediated ZnO NPs were synthesized and proved to be a good novel antimicrobial material for the first time in this study.

  18. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  19. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of laccase from Aeromonas hydrophila NIU01 in Escherichia coli with parameters optimization in production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Yinghua

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies disclosed that Aeromonas hydrophila NIU01 was a biodecolorization and bioelectricity bacterium which was isolated from a cross-strait of Taiwan. However, enzymatic function, laccase, involved in this strain had never been reported. This first attempt is to explore its laccase activity, the molecular cloning and heterologous recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. A full-length novel gene of 1,647 bp, LacA, encoding of 549 amino acids was successfully cloned by polymerase chain reaction. The recombinant pET-15b(+)-NIU-LacA expression was compared in different E. coli strains. By applying Taguchi's L9 in culture optimization, the soluble laccase increased to 22.7 %, in which the conditions were obtained at 22 °C with initial shaking speed at 200 rpm, addition of lactose of 0.2 mM and CuSO4 of 0.5 mM to the medium, and shaking off while cell mass reached to OD(600nm) of 1.5. NIU-LacA was strongly inhibited by chloride ion. The optimal temperature was 60 °C and the optimum pH for ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) and 2,6-DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) were pH 2.1 and pH 7.5 which enzymatic activity was 274.6 and 44.8 U/L, respectively. Further study in structural modeling of NIU-LacA showed the C terminal domain was the major variance in the three most closely A. hydrophila strains. PMID:23423657

  20. A tandem-repeat galectin-9 involved in immune response of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ke, Fei; Ma, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuaibang

    2016-04-01

    Galectins exclusively recognize and bind β-galactoside on cell surface by carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of extensive study of mammalian galectin importance in immune system, little is known about that of fish. To study the immune response of yellow catfish to pathogens, a tandem-repeat galectin-9 from yellow catfish was identified and named PfGAL9. Its full-length cDNA was 1314 bp, including a 117 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 951 bp of open reading frame (ORF), and a 246 bp of 3' UTR. The ORF encoded 316 amino acids (35.12 KDa), shared the highest 78% identity with the predicted galectin-9 of Ictalurus punctatus. This protein possessed two distinct CRDs with two highly conserved sugar binding motifs. Quantitative PCR showed that PfGAL9 was lowly expressed in skin, gill, fin, muscle, heart, and intestine, highly expressed in tested immune tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, spleen, and blood) in normal body. After inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, PfGAL9 was remarkably increased in head kidney and liver in a time-dependent manner. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, which not only agglutinated but also bond all examined bacteria. The binding activities are consistent with the size of aggregates formed by agglutinated bacteria. The agglutination must depend on its direct interaction with bacteria. These results suggested that PfGAL9 was involved in the innate immune response against bacterial infection and clearance of pathogens in yellow catfish. PMID:26892795

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuates Aeromonas hydrophila induced cytotoxicity in catla thymus macrophages by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhakti; Kumar, Premranjan; Banerjee, Rajanya; Basu, Madhubanti; Pal, Arttatrana; Samanta, Mrinal; Das, Surajit

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila, a potent fish pathogen, is attributed to its ability to cause motile aeromonad septicaemia leading to apoptosis in a myriad of fish species, including freshwater carp Catla catla. However, the underlying mechanism of antagonistic activity of probiotics against A. hydrophila induced apoptosis is not elucidated due to lack of appropriate in-vitro models. This study reported that the exposure of catla thymus macrophages (CTM) to A. hydrophila markedly induced cellular injuries as evidenced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), increased apoptosis, DNA damage and decreased cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis and Annexin-V/propidium iodide assay further confirmed increased ROS positive cells leading to cell death after infection. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis, also revealed upregulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα), cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) and downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Pretreatment of cells with probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuated A. hydrophila induced apoptosis as evident from the decrease in the levels of ROS, RNS and DNA damage. Significant increase (P≤0.05) in expression of TNFα and IL-10 and decrease in iNOS and COX-2 was observed on probiotic stimulation. In-vivo study using catla fingerlings confirmed similar pattern of ROS, iNOS, NO production and cytokine expression in thymus. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the mechanistic basis of L. acidophilus induced macrophage mediated inflammatory response against A. hydrophila in CTM cells. Further, it speculates the possibility of using cost-effective in-vitro models for screening probiotic candidates of therapeutic potential in aquaculture industry. PMID:27262084

  2. Immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Schizothorax prenanti fed with oxidized konjac glucomannan and its acidolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiaoran; Wu, Yinglong; Xu, Huailiang; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Haolan; Xia, Xiaojie; Feng, Jiao

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary oxidized konjac glucomannan (OKGM) and its acidolysis products (L-OKGM) on the immune parameters and the gene expression profile of some inflammatory-related cytokines from Schizothorax prenanti during the early stages of injection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were orally administered with seven different diets containing 0 g kg(-1) (control diet), 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 g kg(-1) OKGM and L-OKGM diets for 60 days prior to injection. After 60 days, the control and the treated fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 ml PBS or 2 × 10(7) cfu/ml bacteria per fish and sampled at time 6 h post-injection. The results showed that the serum lysozyme activity and complement C3 level of fish fed 8.0 g kg(-1) L-OKGM was significantly increased after bacterial infection. Moreover, the injection with A. hydrophila generally up-regulated the expression of all measured genes when compared to their corresponding controls. When compared with the control group, the expression of TLR22, TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased in fish fed OKGM and L-OKGM diet after bacterial injection. Furthermore, the L-OKGM diet showed higher activity to trigger the immune response against bacteria, especially the low dosage L-OKGM diet. The results suggested that both of OKGM and L-OKGM are promising feed additive for S. prenanti in aquaculture. PMID:26748343

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yunfei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yubang; Hu, Moyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Lisen; Lv, Liqun; Li, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens. PMID:27383749

  4. Protective effects of the prebiotic on the immunological indicators of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Ghafari Farsani, Hamed; Khazaei, Amin; Khodadadi, Mohammad; Rashidiyan, Ghasem; Jalali, M Ali

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of dietary administration of commercial prebiotic, Immunogen, on immunological indicators, enzymatic responses and stress tolerance in juvenile (81.65 ± 1.49) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The first group of fish was fed with the diet containing 2 g kg(-1) Immunogen whilst the control group received the diet free of Immunogen. There were three replicates per group. After 6 weeks feeding, the control group were divided into two treatments injected with saline buffer (control), and 1.5 × 10(8) CFU A. hydrophila respectively. The fish fed with the Immunogen supplemented diet were also injected with 1.5 × 10(8) CFU A. hydrophila. Our results revealed that dietary Immunogen increased the level of white blood cell (WBC) and percentage of lymphocyte (P protein, albumin and globulin decreased in Untreated- Challenged group compared to control group. However, there was an increase in the level of lysozyme, alternative complement, antiprotease activity, bactericidal activity, in the Treated- Challenged group compared to other groups (P  0.05). Serum cortisol and glucose levels were higher in the challenge group, but these levels were lower in fish under challenge that were fed Immunogen-supplemented diet in contrast to the group fed control diet. The stress responses affected by A. hydrophila challenge (P effect against this change. PMID:27184111

