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Sample records for aeromonas salmonicida subsp

  1. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  3. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue K; Leisner, Jørgen J

    2016-01-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one...

  4. Epidemiology of Danish Aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida in Fish Farms Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    transmission of the bacterium could have been from seawater to freshwater or vice versa, and most minor clades include a mixture of strains from different fresh- and seawater farms. Genomic variation of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida mostly appeared to be associated with their plasmids and plasmid encoded...

  5. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  6. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N......Ideficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 productionwas...... virulence in fish and QS has not previously been associated with A. salmonicida infections in fish. Furthermore, AsaP1 production has not previously been shown to be QS regulated. The simplicity of the A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes LuxIR-type QS system and the observation that synthetic QSI can inhibit...

  7. Genome Sequence of the Melanin-Producing Extremophile Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica Strain 34melT

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy Irene; Levin, Laura Noemí; Pettinari, María Julia

    2017-01-01

    The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strain 34melT, isolated from a heavily polluted river, contains several genomic islands and putative virulence genes. The identification of genes involved in resistance to different kinds of stress sheds light on the mechanisms used by this strain to thrive in an extreme environment. Fil: Pavan, María Elisa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina Fil: Pav...

  8. The complete and fully assembled genome sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica and its comparative analysis with other Aeromonas species: investigation of the mobilome in environmental and pathogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Zamora-Lagos, Maria-Antonia; Blettinger, Martin; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Dahl, Andreas; Gruber, Stephan; Habermann, Bianca H

    2018-01-05

    Due to the predominant usage of short-read sequencing to date, most bacterial genome sequences reported in the last years remain at the draft level. This precludes certain types of analyses, such as the in-depth analysis of genome plasticity. Here we report the finalized genome sequence of the environmental strain Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel, for which only a draft genome with 253 contigs is currently available. Successful completion of the transposon-rich genome critically depended on the PacBio long read sequencing technology. Using finalized genome sequences of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica and other Aeromonads, we report the detailed analysis of the transposon composition of these bacterial species. Mobilome evolution is exemplified by a complex transposon, which has shifted from pathogenicity-related to environmental-related gene content in A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel. Obtaining the complete, circular genome of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica allowed us to perform an in-depth analysis of its mobilome. We demonstrate the mobilome-dependent evolution of this strain's genetic profile from pathogenic to environmental.

  9. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Kokotovic, Branco; Skall, H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously...

  10. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    . salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for characterization...

  11. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...

  12. Resistance of Salmonds Against Aeromonas Salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at Danish trout farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural...... over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility...... to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise...

  13. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Aeromonas salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aeromonas salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * * * Aeromonas salmon...icida ... MeSH D048409 200906081596351600 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aeromonas salmonicida

  14. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

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    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  15. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17-30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival.

  16. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  17. Resistance patterns of Aeromonas salmonicida to common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight isolates, including A. salmonicida fcs strain and A. salmonicida 1102, were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing of 11 antimicrobial agents by a disc diffusion method and an agar dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic's). The semi-quantitative results of the disc test were ...

  18. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  19. Increasing genomic diversity and evidence of constrained lifestyle evolution due to insertion sequences in Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Freschi, Luca; Nagar, Vandan; Gagné-Thivierge, Cynthia; Levesque, Roger C; Charette, Steve J

    2016-01-12

    Aeromonads make up a group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes human and fish pathogens. The Aeromonas salmonicida species has the peculiarity of including five known subspecies. However, few studies of the genomes of A. salmonicida subspecies have been reported to date. We sequenced the genomes of additional A. salmonicida isolates, including three from India, using next-generation sequencing in order to gain a better understanding of the genomic and phylogenetic links between A. salmonicida subspecies. Their relative phylogenetic positions were confirmed by a core genome phylogeny based on 1645 gene sequences. The Indian isolates, which formed a sub-group together with A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, were able to grow at either at 18 °C and 37 °C, unlike the A. salmonicida psychrophilic isolates that did not grow at 37 °C. Amino acid frequencies, GC content, tRNA composition, loss and gain of genes during evolution, pseudogenes as well as genes under positive selection and the mobilome were studied to explain this intraspecies dichotomy. Insertion sequences appeared to be an important driving force that locked the psychrophilic strains into their particular lifestyle in order to conserve their genomic integrity. This observation, based on comparative genomics, is in agreement with previous results showing that insertion sequence mobility induced by heat in A. salmonicida subspecies causes genomic plasticity, resulting in a deleterious effect on the virulence of the bacterium. We provide a proof-of-concept that selfish DNAs play a major role in the evolution of bacterial species by modeling genomes.

  20. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...... bacteria. The infection method proved to be efficient and could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines. It was shown that protection and antibody production in exposed fish were positively correlated to the AS antigen concentration in the vaccine....

  1. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  2. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.

    1998-01-01

    the biochemical identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. Five laboratories examined 25 isolates of Aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographical locations including the reference strains of Aer. salmonicida subsp, salmonicida (NCMB 1102......) and Aer. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes (NCMB 1110), Without standardization of the methods, 100% agreement was obtained only for two tests: motility and ornithine decarboxylase. The main reason for the discrepancies found was the variation of the incubation time prior to reading the biochemical...

  3. Aeromonas salmonicida bacteremia associated with chronic well water consumption in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida is associated with superficial skin infections in fish. Its virulence factors allow colonization of water including surface water such as salt water, beaches, and fresh water wells. Moreover, it is possible for immunocompromised patients to develop invasive disease after chronic exposure to Aeromonas spp. through contaminated water. While there are reports of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia following water ingestion, there have been no reports of A. salmonicida bacteremia from water consumption. We report the first case of A. salmonicida bacteremia in a patient with diabetes due to chronic consumption of well water.

  4. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  5. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain...... A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i...

  6. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  7. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...... products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A....... salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed...

  8. Microplastics as a vector for the transport of the bacterial fish pathogen species Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viršek, Manca Kovač; Lovšin, Marija Nika; Koren, Špela; Kržan, Andrej; Peterlin, Monika

    2017-12-15

    Microplastics is widespread in the marine environment where it can cause numerous negative effects. It can provide space for the growth of organisms and serves as a vector for the long distance transfer of marine microorganisms. In this study, we examined the sea surface concentrations of microplastics in the North Adriatic and characterized bacterial communities living on the microplastics. DNA from microplastics particles was isolated by three different methods, followed by PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, clone libraries preparation and phylogenetic analysis. 28 bacterial species were identified on the microplastics particles including Aeromonas spp. and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species. Based on the 16S rDNA sequences the pathogenic fish bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida was identified for the first time on microplastics. Because A. salmonicida is responsible for illnesses in fish, it is crucial to get answers if and how microplastics pollution is responsible for spreading of diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The biofilteration ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to reduce Aeromonas salmonicida in salmon culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Sharawy, Zaki Zaki; Qiu, Tianlong; Du, Yishuai; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults). To evaluate the practical performance of oysters as A. salmonicida biofilter, adult oysters were applied to an integrated constructed wetlands system (ICWS) and their long-term C4-GFP removal efficiency was recorded for 60 days. Overall, our results clearly indicated that oysters had substantial A. salmonicida removal ability via their ingestion process when observed under a fluorescent microscope. Approximately 88-95% of C4-GFP was removed by oyster larvae at an ingestion rate of 6.4 × 10 3 -6.2 × 10 5  CFU/h·ind, while 79-92% of C4-GFP was removed by adult oysters at an ingestion rate of 2.1 × 10 4 -3.1 × 10 6  CFU/h·ind. Furthermore, 57.9 ± 17.2% of C4-GFP removal efficiency was achieved when oysters were applied to ICWS. We, therefore, concluded that using oysters as a biofilter represents an effective alternative for removing A. salmonicida from aquaculture wastewater. However, the fate of oysters after ingesting the pathogenic bacteria, acting as a potential reservoir or vector for pathogens, is still debatable. This research provides the basis for the application of oysters as a biofilter to remove pathogens from aquaculture wastewater in industrialized production.

  10. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  11. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  12. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting...

  13. A novel challenge method with aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout for evaluation of furunculosis vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge methods used to induce furunculosis in rainbow trout when testing the potency of vaccines may include exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation or bath immersion. Intraperitoneal injection is effective but will not reflect systemic immunity because...... inflammatory cells at the vaccine injection site may combat injected bacteria fast. The cohabitation and bath immersion methods both mimic the natural infection route but are less effective in inducing the disease. We have tested a new challenge method mimicking that rainbow trout in fish farms might...... to be efficient in inducing a more natural disease progression in fish and a stable mortality. The method could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines with regard to adjuvant formulations and content of antigen....

  14. Characterization and mechanism of anti-Aeromonas salmonicida activity of a marine probiotic strain, Bacillus velezensis V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Li, Er-Wei; Sun, Guo-Xiang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2017-05-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a systemic, ubiquitous disease of fish in the salmon family, characterized by high mortality and morbidity. Probiotics are a promising approach for prevention of furunculosis in aquaculture. A bacterial strain with anti-A. salmonicida properties, Bacillus velezensis V4, was isolated and the mechanisms underlying these properties were investigated. Anti-A. salmonicida compounds present in cell-free supernatant of V4 were purified and structurally identified as members of the iturin, macrolactin, and difficidin groups. The compounds contributed jointly to inhibition of A. salmonicida, and the diversity of the compounds was related to the versatility of their mode of action. Addition of the compounds to A. salmonicida cell suspensions reduced cell density. Analyses by confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed cell membrane disruption, deletion of cellular content, and cell lysis of A. salmonicida. The V4 genome was sequenced, and gene clusters involved in synthesis of anti-Aeromonas compounds were detected and identified. A possible probiotic effect on growth performance of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was investigated by addition of 0, 1, and 3 % (v/w) V4. Relative to control, mortality was reduced 27.25 % in the 1 % addition group and 81.86 % in the 3 % addition group. Feed coefficient ratio was reduced 19.49 % and weight gain ratio was increased 71.22 % in the 1 % addition group. Our findings demonstrate that V4 is an effective probiotic strain in O. mykiss and has clear potential for both control of furunculosis and growth promotion of aquaculture animals.

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Aeromonas salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aeromonas salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * *... * Aeromonas salmonicida Aeromonas salmonicida エイイーアールオーエムオーエヌエイエス エスエイエルエムオーエヌアイシーアイディーエイ Thesaurus2015 200906081596351600 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aeromonas salmonicida

  16. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum...... of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...... of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3...

  17. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  18. Aeromonas salmonicida - Epidemiology, whole genome sequencing, detection and in vivo imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona

    causes problems in sea reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production. Outbreaks occur repeatedly during stressful conditions such as elevated temperatures, in spite of commercial vaccines being applied. Besides seemingly lacking adequate protection, the vaccines also produce undesirable side...... of the concerns regarding A. salmonicida. First, we focused on investigation of the route of entry and initial dissemination of A. salmonicida in fish. This was done by tracing the bacterium using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. A Danish strain was transformed with a plasmid vector containing a green...... was subsequently turned to finding a sensitive method for detecting A. salmonicida in infected and possible carrier fish. For this, a previously developed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the aopP gene located on A. salmonicida plasmid pAsal1 was assessed. The real...

  19. The effect of Chaetoceros calcitrans extract on hematology common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch; Wulan, N. D. A.; Suprastyani, H.; Wijayanto, E.; Noercholis, M.; Prihanto, A. A.; Kurniawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of C. calcitrans extract in carp (C. carpio) is expected to inhibit the growth of A. salmonicida. A. salmonicida-infected common carp (C. carpio) were treated with the extract of C. calcitrans. Hematology, erythrocyte, leukocyte, hematocrit and hemoglobin test analysis was observed. The result indicated that the extract can be used to treat the infected fish. The best dose was treatment of D with 45.3 ppm.

  20. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  1. Different immunization routes induce protection against Aeromonas salmonicida through different immune mechanisms in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Raida, Martin Kristian

    in fish immunology and vaccinology, resulting in the development of both oral, immersion and injectable vaccine strategies over time. Applying mineral oil adjuvants, injectable vaccines inducing high levels of protection in salmon (Salmo salar) rose to prominence in the 1990’s. In general injectable......, adjuvanted vaccines have been shown to induce long-lasting increases in specific antibody levels. In general the majority of the published work concerning vaccination against A. salmonicida has been conducted on salmon. Using injectable oil-adjuvanted vaccines, we have previously shown that the induced level...... against A. salmonicida. The effect of immersion vaccination against A. salmonicida has been questioned over time. While some have presented excellent protection as a result of immersion vaccines, others have reported limited or absent protective effects. We have performed experiments on the protection...

  2. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  4. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  5. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    , non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations...... information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics...

  6. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

    2013-03-01

    The effect of β-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with β-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10⁸ bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of β-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a β-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the β-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the β-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Protein Expression Modifications in Phage-Resistant Mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida after AS-A Phage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Moreirinha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections by pathogenic bacteria is one of the main sources of financial loss for the aquaculture industry. This problem often cannot be solved with antibiotic treatment or vaccination. Phage therapy seems to be an alternative environmentally-friendly strategy to control infections. Recognizing the cellular modifications that bacteriophage therapy may cause to the host is essential in order to confirm microbial inactivation, while understanding the mechanisms that drive the development of phage-resistant strains. The aim of this work was to detect cellular modifications that occur after phage AS-A treatment in A. salmonicida, an important fish pathogen. Phage-resistant and susceptible cells were subjected to five successive streak-plating steps and analysed with infrared spectroscopy, a fast and powerful tool for cell study. The spectral differences of both populations were investigated and compared with a phage sensitivity profile, obtained through the spot test and efficiency of plating. Changes in protein associated peaks were found, and these results were corroborated by 1-D electrophoresis of intracellular proteins analysis and by phage sensitivity profiles. Phage AS-A treatment before the first streaking-plate step clearly affected the intracellular proteins expression levels of phage-resistant clones, altering the expression of distinct proteins during the subsequent five successive streak-plating steps, making these clones recover and be phenotypically more similar to the sensitive cells.

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0091 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0091 ref|YP_001143655.1| imidazolonepropionase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO91907.1| imidazolonepropionase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001143655.1 0.71 22% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 ref|YP_001140043.1| O-antigen ligase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO88295.1| O-antigen ligase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001140043.1 1e-145 76% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0060 ref|YP_001141367.1| GGDEF domain protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO89619.1| GGDEF domain protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001141367.1 1e-165 88% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-18-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-18-0005 ref|YP_001142445.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO90697.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001142445.1 0.001 25% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0002 ref|YP_001142445.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO90697.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001142445.1 1e-130 93% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0021 ref|YP_001140588.1| Na+/H antiporter NhaA [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO88840.1| Na+/H antiporter NhaA [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001140588.1 1e-123 94% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0060 ref|YP_001142002.1| GGDEF domain protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO90254.1| GGDEF domain protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001142002.1 6e-21 30% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0064 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0064 ref|YP_001143407.1| sulfatase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO91659.1| sulfatase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001143407.1 0.0 87% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1309 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1309 ref|YP_001140721.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO88973.1| membrane protein [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001140721.1 9e-50 46% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0033 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0033 ref|YP_001141368.1| regulator of uhpT [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO89620.1| regulator of uhpT [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001141368.1 3.1 20% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0010 ref|YP_001141362.1| amino acid permease [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO89614.1| amino acid permease [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001141362.1 1e-132 96% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0406 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0406 ref|YP_001141292.1| O-antigen acetylase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO89544.1| O-antigen acetylase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001141292.1 2.1 28% ...

  1. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Uhrynowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland, an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance (hmr and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the

  2. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrynowski, Witold; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika; Krawczyk, Pawel S; Lipinski, Leszek; Adamska, Dorota; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp) was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance ( hmr ) and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the environment. The obtained

  3. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrynowski, Witold; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika; Krawczyk, Pawel S.; Lipinski, Leszek; Adamska, Dorota; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp) was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance (hmr) and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the environment. The obtained

  4. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

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    Merih Kivanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  5. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-01-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 o C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839 T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D 10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 o C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  6. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  7. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  8. Sensitivity of planktonic and biofilm-associated Aeromonas spp. to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Aeromonas have the ability to adhere and form biofilms on food surfaces and food contact surfaces. Biofilm formation on foods and food contact surfaces is the major reason for contamination, cross contamination and post-processing contamination of the final food product leading to food spoilage, product rejection, economic losses and food-borne diseases. Biofilms have shown high resistance to heat, desiccation, acidic condition, high salt concentration, antibiotics and other food preservatives. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that ionizing radiation effectively inactivates Aeromonas in different food products. However, the relative efficacy of this process against biofilm associated cells versus free-living planktonic cells of Aeromonas is not well documented. Therefore, the dose of gamma radiation required to reduce the population by 90% (D10) was calculated for planktonic and biofilm-associated A. salmonicida Y567 and A. hydrophila A331 cells. Both A. hydrophila A331 and A. salmonicida Y567 expressed significant ability to attach and grow on glass surface following incubation at 30℃ in TSB. Ionizing radiation effectively reduced the populations of both planktonic and biofilm-associated cells for both the strains. Mean cell counts of survivors and surviving fraction of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells decreased with increased irradiation doses. The D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. salmonicida (Y567) were 232.65 Gy and 248.41 Gy, respectively; whereas, the D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. hydrophila (A331) were 249.2 Gy and 240.2 Gy respectively. No significant difference in the D10 values of planktonic and biofilm associated Aeromonas was observed. The influence of the cultured state of the organism, i.e., planktonic versus biofilm associated

  9. Prevalência de Aeromonas ssp em fezes diarréicas de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade na cidade de Goiânia, Goiás, no biênio 1995 - 1996

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    Idalina Thiomi Inumaru Nojimoto

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 163 amostras de fezes de crianças com idade abaixo de 5 anos no período de 1995 a 1996, sendo 91 de fezes diarréicas e 72 de fezes não diarréicas. O material foi coletado em meio para transporte e submetido ao processo de enriquecimento a 4oC por 7 dias. Para o isolamento primário foi utilizado ágar amido ampicilina e incubado a 35oC por 18 a 24 horas. Foram isoladas 20 (21,9% das seguintes espécies: Aeromonas A. caviae (7,7%, A. salmonicida salmonicida (6,6%, A. sobria (4,3%, A. hydrophila (2,2% e Salmonicida achromogenes (1,1%. Nenhuma Aeromonas spp foi isolada dos 72 pacientes-controles. A susceptibilidade das amostras de Aeromonas spp aos antimicrobianos foi maior com a ciprofloxacina, diminuindo gradativamente com cloranfenicol, gentamicina, ampicilina e eritromicina.From 1995 through 1996, 163 fecal specimens of children aged under 5 years were analysed, 91 being from diarrhea feces and 72 without diarrhea. The material was collected in transport medium and submitted to the enrichment procedure at 4oC for 7 days. For the primary isolation starch ampicillin agar was used and incubated at 35oC for 18 to 24 hours. Twenty (20.9% from the following specimens were isolated: Aeromonas A. caviae (7.7%, A. salmonicida salmonicida (6.6%, A. sobria (4.3%, A. hydrophila (2.2% e Salmonicida achromogenes (1.1%. No Aeromonas spp was isolated from the 72 control subjects. The Aeromonas spp susceptibility to antimicrobian was greater with ciprofloxacin, being this susceptibility gradually diminished with chloranphenicol, gentamicin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  10. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Aliivibrio salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aliivibrio salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * * * Aliivibrio salmon...icida ... MeSH D044165 200906023365578059 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aliivibrio salmonicida

  11. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

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    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  12. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  13. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain); Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, María J., E-mail: mariajose.figueras@urv.cat [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  14. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  15. Evidence of Increased Antibiotic Resistance in Phylogenetically-Diverse Aeromonas Isolates from Semi-Intensive Fish Ponds Treated with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant J; Benet-Perelberg, Ayana; Naor, Alon; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Nasser, Ahmed; Minz, Dror; Cytryn, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain the effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically to fingerling stocks and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an 11-month fish fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a 3-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas isolates were initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antimicrobials. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Multidrug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA , and intI1 gene-harboring strains were significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically distinct Aeromonas clusters were identified using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were identified, including an A. salmonicida