  5. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents. PMID:26396008

  6. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Streptococcus phocae in Chilean marine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Cammas, D; Yañez, A; Arancibia, G; Toranzo, A E; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2011-12-01

    A multiplex (m-)PCR-based protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of the main marine bacterial pathogens in Chilean salmon farms: Streptococcus phocae, Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum and Piscirickettsia salmonis. Each of the 4 oligonucleotide primer pairs exclusively amplified the target gene of the specific bacterial pathogen. The detection limit of the m-PCR using purified total bacterial DNA was 50 pg microl(-1) for V anguillarum, 500 fg microl(-1) for P. salmonis, and 5 pg microl(-1) for S. phocae and A. salmonicida. This corresponded to average limits in the m-PCR sensitivity of 3.69 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of V anguillarum, 1.26 x 10(4) CFU m(-1) of S. phocae, and 5.33 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of A. salmonicida, while the detection limits for the spiked fish tissues, regardless of the sample (spleen, kidney, liver or muscle) were 2.64 +/- 0.54 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) for V. anguillarum, 9.03 +/- 1.84 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) for S. phocae, 3.8 +/- 0.78 x 10(3) CFU mg(-1) for A. salmonicida and 100 P. salmonis cells. However, high amounts of DNA from 3 bacterial species had a reduction of -1 log-unit on the amplification sensitivity of S. phocae or A. salmonicida when these were present in lower concentration in the multiplex reaction. The assay described in this study is a rapid, sensitive and efficient tool to detect the presence of S. phocae, A. salmonicida, V. anguillarum and P. salmonis simultaneously from pure cultures and tissues from clinically diseased fish. Therefore, it may be a useful alternative to culture-based methods for the diagnosis of infections in fish obtained from Chilean salmon farms. PMID:22303630

  7. Humoral immune response and TLR9 gene expression in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) experimentally exposed to Aeromonas veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Ascencio, Felipe

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture production of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru is growing rapidly in Mexico, especially in Gulf of California. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. The Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas veronii is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. For the purpose of this study, juvenile Pacific red snapper specimens were intraperitoneally injected with low doses of A. veronii (1 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)). Changes in humoral immune parameters (total protein, myeloperoxidase, lisozyme and antiprotease activities and IgM levels), as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and TLR9 gene expression were evaluated 24 and 48 h after injection. Overall, the results showed an enhanced in humoral immune parameters and SOD and CAT activities in fish infected with A. veronii compared with control group at 24 or 48 h. By real time PCR assays, the basal mRNA transcripts of TLR9 showed that were highly expressed in intestine and leucocytes compared to skin, head kidney, liver and gill. Then, the mRNA expression levels of TLR9 in head kidney, skin, liver and intestine were analyzed in non-infected and experimentally infected fish 24 and 48 h after injection. A. veronii up-regulated the expression of TLR9 at 24 or 48 h of exposure in all samples analyzed except in liver. Interestingly, intestine produced the greatest increase in transcript levels upon exposure (48 h) to A. veronii. Taken together, our results suggest that low doses of A. veronii infection inducing humoral immune system and TLR9 immune gene in Pacific red snapper that can be useful in the health control of this species. PMID:25462554

  8. A new haplotype variability in complement C6 is marginally associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Zhang, Junbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Jiale

    2013-05-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortality and tremendous economic loss in cultured grass carp in the mainland China. The complement component C6 is a constituent of a biochemical cascade that serves as a major effector of the human innate and adaptor immunity, and eliminates infected cells. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C6 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. The gcC6 genomic sequence is composed of 9292 bp, containing 18 exons and 17 introns. The promoter sequence of gcC6 gene contained several consensus sequences for hepatic-specific transcription factors. We sequenced a total of 9744 bp of the C6 gene from a diverse population of grass carp and identified 8 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of association between any individual SNPs and resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. The SNPs 1214G>A, 1380G>C, 2095A>C and 2167T>C were linked together (r(2) > 0.8). The haplotype GCCC generated with these four SNPs was associated marginally with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest a lack of strong association of the C6 polymorphisms with the A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. PMID:23422818

  9. Effects of naturally occurring aquatic organic fractions on 241Am uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae) and Aeromonas hydrophila (Pseudomonadaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring organics were extracted from water collected from Skinface Pond near Aiken, S.C. Organics were separated into four nominal diameter size fractions (I, greater than 0.0183; II, 0.0183 to 0.0032; III, 0.0032 to 0.0009; IV, less than 0.0009 μm) by membrane ultrafiltration and introduced into Scenedesmus obliquus and Aeromonas hydrophila cultures to determine their effects on 241Am availability for uptake. Effects on 241Am uptake were determined in actively growing S. obliquus cultures after 96 h of growth and in dense cultures of nongrowing cells after 4 h. Uptake by A. hydrophila was determined after 4 and 24 h in actively growing cultures. All organic fractions stimulated S. obliquus growth, with the most pronounced effects due to larger organic fractions, whereas no apparent growth stimulation of A. hydrophila was observed for any organic fraction. For both long-term and short-term studies, cellular 241Am concentration (picocuries/cell) increased with increasing 241Am concentration for S. obliquus and A. hydrophila. Fraction IV increased 241Am uptake by both S. obliquus and A. hydrophila during 4-h incubations. During 96-h incubations fraction I was flocculated and cosedimented, with S. obliquus and A. hydrophila cells causing an apparent increase in 241Am uptake. Fractions II and III reduced apparent 241Am uptake by S. obliquus as a result of biological dilution caused by increased algal growth due to the organics. Fraction IV caused a reduction in 241Am uptake by S. obliquus not attributable to biological dilution. Organics increased 241Am uptake by A. hydrophila during 4- and 24-h incubations. A. hydrophila also caused flocculation of fraction I during 96-h incubations

  10. A 425 T>C polymorphism in complement C7 association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y B; Zhang, J B; Fu, J J; Xu, X Y; Li, J L; Wang, R Q; Xuan, Y F

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortalities and tremendous economic loss in cultured fish. The complement component C7 is a terminal component of complement that interacts in a sequence of polymerization reactions with other terminal complement components to form a membrane attack complex. The formation of the membrane attack complex creates a pore in the membranes of certain pathogen that can lead to their death. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C7 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. We sequenced a total of 7826 bp of the C7 gene and identified 6 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. The SNP -1575 A>C was positioned in the promoter region of the gene. The SNP 425 C>T identified in the coding exon was a synonymous substitution in the fourth exon. Statistical analysis showed that SNP 425 C>T was associated with the incidence of hemorrhagic septicemia. The SNPs -1575 A>C, -688 T>C, and -266 A>C were highly linked together (r(2) > 0.85). No haplotypes generated with these 3 SNPs were associated with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest that the 425 C>T polymorphism in C7 gene may be a significant molecular marker for resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. PMID:27050969

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  12. Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase, FabV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Hae-Jin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. Although the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homolog. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace the triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologs revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralog in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature, and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25370725

  13. Eficácia do florfenicol e da oxitetraciclina no controle de Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Carraschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração eficaz de oxitetraciclina (OTC e florfenicol (FFC no tratamento de Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu (Piaractus. mesopotamicus. Os pacus foram submetidos à captura duas vezes ao dia por quatro dias e em seguida foram infectados com A. hydrophila (2,4x10(7 bactéria mL-1. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: controle sem infecção (CSI, controle com infecção (CCI e tratados com 110,0; 140,0 e 170,0mgOTC.kg-1, e 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0mgFFC.kg-1. As variáveis de qualidade da água foram monitoradas diariamente. Após o tratamento, no CSI dos dois testes, ocorreu 100% de sobrevivência. Nos testes com OTC, no CCI, a sobrevivência foi de 29,2%; em 110,0mg.kg-1, 37,5%; em 140,0mg.kg-1, 29,2%; e em 170,0mg.kg-1, 50,0%. Nos testes com FFC, foi eficaz com 10,0mg.kg-1, e no CCI a sobrevivência foi de 76,9%; em 5,0mg.kg-1, 81,81%; em 10,0mg/L.kg-1, 100% e em 15,0mg.kg-1, 87,5%. A OTC, em concentrações de até 170,0mg.kg-1 de ração, não é eficaz para o controle de A. hydrophila em pacu, e o FFC é eficaz na concentração de 10,0mg.kg-1 e ambos não alteram as variáveis de qualidade de água.

  14. Identification of gyrB and rpoB gene mutations and differentially expressed proteins between a novobiocin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila catfish vaccine strain and its virulent parent strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence comparison between the full-length 2412 bp DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of a novobiocin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila AH11NOVO vaccine strain and that of its virulent parent strain AH11P revealed 10 missense mutations. Similarly, sequence comparison between the full-length 4092 bp RNA ...

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the novobiocin and rifampicin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine strain AL09-71 N+R compared to its virulent parent strain AL90-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the fitness cost of novobiocin- and rifampicin- resistance in an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophiila vaccine strain AL09-71 N+R compared to its virulent parent strain AL09-71, colony size, cell size, cell proliferation rate, chemotactic response, and the ability to invade catfish gill cel...

  16. Evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical Aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture’s ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Rodgers, M R; Lye, D J; Stelma, G N; McKinstry, Craig A.; Malard, Joel M.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-10-01

    Aims: To assess the virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Methods and Results: After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., mRNA extracts from the two models were processed and hydridized to murine microarrays to determine host gene response. Definition of virulence was determined based on host mRNA production in murine neonatal intestinal tissue and mortality of infected animals. Infections of mouse intestinal cell cultures were then performed to determine whether this simpler model system’s mRNA responses correlated to neonatal results and therefore be predictive of virulence of Aeromonas spp. Virulent aeromonads up-regulated transcripts in both models including multiple host defense gene products (chemokines, regulation of transcription and apoptosis and cell signalling). Avirulent species exhibited little or no host response in neonates. Mortality results correlated well with both bacterial dose and average fold change of up-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mice. Conclusions: Cell culture results were less discriminating but showed promise as potentially being able to be predictive of virulence. Jun oncogene up-regulation in murine cell culture is potentially predictive of Aeromonas virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Having the ability to determine virulence of waterborne pathogens quickly would potentially assist public health officials to rapidly assess exposure risks.

  17. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  18. The route of antimicrobial resistance from the hospital effluent to the environment: focus on the occurrence of KPC-producing Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae in sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picão, Renata C; Cardoso, Juliana P; Campana, Eloiza H; Nicoletti, Adriana G; Petrolini, Fernanda V B; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Gales, Ana C

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile and the occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Gram-negative rods in sewage samples obtained from a Brazilian teaching hospital and from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that receives it for treatment. We identified multidrug-resistant bacteria as well as KPC-2-producing Aeromonas spp. and several Enterobacteriaceae species, including Kluyvera spp., in the hospital effluent and in different sites of the WWTP. Most isolates showed the blaKPC-2 gene harbored on a transposon that was carried by conjugative plasmids. The presence of KPC production among Aeromonas spp., Kluyvera spp., and other Enterobacteriaceae indicates the adaptability of such isolates to aquatic environments, not only in the hospital effluent but also throughout the WWTP. Although secondary treatment seems to decrease the amount of KPC producers in sewage, multidrug-resistant isolates are continually disposed in the urban river. Thus, sewage treatment regulations are urgently needed to decelerate the evolution of antimicrobial resistance beyond hospitals. PMID:23478032

  19. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-01-01

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems. PMID:27609474

  20. Aeromonas hydrophila OmpW PLGA Nanoparticle Oral Vaccine Shows a Dose-Dependent Protective Immunity in Rohu (Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dubey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton. The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW was characterized as having a diameter of 370–375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and −19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs and relative percent survival (RPS in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila OmpW PLGA Nanoparticle Oral Vaccine Shows a Dose-Dependent Protective Immunity in Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Paul, Joydeb; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes high mortality in different fish species and at different growth stages. Although vaccination has significantly contributed to the decline of disease outbreaks in aquaculture, the use of oral vaccines has lagged behind the injectable vaccines due to lack of proven efficacy, that being from primary immunization or by use of boost protocols. In this study, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) of A. hydrophila was cloned, purified, and encapsulated in poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for oral vaccination of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). The physical properties of PLGA NPs encapsulating the recombinant OmpW (rOmpW) was characterized as having a diameter of 370–375 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 53% and −19.3 mV zeta potential. In vitro release of rOmpW was estimated at 34% within 48 h of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. To evaluate the efficacy of the NP-rOmpW oral vaccine, two antigen doses were orally administered in rohu with a high antigen (HiAg) dose that had twice the amount of antigens compared to the low antigen (LoAg) dose. Antibody levels obtained after vaccination showed an antigen dose dependency in which fish from the HiAg group had higher antibody levels than those from the LoAg group. The antibody levels corresponded with post challenge survival proportions (PCSPs) and relative percent survival (RPS) in which the HiAg group had a higher PCSP and RPS than the LoAg group. Likewise, the ability to inhibit A. hydrophila growth on trypticase soy agar (TSA) by sera obtained from the HiAg group was higher than that from the LoAg group. Overall, data presented here shows that OmpW orally administered using PLGA NPs is protective against A. hydrophila infection with the level of protective immunity induced by oral vaccination being antigen dose-dependent. Future studies should seek to optimize the antigen dose and duration of oral immunization in rohu in order to

  2. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  3. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Hirsch; Delton José Pereira Júnior; Priscila Vieira Rosa Logato; Roberta Hilsdorf Piccoli; Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo

    2006-01-01

    Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis), uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficia...

  4. Formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel using milk and different conditions of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Cleube Andrade Boari; Mariana Pereira Alves; Victor Maximiliano Reis Tebaldi; Taciana Villela Savian; Roberta Hilsdorf Piccoli

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em avaliar a formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo. As variáveis em estudo consistem no cultivo monoespécie e combinado, dos referidos microrganismos e nas temperaturas de 4, 7 e 18 °C. Recipientes contendo 1000 mL de leite, densidade populacional de 10(5) UFC.mL-1 de cada microrganismo e 10 cupons de aço inoxidável (10 × 20 mm) foram lacrados e armazenados, sob...