  16. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    identified, including an A. salmonicida cluster that harbored all characterized fish skin ulcer samples. Subsequent to stocking diversity was much lower and most water column isolates in both facilities segregated into an A. veronii-associated cluster. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between aquaculture, Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance. It provides strong evidence for linkage between prophylactic and systemic use of antibiotics in aquaculture and the propagation of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Species Distribution and Prevalence of Putative Virulence Factors in Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Fresh Retail Sushi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunniva Hoel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria that have received increasing attention as human pathogens because of their widespread occurrence in food, especially seafood and vegetables. The aim of this work was to assess the species identity and phylogenetic relationship of 118 Aeromonas strains isolated from fresh retail sushi from three producers, and to characterize the isolates with respect to genetic and phenotypic virulence factors. We also evaluate the potential hazard associated with their presence in ready-to-eat seafood not subjected to heat treatment. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida was most prevalent (74%, followed by A. bestiarum (9%, A. dhakensis (5%, A. caviae (5%, A. media (4%, A. hydrophila (2%, and A. piscicola (1%. All isolates were considered potentially pathogenic due to the high prevalence of genes encoding hemolysin (hlyA (99%, aerolysin (aerA (98%, cytotoxic enterotoxin (act (86%, heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt (99%, and heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast (31%. The shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (stx-1 and stx-2 were not detected. Moreover, there was heterogeneity in toxin gene distribution among the isolates, and the combination of act/alt/hlyA/aerA was most commonly detected (63%. β-hemolysis was species-dependent and observed in 91% of the isolates. All A. media and A. caviae strains were non-hemolytic. For isolates belonging to this group, lack of hemolysis was possibly related to the absence of the act gene. Swimming motility, linked to adhesion and host invasion, occurred in 65% of the isolates. Partial sequencing of the gyrB gene demonstrated its suitability as a genetic marker for Aeromonas species identification and for assessment of the phylogenetic relationship between the isolates. The gyrB sequence divergence within a given species ranged from 1.3 to 2.9%. A. bestiarum, A. salmonicida, and A. piscicola were the most closely related species; their sequences differed by 2.7–3.4%. The average gyrB sequence

  18. Vibrios and Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, S D

    1988-09-01

    There are many similarities in the Vibrionaceae that cause human illness in the United States (see Table 1). Vibrios are characteristically indigenous to marine, estuarine, and brackish environments. They are distributed mainly in Gulf of Mexico coastal water, and these organisms "bloom" when the water is warm. Outbreaks of disease in humans frequently occur in summer, coinciding with multiplication of vibrios in warm water. Sporadic cases and small outbreaks of cholera continue to occur in persons living on or near the Gulf of Mexico, but infection in most persons is unrecognized. In fact, more serious and frequent illnesses result from V. vulnificus wound infections and from gastroenteritis caused by vibrios other than V. cholerae 01. Underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease (especially leukemia) apparently increases the likelihood and severity of illnesses caused by V. vulnificus and Aeromonas. Some Vibrionaceae produce clinical illness by means of enterotoxins identical or similar to cholera toxin. For many others, hemolysins, cytotoxins, and other exotoxins are necessary to produce disease; the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or is of doubtful significance. Also, purported pathogenicity as demonstrated by animal models, such as fluid accumulation in ligated ileal loops, is quite nonspecific and needs to be interpreted cautiously. For Plesiomonas, a mode of pathogenesis has not been discovered. Eating raw shellfish (frequently raw oysters) has been linked epidemiologically to enteric infections with most of these bacteria; foreign travel and exposure to seawater are other frequently observed epidemiologic associations with infection. Foreign travel, particularly to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, has been strongly associated with the acquisition of non-01 V. cholerae and Plesiomonas organisms. Most Vibrionaceae in the United States are susceptible in vitro--and illnesses

  19. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila wound pathotypes by comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C; van Lier, Christina J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Burd, Eileen M; Tall, Ben D; Joseph, Sam W; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K; Shak, Joshua R

    2013-04-23

    Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T), and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966(T). The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T) and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. Aeromonas hydrophila is a common aquatic bacterium that has increasingly been implicated in serious human infections. While many determinants of virulence have been identified in Aeromonas, rapid identification of pathogenic versus nonpathogenic

  20. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies: Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii subsp. nov. and Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; Wolfshohl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Two major subspecies of Staphylococcus cohnii, namely S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, from humans, and S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, from humans and other primates, are described on the basis of a study of 14 to 25 strains and 18 to 33 strains, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in our laboratory in 1983 (W. E. Kloos and J. F. Wolfshohl, Curr. Microbiol. 8:115-121, 1983) demonstrated that strains representing the different subspecies were significantly divergent. S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum can be distinguished from S. cohnii subsp. cohnii on the basis of its greater colony size; pigmentation; positive urease, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activities; delayed alkaline phosphatase activity; ability to produce acid aerobically from alpha-lactose; and fatty acid profile. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii is ATCC 29974, the designated type strain of S. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975b, 55. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum is ATCC 49330.

  1. Relation of chironomids with Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan eLaviad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae, also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, pupa, and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6% and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a six-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship.

  2. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... Studies on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, associated with red stripe disease of sugarcane was ... fiber, organic fertilizer and many by-products/co-products with ... colour, colony diameter and size of bacteria (µm) (Dye and Kemp, ..... leaf blight of turmeric caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in.

  3. Potential Role of Specific Antibodies as Important Vaccine Induced Protective Mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Villumsen, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Inger; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred...

  4. Infection routes of Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout monitored in vivo by real-time bioluminescence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Kokotovic, Branko; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Recent development of imaging tools has facilitated studies of pathogen infections in vivo in real time. This trend can be exemplified by advances in bioluminescence imaging (BLI), an approach that helps to visualize dissemination of pathogens within the same animal over several time points. Here...

  5. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  6. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  7. Importancia biosanitaria de aeromonas: Taxonomia y Epidemiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Falgàs, Lara

    2003-01-01

    El género Aeromonas está constituido por bacterias Gram-negativas aisladas frecuentemente en el agua. Adquieren relevancia por estar presentes en alimentos, y ser capaces de ocasionar cuadros diarreicos e infecciones extraintestinales en el hombre, habiéndose demostrado en la presente tesis, que pueden ser las causantes de hasta el 2% de las diarreas del viajero. La taxonomía de Aeromonas es compleja. El género consta de 15 especies difíciles de identificar con métodos bioquímicos, por lo cua...

  8. Quorum Sensing Regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the Escheri......We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i...

  9. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae.

  10. Aquatically acquired Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila wound infections in healthy hosts after water-associated injury is being reported more frequently. This paper reports our experience with 3 such cases and outlines the importance of recognising the association between a water-related injury and, this organism.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and twenty eight (128) stool samples were collected from patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria and Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, and screened for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Out of the one hundred and twenty eight samples analyzed 4 ...

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila at commonly used water collection points on the River Njoro and to determine the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of isolates. In total, 126 samples were collected and 36.5% of them were positive for A. hydrophila.

  13. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila Wound Pathotypes by Comparative Genomic and Functional Analyses of Virulence Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C.; van Lier, Christina J.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Read, Timothy D.; Burd, Eileen M.; Tall, Ben D.; Joseph, Sam W.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Shak, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T, and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966T. The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. PMID:23611906

  14. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula McKenzie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe skin andsoft tissue infections, typically after injured tissue is exposed to contaminated water.Aeromonas septicemia is uncommon and is usually associated with underlying diseases,such as malignancy, cirrhosis, diabetes, or immunosuppression. It rarely occurs in ahealthy host.

  15. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Paula McKenzie; David Sotello; Yared Hailemariam; Vipul Desai; Brian Temple

    2013-01-01

    We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe s...

  16. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  17. Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Christensen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...... protection appears similar to that of the benchmark formulation, thus introducing viable, potential alternative types of adjuvants for use in future fish vaccines....

  18. Prevalence of Aeromonas species and Escherichia coli in stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in childhood. Bacterial diarrhoea is a common disorder. Aeromonas species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are some of the aetiological agents associated with diarrhoea in children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Aeromonas species and ...

  19. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different ...

  20. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas from children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, oxidase positive bacteria of the recently assigned family Aeromonadaceae. The significance of Aeromonas species as causative agent of human diarrhoea has recently been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas in nonhospitalized children with diarrhea.One hundred and seventeen rectal swabs from children with diarhhea were cultured for isolation of Aeromonas organisms as the etiological agents. In addition to Aeromonas, other enteric pathogens were also isolated. Overall, the isolates of enteric pathogens amounted to 36.8%, consisting of Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Aeromonas was only found in 5.1% of cultures, with a ratio of A. caviae and A. hydrophila of 2:1, while Salmonella made up the majority of causative organisms with an isolation frequency of 18.8%, followed by Shigella with 11.1%. In this study no isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were found as etiological agents of diarrhea; however, V. cholerae non-O1 and V. parahaemolyticus were found in small numbers (<1%. All isolates of Aeromonas were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, as were the other enteric pathogens. Although the frequency of isolation of these enteric pathogens was higher than for Vibrio spp., their role in infective diarrhea was less clearcut in comparison with Salmonella and Shigella.

  1. Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas sp. HG08. Y Sun, J Zhang, S Wang. Abstract. In this work, the characterization of a chitosanase-producing bacterium isolated from soil was reported and this strain was grouped under the genus Aeromonas by virtue of its morphological, physiological ...

  2. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Marta; Popowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE), such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as "flexible" and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI, and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401), the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g., IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6) and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes.

  3. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ePiotrowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE, such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as flexible and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT, is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401, the 1st, 2nd or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g. IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6 and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Gallic Acid against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria Through Damaging Membrane Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Zhenning; Ren, Mengrou; Huang, Guoren; Fang, Baochen; Bu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yanhui; Guan, Shuang

    In the study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of gallic acid against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria. Gallic acid showed strong antimicrobial activity against the two bacteria. Furthermore, the antibacterial mechanism of gallic acid (0, 3, 6, 12 mM) was performed by membrane integrity assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assay. The results showed that gallic acid notably increased the released material absorption value at 260, 280 nm and electric conductivity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the SEM assay showed that gallic acid induced severe shrink of bacterial intima and irregular morphology in a dose-dependent manner. The SDS-PAGE profiles further confirmed that gallic acid could damage bacterial cells. These results indicated gallic acid exhibited antibacterial effect by destroying membrane integrity of A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Hence, gallic acid has great potential as a new natural food preservative in food fresh-keeping and storage.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from motile Aeromonas septicemia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, R.; Rozi; Dinda, N. D.; Nurjanah, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fish suffer, from bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites or by physical ailments. Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Clarias sp.) were the most reported infections caused by Aeromonas are bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia or Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms included MAS. However, the use of antibiotics in the long term can cause negative impacts, among others, feared the occurrence of bacterial resistance in certain antibiotics. The results showed five of isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxytetracycline, cefradoxil and nalidixic acid but resistant to vancomycin colistin sulphate, rifampisin, cephalosporin and novobiocin.

  6. Quantitative Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila from Nsukka Sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage samples were analyzed for the recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila. The pH of the samples ranged from 8.2 - 9.6 and the temperature from 20.0 – 28.7. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water medium (pH 8.4) before plating on different selective media. Media tested for the recovery of Aeromonas ...

  7. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a cold-adapted catalase from Vibrio salmonicida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riise, Ellen Kristin; Lorentzen, Marit Sjo; Helland, Ronny; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2005-01-01

    Monoclinic (P2 1 ) crystals of a His-tagged form of V. salmonicida catalase without cofactor diffract X-rays to 1.96 Å. Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. Recombinant Vibrio salmonicida catalase (VSC) possesses typical cold-adapted features, with higher catalytic efficiency, lower thermal stability and a lower temperature optimum than its mesophilic counterpart from Proteus mirabilis. Crystals of VSC were produced by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 98.15, b = 217.76, c = 99.28 Å, β = 110.48°. Data were collected to 1.96 Å and a molecular-replacement solution was found with eight molecules in the asymmetric unit

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a cold-adapted catalase from Vibrio salmonicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riise, Ellen Kristin [The Norwegian Structural Biology Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Lorentzen, Marit Sjo [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Helland, Ronny [The Norwegian Structural Biology Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Willassen, Nils Peder, E-mail: nilspw@fagmed.uit.no [The Norwegian Structural Biology Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2006-01-01

    Monoclinic (P2{sub 1}) crystals of a His-tagged form of V. salmonicida catalase without cofactor diffract X-rays to 1.96 Å. Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. Recombinant Vibrio salmonicida catalase (VSC) possesses typical cold-adapted features, with higher catalytic efficiency, lower thermal stability and a lower temperature optimum than its mesophilic counterpart from Proteus mirabilis. Crystals of VSC were produced by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.15, b = 217.76, c = 99.28 Å, β = 110.48°. Data were collected to 1.96 Å and a molecular-replacement solution was found with eight molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  10. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater (tweede onderzoek)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Heisterkamp SH; Havelaar AH

    1988-01-01

    Door middel van kwantitatief onderzoek naar Aeromonas-bacterien in drie verschillende monsters water (De Bilt, De Meent en De Laak) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 15 laboratoria in het kader van het deelproject: "Aeromonas in drinkwater".

  11. Isolation of Aeromonas caviae from yoghurt (“nono”) sold in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 30 nono samples were collected from Farin Gada, Bauchi Road and Gangare markets in Jos and analysed for the presence of Aeromonas species. 3 (10%) of the 30 nono samples were positive for Aeromonas species; which was found to be Aeromonas caviae. All the isolates were obtained from non-heat treated ...

  12. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  13. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.

  14. Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila disturbs water and electrolyte transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... enterocytes with voluminous and spherical shape, disappearance of enterocyte brush border and lesions at ... (Paniagua et al., 1990) and causes different diseases. ... 22°C and the fish were fed on a standard diet composed of algae. ..... J (1998). Aeromonas hydrophila causes 'black diseases' in fairy.

  16. Aeromonas Bacteraemia Causing Gas Gangrene in a Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early blood culture, culture of the aspirates from blebs, and subsequent culture of intraoperative specimens uniformly grew Aeromonas hydrophila. Urgent fasciotomy was carried out same day, and the patient was admitted into ICU for intensive monitoring and therapies. Second look procedures 48hours later showed turgid ...

  17. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  18. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila disturbs water and electrolyte transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish diseases create a menace to aquaculture farms. They provoke disastrous economic losses and sanitary risks for the consumer. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila on water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 -) flux of Mugil cephalus (L, 1758) intestine. Anterior, middle ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M.; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection. PMID:23363826

  1. Effect of fish skin mucus on the soluble proteome of Vibrio salmonicida analysed by 2-D gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Inger Lin Uttakleiv; Paulsen, Steinar M; Smalås, Arne O; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis in farmed marine fish species. Adherence of pathogenic bacteria to mucosal surfaces is considered to be the first steps in the infective processes, and proteins involved are regarded as virulence factors. The global protein expression profile of V. salmonicida, grown with and without the presence of fish skin mucus in the synthetic media, was compared. Increased levels of proteins involved in motility, oxidative stress responses, and general stress responses were demonstrated as an effect of growth in the presence of mucus compared to non-mucus containing media. Enhanced levels of the flagellar proteins FlaC, FlaD and FlaE indicate increased motility capacity, while enhanced levels of the heat shock protein DnaK and the chaperonin GroEL indicate a general stress response. In addition, we observed that peroxidases, TPx.Grx and AhpC, involved in the oxidative stress responses, were induced by mucus proteins. The addition of mucus to the culture medium did not significantly alter the growth rate of V. salmonicida. An analysis of mucus proteins suggests that the mucus layer harbours a protein species that potentially possesses catalytic activity against DNA, and a protein with iron chelating activity. This study represents the first V. salmonicida proteomic analysis, and provides specific insight into the proteins necessary for the bacteria to challenge the skin mucus barrier of the fish.

  2. Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov., comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Goor, M; Thielemans, S; Gillis, M; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1992-01-01

    DNA-rRNA hybridizations, DNA-DNA hybridizations, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and a numerical analysis of carbon assimilation tests were carried out to determine the relationships among the phylogenetically misnamed phytopathogenic taxa Pseudomonas avenae, Pseudomonas rubrilineans, "Pseudomonas setariae," Pseudomonas cattleyae, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci. These organisms are all members of the family Comamonadaceae, within which they constitute a separate rRNA branch. Only P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci is situated on the lower part of this rRNA branch; all of the other taxa cluster very closely around the type strain of P. avenae. When they are compared phenotypically, all of the members of this rRNA branch can be differentiated from each other, and they are, as a group, most closely related to the genus Acidovorax. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that these organisms constitute two genotypic groups. We propose that the generically misnamed phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species should be transferred to the genus Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae and Acidovorax konjaci. Within Acidovorax avenae we distinguished the following three subspecies: Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Emended descriptions of the new taxa are presented.

  3. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila Using Fiber Optic Microchannel Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samla Gauri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the detection of Aeromonas hydrophila using fiber optic microchannel biosensor. Microchannel was fabricated by photolithography method. The fiber optic was chosen as signal transmitting medium and light absorption characteristic of different microorganisms was investigated for possible detection. Experimental results showed that Aeromonas hydrophila can be detected at the region of UV-Vis spectra between 352 nm and 354 nm which was comparable to measurement provided by UV spectrophotometer and also theoretical calculation by Beer-Lambert Absorption Law. The entire detection can be done in less than 10 minutes using a total volume of 3 μL only. This result promises good potential of this fiber optic microchannel sensor as a reliable, portable, and disposable sensor.

  4. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  5. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  6. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  7. Aminoglycoside-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as Part of a Polymicrobial Infection following a Traumatic Fall into Freshwater▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R.; Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Ribner, Bruce S.; Burd, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Amikacin is a first-line treatment for Aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. There are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas spp. We report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins. PMID:21209173

  8. Aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as part of a polymicrobial infection following a traumatic fall into freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Ribner, Bruce S; Burd, Eileen M

    2011-03-01

    Amikacin is a first-line treatment for Aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. There are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas spp. We report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins.

  9. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan, Latha; Kavitha, Kannaiyan; Raveendran, Vinod; Dhandapani, Senthil Pragash; Jaget, Nirmala; Kannivelu, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection (UTI) at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidence of Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented.

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  12. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunhua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS, caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh, is emerging as a major disease in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that predispose catfish to vAh infection and establish a waterborne challenge model that mimics natural occurrence of MAS. Results of this study indicated that wounding on the fish body surface was one of the key factors that predisposed catfish to vAh infection via waterborne route. Relatively uniform wounds were created by clipping part of the fish adipose fin. Adipose fin clipped (Af-clipped fish behaved normally in terms of swimming and feeding and no mortality occurred in the control treatment (a mock challenge. When subjected to challenge in vAh-infected water, Af-clipped fish were highly susceptible, showing typical symptoms of MAS observed in the field. The mortality rate of Af-clipped fish was significantly associated with vAh concentration, challenge time and water temperature. About 90% mortality occurred within 48 h when Af-clipped fish were challenged for 1 h with vAh at the concentration of 2 × 107 colony forming units per mL of water (27 ± 1 °C. The waterborne challenge model was further tested using four field isolates including A. hydrophila and A. veronii. All vAh isolates caused about 90% mortality of Af-clipped fish and one isolate of Aeromonas veronii caused no mortality under the same challenge conditions. The waterborne challenge model described in this study would facilitate urgently-needed studies of MAS prevention (such as wound avoidance and healing and control (such as prophylactic vaccination; antibiotics treatment and probiotics screening. Keywords: Adipose fin, Channel catfish, Motile Aeromonas septicemia, Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, Waterborne challenge

  13. Significance of biofilm proteins in modulating cyprid metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; KrishnaKumar, S.

    and artificial biofilms of Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida and Bacillus brevis and their culture supernatants and exopolysaccharides obtained under different nutritional conditions was evaluated. Natural biofilm facilitated cyprid metamorphosis in Balanus...

  14. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doganis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted.

  15. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em água de matadouro bovino Aeromonas bacteria in beef slaughtering water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rossi Jr

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em amostras de água (abastecimento/residuária obtidas em matadouro bovino. Analisaram-se a água utilizada nas dependências internas, a água dos currais, utilizada na dessedentação, pré-higienização e tranqüilização dos animais e a água residuária da lavagem das carcaças. Das 30 amostras representativas de cada tipo, bactérias do gênero Aeromonas foram isoladas em 10 (33,3% amostras da água dos currais e em 10 (33,3% amostras da água residuária da lavagem de carcaças. Nenhuma das amostras da água tratada de abastecimento das instalações revelou-se positiva no isolamento. As espécies isoladas foram Aeromonas hydrophila em duas (2,2% e Aeromonas caviae em 19 (21,1% amostras. Uma cepa considerada atípica foi isolada da água dos currais. Os resultados evidenciaram que a água dos currais pode ser uma importante fonte de contaminação, principalmente para a pele, e através dela as Aeromonas sp. podem chegar à sala de matança.The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of Aeromonas bacteria in samples of water (supply and residual collected at beef slaughterhouse. Water used at the internal facilities, water from corrals, drinking water, water for pre-hygiene and tranquilization of the animals and residual water from carcasses’ wash, were analyzed. From those 30 samples of each type, Aeromonas bacteria were isolated in 10 (33.3% samples of corral water and in 10 (33.3% samples of residual water from carcasses’ wash. None of the facilities treated water supply samples showed positive in isolation. The isolated species were Aeromonas hydrophila in two (2.2% and Aeromonas caviae in 19 (21.1% of the samples. One non-typical strain was isolated from corral water. The results demonstrated that corral water may be an important contamination source, mainly to the hide and, through it, Aeromonas sp. can reach the slaughter room.