  5. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  6. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Kokotovic, Branco; Skall, Helle Frank; Lorenzen, Niels; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously...... fish by real-time PCR compared to 30% by a culture approach). Also, no real-time PCR-negative samples were found positive by culturing. A. salmonicida was detected by real-time PCR, though not by culturing, in freshwater fish showing no signs of furunculosis, indicating possible presence of carrier...... fish. In seawater fish examined after an outbreak and antibiotics treatment, real-time PCR showed the presence of the bacterium in all examined organs (1-482 genomic units mg-1). With a limit of detection of 40 target copies (1-2 genomic units) per reaction, a high reproducibility and an excellent...

  7. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH. PMID:25984772

  8. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN in vivo E in vitro DEL LIPOPOLISACÁRIDO DE Aeromonas hydrophila In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization And Evaluation Of Aeromonas hydrophila Lipopolysacharides (LPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP JIMÉNEZ

    Full Text Available A partir de una cepa de A. hydrophila aislada de un brote de enfermedad septicémica en Tilapia nilótica (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus, se obtuvieron extractos de lipopolisacárido (LPS crudo (29,5 mg/ml y semipurificado (106,5 mg/ml mediante la técnica fenol-agua caliente descrita por Westphal, Jann (1965. La presencia de proteína fue del 2,3% para el extracto crudo y de 0,1% para el semipurificado; la concentración de polisacáridos osciló entre el 15 y 26%. En electroforesis (SDS-PAGE se observaron bandas de 14 Kd correspondientes al oligosacárido central y al lípido A del LPS. Tres ratones de 25-35 g fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente con 25 mg/Kg de LPS cru-do, a partir de la primera hora todos los animales mostraron erizamiento, taquipnea e inapetencia; microscópicamente se detectó congestión hepática y pulmonar, hemorragias pulmonares y renales, marginación leucocitaria en hígado y pulmón con predominio de polimorfo-nucleares neutrófilos (PMN en todos los animales, mostrando un mayor efecto que el control inoculado con LPS de E. coli (Sigma® a la misma concentración. In vitro el LPS crudo a concentración de 10, 20 y 30 µg/ml indujo proliferación de células mono-nucleares murinas (2 x 10 5 en 200 µl de medio DMEM por incorporación de timidina tritiada; tanto el LPS control (E. coli, como el LPS crudo de A. hydrophila mostraron cuentas por minuto (CPM ascendentes de manera dosis dependiente, el LPS de A. hydrophila desencadeno una proliferación muy similar a la inducida por el control.Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a septicemic disease outbreak in tilapia (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus was used to prepare crude (29.5 mg/ml and semipurified (106.5 mg/ml lipopolysacharide extracts (LPS based on the phenol-hot water protocol (Westphal and Jann, 1965. Protein contents were 2.3% and 0.1% for the crude and the semipurified extracts, respectively, while the polysacharides ranged from 15 to

  10. Strategies to avoid wrongly labelled genomes using as example the detected wrong taxonomic affiliation for aeromonas genomes in the GenBank database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Around 27,000 prokaryote genomes are presently deposited in the Genome database of GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI and this number is exponentially growing. However, it is not known how many of these genomes correspond correctly to their designated taxon. The taxonomic affiliation of 44 Aeromonas genomes (only five of these are type strains deposited at the NCBI was determined by a multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA and by pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI. Discordant results in relation to taxa assignation were found for 14 (35.9% of the 39 non-type strain genomes on the basis of both the MLPA and ANI results. Data presented in this study also demonstrated that if the genome of the type strain is not available, a genome of the same species correctly identified can be used as a reference for ANI calculations. Of the three ANI calculating tools compared (ANI calculator, EzGenome and JSpecies, EzGenome and JSpecies provided very similar results. However, the ANI calculator provided higher intra- and inter-species values than the other two tools (differences within the ranges 0.06-0.82% and 0.92-3.38%, respectively. Nevertheless each of these tools produced the same species classification for the studied Aeromonas genomes. To avoid possible misinterpretations with the ANI calculator, particularly when values are at the borderline of the 95% cutoff, one of the other calculation tools (EzGenome or JSpecies should be used in combination. It is recommended that once a genome sequence is obtained the correct taxonomic affiliation is verified using ANI or a MLPA before it is submitted to the NCBI and that researchers should amend the existing taxonomic errors present in databases.

  11. Development of a PCR Assay Based on a Single-Base Pair Substitution for the Detection of Aeromonas caviae by Targeting the gyrB Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payattikul, Penpan; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2015-09-01

    Aeromonas caviae is a bacterial pathogen that causes various infectious diseases in both humans and animals. To facilitate its detection, we developed species-specific primer sets targeting polymorphisms in the gyrB gene for use in a PCR assay. The technique was able to detect 100% (29/29) of the A. caviae strains tested using either of two sets of primers (designated ACF1-ACR and ACF3-ACR), which produced 293-bp and 206-bp amplicons, respectively. Another set of primers (designated ACF2-ACR) yielded a 237-bp amplicon and exhibited 90% (26/29) positive results with respect to A. caviae. None of the primer sets exhibited cross-reactivity with 12 non-A. caviae isolates and 52 other non-Aeromonas bacteria. The detection limit using the ACF2-ACR and ACF3-ACR primer sets in pure culture was 1.6 × 10(3) CFU/mL, or 6 CFU per reaction, whereas that of the ACF1-ACR primer set was 1.6 × 10(4) CFU/mL, or 60 CFU per reaction. In the case of spiked Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, the sensitivity of all primer sets without enrichment was 1.8 × 10(4) CFU/g, or 30 CFU per reaction. Primer set ACF3-ACR was the best for a PCR assay targeting the gyrB gene, and the PCR technique developed was rapid, specific, and sensitive for the identification of A. caviae. PMID:26223267

  12. Development of a PCR protocol for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish by amplification of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Magi, Gian Enrico; Balboa, Sabela; Barja, Juan L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2008-04-30

    The aims of the study were to evaluate a new PCR protocol designed to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues and to develop a non-destructive method for the diagnosis of furunculosis. A set of primers (Fer3, Fer4), flanking a fragment of the fstA gene (coding for the ferric-siderophore receptor) was designed, showing to be sensitive and specific. When compared to PCR methods previously reported, the new protocol recognized all the 69 A. salmonicida strains evaluated, with no cross-reactions with the other bacterial species analysed. Sensitivity assays were performed in fish tissues seeded with serial dilutions of pure cultures of A. salmonicida and mixed cultures of this bacterium with Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila. Detection limits obtained were of 60 and 450 bacterial cells 100 mg(-1) of tissue, respectively. Mucus and blood were evaluated in order to develop a non-destructive tool to detect the pathogen. The detection limits in seeded mucus and blood samples were 2.5 x 10(2) and 1 x 10(5) bacterial cells mL(-1), respectively. When the method was used to detect A. salmonicida in asymptomatic wild salmon, four samples of mucus and six of blood were positive, corresponding to 6 out of the 31 fish examined, whereas only one of the samples resulted positive by culture methods. It is concluded that the PCR protocol evaluated is fast, specific and sensitive to detect A. salmonicida in infected and asymptomatic fish, and will be helpful for the control of the disease through the prompt detection of carriers within fish populations. PMID:18035507

  13. Effect of garlic peel on growth, hematological parameters and disease resistance againstAeromonas hydrophila in African catfishClarias gariepinus(Bloch) fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karthik Thanikachalam; Marimuthu Kasi; Xavier Rathinam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of dietary doses of garlic (Allium sativum L.) peel on the hematological and disease resistance of African catfish [Clarias gariepinus(C. gariepinus) ] fingerlings against the infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogenAeromonas hydrophila.Methods:Powdered garlic peel was incorporated into the diets at (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and1.5%) and fed to catfish fingerlings for20 days. After the feeding trial, biochemical (serum total protein, albumin and globulin), hematological parameters (white blood cells and red blood cells) of the fish were examined. Fish were challenged withAeromona hydrophila (A. hydrophila) after20days of post feeding and percentage mortalities were recorded up to10 days after post challenge.Results: Enhanced serum protein, albumin and globulin in fish fed with all the dosages of garlic peel when compared to control group. Significantly highest red blood cell and white blood cell counts were recorded in garlic peel incorporated diet fed groups compared to control group. The results also demonstrate that low survival rate (55.5±11.0)% in control groups and significantly higher survival rates were recorded in all the garlic peel fed groups after challenging withA. hydrophila. However no significant impact was noticed with regard to body weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio of fish fed with different levels of garlic peel inclusion and control group.Conclusions:These results indicate that garlic peel enhances the hematological parameters even at a low level(0.5%) incorporation and makesC. gariepinus highly immunopotent and more resistant to infection byA. hydrophila.

  14. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis, uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficial e do parênquima renal. Diluições seriadas adequadas de cada amostra foram plaqueadas em TSA-ampicilina (10 mg/l e as amostras de rim em Ágar Sangue de cavalo a 5%. A partir de colônias isoladas positivas para o teste da oxidase foram realizados testes para identificação do gênero (testes presuntivos e das espécies de Aeromonas (testes bioquímicos. O perfil de antibiograma foi obtido pelo teste de difusão de discos de antibióticos em Ágar Mueller Hinton. Foram obtidos 75 isolados diferenciados em nove espécies de Aeromonas: A. jandaei, A. hydrophila, A. trota, A. caviae, A. sobria, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii bt veronii, A. schubertii, A. media, além de amostras classificadas como Aeromonas atípicas. Do total isolado, oito amostras foram provenientes da superfície corpórea de peixes, 14 da água de abastecimento e 53 da água do tanque. Não houve isolamento a partir dos espécimes de parênquima renal. Em relação ao perfil de resistência, 93% dos isolados foram resistentes à eritromicina, 36% à tetraciclina, 13% ao ác. nalidíxico, 9% à gentamicina, 8% à nitrofurantoína, 8% à canamicina, 5% à norfloxacina, 4% ao cloranfenicol e 3% às sulfonamidas. Dentre os isolados analisados, 43% apresentaram índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR igual ou superior a 22%, ou seja, resistência a dois ou mais drogas das nove testadas. Os dados apontam para um risco iminente, tanto pelo isolamento de amostras

  15. Caracterização microbiológica e clínica de surtos de "red leg" em Minas Gerais e avaliação do efeito bactericida in vitro do Vantocil IB® para Aeromonas hydrophila Microbiological and clinical characterization of "red leg" outbreaks in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluation of in vitro bacterial effects of Vantocil IB® for Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina de Almeida

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo da caracterização da ocorrência de "red leg" em Minas Gerais, avaliaram-se rãs jovens e adultas que apresentavam úlceras nas patas e dedos, derrame hemorrágico na pele da região ventral, incoordenação motora, altas taxas de mortalidade em adultos e abscessos hepáticos à necropsia. No cultivo de fragmentos de pele lesada e abscessos, foi isolado e identificado Aeromonas hydrophila. O efeito bactericida do VANTOCIL IB® foi superior ao permanganato de potássio, determinado pela concentração inibitória mínima para colónias isoladas.With the objective of characterizating lhe ocurrence of "red leg" in Minas Gerais, Brazill, young and adult frogs which presented in theirpads and limbs hemorragie in the skin of the ventral region, incordination, high death rate in adults and hepatic abscess at necropsy, have been evaluated. In fragment culture ofdamage skin and abscess, Aeromonas. hydrophila hás been isolated and identified. The bactericidal effect of VANTOCIL IB® was higher than that of potassium permanganate, as determinated by the minimal inhibitory concentration for isolated colonies.

  16. 嗜水气单胞菌毒力因子及病害控制技术研究进展%Research Progresses of Virulence Factors and Control Technologies in Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋启欢; 叶应旺; 胡王; 江河; 陆剑锋

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila,belonging to genus Aeromonas in the family Vibrionaceae,is an important aquatic animal pathogen,and its hazard is associated with the secretion and expression of virulence factors such as exotoxin,extracelluar protease and LPS.The immune and antibiotic controls are the major methods to prevent aquatic animals from the infection of A.hydrophila.In order to reduce the use of antibiotics and ensure the safety of aquatic products during the aquaculture process,it would be an important direction of ecological control by using probiotics to control the hazards caused by A.hydrophila.In this paper,the research progresses of virulence factors and control technologies in Aeromonas hydrophila were reviewed.%嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)属于弧菌科气单胞菌属,是水产动物的重要病原菌,其危害的产生与外毒素、胞外酶及粘附因子等毒力因子的分泌与表达相关,该菌感染疾病的控制方法主要有免疫控制和药物控制。为降低水产养殖过程中的抗生素药物使用和确保水产品的安全性,利用益生菌制剂来控制嗜水气单胞菌的危害将成为水产养殖生态防治的重要方向。该文主要对嗜水气单胞菌的致病因子以及危害控制方面的研究进展进行了概述。

  17. 不同来源嗜水气单胞菌耐药基因检测%Detection of resistance genes in Aeromonas hydrophila strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晓敏; 葛慕湘; 张艳英; 房海; 陈翠珍

    2015-01-01

    采用PCR方法,对分离于唐山和秦皇岛养殖场的宽体金线蛭( Whitmania pigra)、中国林蛙( Rana temporar-ia chensinensis)、牙鲆( Paralichthys olivaceus)、草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellua)、青鱼( Mylopharyngodon piceus)以及鲤(Cyprinus carpio)肝脏的42株不同水产养殖动物的致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)进行了4种耐药基因β-内酰胺类(TEM)、氨基糖苷类(ant (3″)-I)、磺胺类(Sul3)和四环素类(tet(A))的检测。结果表明:42株嗜水气单胞菌均100%携带TEM、 ant (3″)-I和Sul3,不携带tet(A)。所检不同水产动物源嗜水气单胞菌均携带TEM、 ant (3″)-I及Sul3耐药基因,从分子层面表明该致病菌多重耐药或潜在耐药严重。%42 pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the liver of Whitmania pigra, Rana chensinensis, Paralichthys olivaceus, Ctenopharyngodon idellua, Mylopharyngodon piceus and Cyprinus carpio cultured in the farms of Tangshan and Qinhuangdao were investigated for the presence of resistance genes -TEM, ant (3″)-Ⅰ, Sul3 and tet(A) using PCR method.The results showed that all detected strains were positive for TEM , ant (3″)-Ⅰand Sul3 gene, and negative for tet ( A) gene.A.hydrophila strains isolated from different aquiculture animals contained multiple resistant genes showed antibiotic resistance or potential resistance of the pathogenic strains was serious .