  16. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, alternative diagnostic tests such as PCR, are needed for quick detection of infected animals. In this study, the conventional enrichment and isolation procedure and two IS900-based PCR methods for detection of Mycobactrium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples from zoo animals and cattle were ...

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Aeromonas Infection Presenting with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of necrotizing fasciitis presenting with septic shock due to an Aeromonas infection. The patient cut his foot while mowing the lawn and then spent time in a pool with black mold. He began feeling ill and developed swelling and a quarter-sized black area on his right lower extremity. Despite being hemodynamically unstable with systolic blood pressure in the low 70s, the patient was transferred to our facility from outside hospital 100 miles away. Upon arriving to facility, the patient appeared to be septic and the infected area of skin had grown. Irrigation and debridement were performed and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given; however, the patient subsequently died on hospital day 8. On review of the literature, cases of necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas infection have been treated successfully with the aforementioned therapy; however, there is high mortality associated with these infections, many times related to a delayed diagnosis. Our patient also had multiple poor prognostic factors including hepatic dysfunction and immunosuppression.

  18. Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using bacteriophage PP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Jee, Samnyu; Lee, Dong Hwan; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Oh, Changsik; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot and stem rot diseases in several crops, including Chinese cabbage, potato, and tomato. To control this bacterium, we isolated a bacteriophage, PP1, with lytic activity against P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the PP1 phage belongs to the Podoviridae family of the order Caudovirales, which exhibit icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails. PP1 phage showed high specificity for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and several bacteria belonging to different species and phyla were resistant to PP1. This phage showed rapid and strong lytic activity against its host bacteria in liquid medium and was stable over a broad range of pH values. Disease caused by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was significantly reduced by PP1 treatment. Overall, PP1 bacteriophage effectively controls P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

  19. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  20. In vitro cholesterol uptake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2009-01-01

    Background. Some researchers have indicated that Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus may provide additional health benefits, reduce serum cholesterol level, for example. The aim of this study was to determine cholesterol uptake by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus commercial yoghurt starter isolates in artificial GIT fluids. Material and methods. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were cultured in MRS broth and in artificial GIT fluids contained cholesterol at initial con...

  1. Bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Afridi, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.; Qureshi, A.; Hussain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)

  2. Decolorisation of Congo Red by Aeromonas hydrophila Under Microaerophilic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gizawy, S.; Refae, R.A.; Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O.M.; Hamed, H.

    2009-01-01

    Among 22 local bacterial isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Bolti fish showed a remarkable ability to decolorize congo red under microaerophilic conditions (98.8% in 48 hrs) without prior adaptation. The bacterium had the ability to grow and decolorized high concentrations of congo red which varied from 50 to 1000 mg/l , the decolorisation was irrelevant to bacterial growth. The strain was capable of decolorizing congo red under a wide range of temperatures (20-40 degree C), ph (3-8), NaCl (0-200 mg/l) and also had the ability to decolorized mono, di and poly azo dyes. This bacterium is notable in its ability to decolorized the diazo congo red under extreme conditions of temperature, ph, salinity and high dye concentrations which makes it suitable for decolorisation under extreme industrial conditions

  3. Description of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from cattle (Bos taurus coreanae), emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae and creation of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeon, Che Ok; Jeong, Joseph; Lee, Seon Ho; Lim, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Chang Ki; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Three rapidly growing mycobacterial strains, QIA-37 T , QIA-40 and QIA-41, were isolated from the lymph nodes of three separate Korean native cattle, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae). These strains were previously shown to be phylogenetically distinct but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 T by taxonomic approaches targeting three genes (16S rRNA, hsp6 and rpoB) and were further characterized using a polyphasic approach in this study. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all three strains showed 99.7 % sequence similarity with that of the M. chelonae type strain. A multilocus sequence typing analysis targeting 10 housekeeping genes, including hsp65 and rpoB, revealed a phylogenetic cluster of these strains with M. chelonae. DNA-DNA hybridization values of 78.2 % between QIA-37 T and M. chelonae indicated that it belongs to M. chelonae but is a novel subspecies distinct from M. chelonae. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences revealed a 95.44±0.06 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) value with M. chelonae, slightly higher than the 95.0 % ANI criterion for determining a novel species. In addition, distinct phenotypic characteristics such as positive growth at 37 °C, at which temperature M. chelonae does not grow, further support the taxonomic status of these strains as representatives of a novel subspecies of M. chelonae. Therefore, we propose an emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae, and descriptions of M. chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov. and M. chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov. are presented; strains ATCC 35752 T (=CCUG 47445 T =CIP 104535 T =DSM 43804 T =JCM 6388 T =NCTC 946 T ) and QIA-37 T (=KCTC 39630 T =JCM 30986 T ) are the type strains of the two novel subspecies.

  4. Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy pr...

  5. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  6. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  7. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Mohamed Ibrahim; El-Mahdy, Magdy Mohamed; Theiner, Sarah; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Saleh, Mona

    2017-07-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. The concentrations of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, Yersinia ruckeri and Aphanomyces invadans and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. MTT assay was performed on eel kidney cell line (EK-1) to determine the cell viability after incubation with nanoparticles. The interaction between silver nanoparticles and A. salmonicida was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanoparticles exhibited marked antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of both A. salmonicida and A. invadans at a concentration of 17 µg/mL. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri and A. invadans at concentrations of 15.75, 31.5 and 3.15 µg/mL respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed higher cell viability when compared to zinc oxide nanoparticles in the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy showed the attachment of silver nanoparticles to the bacterial membrane and disruption of its

  8. Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens as Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-02-01

    A novel, psychrotolerant facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359(T), was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 µm long and 0.4-0.5 µm wide. Growth occurred in the range of pH 5.8-9.0 with optimal growth at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew at temperatures from 0-37 °C and optimal growth occurred at 25 °C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 8.8 % (1.5 M) NaCl with optimal growth at 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides as substrates. The major metabolic end-product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86 % l-lactate : 14 % d-lactate. Strain WN1359(T) was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. The fatty acid content was predominantly unsaturated (70.2 %), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7 %) and saturated (12.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7 % sequence identity between strain WN1359(T) and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359(T) belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359(T) represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WN1359(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2557(T) = DSM 27470(T)). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is created automatically. An

  9. Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Sandra; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412T, which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains. PMID:10508059

  10. Use of PCR-based methods for rapid differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, S; Zapparoli, G; Dellaglio, F

    1999-10-01

    Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either DNA from a single colony or cells extracted from dairy products were used. A numerical analysis of the RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with primer M13 gave results that were consistent with the results of specific PCR for all strains except L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii LMG 6412(T), which clustered with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains. In addition, RAPD-PCR performed with primer 1254 provided highly polymorphic profiles and thus was superior for distinguishing individual L. delbrueckii strains.

  11. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  12. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2013-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  13. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0 for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp., other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  14. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  15. Aeromonas spp. IN PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN AND DRINKING WATER OF GOIÂNIA-GO Aeromonas spp. EM PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM ANIMAL E EM ÁGUA DE CONSUMO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 53 samples of products from animal origin and drinking water was examined for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas occurred in 26.41% (14/53 of the samples. The raw products showed high frequency of contamination and relatively high count Aeromonas hydrophila was the dominating species, 57.5%, being followed of A. veroni (22.5%, A. sobria (17.5% and A. media (2.5%. None of the Aeromonas spp. was isolated from chlorinated or unchlorinated drinking water.

    KEY-WORDS: Aeromonas; animal origin products; drinking water.

    Um total de 53 amostras de produtos de origem animal e água de consumo foi examinado para se verificar a presença de Aeromonas spp. Desse total, 14/53 (26,41% amostras foram positivas para Aeromonas. Os produtos crus apresentaram maior freqüência de contaminação e contagem relativamente elevadas. A espécie Aeromonas hydrophila foi a mais freqüente (57,5%, seguida pelas espécies A. veroni (22,5%, A. sobria (17,5% e A. media (2,5%. Nenhuma amostra de água de consumo, clorada ou não clorada, mostrou-se positiva para Aeromonas ssp.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE: Aeromonas; produtos de origem animal; água de consumo.

  16. POTENSI TUMBUHAN BANGKAL (Nauclea Orientalis UNTUK PENGENDALIAN BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila (POTENTIAL PLANT BANGKAL (Nauclea orientalis FOR CONTROL Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah didapatkan metode pengendalian penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila pada budi daya ikan yang ramah lingkungan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan uji sensitivitas terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila, uji minimal konsentrasi menghambat  bakteri A. hydrophila (uji MIC dan uji toksisitas terhadap ikan nila. Rancangan  yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 20%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 40%,  C  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 80%, dan D  = Kontrol (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Perlakuan ini didapat dari hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri bangkal yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila yaitu ekstrak daun bangkal dengan pelarut akuades. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bangkal-akuades memiliki daya hambat minimal  20 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan nila dengan konsentrasi 20%, 40% dan 80%  mortalitas ikan nila dibawah 50 %. Pengamatan hematologis yaitu eretrosit, leokosit, plasma darah, hematokrit dan leokokrit pada masing-masing perlakuan sebagian besar masih berada dalam kisaran yang normal. Parameter kualitas air yaitu, kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan normal ikan nila. The purpose of this study was obtained method of controlling diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in fish farming is environmentally friendly. In this study the sensitivity of the test  A. hydrophila, a minimum test konsentari inhibiting A. hydrophila (MIC test and toxicity test on  tilapia. The design used for toxicity tests is completely randomized design with 4 treatments it A = Fish injected with extracts bangkal concentration of 20 %,  B = Fish injected with extracts bangkal

  17. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l−1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

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    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  19. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  20. Prevalence and resistance to antibiotics for Aeromonas species from retail fish in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Son; Ahmad, Noorlis; Ling, Foo Hooi; Reezal, Abdul

    2003-03-25

    A total of 87 market fish samples representing five types of fish were evaluated for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Of the samples examined, 69%, 55%, 11.5% and 2.3% harbored Aeromonas spp., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively. The 60 isolated Aeromonas spp. strains were further examined for hemolytic activity, resistance to antimicrobial agents and presence of plasmids. Hemolytic activity varied widely among the isolated strains. Though all the isolates demonstrated resistance to three or more of the antibiotics tested, all were susceptible to ceptazidime. Thirty-four (56.7%) of the sixty isolates harbored plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.3 to 15.7 kb. These results indicate that hemolytic, multiple antibiotic resistant and genetically diverse aeromonads are easily recovered from fish in this region.

  1. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. sunkii subsp. nov., isolated from sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuko; Oki, Kaihei; Watanabe, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    Although four strains of bacteria isolated from sunki, a traditional Japanese, non-salted pickle, were initially identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the strains did not match those of any of the four recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii. Together, the results of phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridizations (in which the relatedness values between the novel strains and type strains of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii were all >88.7%) and 16S rRNA gene sequence, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and whole-cell MALDI-TOF/MS spectral pattern analyses indicated that the four novel strains represented a single, novel subspecies, for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. sunkii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIT 11221(T) (=JCM 17838(T) =DSM 24966(T)).

  2. [Resistance of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ to reactive oxygen species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Lv, Jiaping; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Liyu; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Zhifei

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated antioxidative effect of two antioxidative strains, isolated from the traditional fermented dairy products. Both intact cells and cell-free extract of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ were used to study the inhibited effect of linoleic acid peroxidation, the ability of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical,the ability of tolerancing hydrogen peroxide and the chelating capacity of ferrous ion and reducting activity. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ demonstrated highest inhibition on linoleic acid peroxidation by 62.95% and 66.16%, respectively. The cell-free extract showed excellent scavenging superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals activity. However, the intact cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ scavenging superoxide and hydroxyl radicals capacity were not detected. The intact cells of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei SY13 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LJJ on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability and chelating ferrous ion capacity were superior to cell-free extract. The highest reduced activety was equivalent to 305 micromol/L and 294 micromol/L L-cysteine. Two latobacilli strains had good antioxidant capacity. As potential probiotics, it can be used in future.

  3. Electrotransformation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis with Various Plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Serror, Pascale; Sasaki, Takashi; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, a detailed electroporation procedure for Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Three L. delbrueckii strains were successfully transformed. Under optimal conditions, the transformation efficiency was 104 transformants per μg of DNA. Using this procedure, we identified several plasmids able to replicate in L. delbrueckii and integrated an integrative vector based on phage integrative elements into the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus chromosome. These vectors provide a goo...

  4. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...... from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small...

  5. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and AHL lactonase on the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Liu, Zhi; Gao, Qian; Xu, Shude; Ringø, Einar; Myklebust, Reidar; Gu, Zemao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    This study addressed the effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum or/and N-acylated homoserine lactonase (AHL lactonase) on controlling Aeromonas  hydrophila infection in juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus♀ × O. aureus ♂). Fish were fed Lb. plantarum subsp. plantarum strain JCM1149 (10(8)  CFU/g feed) or/and AHL lactonase AIO6 (4 U/g) and were exposed to a chronic challenge of A. hydrophila NJ-1 (10(5)  cells/mL) for 14 days. Intestinal (foregut) alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activities were evaluated 1 day post challenge to reflect the resistance of fish against A. hydrophila infection. Parallel groups of fish with the same dietary assignments while unchallenged were also included to investigate the effect of dietary Lb. plantarum or/and AIO6 supplementation on gut health of tilapia. The results showed that IAP activity was significantly lower in fish fed with diets supplemented with Lb. plantarum JCM1149 or the combination of Lb. plantarum JCM1149 and AIO6, indicating enhanced resistance against A. hydrophila. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images of foregut revealed damage caused by A. hydrophila NJ-1, but dietary Lb. plantarumJCM1149 or/and AIO6 significantly alleviated the damages. Compared to the fish immersed in A. hydrophila NJ-1, dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 or AIO6 could maintain the microvilli length in the foregut of tilapia. However, among the unchallenged groups of fish, the microvilli length in the foregut of tilapia fed AIO6 (singly or combination) and the microvilli density of tilapia fed AIO6 (singly) were significantly lower than those of the control, though the microvilli density in the combination treatment was significantly improved. Additionally, the dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 could down-regulate the expression of stress-related gene in the gut after the acute phase. In conclusion, the dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 is recommended to control the A. hydrophila infection in

  6. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: in the Wake of Reclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous jack-of-all-trades, Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed.

  7. Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and effective pollination across its native range in Queensland, Australia. CFE Bacles, J Brooks, DJ Lee, PM Schenk, AJ Lowe, A Kremer ...

  8. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: Part 1: Taxonomy, ecology and role in rural livelihoods: review paper.

  9. Aeromonas presence in drinking water from collective reservoirs and wells in peri-urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas genus is considered an emerging pathogen and its presence in drinking water supplies is a reason to public health concern. This study investigated the occurrence of Aeromonas in samples from collective reservoirs and wells used as drinking water sources in a peri-urban area. A total of 35 water samples were collected from collective reservoirs and 32 from wells bimonthly, from September 2007 to September 2008. Aeromonas spp determination was carried out using a Multiple-Tube Technique. Samples were inoculated into alkaline peptone water and the superficial film formed was transferred to blood agar plates amended with ampicillin. Typical Aeromonas colonies were submitted to a biochemical screening and then to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Aeromonas was detected in 13 (19% of the 69 samples examined (6 from collective reservoirs and 7 from wells. Concentrations of Aeromonas in collective reservoirs ranged from <0.3 to 1.2 x10²MPN/100mL and, in wells, from <0.3 to 2.4 x10²MPN/100mL. The most frequent specie in the collective reservoir samples was Aeromonas spp (68%, followed by A. encheleia (14% and A. allosaccharophila (8% and A. hydrophila (8%. Aeromonas spp (87% was the most frequent specie isolated from well samples, followed by A. allosacchariphila (8%, A. encheleia (2% and A. jandaei (5%. These data show the presence and diversity of Aeromonas genus in the samples analyzed and highlight that its presence in drinking water poses a significant public health concern.

  10. Diversity of the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunesova, Vera; Killer, Jiri; Javurkova, Barbora; Vlkova, Eva; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Musilova, Sarka; Rada, Vojtech

    2017-04-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140. Ten strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis from different sources were characterised by phenotyping, fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Regardless of origin, MLST and phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis with commercial and animal origin with the exception of isolates from ovine cheese, mouflon and German Shepard dog. Moreover, isolates from dog and mouflon showed significant differences in fermentation profiles and peptide mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF). Results indicated phenotypic and genotypic diversity among strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila as cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in a ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocholi, R A; Kalejaiye, J O

    1990-01-01

    An acute hemorrhagic septicemia in a captive ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) is reported. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from lungs, liver, kidney, and intestines. Postmortem lesions were characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs. Microscopically, necrotic lesions were found in the liver, lungs, and kidney. Factors that might have contributed to the clinical disease condition are discussed.

  12. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

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    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  14. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

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    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p0.8, being influenced by exogenous humanimpact. The results of this study confirms that untreated water used in rural areas can affect public health andmicrobiological indicators have predictive value for the presence of Aeromonas spp only reporting to surface sources.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas bestiarum GA97-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C; Griffin, Matt J; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Liles, Mark R; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Lawrence, Mark L; Karsi, Attila

    2018-06-14

    Aeromonas bestiarum is a Gram-negative mesophilic motile bacterium causing acute hemorrhagic septicemia or chronic skin ulcers in fish. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. bestiarum strain GA97-22, which was isolated from rainbow trout in 1997. This genome sequence will improve our understanding of the complex taxonomy of motile aeromonads.

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

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    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  17. Prevalence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a sample of healthy dogs, cats and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Lawrence, K; Gordon, S J G; Moore, S; Rasiah, I; Steward, K; French, N; Waller, A

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci in healthy dogs, cats and horses; to determine if frequent contact with horses was associated with isolation of these species from dogs and cats; and to characterise recovered S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates by multilocus sequence typing. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 197 dogs and 72 cats, and nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 horses. Sampling was carried out at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, on sheep and beef farms or on premises where horses were present. All animals were healthy and were categorised as Urban dogs and cats (minimal contact with horses or farm livestock), Farm dogs (minimal contact with horses) and Stable dogs and cats (frequent contact with horses). Swabs were cultured for β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Lancefield group C streptococcal subspecies were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Of the 197 dogs sampled, 21 (10.7 (95% CI= 4.0-25.4)%) tested positive for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and 4 (2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.5)%) tested positive for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. All these isolates, except for one S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolate in an Urban dog, were from Stable dogs. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was isolated from one Stable cat. Of the 93 horses, 22 (23.7 (95% CI=12.3-40.6)%) and 6 (6.5 (95% CI=2.8-14.1)%) had confirmed S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolation respectively. Isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from dogs was associated with frequent contact with horses (OR=9.8 (95% CI=2.6-72.8)). Three different multilocus sequence type profiles of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus that have not been previously reported in dogs were recovered. Subclinical infection or colonisation by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurs in dogs and further research on inter-species transmission and the pathogenic potential of these

  18. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

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    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  19. Electrotransformation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis with Various Plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serror, Pascale; Sasaki, Takashi; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, a detailed electroporation procedure for Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Three L. delbrueckii strains were successfully transformed. Under optimal conditions, the transformation efficiency was 104 transformants per μg of DNA. Using this procedure, we identified several plasmids able to replicate in L. delbrueckii and integrated an integrative vector based on phage integrative elements into the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus chromosome. These vectors provide a good basis for developing molecular tools for L. delbrueckii and open the field of genetic studies in L. delbrueckii. PMID:11772607

  20. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek

  1. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek

  2. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  3. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  4. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  5. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  6. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, L; Martínez, E; Castañeda, P; Franzblau, S; Timmermann, B N; Linares, E; Bye, R; Mata, R

    2000-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

  7. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

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    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  8. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  9. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  11. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  12. Potential of Chromolaena odorata Leaf as A Cure of Aeromonas hydrophila on Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hadiroseyani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the potency of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract as a medicine for skin eruption disease caused by  Aeromonas hydrophila in giant gouramy Osphronemus gouramy.  Leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata for in vitro test was 0 (as control, 13000, 15000, 17000, 19000 and 21000 ppm, poured onto TSA medium containing bacteria 103 cfu/ml, and then is incubated for 24 hours. In vivo test was performed by injecting bacteria 0.1 ml of 109 cfu/ml intramuscularly into giant gouramy (14 g weight, and then  fish were maintained in the water containing 15000 ppm of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract. In vitro study showed that prevention area of leaf extract against Aeromonas hydrophila was increase by increasing the concentration of leaf extract used, reached 9,33 mm.  Prevention zone of leaf extract by difusion tends to constant, reached 7,6 mm. By in vivo test, survival rate of giant gouramy infected by Aeromonas hydrophila was no significantly different between dosages of leaf extract.  All treated fish, excluded control died after 24 hours infection. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Osphronemus gouramy, Chromolaena odorata   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi daun kirinyuh Chromolaena odorata sebagai obat untuk penyakit cacar yang diakibatkan oleh Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan gurame Osphronemus gouramy. Konsentrasi ekstrak daun Chromolaena odorata untuk uji in vitro adalah 13000, 15000, 17000, 19000 dan 21000 serta 0 ppm sebagai kontrol, yang diletakkan di atas media TSA yang telah mengandung biakan bakteri 103 cfu/ml dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam. Uji in vivo dilakukan dengan menginjeksikan bakteri  sebanyak 0,1 ml (109 cfu/ml secara intramuskular ke ikan gurame (berat 14 g dan kemudian ikan dipelihara dalam air yang mengandung ekstrak daun kirinyuh 15000 ppm. Hasil uji in virto menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak daun kirinyuh basah semakin efektif dalam menghambat perkembangan

  13. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  14. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  15. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of Aeromonas species in human pathology. These species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. This last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, furunculosis), joint, bones, respiratory, urinary tract, ocular infections up to meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, hepatobilliary disease, endotoxic shock and septicemia (as consequence of leech microvascular surgery). During the last decade, the literature reported a high mortality in Aeromonas infections determined by certain phenospecies (A. hydrophila and A. veronii) especially in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. In microbiologists' opinion this high rate of mortality was probably due to poor knowledge concerning the aspects of antibioresistance in Aeromonas strains, to empiric treatments with antibiotics to which these bacteria exhibiting constitutive resistance lead to insuccessful results, and at last to the increasing trend of aeromonads resistance to certain antibiotics after 1996. The literature mentioned also that for a great number of Beta-lactamase producing Aeromonas strains, the use of microdilution method (by comparison to disk diffusion in agar medium) giving false results made more difficult the true knowledge of Aeromonas antibioresistance patterns. At the same time, in 2002, the literature mentioned 4 ecological compartments considered as "reservoirs for dissemination and transfer of microbial antibioresistance i.e. humans, animals, plants and natural soil and water. In the last time, more and more data of the literature revealed that some bacteria with role of reservoir of antibioresistance in the natural environment, even

  16. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  17. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus Invades and Survives in Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skive, Bolette; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside in the endo......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside...

  18. Pathogenic potentials of Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Beshiru, Abeni; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E; Ateba, Collins N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-06-01

    The present study elucidated the presence of antibiotics resistance, virulence genes and biofilm potentials among Aeromonas species isolated from abattoir and aquaculture environments in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 144 wastewater samples were obtained from two independent aquaculture and abattoir environments between May and October 2016. Aeromonas species were isolated on Glutamate Starch Phenol Red (GSP) agar and confirmed using API 20NE kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates was carried out using standard disc diffusion assay while biofilm potentials were detected by the microtitre plate method and PCR technique was used to detect antibiotics resistance and virulence gene markers. Overall, 32 and 26 Aeromonas species were isolated from the abattoir and aquaculture environments respectively. Isolates from both environments were completely resistant (100%) to penicillin G, ertapenem and tetracycline; whereas aquaculture isolates exhibited absolute sensitivity (100%) towards cefepime. All the virulence gene markers (aerA, hlyA, alt, ast, laf, ascF-G, fla, lip, stx1, and stx2) investigated in this study (except laf) were detected in isolates from both environments. The laf genes were only detected in isolates from abattoir environments. Antibiotics resistant genes including pse, bla TEM and class 1 integron were detected in isolates from both environments. Majority of the isolates (53/58 91.4%) from both environments; demonstrated capacity for biofilm potential. The detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence gene markers as well as biofilm forming ability in Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments raise serious public health concern worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of pH in oxidase variability of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L K; Overman, T L; Otero, R B

    1981-01-01

    Some strains of Aeromonas hydrophila may be oxidase negative or only weakly oxidase positive by the Kovacs method taken from the surface of a differential medium, such as MacConkey agar. Six strains of A. hydrophila, two oxidase variable, one oxidase constant, and three weakly oxidase positive on MacConkey agar, were studied to determine the cause of oxidase variability. The bacteriostatic dyes in MacConkey agar were considered possible inhibitors of the oxidase reaction. The concentration of...

  20. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  1. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  2. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Inconspicuous Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in an Immunocompromised Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chun Liao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of serious necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila without a suggestive history of routes of pathogen invasion in a 60-year-old male. Despite prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensive surgical therapies, the patient died within 72 hours following initial presentation. Our experience suggests clinicians be highly alert to the disease when an immunocompromised patient featured fulminant soft-tissue infection in the endemic area.

  3. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    % of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at ... coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis...

  4. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  5. Preliminary Study on the In vitro and In vivo Effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis Bioactive Phycoderivates on Teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Fabio; Di Caro, Gianfranco; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Spanò, Antonio; Faggio, Caterina; Genovese, Giuseppa; Morabito, Marina; Russo, Annamaria; Barreca, Davide; Fazio, Francesco; Santulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. Among the red algae, Asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. Here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. Depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of A. taxiformis exhibited significantly different inhibitory activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. The extract obtained in late spring showed strong antibacterial activity against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Vibrio alginolyticus, and V. vulnificus, and moderate activity against Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, P. damselae subsp. piscicida, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Sea bass and gilthead sea bream were fed with pellets supplied with the alga and algal extracts. The absence of undesired effects on fish was demonstrated. Hematological and biochemical investigations allowed to confirm that the whole alga and its extracts could be proposed for a future application in aquaculture. PMID:27826246

  6. Preliminary Study on the in vitro and in vivo Effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis Bioactive Phycoderivates on Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Marino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. Among the red algae, Asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. Here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. Depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of A. taxiformis exhibited significantly different inhibitory activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. The extract obtained in late spring showed strong antibacterial activity against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Vibrio alginolyticus, and V. vulnificus, and moderate activity against Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, P. damselae subsp. piscicida, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Sea bass and gilthead sea bream were fed with pellets supplied with algae and algal extracts. The absence of undesired effects was demonstrated. Hematological and biochemical investigations allowed to confirm that the whole alga and its extracts could be proposed for a future application in aquaculture.

  7. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act + /alt + /ast + genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act - /alt - /ast - . In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  8. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  10. The effect of disinfectants on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica on different surface materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilkka Koponen

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seven disinfectants on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica was tested on metal, plastic and wood surfaces in laboratory trials. lobac P was the most effective disinfectant in the control of E. carotovora on clean and dirty surfaces. Ipasept and Menno-Ter-forte were effective on plastic surfaces, but dirt reduced their efficacy. The least effective preparations were Deskem-1, Virkon S and Korsolin. lobac P, Korsolin and Virkon S were the most effective disinfectants against C. michiganensis. The efficacy of Ipasept and Menno-Ter-forte was reduced by dirt. The least effective preparation was Deskem-1.

  11. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  12. Peritonitis in a llama caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, J; Cebra, C K

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month-old, male llama was diagnosed with peritonitis caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Clinical findings, medical treatment, and case outcome are described. Hematogenous dissemination from suspected pneumonia is proposed as the route of infection in this case. Possible transmission of the organism through contact with horses is discussed. PMID:11424579

  13. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  15. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  16. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  17. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  18. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study aims to determine if A. tortilis subsp. raddiana populations suffer reduced fitness and its correlation or association with genetic diversity and mating parameters. Correlations and association between fitness, population size, genetic variation, and mating system parameters were tested using Spearman ...

  19. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  20. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: part 2: commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing: review paper.

  1. Simultaneous effects of environmental factors on motile Aeromonas dynamics in an urban effluent and in the natural seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Sami; Mahjoubi, Amira; Elazri, Chafai; Dukan, Sam

    2003-07-01

    Seasonal dynamics of motile Aeromonas in a treated urban effluent and in natural seawater along the Sfax coast (Mediterranean sea, Tunisia) were measured over a year concurrently with seven environmental factors, and compared with those of faecal coliforms. Counts for Aeromonas from a standard plate count method, ranged from 1.48 x 10(5)CFU.100 ml(-1) to 2.2 x 10(8)CFU.100 ml(-1) in the effluent and from 7.9 x 10(3)CFU.100 ml(-1) to undetectable level in the surface marine waters. Contrary to faecal coliforms, the Aeromonas dynamics exhibited a seasonal distribution in seawater which was inverse of the seasonal distribution in the sewage: From the end of November 1998 to April 1999 (cold period), Aeromonas counts increased in the treated effluent, while it decreased very rapidly in seawater. From May to October (warm period), Aeromonas abundance decreased in the effluent but showed an increasing fluctuating trend in the marine waters with a maximum in late summer/early autumn when the temperatures were around 22-23 degrees C. Multiple correlation and regression analyses suggest, by the coefficient of determination (R(2)), that 42% of variance in Aeromonas number changes in the treated effluent, may be explained by only turbidity, radiation and Aeromonas density in the previous sample, while 37% of variance in marine ecosystem were explained by radiance and conductivity. Furthermore, the t statistics and their p values and the coefficient of partial determination (r(2)) indicated that radiance contributed the most (r(2)=0.3184, t=-3.2, p=0.0041) to the dynamics of motile Aeromonas in seawater, when combined with conductivity. The models relevant for changes in faecal coliforms abundance incorporated turbidity, radiance in the effluent and conductivity, pH, radiance, turbidity in coastal marine environment. These models explain 66% and 73% of the observed cell number fluctuation, with turbidity (r(2)=0.529, t=5.08, p=0.0001) and conductivity (r(2)=0.5407, t=4.97, p=0

  2. Presence of Aeromonas spp in water from drinking-water- and wastewater-treatment plants in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel-López, Angélica; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Mota-de-la-Garza, Lydia; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The frequency of Aeromonas spp in three wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) and two drinking-water plants (DWPs) in México City was determined. Samples were taken throughout a year by the Moore's swab technique. A total of 144 samples were obtained from WWTPs and 96 from DWPs of both incoming and outflowing water. Aeromonas spp was isolated in 31% of the samples, from both kinds of sources. The technique used for the isolation of the pathogen was suitable for samples with high associate microbiota content and for those with a scarce microbial content. The presence of mesophilic-aerobic, coliform, and fecal-coliform organisms was investigated to determine whether there was any correlation with the presence of Aeromonas spp. Most samples from WWTP, which did not comply with the Mexican standards, had the pathogen, and some of the samples from the outflow of the DWP, which were within the limits set by the Mexican standards, also had Aeromonas spp. Most samples containing Aeromonas spp. had concentrations below 0.1 ppm residual chlorine, and the strains were resistant to 0.3 ppm, which supports the recommendation to increase the residual chlorine concentration to 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, as recommended by the Mexican standards.

  3. Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Tania; Balcázar, José Luis; Peix, Alvaro; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol

    2011-08-01

    The species Lactococcus lactis currently includes three subspecies; L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, isolated from milk sources, and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, isolated from the leafhopper Hordnia circellata. In this study, three strains, designated L105(T), I3 and L101, were isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These strains were closely related to members of the species Lactococcus lactis. Strain L105(T) showed 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to that of the type strains L. lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 604(T) and L. lactis subsp. hordniae NCDO 2181(T) and showed 99.9 % similarity to the type strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 607(T). Analysis of two housekeeping genes, rpoB and recA, confirmed the close relationship between the novel strains and L. lactis subsp. cremoris with similarities of 99.3 and 99.7 %, respectively. The three strains could, however, be differentiated from their closest relatives on the basis of several phenotypic characteristics, as was the case for L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, which were also closely related on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA gene sequence similarities. The strains isolated in this study represent a new subspecies, for which the name Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L105(T) ( = LMG 24662(T)  = DSM 21502(T)).

  4. Antioxidant activity profiling by spectrophotometric methods of aqueous methanolic extracts of Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Ksouri, Riadh; Medini, Faten; Sekkal, Fatima Zohra; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2014-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extracts of two plants from Algeria, Helichrysum stoechas subsp. rupestre and Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. In vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging profiling was determined by spectrophotometric methods, through: Total antioxidant capacity, and radical scavenging effects by the DPPH and ABTS methods, reducing and chelating power, and blanching inhibition of the β-carotene. All of the extracts showed interesting antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. The highest contents in phenolics, tannins, and the highest total antioxidant capacity as gallic acid equivalents of 97.5 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g DW was obtained for the flowers of H. stoechas subsp. rupestre extract in the phosphomolybdenum assay. An extract of the leafy stems of P. saxatile subsp. saxatile revealed the highest content of flavonoids, and the highest antioxidant activity by the radical scavenging and β-carotene assays when compared with standards. The best activity was by the scavenging radical DPPH with an IC50 value of 5.65 ± 0.10 μg·mL(-1). The studied medicinal plants could provide scientific evidence for some traditional uses in the treatment of diseases related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov., isolated from dolo wort, an alcoholic fermented beverage in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Vogensen, Finn K; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into five subspecies based on phenotypic and genotypic differences. A novel isolate, designated ZN7a-9(T), was isolated from malted sorghum wort used for making an alcoholic beverage (dolo) in Burkina Faso. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization and peptidoglycan cell-wall structure type analyses indicated that it belongs to the species L. delbrueckii. The genome sequence of isolate ZN7a-9(T) was determined by Illumina-based sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and split-decomposition analyses were performed on seven concatenated housekeeping genes obtained from the genome sequence of strain ZN7a-9(T) together with 41 additional L. delbrueckii strains. The results of the MLST and split-decomposition analyses could not establish the exact subspecies of L. delbrueckii represented by strain ZN7a-9(T) as it clustered with L. delbrueckii strains unassigned to any of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii. Strain ZN7a-9(T) additionally differed from the recognized type strains of the subspecies of L. delbrueckii with respect to its carbohydrate fermentation profile. In conclusion, the cumulative results indicate that strain ZN7a-9(T) represents a novel subspecies of L. delbrueckii closely related to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZN7a-9(T) = DSM 26046(T) = LMG 27067(T).

  6. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  7. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  8. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) andwater samples, and ∼100-37,500CFU/g (A), 1200-43,500CFU/g (B) andantibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  10. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Shi, Guo-Qing; Tang, Guang-Peng; Zou, Zhi-Tin; Yao, Guang-Hai; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-01

    On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures. A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of ≥ two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours), abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C) between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR) by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food. We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14%) and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.8). The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0-3.3) and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3). Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30 °C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking-water. This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking-water sources.

  11. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zeng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of more than two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours, abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14% and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–4.8. The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0–3.3 and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.3. Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30°C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking water.Conclusion: This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking water sources.

  12. Functional genomic characterization of virulence factors from necrotizing fasciitis-causing strains of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Erova, Tatiana E; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Shak, Joshua R; Joseph, Sam W; Singletary, Ed; Felland, Tracy; Baze, Wallace B; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K

    2014-07-01

    The genomes of 10 Aeromonas isolates identified and designated Aeromonas hydrophila WI, Riv3, and NF1 to NF4; A. dhakensis SSU; A. jandaei Riv2; and A. caviae NM22 and NM33 were sequenced and annotated. Isolates NF1 to NF4 were from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Two environmental isolates (Riv2 and -3) were from the river water from which the NF patient acquired the infection. While isolates NF2 to NF4 were clonal, NF1 was genetically distinct. Outside the conserved core genomes of these 10 isolates, several unique genomic features were identified. The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. In a septicemic-mouse model, SSU, NF1, and Riv2 were the most virulent, while NF2 was moderately virulent. These data correlated with high motility and biofilm formation by the former three isolates. Conversely, in a mouse model of intramuscular infection, NF2 was much more virulent than NF1. Isolates NF2, SSU, and Riv2 disseminated in high numbers from the muscular tissue to the visceral organs of mice, while NF1 reached the liver and spleen in relatively lower numbers on the basis of colony counting and tracking of bioluminescent strains in real time by in vivo imaging. Histopathologically, degeneration of myofibers with significant infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells due to the highly virulent strains was noted. Functional genomic analysis provided data that allowed us to correlate the highly infectious nature of Aeromonas pathotypes belonging to several different species with virulence signatures and their potential ability to cause NF. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-[beta]-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.; Toney, J.H.; Fitzgerald, P.M.D. (Merck)

    2010-07-20

    The CphA metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 {angstrom}. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. A data set extending to 1.8 {angstrom} has been measured.

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales , class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes . The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genom...

  15. Thermal Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Artificially Contaminated Milk by Direct Steam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105°C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. IMPORTANCE M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula

  16. Russian isolates enlarge the known geographic diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Timofeev

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America and subsp. holarctica (widespread across the Northern Hemisphere, are responsible for tularemia in humans. Subsp. novicida is almost avirulent in humans. The fourth subspecies, subsp. mediasiatica, is the least studied because of its limited distribution and impact in human health. It is found only in sparsely populated regions of Central Asia. In this report, we describe the first focus of naturally circulating F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica in Russia. We isolated and characterized 18 strains of this subspecies in the Altai region. All strains were highly virulent in mice. The virulence of subsp. mediasiatica in a vaccinated mouse model is intermediate between that of subsp. tularensis and subsp. holarctica. Based on a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, we show that the Altaic population of F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica is genetically distinct from the classical Central Asian population, and probably is endemic to Southern Siberia. We propose to subdivide the mediasiatica subspecies into three phylogeographic groups, M.I, M.II and M.III.

  17. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that causes soft-rot in potato and other crops. The main virulence determinants, the extracellular plant cell wall -degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), lead to plant tissue maceration. In order to establish a successful infection the production of PCWDEs are controlled by a complex regulatory network, including both specific and global activators and repressors. One of the most important virulence regulation systems in Ecc ...

  18. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Phages

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for ...

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  1. Susceptibilities to carbapenems and presence of cphA gene on food-borne Aeromonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana María Martín Talavera

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibilities of food-borne Aeromonas to carbapenems, as well as to investigate the presence of a metallo carbapenemase-encoding gene, named cphA. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined following NCCLS standards. All the tested microorganisms were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and biapenem. However, a strong inoculum size effect on carbapenem MICs was observed for most of the strains. Six strains, out of seven, showed the presence of metallo--beta-lactamases but cphA gene was detected in only two strains of A. veronii bv. sobria.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a suscetibilidade de aeromonas de origem alimentar a carbapenems bem como investigar a presença de um gene codificante de metalocarbapenemase, denominado "cph A". A suscetibilidade in vitro foi determinada pelo metodo de diluição em agar. Todas as cepas foram suscetíveis a Imipenem, Meropenem e Biapenem. Porém foi observado um forte efeito de tamanho do inóculo sobre as CIM das carbapenems na maioria das cepas. A detecção de metalo-beta-lactamase foi realizada pelo metodo lodometrico. Seis cepas das sete testadas demostraron a presença da enzima. A presença do gene cphA foi determinada por PCR e foi detectada em duas cepas de A veronii bv. sobria.

  2. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  3. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  4. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  5. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

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    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  6. Characterisation of potential virulence markers in Aeromonas caviae isolated from polluted and unpolluted aquatic environments in Morocco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imziln, Boujama; Krovacek, Karel; Baloda, Suraj B.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 100 Aeromonas caviae strains isolated from river waters (38 isolates), raw sewage (30 isolates) and effluents of stabilisation ponds (i.e. treated sewage; 32 isolates) in Marrakech, Morocco, were tested for the presence of putative virulence factors to delineate differences, if any...

  7. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  8. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  9. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila = Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ±27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes por caixa. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectadoscom 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus écaracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinasplasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected byAeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 water tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the water tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoidedstressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 cfu of A. hydrophila fish-1, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24h before experimental infection and 24h after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus ischaracterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and monocytosis.