  18. Formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel using milk and different conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleube Andrade Boari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em avaliar a formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo. As variáveis em estudo consistem no cultivo monoespécie e combinado, dos referidos microrganismos e nas temperaturas de 4, 7 e 18 °C. Recipientes contendo 1000 mL de leite, densidade populacional de 10(5 UFC.mL-1 de cada microrganismo e 10 cupons de aço inoxidável (10 × 20 mm foram lacrados e armazenados, sob agitação de 60 rpm, por um período de 10 dias. As análises ocorreram a cada 48 horas. Células sésseis de A.hydrophila e S. aureus foram enumeradas através do plaqueamento seletivo em ágar m-Aeromonas selective e Baird-Parker, respectivamente. Estudos sobre o tempo de geração, enumeração de células planctônicas e observação dos cupons através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram conduzidos. S. aureus, em monocultivo, formou biofilme a 18 °C e a 7 °C. Para 4 °C, foi observado um processo de adesão. A presença de A. hydrophila reduziu o desempenho de S. aureus. Nesta condição de cultivo multiespécie houve formação de biofilme a 18 °C. A. hydrophila, tanto em monocultivo quanto em presença de S. aureus, formou biofilme em todas as condições pesquisadas.The aim of this research was to verify the capability of biofilm formation on stainless steel by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus using milk and different conditions of cultivation. The variables consisted in mono and multi-species cultivation of these microorganisms and in the temperatures of 4, 7 and 18 °C. Containers containing 1000 mL of milk, population density of 10(5 CFU.mL-1 of each microorganism, and ten suspended chips of stainless steel AISI 304 (10 × 20 mm were used to seal up and storage, under 60 rpm of agitation for 10 days. The analyses were conducted every 48 hours. Sessile cells of A. hydrophila and S. aureus and were enumerated

  19. A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO on Aeromonas hydrophila. Material and Methods: The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryo (CHSE-214 cells. Results: Results showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.

  20. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables. PMID:25710162

  1. Methanol extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis seeds enhances non-specific immune responses and protects Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, C John Wesly; Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Immunostimulation using medicinal plant extracts is a promising approach for prevention and control of diseases with reference to sustainable fish farming. Oreochromis mossambicus, dubbed as aquatic chicken is a cultured fish worldwide and a laboratory model organism. Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the major bacterial pathogens in fish farming that causes huge loss to aquaculture industries. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis seeds on disease resistance of O. mossambicus against live virulent A. hydrophila. We also investigated its effect on the non-specific immune parameters such as serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, antiprotease and specific immune parameters in terms of specific serum antibody titres assayed by bacterial agglutination test. Our studies indicate that intra-peritoneal administration of 20mg/kg methanol extract increases the Relative Percent Survival (RPS) of O. mossambicus challenged with LD80 of A. hydrophila. Further, both non-specific and specific immune parameters were enhanced by the methanol extract. Further experiments at molecular levels in the laboratory and also efficacy testing at field level are essential before applying this plant product in aquaculture industry. PMID:27033940

  2. Research Advances of Virulence Factors in Bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila%嗜水气单胞菌毒力因子研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 卢彤岩

    2013-01-01

    An opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila infecting human, livestock and aquatic animals is widely found in nature. The damage of the bacterium to animals is involved in secretion and expression of virulent factors such as exotoxin, outer-membrane proteins and surface molecules. Therefore, knowledge of virulent genes in the bacterium will be helpful to further understanding of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis as well as to exploration of effective methods of prophylaxis and therapy the diseases caused by the bacterium. Here the research advances on the virulent factors in bacterium A. hydrophila were reviewed in this paper.%嗜水气单胞菌是一种广泛分布于自然界中的革兰氏阴性菌,是一种人-兽-鱼共患病的条件致病菌。其危害的产生与其外毒素、胞外蛋白酶及表面分子等毒力因子的分泌、表达相关。研究其毒力因子有利于深入了解该菌的致病机理,探索有效的防治方法。本文综述了嗜水气单胞菌毒力因子的相关研究进展。

  3. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  4. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in culture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, Ertan Emek; Ciftci, Alper; Findik, Arzu; Durmaz, Yuksel

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial cold water disease, enteric red mouth disease and frunculosis are the common bacterial diseases of fish worldwide. The etiologic agents of these diseases are Flavobacterium (F.) psychrophilum, Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri and Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, respectively. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method with YER8/10-Fer3/4-FP1/3 primer pairs which can identify these fish pathogens simultaneously was developed and optimized. In optimized conditions, neither false specific nor nonspecific amplification occurred. The detection limits of the m-PCR method using DNA extracts from dilutions of pure cultures of bacteria were 35 pg for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 70 pg for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. It was determined that 15 CFU Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 30 CFU A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida could be detected by m-PCR developed using genomic DNA extracted from dilutions of the suspensions. The detection limits in the presence of tissue debris were 125 CFU for Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum and 250 CFU for A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. In conclusion, we submit that the m-PCR method developed and optimized in this study can be used for accurate and rapid identification of these bacteria. PMID:20706031

  5. Clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii harbor a nonfunctional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Pendru; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2010-06-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin encoded by the trh gene is considered a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. In this study, we report the presence of a trh homolog in three clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii. The presence of a trh homolog in these strains of A. veronii was confirmed by PCR, followed by cloning, sequencing and colony hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the A. veronii trh gene had an identity of 99% and 84% to the trh1 and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. However, the expression of a trh-like gene in A. veronii could not be detected by reverse transcription PCR. Hence, the role of the gene product in the virulence of A. veronii strains is not clear. Further, these A. veronii isolates were negative for the ure gene encoding urease and the transposase gene by PCR. These genes are part of the trh gene cluster in V. parahaemolyticus. However, the presence of a trh homolog in a pathogen other than V. parahaemolyticus points to the fact that detection of the trh gene in stool samples, seafood enrichments or environmental samples does not always imply that trh-carrying V. parahaemolyticus are present. PMID:20636974

  6. Aeromonas salmonicida infection levels in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish assessed by culture and an amended qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulla, S; Duodu, S; Nilsen, A; Fossen, I; Colquhoun, D J