  10. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2†

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; O'Sullivan, D. J.; Baldwin, K. A.; McKay, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    A functional pyc gene was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 and was found to complement a Pyc defect in L. lactis KB4. The deduced lactococcal Pyc protein was highly homologous to Pyc sequences of other bacteria. The pyc gene was also detected in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Strain ND02▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain ND02 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. Here, we report the main genome features of ND02 and several differences with two other published genomes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains.

  12. A new methodology for rapid detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus based on multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Anastasios; Saxami, Georgia; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Galanis, Alex

    2011-02-01

    In this study we present a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid and efficient detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The accuracy of our method was confirmed by the successful identification of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in commercial yoghurts and food supplements and it may be readily applied to the food industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis hosted by free-living amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is responsible for paratuberculosis in animals. This disease, leading to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, has a high impact on animal health and an important economic burden. The environmental life cycle of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratube...

  14. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Ilyas, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been

  15. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Yogurt Isolate Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ACA-DC 87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Voula; Kazou, Maria; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2017-08-24

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is widely used in the production of yogurt and cheese. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ACA-DC 87 isolated from traditional Greek yogurt. Whole-genome analysis may reveal desirable technological traits of the strain for dairy fermentations. Copyright © 2017 Alexandraki et al.

  17. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  18. Investigation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley Decoction and Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Züleyha

    2018-01-01

    In present study, we report phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of decoctionand infusion of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicataand M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley. The quantitativeamounts of the phenolic contents were determined by LC-MS/MS.  The main compounds and amounts of M. spicata weredetermined as follow for decoction; caffeic acid, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyletherand penduletin (4126.6; 2141.5; 1472.7 mg/kg dried herba, respectively), for infusion;fumaric aci...

  19. Assessing the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during composting of livestock carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L; Krause, Denis O; McAllister, Tim A; Buckley, Katherine E; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  20. Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  1. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  2. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish

  3. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorie Astria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%. Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hydrophila. The observed parameters were a total performance of production, hematological test, and water quality. Immersion of catfish seeds with stem juice was performed at a concentration of 5 mL/L, 13 mL/L, and 21 mL/L for 30 minutes. Each treatment consisted of three replications. A  total of 15 fishes were immersed in 1.5 L water. At day-9 after immersion, fish was infected by A. hydrophila bacteria at a dose of 104 cfu/mL. The results showed that fish treated with banana stem juice at a concentration of 13 mL/L had the survival rate of 53.33±6.67% which is higher than positive control (33.33±6.67%. Based on hematology observations on the 3rd day post-challenge test (H12 with A. hydrophila, total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, differential leukocyte, and lysozyme activity was highest in treatment13 mL/L. Lower feed conversion ratio (1.08±0.04 were also obtained in treatment 13 mL/L. Thus Immersion of seeds in stem juice can boost the immune system against infections A. hydrophila. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, ambon banana stem juice, soaking, catfish, immune system  ABSTRAK Wabah penyakit akibat infeksi Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan lele dapat menyebabkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi (80–100%. Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan menggunakan fitofarmaka untuk mencegah ataupun mengobati penyakit ikan. Salah satu fitofarmaka yang dapat digunakan dalam upaya pencegahan penyakit ikan adalah batang

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Stratev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. Keywords: A. hydrophila, Antimicrobial resistance, Microbial food safety

  5. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbaş, Z. Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S. A.

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  6. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaş, Z Y; Vural, H; Aytaç, S A

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  7. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbaş, Z.Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball

  8. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium tellurite (K 2 TeO 3 ) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  9. Isolation of bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and therapeutic effects of medicinal plants on its invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tareq-Uz-Zaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterial pathogen, was isolated form Pangasius hypophthalmus. For pathogenicity test, different doses were injected intramuscularly in Barbonymus gonionotus. Crude extracts were prepared from various parts Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, and Callotropis gigentia and applied to B. gonionotus for 7 days. Bath treatment was done up to their tolerance level and well ventilation was confirmed for aeration and 50% water was exchanged daily. Minimum inhibitory dose was detected as 7 mg/ml. High inhibitory effect was observed in case of A. indica and mixed extract of A. indica and C. gigentia. Both A. indica and C. gigentia showed the best result with 90-95% recovery of infected fish at a dose of 7 mg/l. C. zedoaria showed moderate to weak effect with 50-60% recovery at the same dose. The present study showed that medicinal plants would be an effective control measure against A. hydrophila.

  10. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Microwave Cooking on Aeromonas Hydrophila in Bolti Fish Fillet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W.S.; Megahed, A.A.; El-Ghaiaty, H.A.; Hafez, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the bactericidal effect of gamma and microwave radiation on Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in fish fillets. The study revealed that treatment of fish fillets with a dose of 1 kGy gamma radiation reduced the population of A.hydrophila by 104 cfu/g, while the dose of 2 and 3 kGy completely eliminated the microorganism. Treatment of fish fillets with microwave cooking for 1 and 2 minutes completely eliminated the microorganism. The physical examination of fish after gamma radiation treatment revealed that the used doses had no significant changes on fish fillets. The changes in protein profile (amino acids %) depended on radiation dose and period of cooking in microwave alongside controls while the total protein content was not affected.

  11. Pancarditis in a patient with tropical pyomyositis due to Aeromonas infection

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    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical pyomyositis is a suppurative disease of the skeletal muscles. The most common site of the infection being muscles of the thigh. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism isolated. Aeromonas is one of the rarest organisms described as the etiologic agent for this disease. Rarely, cardiac involvement in pyomyositis has been described in the form of myocarditis and pyopericardium. Pancarditis is a very rare event in the natural course of pyomyositis. To the best of our knowledge, there is a single case report in world literature regarding involvement of all the layers of the heart in pyomyositis. We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent male who had pyomyositis and developed pancarditis, which was managed successfully with conservative management.

  12. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  13. Stereochemical and positional specificity of the lipase/acyltransferase produced by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D L; Hilton, S; Buckley, J T

    1992-06-02

    Aeromonas species secrete a glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) which shares many properties with mammalian plasma lecithin-cholesterol acetyltransferase (LCAT). We have studied the stereochemical and positional specificity of GCAT against a variety of lipid substrates using NMR spectroscopy as well as other assay methods. The results show that both the primary and secondary acyl ester bonds of L-phosphatidylcholine can be hydrolyzed but only the sn-2 fatty acid can be transferred to cholesterol. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for the L configuration at the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine. The secondary ester bond of D-phosphatidylcholine cannot be hydrolyzed, and this lipid is not a substrate for acyl transfer. In contrast to the phospholipases, but similar to LCAT, the enzyme does not interact stereochemically with the phosphorus of phosphatidylcholine. In fact, the phosphorus is not required for enzyme activity, as GCAT will also hydrolyze monolayers of diglyceride, although at much lower rates.

  14. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE AEROMONAS SPP ISOLADAS DE AMOSTRAS DE OSTRAS E ÁGUA POR MÉTODO MICROBIOLÓGICO E MOLECULAR

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    Ana Carolina Miranda de Melo Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and identify Aeromonas bacteria from samples of oysters and water, by microbiological and molecular methods. Identification of Aeromonas was performed by the conventional method and by PCR and species characterization was performed by identification key Aerokey II and by RFLP-PCR of 16S rDNA. 59 (98.3% samples of oysters and 15 (75% samples of water contaminated by Aeromonas bacteria were identified. Of the 74 isolates of Aeromonas spp. obtained by microbiological analysis, 53 (71.62%, 38 (65.51% oyster samples and 15 (100% of water samples confirmed the characterization of the genus by molecular technique. As to biochemical species identification, 59.3% (n = 35 and 40.6% (n = 24 of isolates from Aeromonas sp. obtained from oyster samples were rated as A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively; and from isolates obtained from water samples, 60% (n = 9 were classified as A. hydrophila and 40% (n = 6 as A. caviae; however, only the A. hydrophila was confirmed by genetic sequencing. Regarding the classification by RFLP-PCR 16S rDNA, patterns of nonspecific bands were obtained, making it impossible to identify the species by this technique. The large number of oyester samples contaminated with Aeromonas spp. and identification of A. hydrophila, demonstrate that this mollusk might present a risk to consumer health, mainly because it is consumed raw and is to a potentially pathogenic micro-organism to humans.

  15. The Effect of Some Physical and Chemical Parameters on Regrowth of Aeromonas Bacterium and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Isfahan Drinking Water System

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    Sina Dobaradaran

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is one the gram – negative , non spor – formating rod shaping , facultatively anaerobic and opportunistic bactria that can cause systematic infections, leision and diarrhoea in human. Fairly high bactrial population in distribution system is not only of concern because of affecting consumer health but also it makes it difficult to enumerate coliform bacterium indicator. So, the relationships between aeromonas and heterotrophic bacteria growth with pH, temperature, turbidity, free residual cholornie and DO were determined in this study. ADA- V media was used in presumptive stage to count aeromonas bacteria for the first time in Iran on the basis of 1605 EPA (2001 method and used oxidase tests, trehalose fermentation and indol test in confirmative stage. R2A media was used to count HPC bacteria and other factors measured on the basis of standards. The results showed that positive cases of aeromonas bacteria and HPC increase in higher temperature and turbidity and lower pH. In contrast, positive cases of aeromonas bacteria and HPC decrease while free residual cholorine and DO increase. In addition,no positive case of aeromonas was observed in more than 0.2 mg/L concentration of free residual cholorine.

  16. A DNA biosensor for molecular diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila using zinc sulfide nanospheres

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    M. Negahdary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, identification of pathogenic bacteria using modern and accurate methods is inevitable. Integration in electrochemical measurements with nanotechnology has led to the design of efficient and sensitive DNA biosensors against bacterial agents. Here, efforts were made to detect Aeromonas hydrophila using aptamers as probes and zinc sulfide (ZnS nanospheres as signal enhancers and electron transfer facilitators. After modification of the working electrode area (in a screen-printed electrode with ZnS nanospheres through electrodeposition, the coated surface of a modified electrode with ZnS nanospheres was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The size of synthesized ZnS nanospheres was estimated at about 20–50 nm and their shape was in the form of porous plates in microscopic observations. All electrochemical measurements were performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and constant potential amperometry (CPA techniques. The designed DNA biosensor was able to detect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of Aeromonas hydrophila in the range 1.0  ×  10−4 to 1.0  ×  10−9 mol L−1; the limit of detection (LOD in this study was 1  ×  10−13 mol L−1. This DNA biosensor showed satisfactory thermal and pH stability. Reproducibility for this DNA biosensor was measured and the relative standard deviation (RSD of the performance of this DNA biosensor was calculated as 5 % during 42 days.

  17. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  18. Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis, el ángel del norte

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    Rodríguez Rebeca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis es una subespecie del género Espeletia, comúnmente conocido como frailejón, nativo de Ecuador y Colombia. Uno de sus asentamientos primarios es la Reserva Ecológica El Ángel. Al ser miembro de los frailejones domina el páramo de la reserva, y ayuda a cumplir su función esencial: captar y distribuir el agua hacia tierras bajas. Además, posee ventajas adaptativas que le permiten soportar los climas extremos del páramo, así como una alta especificidad en la altura en donde crece. Los estudios realizados sobre esta especie muestran que los frailejones son un ecosistema en sí mismos. En especial, recientes investigaciones los identifican como hogar de varias especies de artrópodos. Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis sufre varias amenazas relacionados con alteraciones en el clima de su hábitat, y es de vital importancia un plan de acción para protegerlo, así como también a su hábitat.

  19. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  20. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.

  1. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 suppresses human T-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Fina, Daniele; Caruso, Roberta; Stolfi, Carmine; Caprioli, Flavio; Fantini, Massimo Claudio; Caspani, Giorgio; Grossi, Enzo; Di Iorio, Laura; Paone, Francesco Maria; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that probiotics are beneficial in T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. The molecular mechanism by which probiotics work remains elusive, but accumulating evidence indicates that probiotics can modulate immune cell responses. Since T cells express receptors for bacterial products or components, we examined whether different strains of lactobacilli directly regulate the functions of human T cells. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from blood and intestinal lamina propria (LP) of normal individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mononuclear cells were also isolated from Peyer's patches. Cells were activated with anti-CD3/CD2/CD28 in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, or L. casei subsp. casei DG. Cell proliferation and death, Foxp3, intracellular pH, and cytokine production were evaluated by flow cytometry. We showed that L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 but neither L. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19 nor L. casei subsp. casei DG inhibited blood CD4(+) T-cell growth. This effect was associated with no change in cell survival, expression of Foxp3, or production of gamma interferon, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-10. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060-mediated blockade of CD4(+) T-cell proliferation required a viable bacterium and was associated with decreased MCT-1 expression and low intracellular pH. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 also inhibited the growth of Peyer's patch mononuclear cells, normal lymphocytes, and IBD CD4(+) LP lymphocytes without affecting cytokine production. The data show that L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 blocks T-cell growth, thus suggesting a mechanism by which these probiotics could interfere with T-cell-driven immune responses.

  2. Análisis comparativo del cariotipo en poblaciones de Alstroemeria ligtu subsp. ligtu y A. ligtu subsp. simsii (Alstroemeriaceae de Chile

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    Carlos M. Baeza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de América del Sur. En Chile, este género se distribuye desde el extremo norte hasta la Patagonia, y la mayor diversidad de especies se encuentra en la zona central. Precisamente en esta zona crece Alstroemeria ligtu con sus 3 subespecies: A. ligtu subsp. ligtu, A. ligtu subsp. incarnata, A. ligtu subsp. simsii. Se realizó un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de individuos provenientes de 5 poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu de la VIII Región, y de una población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii de la V Región, mediante tinción de los cromosomas con DAPI u orceína acética. Las seis poblaciones estudiadas presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n=2x=16 cromosomas. Las poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu presentaron una fórmula haploide conformada por cuatro cromosomas metacéntricos (los pares 1 y 2 con microsatélites, uno submetacéntrico con microsatélite y tres telocéntricos con microsatélites. La población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii se caracterizó por poseer cinco cromosomas metacéntricos (el par 2 con un microsatélite y el par 6 con una constricción secundaria y tres cromosomas telocéntricos con satélite. Estos resultados indican que el cariotipo en A. ligtu es variable, y es probable que cambios a nivel cromosómico hayan contribuido en la diversificación de esta especie.

  3. Molecular Phylogenetics and Temporal Diversification in the Genus Aeromonas Based on the Sequences of Five Housekeeping Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén, J. Gaspar; Farfán, Maribel; Fusté, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed to estimate both the relative and absolute rates of speciation and extinction within clades based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of evolutionary relationships, according to an underlying model of diversification. However, the macroevolutionary models established for eukaryotes have scarcely been used with prokaryotes. We have investigated the rate and pattern of cladogenesis in the genus Aeromonas (γ-Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteria) using the sequences of five housekeeping genes and an uncorrelated relaxed-clock approach. To our knowledge, until now this analysis has never been applied to all the species described in a bacterial genus and thus opens up the possibility of establishing models of speciation from sequence data commonly used in phylogenetic studies of prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge between 248 and 266 million years ago, exhibiting a constant divergence rate through the Phanerozoic, which could be described as a pure birth process. PMID:24586399

  4. High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

    2014-06-15

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales, class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes. The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genome sequence of the species Staphylococcus cohnii.

  5. Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

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    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the naturalization of the New World Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser in central Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, and color photographs of this species from the wild are provided to aid in identification. This represents the first report of Helianthus species in Taiwan. The colony of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius was first observed in Taiwan in 1999. During our field survey in 2007 we witnessed the significant range expansion though the coast of Changhua County. The potential of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius to become an invasive species in Taiwan is worthy of attention.

  6. The Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae

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    Carlos M Baeza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%. This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer (Alstroemeriaceae fue examinada citológicamente. Esta especie presenta un número cromosómico somático de 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, con una fórmula haploide constituida por 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat cromosomas. El cariotipo es muy asimétrico, con valores de AsK % = 71,4 y Syi = 40,0%. Estos resultados se compararon con los de Alstroemeria graminea Phil., especie que presenta un cariotipo muy similar.

  7. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase ...

  8. İnek Sütlerinin Hareketli Aeromonas Türleri Yönünden İncelenmesi

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    Mustafa Alişarlı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, çiğ sütlerde hareketli Aermonas türlerinin bulunma sıklığını ortaya koymak ve ilk sağılan sütün kontaminasyondaki rolünü belirlemek amaçlanmaştır. Bu amaçla, 100 adet sağmal inekten direkt el sağımı ile alınan süt örnekleri incelenmiştir. İncelenen Örneklerin 8 tanesinde (%8 Aeromonas spp.izole edilmiş olup bunlardan 3'ü (%37,5 hareketli Aeromonas olarak belirlenmiştir. Hareketli Aeromonas'ların 2'si (%66,6 A. hydrophila ve1'i (%33,3 A. caviae olarak identifiye edilmiştir. Bu araştırmanın verileri, süt işletmelerine tanker ve güğümlerle getirilen çiğ sütlerden sağlanan örneklerdeki araştırma bulgularıyla kıyaslandığında daha düşük bulunmuştur. Bu da, eğer sağım sonrası hijyen kurallarına gerekli özen gösterilmezse çiğ sütlerin Aeromonas'lar ile kontaminasyon riskinin yüksek olacağını göstermektedir.

  9. Presence of Vibrios and Aeromonas strains and total psychrotrophs in hexagonal spotted grouper and Spanish Mackerel Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dagal, M.

    2002-01-01

    This work was conducted on different parts of hexagonal-spotted grouper and Spanish mackerel fish from 10 major fishery shops in Riyadh city to assess the presence of vibrios and aeromonas using the API20E and Biolog system. Also, pH and total psychotrophs were assessed as two indexes of quality. Similar data were obtained from both identification systems except for Aeromonas media-like and Vibrio anguillarum which are not included in the API20E database. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. media-like, V. alginolyticus, V.anguillarum, V. damsel and V. fluvialis were recovered from fish samples A. medial-like and V. damsel most predominant. Unexpectedly, V. cholera and V. parahemolyticus were not recovered. The numbers of skin samples of grouper having more than 7 log CFU/gm were much higher than that of mackerel skin samples. Similar psychrotrophic counts were noticed in gut samples of the two fish types, indicating similarly in growth habitat. Most of the grouper fish samples had a pH in the range of >6.40-7.02, whereas 95% of mackerel samples had a pH at 6.40 or below. (author)

  10. Improvement of DNA transfer frequency and transposon mutagenesis of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, M; Axelrood, P E; Weinhold, A R; Schroth, M N

    1989-01-01

    The production of antibiotics and their role in microbial competition under natural conditions can be readily studied by the use of transposon mutants. Several antibiotic-producing strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were unable to accept foreign DNA. A plasmid delivery system was developed, using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, which entailed isolating E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum mutants able to accept foreign DNA and transfer it to other strains. This enabled transposon mutagenesis of a wild-type antibiotic-producing strain of E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. Twelve antibiotic-negative mutants were isolated, and one of these showed a reduction in antibiotic production in vitro. Many of these mutants also showed a reduction in their ability to macerate potato tissue. The mutants were classified into four genetic groups on the basis of their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, indicating that several genes are involved in antibiotic biosynthesis by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. PMID:2543291

  11. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis predicted serine protease is associated with acid stress and intraphagosomal survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen that persists inside host macrophages despite severe oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation. Intrabacterial pH homeostasis is vital to pathogenic mycobacteria to preserve cellular biological processes and stability of ...

  12. Composition and potency characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...

  13. Influence of ions on growth and production of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, G.J.; Boels, I.C.; Sikkema, J.; Smith, M.R.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), either attached to the cell wall or excreted into the environment as slime material. EPS produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus play an important role in improving the

  14. Occurrence and Variety of β-Lactamase Genes among Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Piotrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Aeromonas that commonly occur in various aquatic ecosystems are taken into account as vectors spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in the environment. In our study strains of Aeromonas spp. (n = 104 not susceptible to ampicillin were isolated from municipal sewage of different levels of purification – raw sewage, activated sludge and treated wastewater. The crucial step of the study was the identification of β-lactamase resistance genes. The identified genes encode β-lactamases from 14 families – blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaMOX, blaACC, blaFOX, blaGES, blaPER, blaV EB, blaKPC, cphA, imiH, and cepH. There were no significant differences in number of identified ARGs between isolation points. BlaOXA, blaFOX variants and, characteristic for Aeromonas genus, metallo-β-lactamase cphA-related genes were the most commonly identified types of β-lactam resistance determinants. Moreover, we found four extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaSHV -11, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-98, and blaPER-4 – and seven AmpC (blaACC, blaFOX-2-like, blaFOX-3, blaFOX-4-like, blaFOX-9, blaFOX-10-like, and blaFOX-13-like types and variants of genes that had never been found among Aeromonas spp. before. Five of the β-lactamases families (blaTEM, blaOXA, blaFOX, blaV EB, and cphA were identified in all three isolation sites, which supports the hypothesis that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are hot spots of ARGs dissemination. The obtained ARGs sequences share high identity with previously described β-lactamases, but new variants of those genes have to be considered as well. Characterization of antibiotic susceptibility was performed using disk the diffusion method with 12 different antibiotics according to CLSI guidelines. Over 60% of the strains are unsusceptible to cefepime and chloramphenicol and the majority of the strains have a multidrug resistance phenotype (68%. Finally, analysis of plasmid profiles among the resistant strains

  15. Hepatite granulomatosa em bovino causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.F Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from intestines, liver, and lymph nodes were collected from a dairy steer with clinical suspicion of paratuberculosis. The samples were processed for histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin and Zihel-Neelsen (ZN staining for the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB, and submitted to immunohistochemistry (IHC. Macroscopic changes were observed in the small intestines, with thickening and corrugation of the mucosa. The main microscopic changes were found in small intestines, lymph vessels in the mesentery, and mesenteric lymph nodes characterized by enteritis, lymphangiectasia, and lymphadenitis. Liver presented with granulomatous hepatitis, an uncommon histopathological feature for paratuberculosis. The clinical features associated with positive culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and detection of AFB by ZN and IHC in the cytoplasm of macrophages (epithelioid in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, lymph nodes, and liver were important to confirm the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Phages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

  17. Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida isolated from a human in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Dawn N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and is classified as a select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently four known subspecies of F. tularensis that differ in virulence and geographical distribution are recognized:tularensis (type A, holarctica (type B, mediasiatica, and novicida. Because of the Select Agent status and differences in virulence and geographical location, the molecular analysis of any clinical case of tularemia is of particular interest. We analyzed an unusual Francisella clinical isolate from a human infection in Arizona using multiple DNA-based approaches. Findings We report that the isolate is F. tularensis subsp. novicida, a subspecies that is rarely isolated. Conclusion The rarity of this novicida subspecies in clinical settings makes each case study important for our understanding of its role in disease and its genetic relationship with other F. tularensis subspecies.

  18. Antimicrobial phenolics and unusual glycerides from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Chianese, Giuseppina; Minassi, Alberto; Gibbons, Simon; Arunotayanun, Warunya; Mabebie, Blessing; Ballero, Mauro; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-03-22

    During a large-scale isolation campaign for the heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (1a) from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, several new phenolics as well as an unusual class of lipids named santinols (5a-c, 6-8) have been characterized. Santinols are angeloylated glycerides characterized by the presence of branched acyl- or keto-acyl chains and represent a hitherto unreported class of plant lipids. The antibacterial activity of arzanol and of a selection of Helichrysum phenolics that includes coumarates, benzofurans, pyrones, and heterodimeric phloroglucinols was evaluated, showing that only the heterodimers showed potent antibacterial action against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These observations validate the topical use of Helichrysum extracts to prevent wound infections, a practice firmly established in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean area.

  19. Molecular characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-09-01

    In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. [Identification and phylogenetic analysis of one strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus separated from yoghourt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Chaowu; Pei, Xiaofang; Liu, Hengchuan

    2007-11-01

    For being further applied and studied, one strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (wch9901) separated from yoghourt which had been identified by phenotype characteristic analysis was identified by 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analyzed. The 16S rDNA of wch9901 was amplified with the genomic DNA of wch9901 as template, and the conservative sequences of the 16S rDNA as primers. Inserted 16S rDNA amplified into clonal vector pGEM-T under the function of T4 DNA ligase to construct recombined plasmid pGEM-wch9901 16S rDNA. The recombined plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme digestion, and the eligible plasmid was presented to sequencing company for DNA sequencing. Nucleic acid sequence was blast in GenBank and phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method of distance methods by Mega3.1 soft. Results of blastn showed that the homology of 16S rDNA of wch9901 with the 16S rDNA of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains was higher than 96%. On the phylogenetic tree, wch9901 formed a separate branch and located between Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2 evolution branch and another evolution branch which was composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DL2 evolution cluster and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus JSQ evolution cluster. The distance between wch9901 evolution branch and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2 evolution branch was the closest. wch9901 belonged to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. wch9901 showed the closest evolution relationship to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2.

  1. Improvement of DNA transfer frequency and transposon mutagenesis of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum.

    OpenAIRE

    Rella, M; Axelrood, P E; Weinhold, A R; Schroth, M N

    1989-01-01

    The production of antibiotics and their role in microbial competition under natural conditions can be readily studied by the use of transposon mutants. Several antibiotic-producing strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were unable to accept foreign DNA. A plasmid delivery system was developed, using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, which entailed isolating E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum mutants able to accept foreign DNA and transfer it to other strains. This enabled tra...

  2. Inside the adaptation process of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis to bile

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Patricia; Sánchez García, Borja; Vinderola, Gabriel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Ruíz García, Lorena; Margolles Barros, Abelardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A.; González de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Progressive adaptation to bile might render some lactobacilli able to withstand physiological bile salt concentrations. In this work, the adaptation to bile was evaluated on previously isolated dairy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200 and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200+, a strain derived thereof with stable bile-resistant phenotype. The adaptation to bile was obtained by comparing cytosolic proteomes of both strains grown in the presence or absence of bile. Proteomics we...

  3. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is influe......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...

  4. Quantitative assessment of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris present in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris belongs to lactic acid bacteria that play a crucial role in cheese production and it is known to be beneficial to human health. The aim of the study was to establish a rapid and accurate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR method to detect and enumerate L. lactis subsp. cremoris in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese. Artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese samples were used to check for presence and number of L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains. The method applies a set of target-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction primers and a fluorogenic probe, and amplifies a part of the LACR_RS01280 gene that encodes the aminoacetone oxidase family flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD binding enzyme. All 5 L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains examined were found to be qPCR positive. There was no signal recorded for 8 strains which belong to closely related species. The limit of detection amounted to ten copies per reaction and the assay indicated a linear dynamic range of seven logs. This method may be applied in detection and enumeration of L. lactis subsp. cremoris in cheese during its ripening. Moreover, it may be applied to examine the distribution of L. lactis subsp. cremoris during the cheese production and ripening.

  5. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes.

  6. Effects of six substances on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Huang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Yichao; Liu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as starter cultures for the dairy industry depends largely on the number of viable and active cells. Freeze-drying is the most convenient and successful method to preserve the bacterial cells. However, not all strains survived during freeze-drying. The effects of six substances including NaCl, sorbitol, mannitol, mannose, sodium glutamate, betaine added to the MRS medium on the growth and freeze-drying survival rate and viable counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were studied through a single-factor test and Plackett-Burman design. Subsequently, the optimum freeze-drying conditions of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were determined. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus survival rates were up to the maximum of 42.7%, 45.4%, 23.6%, while the concentrations of NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate were 0.6%, 0.15%, 0.09%, respectively. In the optimum concentration, the viable counts in broth is 6.1, 6.9, 5.13 (×108 CFU/mL), respectively; the viable counts in freeze-drying power are 3.09, 5.2, 2.7 (×1010 CFU/g), respectively. Three antifreeze factors including NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate have a positive effect on the growth and freeze-drying of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The results are beneficial for developing Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

  7. Pork meat as a potential source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs.

  8. Protein Profile and Plasmid Content of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LL52 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LC79 Strains under Several Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    LALE, Rahmi; TÜKEL, Çağla; AKÇELİK, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the protein and plasmid content of 2 Lactococcus lactis strains, L. lactis subsp. lactis LL52 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris LC79, under the stresses of high and low temperature, osmotic shock, and low pH were determined. We identified 3 new proteins with molecular masses of 16.0, 29.4, and 45.0 kDa as high temperature stress response specific in strain LL52. High temperature stress did not cause any changes in the protein content of strain LC79. Proteins that were specific for ...

  9. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  10. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  11. Inactivation kinetics of various chemical disinfectants on Aeromonas hydrophila planktonic cells and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-05-01

    The present article focuses on the inactivation kinetics of various disinfectants including ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and benzalkonium chloride against Aeromonas hydrophila biofilms and planktonic cells. Efficacy was determined by viable plate count and compared using a modified Weibull model. The removal of the biofilms matrix was determined by the crystal violet assay and was confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that all the experimental data and calculated Weibull α (scale) and β (shape) parameters had a good fit, as the R(2) values were between 0.88 and 0.99. Biofilms are more resistant to disinfectants than planktonic cells. Ethanol (70%) was the most effective in killing cells in the biofilms and significantly reduced (preduction as well as the effectiveness of chemical disinfectants on biofilms. The study showed that the Weibull model could successfully be used on food and food contact surfaces to determine the exact contact time for killing biofilms-forming foodborne pathogens.

  12. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  13. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase 125 I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to 125 I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein

  14. Assessment of Skin Pathological Responses in the Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagrus latus under the Aeromonas hydrophila Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azadbakht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial diseases in cultured fish are considered the main problem to aquaculture system. Skin is the structure that covers the body in fish. Skin histopatological alterations were used to assess the effects of Aeromonas hydrophila exposure on the yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus(. Methods: In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of A. hydrophila (103,106 CFU/ml for 3 weeks. Results: Some more severe alternations found in the skin of fish exposed. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the skin including hyperplasia of epidermis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucosal cells and dermis edema. Some more severe alternations found in the skin of fish exposed to higher level of A. hydrophila (106 CFU/ml included telangiectasia of dermis layer. In addition, according to the results of histometrical studies in treated fish compared to control group showed that thickness of epidermis and dermis layers were increased significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: A. hydrophila can cause major histophatological changes in the skin of A. latus. In addition, histopathological changes of the skin provide helpful information about the environmental conditions and as particular biomarkers may provide imminent into evaluating the general health and stress status of fish.

  15. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  16. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm−2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm−2 at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm−2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  17. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  18. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Xia, Jun Hong; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp) of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila. PMID:25470022

  19. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  20. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  3. Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. oceani sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. galateae subsp. nov., novel sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai W; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2010-03-01

    Two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, designated strain I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T), were isolated from the oxygen minimum zone water column off the coast of Peru at 400 and 500 m water depth. The strains were Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped and motile. Both strains were psychrotolerant, grew optimally at 20 degrees C at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 2.5-3.5% NaCl (w/v). The strains grew by utilizing hydrogen/acetate, C(3-4) fatty acids, amino acids and glycerol as electron acceptors for sulfate reduction. Fumarate, lactate and pyruvate supported fermentative growth. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and taurin supported growth as electron acceptors. Both strains were catalase-positive and highly oxygen-tolerant, surviving 24 days of exposure to atmospheric concentrations. MK6 was the only respiratory quinone. The most prominent cellular fatty acid was iso-17:1-omega9c (18%) for strain I.8.1(T) and iso-17:0-omega9c (14%) for strain I.9.1(T). The G+C contents of their genomic DNA were 45-46 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and dsrAB gene sequences showed that both strains belong to the genus Desulfovibrio. Desulfovibrio acrylicus DSM 10141(T) and Desulfovibrio marinisediminis JCM 14577(T) represented their closest validly described relatives with pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of 98-99%. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) was 30-38%. The two strains shared 10-26% DNA-DNA relatedness with D. acrylicus. Based on a polyphasic investigation it is proposed that strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) represent a novel species for which the name Desulfovibrio oceani sp. nov. is proposed with the two subspecies D. oceani subsp. oceani (type strain, I.8.1(T) = DSM 21390(T) = JCM 15970(T)) and D. oceani subsp. galateae (type strain, I.9.1(T) = DSM 21391(T) = JCM 15971(T)).

  4. Verminephrobacter aporrectodeae sp. nov. subsp. tuberculatae and subsp. caliginosae; the specific nephridial symbionts of the earthworms Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. caliginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Schätzle, Sarah; Schramm, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    .3%, their earthworm host specificity, differing temperature ranges and pH optima suggest that they represent two subspecies of a novel species of Verminephrobacter. For this species, the name V. aporrectodeae sp. nov. is proposed, with the two subspecies V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculatae (type strain, At4T = DSM...

  5. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  6. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2, at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low.

  7. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum (VR1 isolated from an Ayurvedic medicine (Kutajarista ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by Aeromonas veronii

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    Patole Milind S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a safe and effective probiotic microorganism. Among various sources of isolation, traditionally fermented foods are considered to be rich in Lactobacillus spp., which can be exploited for their probiotic attribute. Antibacterial property of L. plantarum has been demonstrated against various enteric pathogens in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study was aimed at characterizing L. plantarum isolated from Kutajarista, an ayurvedic fermented biomedicine, and assessing its antagonistic property against a common enteropathogen Aeromonas veronii. Results We report the isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista, and efficacy of its cell free supernatant (CFS in amelioration of cytotoxicity caused by Aeromonas veronii. On the part of probiotic attributes, VR1 was tolerant to pH 2, 0.3% bile salts and simulated gastric juice. Additionally, VR1 also exhibited adhesive property to human intestinal HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, CFS of VR1 was antibacterial to enteric pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Detailed study regarding the effect of VR1 CFS on A. veronii cytotoxicity showed a significant decrease in vacuole formation and detrimental cellular changes in Vero cells. On the other hand, A. veronii CFS caused disruption of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and actin in MDCK cell line, which was prevented by pre-incubation with CFS of VR1. Conclusions This is the first study to report isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista and characterisation for its probiotic attributes. Our study demonstrates the antagonistic property of VR1 to A. veronii and effect of VR1 CFS in reduction of cellular damage caused by A. veronii in both Vero and MDCK cell lines.

  9. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  10. Vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in its fry against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Sukenda Sukenda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effectivity of vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in fry tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila. Tilapia Nirwana strain that used for this had average body weight of 185±13.23 g and were maintained in ponds sizing of (2.5×2.5×1 m3. Vaccinations that has been done through intraperitoneal injection using dose of 0.1 mL/fish, meanwhile the fish for control was injected by phosphate buffered saline (PBS. This study used complete randomized design with two treatments and three replications. Antibody level was measured by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method in the broodstock, egg, and fry.  Challenge test in fry tilapia performed at the age of 5, 10, and 15 days. The results showed that vaccination in tilapia broodstock delivered a significant antibody level in broodstock, eggs, and fry (P<0.05 compared to the control. Relative percent survival of offspring at 5, 10, and 15 days were 78.26%, 70.59%, and 65.52%, respectively.  As a conclusion, vaccination in tilapia broodstock was effective to improve specific and non-specific immunity, and protect fry tilapia from A. hydrophila infection through maternal immunity. Keywords: vaccination, antibody, maternal immunity, tilapia, Aeromonas hydrophila  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efikasi vaksinasi pada induk nila dengan vaksin sel utuh dan ketahanan benih yang dihasilkan terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila. Ikan nila stain Nirwana yang digunakan dalam penelitian memiliki bobot rata-rata 185±13,23 g dan ikan dipelihara dalam kolam (2,5×2,5×1 m3. vaksinasi dilakukan melalui penyuntikan intraperitoneal dengan dosis 0,1 mL/ikan, sementara itu ikan kontrol disuntik dengan phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Tingkat antibodi diukur dengan menggunakan metode indirect enzyme

  11. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

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    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  12. [Phenolic acid derivatives from Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao-Li; Wu, Zeng-Bao; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Lu, Xin-Hua; Liang, Hong; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa, eleven phenolic acids were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. By spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, these compounds were identified as isopropyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1), ethyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), gallic acid (5), methyl gallate (6), ethyl gallate (7), protocatechuic acid (8), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (9), erigeside C (10) and glucosyringic acid (11). Among them, compound 1 is a new polyhydroxyl compound; compounds 2, 10, and 11 were isolated from the genus Bauhinia for the first time, and the other compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Compounds 6 and 8 showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity in vitro with the IC50 values of 72.3 and 54.1 micromol x L(-1), respectively.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Ben-Dov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  14. Description of a Novel Adhesin of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

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    Mariana Noelia Viale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP by host cells are fibronectin (FN dependent. In several species of mycobacteria, a specific family of proteins allows the attachment and internalization of these bacteria by epithelial cells through interaction with FN. Thus, the identification of adhesion molecules is essential to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize FN binding cell wall proteins of MAP. We searched for conserved adhesins within a large panel of surface immunogenic proteins of MAP and investigated a possible interaction with FN. For this purpose, a cell wall protein fraction was obtained and resolved by 2D electrophoresis. The immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and a homology search was performed. We selected elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu as candidate for further studies. We demonstrated the FN-binding capability of EF-Tu using a ligand blot assay and also confirmed the interaction with FN in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The dissociation constant of EF-Tu was determined by surface plasmon resonance and displayed values within the μM range. These data support the hypothesis that this protein could be involved in the interaction of MAP with epithelial cells through FN binding.

  15. Significance of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Association With Colorectal Cancer

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    Ewa Pasquereau-Kotula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Sgg (formerly known as S. bovis type I is the main causative agent of septicemia and infective endocarditis (IE in elderly and immunocompromised persons. It belongs to the few opportunistic bacteria, which have been strongly associated to colorectal cancer (CRC. A literature survey covering a period of 40 years (1970–2010 revealed that 65% of patients diagnosed with an invasive Sgg infection had a concomitant colorectal neoplasia. Sgg is associated mainly with early adenomas and may thus constitute an early marker for CRC screening. Sgg has been described as a normal inhabitant of the rumen of herbivores and in the digestive tract of birds. It is more rarely detected in human intestinal tract (2.5–15%. Recent molecular analyses indicate possible zoonotic transmission of Sgg. Thanks to the development of a genetic toolbox and to comparative genomics, a number of factors that are important for Sgg pathogenicity have been identified. This review will highlight the role of Sgg pili in host colonization and how their phase-variable expression contributes to mitigate the host immune responses and finally their use as serological diagnostic tool. We will then present experimental data addressing the core question whether Sgg is a cause or consequence of CRC. We will discuss a few recent studies examining the etiological versus non-etiological participation of Sgg in colorectal cancer with the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Métodos de preservação de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Preservation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Venâncio de Araújo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agente da mancha-aquosa, causa grandes prejuízos ao melão e outras cucurbitáceas no Brasil e no mundo. Os métodos dessecação em papel de filtro, repicagens periódicas, água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas foram testados para preservação de Aac1 e Aac1.12 durante 180 dias. Mensalmente, a viabilidade de Aac foi avaliada pelo crescimento em meio de cultura e a patogenicidade das culturas viáveis foi avaliada pela incidência e severidade da doença em plântulas de melão. A preservação em papel de filtro resultou em 100% de viabilidade dos isolados durante o período, enquanto que nos demais métodos houve perda de viabilidade no decorrer das avaliações. Os métodos de dessecação em papel de filtro e o de repicagens periódicas foram mais eficientes que a água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas na manutenção da patogenicidade dos isolados durante os 180 dias.The phytopathogenic bacteria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agent of bacterial blotch, causes severe damages to melon and other cucurbits in Brazil and worlwide. The methods desiccation in filter paper, periodic transfer, sterile water and dried leaves were tested for preserving the strains Aac1 and Aac1.12 of this bacterium during 180 days. Evaluations of bacterial viability were performed monthly by growing strains on culture media. The pathogenicity of viable cultures was evaluated by disease incidence and severity on melon seedlings. The desiccation in filter paper maintained 100% viability of the strains during the period while using the other methods, viability was lost during evaluations. Desiccation in filter paper and periodic transfer were more efficient than sterile water and dried leaves in maintening strain pathogenicity during the time evaluated 180 days.

  17. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  18. Establishment of infection models in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Roberto Saraceni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of fish and terrestrial animals. In humans, A. hydrophila mainly causes gastroenteritis, septicaemia and tissue infections. The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. However, the great limitation of studying adult animals is that the animal must be sacrificed and its tissues/organs extracted, which prevents the study of the infectious processes in the whole living animal.Zebrafish larvae are being used for the analysis of several infectious diseases, but their use for studying the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila has never been explored. The great advantage of zebrafish larvae is their transparency during the first week after fertilization, which allows detailed descriptions of the infectious processes using in vivo imaging techniques such as differential interferential contrast (DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the availability of fluorescent pathogens and transgenic reporter zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent immune cells, immune marker genes or cytokines/chemokines allows the host-pathogen interactions to be characterized.The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. The latter resembled the natural conditions under which A. hydrophila produces infectious diseases in animals. We compared the cellular processes after infection in each anatomical site by confocal fluorescence imaging and

  19. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  20. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

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    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  1. The morphological and anatomical studies on endemic crocus biflorus miller subsp. Pulchricolor (herbert) mathew (iridaceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae)were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has, 4 leaves, 1 mm broad, bracts drying brownish. these properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other crocus and Iridaceae family species. (author)

  2. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  3. Rapid and sensitive method to identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cow's milk by DNA methylase genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José; Lopez, Osvaldo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time.