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded. PMID:26514414

  7. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Zinc-Binding Sites in the Class B2 Metallo-B-lactamsase ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello,A.; Sharma, N.; Yang, K.; Crowder, M.; Tierney, D.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the metal-binding sites of ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria in catalytically active (1-Zn), product-inhibited (1-Zn plus imipenem), and inactive (2-Zn) forms. The first equivalent of zinc(II) was found to bind to the consensus Zn{sub 2} site. The reaction of 1-Zn ImiS with imipenem leads to a product-bound species, coordinated to Zn via a carboxylate group. The inhibitory binding site of ImiS was examined by a comparison of wild-type ImiS with 1 and 2 equiv of bound zinc. 2-Zn ImiS extended X-ray absorption fine structure data support a binding site that is distant from the active site and contains both one sulfur donor and one histidine ligand. On the basis of the amino acid sequence of ImiS and the crystal structure of CphA [Garau et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 345, 785-795], we propose that the inhibitory binding site is formed by M146, found on the B2-distinct {alpha}3 helix, and H118, a canonical Zn{sub 1} ligand, proposed to help activate the nucleophilic water. The mutation of M146 to isoleucine abolishes metal inhibition. This is the first characterization of ImiS with the native metal Zn and establishes, for the first time, the location of the inhibitory metal site.

  8. Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, M P; Fehringer, T R; Johnson, K A; Snekvik, K R; Lapatra, S E; Lafrentz, B R; Ireland, S C; Cain, K D

    2010-07-01

    In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. IHNV persisted in fish for at least 28 days, whereas A. salmonicida was not re-isolated beyond 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, burbot appeared refractory to Flavobacterium psychrophilum following intramuscular (i.m.) injection and to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) by immersion. However, i.p injection of IPNV resulted in re-isolation of virus from fish for the duration of the 28 day challenge. Renibacterium salmoninarum appeared to induce an asymptomatic carrier state in burbot following i.p. injection, but overt manifestation of disease was not apparent. Viable bacteria persisted in fish for at least 41 days, and bacterial DNA isolated by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was detected from burbot kidney tissue 90 days after initial exposure. This study is the first to investigate susceptibility of burbot to selected fish pathogens, and this information will aid in efforts to culture and manage this species. PMID:20367740

  9. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Tukmechi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ''in vitro'' antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. Also the chemical composition of propolis was determined by the method of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed Chemical composition of EEIP contained significant amounts of flavonoids, Sesquiterpenes - mainly Eudesmol and Caryophyllene oxide - aromatic acid, and low amounts of aldehydes and triterpens. Furthermore the ethanol extract of propolis inhibited the growth of all examined micro-organisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae. Ethanol did not influence the antimicrobial effect of EEIP. These antibacterial properties would warrant further studies on the clinical applications of propolis in aquaculture field.

  10. 暹罗斗鱼致病性嗜水气单胞菌的分离·鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila from Betta splendens Regan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 黄海; 张希; 魏赟; 巫火连

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the disease cause of Betta splcnders Regan and the prevention and control methods of its diseases and pests. [Method] The pathogenic bacteria of B, splenders were isolated and identified by determining die physiological and biochemical indices and 16 S rDNA sequencing. And the drug sensitivity test was made. [Result] Strain DY001 was the pathogenic bacteria that caused Aeromonas hydrophila disease of B. splenders. Strain DY001 was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila. The median lethal dose (LD50) of this pathogeny to B. splenders was 0. 04 × 106 CFU/g. The results of drug sensitivity test showed that this pathogenic bacteria was sensitive to azithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, compound sinomin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and other antibiotics. [Conclusion] Aeromonas hydropkila was the pathogenic bacteria that caused the disease incidence of B. splenders. The results of drug sensitivity test could provide references for the disease prevention and control of B. splenders.%[目的]探讨暹罗斗鱼的发病原因和病害防治方法.[方法]对暹罗斗鱼的病原菌进行分离,并通过生理生化指标测定和16S rDNA测序对其鉴定,同时进行药敏试验.[结果]菌株DY001为暹罗斗鱼嗜水气单胞菌病的病原菌.经鉴定,确定菌株DY001为嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila).该病原菌对暹罗斗鱼的半致死量(LD50)为0.04×106 CFU/g.药敏试验结果表明,病原菌对阿奇霉素、奥复星、氟哌酸、复方新诺明、菌必治、甲氧苄啶和氯霉素等抗生素敏感.[结论]嗜水气单胞菌是引起此次暹罗斗鱼发病的病原菌,而药敏试验结果将为其防治提供参考.

  11. qnrVC-Like Gene Located in a Novel Complex Class 1 Integron Harboring the ISCR1 Element in an Aeromonas punctata Strain from an Aquatic Environment in Shandong Province, China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Ruirui; Guo, Xianhu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xu, Hai

    2010-01-01

    A qnrVC-like gene, qnrVC4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the ISCR1 element and blaPER-1 in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium Aeromonas punctata. The deduced QnrVC4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants QnrB6, QnrA1, QnrS1, QnrC, QnrVC1, and QnrVC3. A Ser-83 to Ile amino acid substitution in gyrase A may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain.

  12. qnrVC-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the ISCR1 element in an Aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruirui; Guo, Xianhu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xu, Hai

    2010-08-01

    A qnrVC-like gene, qnrVC4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the ISCR1 element and bla(PER-1) in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium Aeromonas punctata. The deduced QnrVC4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants QnrB6, QnrA1, QnrS1, QnrC, QnrVC1, and QnrVC3. A Ser-83 to Ile amino acid substitution in gyrase A may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain. PMID:20516288

  13. Microbial levan in the diet of Labeo rohita Hamilton juveniles: effect on non-specific immunity and histopathological changes after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Dalvi, R; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S C

    2008-09-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the immuno-protective effect of microbial levan on Labeo rohita juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Six purified diets were prepared with different levels of microbial levan: control (no levan), T1 (Basal + 0.25%), T2 (Basal + 0.50%), T3 (Basal + 0.75%), T4 (Basal + 1%) and T5 (Basal + 1.25%), fed to six groups of fish in triplicate. Among the treatment groups the haemoglobin content and total leucocyte count were increased with a dietary supplementation of levan at 1% or more. An increasing trend for total erythrocyte count was observed with increasing level of dietary levan. Lower levan-supplemented groups showed a higher albumin/globulin ratio. As the levan supplementation was increased, there was a gradual increase in serum lysozyme activity and respiratory burst activity [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] reduction values. The highest lysozyme activity and NBT were observed in the T5 group although this was similar to the T4 group (P > 0.05). No significant histo-architectural changes were associated with dietary levan levels. After challenge with A. hydrophila, moderately degenerated hepatocytes, oedema and leucocytic infiltration in parenchymatous tissues, and extensive haemorrhage and haemosiderosis in the kidney were observed in the control group. However, the T5 group supplemented with 1.25% levan showed infiltrating leucocytes in the liver while the kidney showed only moderate degeneration of renal tubules. The relative survival per cent of juveniles after challenge with A. hydrophila was the highest in the T5 group followed by T4. This suggests that microbial levan at 1.25% can be used as dietary immunostimulant for L. rohita juveniles. PMID:18786027