  4. Relationship between presence of cows with milk positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oil of mentha longifolia l. subsp. longifolia growing wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okut, N.; Yagmur, M.; Yildirim, B.

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., is very important to some culinary usage and antimicrobial activity. The essential oil of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia growing in the Bahcesaray area (Van Province, Turkey) was studied. This study designed for determine of essential oil constituent Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia that collected from wild area. Mint leaves sample essential oils obtained by hydro distillation and essential oil components were determined using GC-MS. The main component of wild grown Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia was Menthone (19.31%). Second one and others were Pulegone (12.42%), Piperitone (11.05%), Dihydrocarvon (8.32%), Limonene (6.1%), 3-Terpinolenone (5.66%), 1,8-Cineole (4.37%), Germacrene D (3.38%) and Caryopyllene (3.19%), respectively. (author)

  6. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  7. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DAN Eucheuma denticullatum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN Vibrio harveyii

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    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Eucheuma denticullatum Terhadap Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii dilakukan, mengingat banyak dijumpai  penyakit pada usaha budidaya ikan dan udang, terutama bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas senyawa bioaktif rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol dan etanol sebagai antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii.  Penelitian dilakukan sebanyak dua tahap, yaitu: (1 Uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak rumput laut; dan (2 Analisa senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak rumput laut, dimana masing-masing tahapan dianalisis menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dua jenis ekstrak rumput laut dengan pelarut metanol dan etanol, mempunyai daya antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekstrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap A. hydrophila (19.43±0,55 mm. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekastrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap V. harveyii (19.85±0,23 mm. Asam heksadekanoat merupakan senyawa paling dominan dijumpai pada ekstrak rumput laut K. alvarezii, dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol. Kata Kunci : Aktivitas Antibakteri, Rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum,  Bakteri A.  hydrophila dan V. harveyii. 

  8. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  9. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  10. PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS DAN PREBIOTIK OLIGOSAKARIDA PADA BENIH PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuke Eliyani

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis, prebiotik oligosakarida dan sinbiotiknya terhadap jumlah bakteri Lactobacillus sp. dan total bakteri dalam usus, total eritrosit, total leukosit, diferensial leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, tingkat pertumbuhan, serta FCR benih ikan patin siam yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Hasil uji karakteristik menunjukkan bahwa jenis probiotik dan patogen adalah Lactobacillus sp. dan Aeromonas hydrophila. Pada uji in vivo digunakan lima perlakuan yang terdiri atas K(+, K(-, probiotik (pro, prebiotik (pre serta sinbiotik (sin. Bakteri Lactobacillus sp. ditemukan di usus pada perlakuan probiotik dan sinbiotik dengan kisaran jumlah sekitar 101 sampai 106 (CFU/g. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan kontrol pada beberapa waktu pengamatan. Tingkat sintasan terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K(+ sebesar 43,33±11,55; sedangkan empat perlakuan lainnya memperoleh nilai 100%. Tingkat pertumbuhan harian berbeda nyata antar perlakuan, nilai terbaik dicapai pada perlakuan pemberian sinbiotik sebesar 3,370±0,14. Nilai FCR perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik menunjukkan beda nyata dengan kontrol. Perlakuan sin, pre, pro memberikan nilai yang lebih baik pada total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan FCR dibandingkan kontrol.

  11. Identification of Two Pathogenic Aeromonas Species Isolated during Production Related Epizootics from Juvenile Burbot Lota lota maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Marc M; Anderson, Cort L; Jacobs, Sarah J; Cain, Kenneth D

    2018-05-25

    In response to population declines of Burbot Lota lota maculosa, conservation aquaculture methods have been developed for this species. In general, Burbot are relatively resistant to many salmonid pathogens; however, cultured juvenile Burbot have experienced periodic epizootic disease outbreaks during production. A series of trials were conducted to determine the virulence of select bacteria isolated from juvenile Burbot following outbreaks that occurred in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Idaho's Aquaculture Research Institute. Initial clinical diagnostics and sampling resulted in the isolation of numerous putative bacterial pathogens. To determine which bacteria were the most likely causative agents contributing to these epizootics, juvenile Burbot were injectied intraperitoneally (IP) with select bacteria in log phase growth. Mortality associated with specific isolates was recorded, and more comprehensive challenges followed this initial screening. These challenges used side-by-side IP and immersion methods to expose Burbot to potential pathogens. The challenges resulted in significantly higher mortalities in fish following IP injection of two Aeromonas sp. isolates compared to controls (P ≤ 0.01), but no difference in mortality for immersion challenged groups was observed (P = 0.42). Results demonstrate that two isolates (Aeromonas sp.) cultured from the epizootics are virulent to Burbot. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  13. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  14. Molecular detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in the aquarium gold fish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    firouz Fadaeifard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophilia   is the etiologic agent of motile aeromonas septicaemia, one of the most important bacterial diseases of fresh and marine water fishes. The aim of the present study was detection of A. hydrophilia in the aquarium goldfish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province.  In this study 50 goldfish from aquarium fish shops and 60 rainbow trouts suspected of having the disease from 6 farms (10 fish in each farm were randomly collected. The average weight in goldfish and rainbow trout samples were 3-5 g and 10-20 g, respectively. Sampling was performed from kidney and liver, and inoculated into blood agar and incubated at 22°C for 24 hours. Pure colonies which are grown on the mediums were tested by catalase, oxidase and gram staining, then those of gram-negative, catalase and oxidase positive were diagnosed, and cultured on Shotts-Rimler medium (as selective medium for A. hydrophila. These mediums were incubated at 22 °C for 24-48 h. The typical colonies were tested by using oligonucleotide primers of lip gene by PCR method. In light of molecular analysis of all specimens, 9 and 6 isolates from rainbow trout and gold fishes were identified as A. hydrophila respectively. Due to the detection of A. hydrophila in both cultured rainbow trout and aquarium goldfish, the bacteria can lead to septicemia with mortality if the health management principles are not observed in fish farming.

  15. Comparative Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Profiling of Wild Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Strains of the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris Genotypes, Isolated from Starter-Free Cheeses Made of Raw Milk▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Alegría, Ángel; Delgado, Susana; Martín, M. Cruz; Mayo, Baltasar

    2011-01-01

    Twenty Lactococcus lactis strains with an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype isolated from five traditional cheeses made of raw milk with no added starters belonging to the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotypes (lactis and cremoris genotypes, respectively; 10 strains each) were subjected to a series of phenotypic and genetic typing methods, with the aims of determining their phylogenetic relationships and suitability as starters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of intact genomes digested with SalI and SmaI proved that all strains were different except for three isolates of the cremoris genotype, which showed identical PFGE profiles. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using internal sequences of seven loci (namely, atpA, rpoA, pheS, pepN, bcaT, pepX, and 16S rRNA gene) revealed considerable intergenotype nucleotide polymorphism, although deduced amino acid changes were scarce. Analysis of the MLST data for the present strains and others from other dairy and nondairy sources showed that all of them clustered into the cremoris or lactis genotype group, by using both independent and combined gene sequences. These two groups of strains also showed distinctive carbohydrate fermentation and enzyme activity profiles, with the strains in the cremoris group showing broader profiles. However, the profiles of resistance/susceptibility to 16 antibiotics were very similar, showing no atypical resistance, except for tetracycline resistance in three identical cremoris genotype isolates. The numbers and concentrations of volatile compounds produced in milk by the strains belonging to these two groups were clearly different, with the cremoris genotype strains producing higher concentrations of more branched-chain, derived compounds. Together, the present results support the idea that the lactis and cremoris genotypes of phenotypic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis actually represent true subspecies. Some strains of the two subspecies

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp., Listeria sp. AND Aeromonas spp. IN CATFISH (CLARIAS (Clarias gariepinus AND TILAPIA (Tilapia mossambica BY PELLETING METHOD

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    Titik Budiati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to modify the isolation methods of Aeromonas sp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria sp. in catfish (Clarias gariepinus and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica obtained from wet markets and ponds in Malaysia by pelleting the sample. A total of 108 samples (32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia intestines, and 44 water samples were obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds. The modified method was employed by pelleting the samples and followed by either implementing pre-enrichment or without pre-enrichment on the isolation of Salmonella and Listeria spp. The modified method (by pelleting the sample in combination with pre-enrichment was the most efficient for Salmonella and Listeria isolation. The sensitivity of the modified Salmonella isolation method was 0.53 and 0.73 for fish and water samples, respectively. The sensitivity of the modified Listeria method was 1 and 0.92 for fish and water samples, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the method by pelleting the sample was similar to those of non-pelleting the sample on Aeromonas isolation. Five species of Aeromonas spp., seven serovars of Salmonella sp., and four species of Listeria sp. were observed in catfish, tilapia and water samples. Overall, by pelleting the sample offered the beneficial to isolate Aeromonas spp., Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. in catfish, tilapia and water.

  17. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  18. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  19. Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104

  20. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in poultry reared under different management systems in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekeye, J O; Abdu, P A; Bawa, E K

    1989-01-01

    Cloacal swabs from 487 live birds in 36 flocks and 70 poultry carcasses were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. It was isolated from 12.3% of the birds in 19 flocks. Chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl differed from one another in isolation rates of the organism. Management system affected its occurrence, and only 7.1% of eviscerated carcasses yielded it. It was concluded that bird species, management system, and immersing slaughtered poultry in boiling water before dressing affect recovery of C. fetus subsp. jejuni from live birds and carcasses.

  1. Characteristics of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains from fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains synthesizing extracellular polysaccharide dextran on a medium with 10% sucrose were isolated from different kind of vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, kohlrabi, carrot, green beans, red beet, pepper, eggplant, radish. Carbohydrate fermentation was examined using a bioMerieux API 50 CHL test system. Among micropopulations with characteristic spherical cell morphology, 94.9% belonged to Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 5.1% were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. According to fermentation of pentoses L. mesenteroides strains were divided into three groups with a certain number of biotypes; 10 strains were tested on acid production. .

  2. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  3. Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.

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    Claudia R Molins

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs.

  4. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

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    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  5. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bor-Yann, E-mail: bychen@niu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of

  6. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

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    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  7. Reclassification of Lactobacillus kefirgranum Takizawa et al. 1994 as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum subsp. nov. and emended description of L. kefiranofaciens Fujisawa et al. 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancanneyt, M; Mengaud, J; Cleenwerck, I; Vanhonacker, K; Hoste, B; Dawyndt, P; Degivry, M C; Ringuet, D; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2004-03-01

    Fourteen homofermentative lactic acid bacteria that were isolated from kefir grains and kefir fermented milks were assigned to either Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens or Lactobacillus kefirgranum, based on their characteristic morphotypes, phenotypic features and SDS-PAGE profiles of whole-cell proteins. Further genotypic analyses on representative strains from both taxa demonstrated that L. kefiranofaciens and L. kefirgranum share 100 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity and belong phylogenetically to the Lactobacillus acidophilus species group. DNA-DNA binding values of >79 % and analogous DNA G+C contents of 37-38 mol% showed that the strains studied belonged to one species: L. kefirgranum is a later synonym of L. kefiranofaciens. An emended description is proposed for L. kefiranofaciens. Due to the specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of these taxa in kefir grain formation, it is proposed that L. kefirgranum should be reclassified as L. kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum subsp. nov.

  8. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i and Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Rocha-e-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.

  9. Production of Angiotensin-I-Converting-Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptides in Fermented Milks Started by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus SS1 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M.; Ferranti, P.; Smacchi, E.; Goffredi, F.; Addeo, F.

    2000-01-01

    Two fermented milks containing angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides were produced by using selected Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus SS1 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris FT4. The pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction of the two fermented milks was fractionated by reversed-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography. The fractions which showed the highest ACE-inhibitory indexes were further purified, and the related peptides were sequenced by tandem fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The most inhibitory fractions of the milk fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus SS1 contained the sequences of β-casein (β-CN) fragment 6-14 (f6-14), f7-14, f73-82, f74-82, and f75-82. Those from the milk fermented by L. lactis subsp. cremoris FT4 contained the sequences of β-CN f7-14, f47-52, and f169-175 and κ-CN f155-160 and f152-160. Most of these sequences had features in common with other ACE-inhibitory peptides reported in the literature. In particular, the β-CN f47-52 sequence had high homology with that of angiotensin-II. Some of these peptides were chemically synthesized. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of the crude purified fractions containing the peptide mixture were very low (8.0 to 11.2 mg/liter). When the synthesized peptides were used individually, the ACE-inhibitory activity was confirmed but the IC50s increased considerably. A strengthened inhibitory effect of the peptide mixtures with respect to the activity of individual peptides was presumed. Once generated, the inhibitory peptides were resistant to further proteolysis either during dairy processing or by trypsin and chymotrypsin. PMID:10966406

  10. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

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    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  11. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  12. Characterization of cry1Cb3 and cry1Fb7 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, T.; Xiao, Y.; Pan, J.; Zhang, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 521-528 ISSN 2391-5412 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae * PCR-RFLP * cloning Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/biol.2015.10.issue-1/biol-2015-0054/biol-2015-0054.xml

  13. Insights into physiological traits of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 through membrane proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Hjernø, Karin; Østerlund, Eva Christina

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two...

  14. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain Stag’s Leap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease....

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Putrescine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, María; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, M. Cruz

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 2,576,542-bp genome annotated draft assembly sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59. This strain—isolated from a traditional cheese—produces putrescine, one of the most frequently biogenic amines found in dairy products. PMID:26089428

  16. An original case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after a near-drowning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughetto, Estelle; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Pelloux, Isabelle; Maurin, Max; Caillon, Jocelyne; Moreau, Philippe; Ygout, Jean-François; Corvec, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    We report the first case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after water contamination in France. A 75-year-old man developed septic pneumonic tularemia after a near-drowning accident. We highlight the need for a longer incubation time for isolation of F. tularensis from blood cultures.

  17. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...

  18. Factors Affecting Exocellular Polysaccharide Production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Grown in a Chemically Defined Medium†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Sandrine; Furlan, Sylviane; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne; Cerning, Jutta; Desmazeaud, Michel

    2000-01-01

    We developed a chemically defined medium (CDM) containing lactose or glucose as the carbon source that supports growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of two strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The factors found to affect EPS production in this medium were oxygen, pH, temperature, and medium constituents, such as orotic acid and the carbon source. EPS production was greatest during the stationary phase. Composition analysis of EPS isolated at different growth phases and produced under different fermentation conditions (varying carbon source or pH) revealed that the component sugars were the same. The EPS from strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 1187 contained galactose and glucose, and that of strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 416 contained galactose, glucose, and rhamnose. However, the relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides differed, suggesting that repeating unit structures can vary according to specific medium alterations. Under pH-controlled fermentation conditions, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains produced as much EPS in the CDM as in milk. Furthermore, the relative proportions of individual monosaccharides of EPS produced in pH-controlled CDM or in milk were very similar. The CDM we developed may be a useful model and an alternative to milk in studies of EPS production. PMID:10919802

  19. Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain JFR1 attenuates Salmonella adhesion to human intestinal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Justina Su; Guri, Anilda; Corredig, Milena; Morales-Rayas, Rocio; Hassan, Ashraf; Griffiths, Mansel; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2016-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 has been studied in reduced fat cheese due to its ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) in situ, contributing to improved textural and organoleptic properties. In this study, the effect of strain JFR1 on virulence gene expression and attachment of Salmonella to HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells was investigated. Overnight cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 containing EPS, grown in M17 media with 0.5% glucose supplementation, decreased attachment as well as down regulated virulence gene expression in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica when tested on HT-29 cells. However, EPS isolated from milk fermented with L. lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 did not affect Salmonella virulence gene expression or attachment to HT-29 cells. These results suggest that EPS does not contribute to the attachment of Salmonella to human intestinal cells. However, the possibility that the isolation process may have affected the structural features of EPS cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance of sweet orange Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker control is based on protection measures and eradication of plants infected with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Although these measures show satisfactory results, the use of resistant genotypes is an important alternative for citrus canker control. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  1. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity....

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strain Stag?s Leap

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.; Wu, F.; Zheng, Z.; Deng, X.; Burbank, L. P.; Stenger, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce?s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag?s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce?s disease resistance and a phenotypic assessment of knockout mutants to determine gene function.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum Type Strain DSM46621

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a member of the rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is ubiquitous in water and soil habitats, including hospital environments. M. fortuitum is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing disseminated infection. Here we report the genome sequence of M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum type strain DSM46621.

  4. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  5. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

  6. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB,

  7. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are

  8. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Schuenzel, Erin L; Li, Jianqiang; Schaad, Norman W

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, has caused considerable damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the United States. Understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen is important for controlling the disease. To build a fingerprinting database for reliable identification and tracking of strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using seven conserved loci. The study included 8 original strains from the 1978 description of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 51 from China, and 34 from worldwide collections. Two major clonal complexes (CCs), CC1 and CC2, were identified within A. avenae subsp. citrulli; 48 strains typed as CC1 and 45 as CC2. All eight original 1978 strains isolated from watermelon and melon grouped in CC1. CC2 strains were predominant in the worldwide collection and all but five were isolated from watermelon. In China, a major seed producer for melon and watermelon, the predominant strains were CC1 and were found nearly equally on melon and watermelon.

  9. Genome sequence of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-09-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice.

  11. Genome Sequence of the Rice-Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Liu, He; Lou, Miao-Miao; Tian, Wen-Xiao; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhu, Bo; Jin, Gu-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is a phytobacterium which is the causative agent of several plant diseases with economic significance. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain RS-1, which was isolated from rice shoots in a rice field in China. This strain can cause bacterial stripe of rice. PMID:21742879

  12. Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB.

  13. Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Santema, W.J.; Koets, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP

  14. Stawamycin analog, JBIR-11 from Streptomyces viridochromogenes subsp. sulfomycini NBRC 13830.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Miho; Komaki, Hisayuki; Hashimoto, Junko; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    A stawamycin analog, JBIR-11 (1) was isolated from mycelium of Streptomyces viridochromogenes subsp. sulfomycini NBRC 13830. The structure was determined on the basis of the spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited growth inhibitory effect against human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with an IC50 value of 25 microM.

  15. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Alexander, Sarah; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E

    2016-11-03

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939. © Crown copyright 2016.

  16. Characterisation of an ELISA detecting immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples...

  17. The anti-tick properties of the root extracts of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-15

    Nov 15, 2007 ... extract of S. italica subsp. arachoides in 24 h was 8.66% (w/v) while in 48 h was 3.59% ..... extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature and ... insecticides on diamondbuck moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

  18. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 suppresses energy intake acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have various effects on the microbiota; this may also affect appetite and may help promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 (L. casei W8...

  19. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of the infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN- gamma, ELI...

  20. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

  3. Sensitive detection of Myobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in bovine semen by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herthnek, D.; Englund, S.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Bolske, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To develop a fast and sensitive protocol for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine semen and to make a critical evaluation of the analytical sensitivity. Methods and Results: Processed semen was spiked with known amounts of MAP. Semen from different bulls as

  4. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis LTH 7013, Isolated from South Tyrolean Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Huptas, Christopher; Wenning, Mareike; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Agnes

    2015-05-14

    Staphylococcus carnosus is used as a starter culture in meat fermentation, where it contributes to color formation and produces aromatic compounds. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of an S. carnosus subsp. utilis strain, LTH 7013, isolated from South Tyrolean ham, with potential application as a starter culture. Copyright © 2015 Müller et al.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis LTH 7013, Isolated from South Tyrolean Ham

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anne; Huptas, Christopher; Wenning, Mareike; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus is used as a starter culture in meat fermentation, where it contributes to color formation and produces aromatic compounds. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of an S.?carnosus subsp. utilis strain, LTH 7013, isolated from South Tyrolean ham, with potential application as a starter culture.

  7. Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T B; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

    2014-06-05

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. Copyright © 2014 Pedersen et al.