  14. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. PMID:25655329

  15. Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Lampel, Keith A

    2010-08-01

    Shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. However, it remains a challenge to isolate Shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas (Rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of Shigella spp. in foods. All four Shigella species, S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, were studied. Rainbow agar was compared with tryptic soy agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) for enumeration of Shigella spp. in pure culture. This chromogenic agar and XLD were also used to isolate Shigella spp. in artificially contaminated foods (4.8 log CFU/g of food), including lettuce, parsley, cilantro, spinach, potato salad, and shrimp. The inhibitory effect on Shigella growth by Rainbow agar was between that of XLD and SSA. All vegetables studied showed a moderately high background microflora on XLD and Rainbow agar. With artificially inoculated produce, Rainbow agar recovered about 1 to 2 log CFU more S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii per g of food than did XLD. For potato salad and shrimp, which had low background microflora on Rainbow agar, Rainbow agar was slightly better in recovering Shigella spp. than XLD was in most cases. However, we found that the addition of streptomycin (6.25 mg/liter) to Rainbow agar could facilitate the isolation of Shigella in vegetables tested. In conclusion, Rainbow agar was a much more effective medium than was XLD for the isolation of Shigella spp. from foods. PMID:20819355

  16. Effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Devlieghere, Frank; Debevere, Johan; Artés, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    Atmospheres with O2 levels higher than 70 kPa have recently been suggested as an innovation to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh processed vegetables to maintain sensory quality and safety. In the present work, mixed vegetable salad collected from a commercial processing plant and stored with the MAP technique was studied. Two gas mixtures were actively generated by using an initial O2 concentration of 95 kPa and combined with two plastic films. The low-barrier film permeability for O2 was 1,629 mlO2/m2 x 24 h x atm with 30 microm of thickness (Hyplast, Hoogstraten, Belgium) and the O2 permeability of the high-barrier film was 2 mlO2/m2 x 24h x atm with 150 microm of thickness (Euralpack, Wommelgen, Belgium) at 23 degrees C. As control, active conventional MAP with application of 3 to 5 kPa of O2 and 6 to 8 kPa of CO2 was used. Packaged salads were stored up to 8 days at 4 degrees C and at temperatures simulating chilled distribution chain conditions. Microbial safety and sensory quality, as well as the survival of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae, were monitored. The effect of superatmospheric O2 on the growth of aerobic microflora was variable. Under superatmospheric conditions, lactic acid bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited. Nevertheless, growth of yeast and A. caviae seem to be stimulated by superatmospheric O2, whereas growth of psychrotrophic bacteria and L monocytogenes was not affected. The overall visual appearance (mainly color) of the mixed vegetable salads was better maintained and the shelf life prolonged when packaged under O2 concentrations greater than 50 kPa. PMID:12380740

  17. Effects of dietary linseed oil on innate immune system of Eurasian perch and disease resistance after exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida achromogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, F; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Douxfils, J; Larondelle, Y; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designated to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO diet) replacement by linseed oil (LO diet) on regulation of immune response and disease resistance in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). A control diet containing fish oil (FO = cod liver oil) and characterized by high levels of n-3 high LC-PUFA (6% EPA, 7.5% of total fatty acids (FAs)) was compared to linseed oil diet (LO diet) composed of low LC-PUFA contents (1% EPA, 2.3% DHA of total FAs) but high C18 fatty acids levels. The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate groups of 80 fish each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the innate immune status was evaluated in various organs (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) (feeding condition). Two days later, a bacterial challenge was performed on fish from 2 rearing conditions: fish infected with Aeromonas salmonicida (bacteria condition) and fish injected with sterile medium but maintained in the same flow system that fish challenged with bacteria (sentinel condition). Three days after injection of bacteria, a significant decrease of lymphocyte, thrombocyte and basophil populations was observed while neutrophils were not affected. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species production in kidney significantly increased in fish challenged with A. salmonicida while the plasma alternative complement pathway activity was not affected. Increase of plasma lysozyme activity as well as reactive oxygen species production in spleen and kidney of sentinel fish suggest that these immune defenses can also be activated, but at lower bacteria concentration than infected fish. No differences in leucocyte populations, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities were observed between dietary treatments. Similarly, expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis in liver were not affected by the dietary oil source but were strongly stimulated in fish challenged with A. salmonicida. These findings demonstrated that the use of

  18. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of ERK2 in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis after challenge with LPS and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haisheng; Lyu, Sunjian; Li, Yiqun; Xu, Jiehao; Lu, Binjie; Zhao, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Farming of Eriocheir sinensis was seriously threaten by the infection of opportunistic pathogens, especially the gram-negative bacterium. In this paper, we analyzed the sequence of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 2 (ERK2) of E. sinensis (EsERK2) and its expression levels after challenge with LPS and Aeromonas hydrophila in both in vivo and in vitro examination. The full-length cDNA sequence of EsERK2 was 2455 bp in size with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1095 bp, encoding the protein of 365 amino acids. It owned a predicted molecular mass of 42.4 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.93. EsERK2 was distributed in all examined tissues including haemocyte, gonad, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle heart, stomach and intestine, but its expression level was significantly higher in hepatopancreas than it in other examined tissues. The expression level of EsERK2 increased significantly after LPS challenge at 2 h (P < 0.05), and then gradually increased and reached highest at 16 h. However, its expression level decreased significantly after A. hydrophila challenge at 4 h, and then gradually decreased till 24 h (P < 0.05), and returned to its initial value at 36 h. According to the immunofluorescence assay and western blotting assay, EsERK2 was found to be distributed mainly in cytoplasm of haemocyte, and its expression level showed a prominent boost in primary cultured haemocytes after challenge with LPS and A. hydrophila in vitro. These results indicated that the expression of EsERK2 was sensitive to the exterior stimulants and its encoding protein might be associated with the signaling transduction in response to exterior pathogens in E. sinensis. PMID:27018024

  19. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05). PMID:26010230

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway can be triggered by grass carp reovirus and Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2009-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is critical for LPS recognition and cellular responses. It also recognizes some viral envelope proteins. Detection mostly results in the inflammation rather than specific antiviral responses. However, it's unclear in fish. In this report, a TLR4 gene (named as GrTLR4b) was cloned and characterized from rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The full length of GrTLR4b cDNA consists of 2766 nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 818 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 94,518Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 8.41. The predicted amino acid sequence comprises a signal peptide, six leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, one leucine-rich repeat C-terminal (LRRCT) motif, followed by a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic region of 167 amino acids containing one Toll--interleukin 1--receptor (TIR) motif. It's closely similar to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) TLR4b amino acid sequence with an identity of 77%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed GrTLR4b mRNA was constitutive expression in gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle and spleen tissues in healthy animals and up-regulated by viruses and bacteria. After being infected by grass carp reovirus or Aeromonas hydrophila, GrTLR4b expressions were up-regulated from 24h post-injection and lasted until the fish became moribund (P<0.05). These data implied that TLR4 signaling pathway could be activated by both viral and bacterial infection in rare minnow. PMID:19264133