  8. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-09

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum Type Strain DSM46621

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S; Adroub, S. A.; Aleisa, F.; Mahmood, H.; Othoum, G.; Rashid, F.; Zaher, M.; Ali, Shahjahan; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab; Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a member of the rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is ubiquitous in water and soil habitats, including hospital environments. M. fortuitum is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing disseminated infection. Here we report the genome sequence of M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum type strain DSM46621.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urshev, Z.; Hajo, K.; Lenoci, L.; Bron, P.A.; Dijkstra, A.; Alkema, W.; Wels, M.; Siezen, R.J.; Minkova, S.; Hijum, S.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5 originates from homemade Bulgarian yogurt and was selected for its ability to form a strong association with Streptococcus thermophilus The genome sequence will facilitate elucidating the genetic background behind the contribution of LBB.B5 to the

  11. Genome Sequence of the Cheese-Starter Strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elvira María; Raya, Raúl R; Brown, Lucía; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Taranto, María Pía

    2013-08-08

    We report the genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (1,911,137 bp, GC 49.7%), a proteolytic strain isolated from a homemade Argentinian hard cheese which has a key role in bacterial nutrition and releases bioactive health-beneficial peptides from milk proteins.

  12. Introduction of peptidase genes from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis into Lactococcus lactis and controlled expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegmann, U.; Klein, J.R.; Drumm, I.; Kuipers, O.P.; Henrich, B.

    Peptidases PepI, PepL, PepW, and PepG from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp, lactis, which have no counterparts in Lactococcus lactis, and peptidase PepQ were examined to determine their potential to confer new peptidolytic properties to lactococci, Controllable expression of the corresponding genes

  13. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp praeteritum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; BozokJohansson, C

    1996-01-01

    Ten sesquiterpene lactones and one sesquiterpene isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum: 1 alpha,6 alpha-dihydroxyisocostic acid methyl ester (2), 1 alpha-hydroxy-1-deoxoarglanine (3), douglanin (5), santamarin (6), reynosin (7), 1-epi-tatridin B (8), ludovicin A (10), armexin (12),

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of 64 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis Isolates from Mice in US

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 has rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food-safety and public health concern. Here, we report a complete genome sequence of a CipR S. Kentucky ST198 strain PU131 isolated from a ...

  15. Tulum Peynirlerinden izole Edilen Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin TUNCER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmanın amacı tulum peynirlerinden izole edilen Lactococcus lactis suslarının fenotipik tanısı ve bu suslar tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinlerin kısmi karakterizasyonlarıdır. Bu amaçla Türkiye'nin sekiz farklı ilinden (Ankara, Antalya, Burdur, Denizli, Erzincan, Isparta, İstanbul ve İzmir yöresel pazarlardan toplanan 60 adet tulum peyniri örneginden 40 adet Lactococcus lactis susu (31 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis ve 9 adet L. lactis subsp. cremoris izole edildi. 40 adet L. lactis susu içerisinden, 2 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis (YBML9 ve YBML21 susu bakteriyosin üretme yeteneginde bulundu. L. lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve YBML21 susları tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinler, farklı enzim, pH ve sıcaklık uygulamaları sonucu; sırasıyla nisin ve laktisin 481 olarak tanımlandı.

  16. Chemical Eradication of the Ring Rot Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato Storage Crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Lamers, J.G.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Mendes, O.; Berg, van den W.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Jilesen, C.J.T.J.; Spoorenberg, P.M.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Four commercially available disinfection products were tested for their efficacy against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), causative agent of bacterial ring rot, on wooden potato storage crates. Each of these products represented a different class of biocide, i.e. organic acids

  17. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  18. Stable transformation of the gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus with several cloning vectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, M J; Nakhei, H; Dreier, J; Lehtilä, K; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R; Metzler, M C

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe transformation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the potato ring rot bacterium, with plasmid vectors. Three of the plasmids used, pDM100, pDM302, and pDM306, contain the origin of replication from pCM1, a native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. We constructed two new cloning vectors, pHN205 and pHN216, by using the origin of replication of pCM2, another native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plasmids pDM302, pHN205, a...

  19. Perlakuan Panas Kering dan Bakterisida untuk Menekan Infeksi Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii pada Benih Jagung Manis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suswi Nalis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewart’s Wilt is an important bacterial disease of sweet corn caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (synonim Erwinia stewartii. This bacteria is a seed transmitted pathogen therefore seed treatment is one method to control stewart’s wilt. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of dry heat, bactericide treatment, and their combinations to eliminate P. stewartii subsp. stewartii infection on sweet corn seed without damaging seed quality. The research was conducted in 3 experiments. Experiment I was conducted to determine the treatment window of dry heat and bactericide treatment. The treatment was carried out on sweet corn seed using the P. stewartii subsp. stewartii in vitro. Experiment II was conducted to study dry heat and bactericide treatment on sweet corn seed infested by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Experiment III was conducted to study combination of dry heat and bactericide treatment on sweet corn seed infested by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. The results showed that dry heat treatment at 50 °C for 24 hours was able to eliminate pathogen populations in vitro but was unable to eliminate the 128 pathogen on infected seed (in vivo. Germination tests indicated that seed treatments with dry heat up to 55 °C did not decrease the germination level. The use of bactericide treatment in 100 ppm could reduce the population of bacteria on sweet corn seeds. Bactericide concentration of 150 and 200 ppm could decrease the population of bacteria on sweet corn seeds, however it could cause phytotoxic effect. The combination of bactericide (100 ppm, w/v with dry heat treatment (55 °C for 24 hours was able to eliminate bacteria on infected seed with seed germination above 85%.

  20. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  1. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

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    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  2. Aeromonas veronii, a tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacterium isolated from an estuarine environment, Ria de Aveiro in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Caetano, Tânia; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2007-12-01

    Organotin compounds are used in a variety of industrial processes therefore their subsequent discharge into the environment is widespread. Bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical transformations acting as natural decontamination agents. Therefore, screening for tributyltin (TBT)-resistant and -degrading bacteria is relevant for the selection of isolates with decontamination ability of these polluted areas. With this purpose, 50 strains were isolated from sediment and water from Ria de Aveiro and their tolerance to TBT, up to 3mM, was evaluated. Generally, occurrence of highly TBT-resistant bacteria was observed, and Gram negative bacteria exhibited more tolerance to TBT than Gram positive bacteria. A memory response was observed when bacteria were progressively exposed to increasingly higher TBT concentrations. One isolate, Aeromonas veronii Av27, highly resistant to TBT (3mM) uses this compound as carbon source and degrades it to less toxic compounds.

  3. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the current contract year, the following results were obtained: (1) Data from field-generated studies have shown that hematocrit, hemoglobin, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and cortisol levels are significantly affected in largemouth bass with body conditions < 2.0, suggesting that stress, body condition, and the probability of bass acquiring red-sore disease are related. Laboratory studies appear to at least partially confirm these results. (2) Chemotaxis studies show that Aeromonas hydrophila is attracted to specific sugars and amino acids and that there appears to be a strain-related affect of fish mucous on A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions. (3) Immunologic and serologic tests suggest that A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions on bass from one lake system will not cross-react with antibodies in sera isolated from bass in another lake system, suggesting the existence of different strains in different lakes

  4. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  5. Genome-based insights into the resistome and mobilome of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas sp. ARM81 isolated from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczuk, Marcin; Dziewit, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The draft genome of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas sp. ARM81 isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Warsaw (Poland) was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed multiple genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams or tetracycline. Three different β-lactamase genes were identified, including an extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene bla PER-1 . The antibiotic susceptibility was experimentally tested. Genome sequencing also allowed us to investigate the plasmidome and transposable mobilome of ARM81. Four plasmids, of which two carry phenotypic modules (i.e., genes encoding a zinc transporter ZitB and a putative glucosyltransferase), and 28 putative transposase genes were identified. The mobility of three insertion sequences (isoforms of previously identified elements ISAs12, ISKpn9 and ISAs26) was confirmed using trap plasmids.

  6. Human Treponema pallidum 11q/j isolate belongs to subsp. endemicum but contains two loci with a sequence in TP0548 and TP0488 similar to subsp. pertenue and subsp. pallidum, respectively.

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    Lenka Mikalová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN is the causative agent of endemic syphilis (bejel. An unusual human TEN 11q/j isolate was obtained from a syphilis-like primary genital lesion from a patient that returned to France from Pakistan.The TEN 11q/j isolate was characterized using nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and/or direct Illumina sequencing. Altogether, 44 chromosomal regions were analyzed. Overall, the 11q/j isolate clustered with TEN strains Bosnia A and Iraq B as expected from previous TEN classification of the 11q/j isolate. However, the 11q/j sequence in a 505 bp-long region at the TP0488 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA strains, but not to TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B sequences, suggesting a recombination event at this locus. Similarly, the 11q/j sequence in a 613 bp-long region at the TP0548 locus was similar to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE strains, but not to TEN sequences.A detailed analysis of two recombinant loci found in the 11q/j clinical isolate revealed that the recombination event occurred just once, in the TP0488, with the donor sequence originating from a TPA strain. Since TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B were found to contain TPA-like sequences at the TP0548 locus, the recombination at TP0548 took place in a treponeme that was an ancestor to both TEN Bosnia A and Iraq B. The sequence of 11q/j isolate in TP0548 represents an ancestral TEN sequence that is similar to yaws-causing treponemes. In addition to the importance of the 11q/j isolate for reconstruction of the TEN phylogeny, this case emphasizes the possible role of TEN strains in development of syphilis-like lesions.

  7. A case of acute diarrhea due to the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei in Southern Chile Um caso de diarréia aguda devido ao patógeno emergente Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei no sul do Chile

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    Heriberto Fernández

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The first documented case of acute diarrhea due to C. jejuni subsp. doylei in Chile is reported. The clinical findings, the absence of other enteropathogens, virus or parasites and the fact that C. jejuni subsp. doylei was the only bacteria isolated support the assumption that it was the etiological agent of this diarrheal case.O primeiro caso documentado de diarréia aguda por C. jejuni subsp. doylei no sul do Chile é apresentado. As características clínicas, a ausência de outros enteropatógenos, vírus ou parasitas, e o fato de C. jejuni subsp. doylei ter sido a única bactéria isolada, permitem assumir que este microrganismo é o agente etiológico neste caso de diarréia.

  8. Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.F.T.; Hughes, A.D.; Liggett, S.; Farquhar, P.A.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP], the Causative agent of enteric Johne's disease, incurs significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Prophylactic vaccination can be employed as a control means, however mineral oil-based vaccines Currently in practice have limited

  9. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  10. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  11. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

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    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  12. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  13. Autecology and ex situ growth of Onobrychis pindicola Hausskn. subsp. urumovii Deg. & Dren. (Fabaceae) – endemic with medicinal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuharova, Ekaterina; Nash, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Onobrychis pindicola subsp. urumovii Degen & Dren. is an endemic with very restricted distribution on just two mountains Pirin Mts. and Slavjanka Mts. SW Bulgaria. The taxon is evaluated as least concerned by the IUCN criteria but it is an element in several Natura 2000 habitats with conservation significance. The aim of this study is to investigate the microhabitat specifics of O. pindicola subsp. urumovii, namely slope, exposure, bed rock, soils, and vegetation as well as spatia...

  14. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J H; Luttik, Marijke A H; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations.

  15. Development of highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, António Maximiano; Abdalhai, Mandour H; Ji, Jian; Xi, Bing-Wen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jiadi; Noeline, Rasoamandrary; Lee, Byong H; Sun, Xiulan

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the construction of new high sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth complex (MWCNT-Chi-Bi) and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas. Lead sulfide nanoparticles capped with 5'-(NH2) oligonucleotides thought amide bond was used as signalizing probe DNA (sz-DNA) and thiol-modified oligonucleotides sequence was used as fixing probe DNA (fDNA). The two probes hybridize with target Aeromonas DNA (tDNA) sequence (fDNA-tDNA-szDNA). The signal of hybridization is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) after electrodeposition of released lead nanoparticles (PbS) from sz-DNA on the surface of glass carbon electrode decorated with MWCNT-Chi-Bi, which improves the deposition and traducing electrical signal. The optimization of incubation time, hybridization temperature, deposition potential, deposition time and the specificity of the probes were investigated. Our results showed the highest sensibility to detect the target gene when compared with related biosensors and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection limit for this biosensor was 1.0×10(-14) M. We could detect lower than 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Aeromonas in spiked tap water. This method is rapid and sensitive for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and would become a potential application in biomedical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The involvement of tetA and tetE tetracycline resistance genes in plasmid and chromosomal resistance of Aeromonas in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the involvement of tetA and tetE genes in the tetracycline resistance of 16 strains of genus Aeromonas, isolated from clinical and food sources. Polymerase chain reactions revealed that 37.5% of the samples were positive for tetA, and also 37.5% were tetE positive. One isolate was positive for both genes. Only the isolate A. caviae 5.2 had its resistance associated to the presence of a plasmid, pSS2. The molecular characterization of pSS2 involved the construction of its restriction map and the determination of its size. The digestion of pSS2 with HindIII originated two fragments (A and B that were cloned separately into the pUC18 vector. The tetA gene was shown to be located on the HindIII-A fragment by PCR. After transforming a tetracycline-sensitive strain with pSS2, the transformants expressed the resistance phenotype and harbored a plasmid whose size was identical to that of pSS2. The results confirmed the association between pSS2 and the tetracycline resistance phenotype, and suggest a feasible dissemination of tetA and tetE among strains of Aeromonas. This study suggests the spreading tetA and tetE genes in Aeromonas in Brazil and describes a resistance plasmid that probably contributes to the dissemination of the resistance.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871, a Folate-Producing Strain Isolated from a Northwestern Argentinian Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Hebert, Elvira María; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2015-06-25

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871 is the first strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus reported as a folate-producing strain. We report the draft genome sequence of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL871 (2,063,981 bp, G+C content of 49.1%). This strain is of great biotechnological importance to the dairy industry because it constitutes an alternative to folic acid fortification. Copyright © 2015 Laiño et al.

  19. Chemical Composition of a New Taxon, Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense, and its Larvicidal Activity against Aedesaegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kurkcuoglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens and parasites that cause human diseases including dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, chikungunya, filariasis and malaria which cause high rates of human morbidity and mortality under extreme conditions. Plants are an excellent source for mosquito control agents because they constitute rich sources of bioactive chemicals. They are also biodegradable and environment-friendly. The present study reports on the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Seseli gummiferum. subsp. ilgazense (Apiaceae against Aedes aegypti larvae. Essential oil showed 100 and 70% mortality at 125 and 62.6 ppm, respectively, with no mortality at 31.25 ppm. Aerial parts of S. gummiferum subsp. ilgazense were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield 0.6% oil. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents in the oil were sabinene (28.8%, germacrene D (9.5% and α -pinene (7.2%.

  20. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  1. POTENSI BAKTERI ENDOFIT DALAM MENEKAN PENYAKIT LAYU STEWART (PANTOEA STEWARTII SUBSP. STEWARTII PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliatur Rahma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential of endophytic bacteria to control stewart wilt disease (Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize. The purpose of this study was to explore endophytic bacteria from seedling, maize roots and grass roots as well as to test the ability of endophytic bacteria which could potentially suppress stewart wilt disease development in maize. Characterization of endophytic bacteria as biocontrol agents including: do not induce HR on tobacco, synthesize IAA, dissolve phosphate, produce siderophores, and antibiotic to Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss. The results of research shoed 17 isolates of endophytic bacteria potentially as candidate biocontrol agents. Nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderofores and phosphatase; two isolates produce IAA and phosphatase; six isolates produce IAA. Six isolates ie: AR1, AJ34, AJ15, AJ19, and AJ14 AN6, can increase maize plant resistance and suppress stewart wilt disease severity with a range of 48.95-55.60%.

  2. Is the Evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Linked to Restriction-Modification Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are highly diverse foodborne pathogens that are subdivided into more than 1,500 serovars. The diversity is believed to result from mutational evolution, as well as intra- and interspecies recombination that potentially could be influenced by restriction...... to the conjugational mode of horizontal gene transfer in Salmonella. Thus, we conclude that other factors must be involved in shaping the evolution of bacteria.......-modification (RM) systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RM systems were linked to the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The study included 221 Salmonella enterica genomes, of which 68 were de novo sequenced and 153 were public available genomes from ENA. The data set covered 97...

  3. Anatomy and Micromorphology of Inula helenium subsp. orgyalis and I. ensifolia (Asteraceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay AYTAS AKCIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss. Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.

  4. Microsatellites for Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia (Onagraceae), and their utility in section Calylophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Emily M; Fant, Jeremie B; Moore, Michael J; Hastings, Amy P; Larson, Erica L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Skogen, Krissa A

    2016-02-01

    Eleven nuclear and four plastid microsatellite markers were screened for two gypsum endemic species, Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia, and tested for cross-amplification in the remaining 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus (Onagraceae). Microsatellite markers were tested in two to three populations spanning the ranges of both O. gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia. The nuclear microsatellite loci consisted of both di- and trinucleotide repeats with one to 17 alleles per population. Several loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which may be evidence of chromosomal rings. The plastid microsatellite markers identified one to seven haplotypes per population. The transferability of these markers was confirmed in all 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus. The microsatellite loci characterized here are the first developed and tested in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. These markers will be used to assess whether pollinator foraging distance influences population genetic parameters in predictable ways.

  5. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Characterization of the bacteriocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality. PMID:25763065

  6. A highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, O; Gartemann, K H; Zellermann, E M; Eichenlaub, R; Burger, A

    2001-11-01

    A transposon mutagenesis system for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was developed based on antibiotic resistance transposons that were derived from the insertion element IS1409 from Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. As a prerequisite, the electroporation efficiency was optimized by using unmethylated DNA and treatment of the cells with glycine such that about 5 x 10(6) transformants per microg of DNA were generally obtained. Electroporation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with a suicide vector carrying transposon Tn1409C resulted in approximately 1 x 10(3) transposon mutants per pg of DNA and thus is suitable for saturation mutagenesis. Analysis of Tn1409C insertion sites suggests a random mode of transposition. Transposition of Tn1409C was also demonstrated for other subspecies of C. michiganensis.

  7. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  8. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jan L W; Vissers, Marc M M; Te Giffel, Meike C

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10(2) to 3.5 x 10(5) cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90 degrees C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72 degrees C and a holding time of 6 s, 70 degrees C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an E(a) of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk(0) of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72 degrees C and a Z value of 7.7 degrees C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at > or =72 degrees C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  9. Effective Heat Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Raw Milk Contaminated with Naturally Infected Feces▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jan L. W.; Vissers, Marc M. M.; te Giffel, Meike C.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 102 to 3.5 × 105 cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90°C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72°C and a holding time of 6 s, 70°C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an Ea of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk0 of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72°C and a Z value of 7.7°C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at ≥72°C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:17496131

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus Isolated from a Healthy Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, David C; Wigmore, Sarah M; Wareham, David W

    2017-02-16

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SW120 was isolated from the ear swab of a healthy dog. The isolate is resistant to methicillin and fusidic acid. The SW120 draft genome is 2,805,064 bp and contains 2,667 coding sequences, including 58 tRNAs and nine complete rRNA coding regions. Copyright © 2017 Bean et al.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  12. Chemical Diversity and Biological Potential of Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Özek, Gülmira

    2018-01-01

    Two samples of Tanacetumpraeteritum (Horwood) Heywood subsp. praeteritum(Horwood) were collected in flowering period and subjected separately tohydrodistillation to yield the essential oils (A and B). The oils wereinvestigated for chemical composition with GC-FID and GC/MS techniques andevaluated against acetylcholinesterase and a-amylase enzymes andfree radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+) using microtiter plateassays. Both of the oils were characterized with high abundance of oxygenatedmonoterpenes....

  13. Phytochemical Investigation of Leontice leontopetalum L. subsp. ewersmannii with Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kolak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two known quinolizidine alkaloids, lupanine and leontiformidine, were isolated from the tubers of L. leontopetalum subsp. ewersmannii. Lupanine having the highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 100 m g/mL among the tested samples indicated almost the same ABTS cation radical scavenging activity with BHT, a -tocopherol and (+-catechin at the same concentration . Lupanine and the alkaloidal extract showed almost the same butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with galantamine at 200 m g/mL.

  14. Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Study of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet, Gwenola; Jan, Gwenael; Boyaval, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The response of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells to heat stress was studied by use of a chemically defined medium. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis was used to correlate the kinetics of heat shock protein (HSP) induction with cell recovery from heat injury. We demonstrated that enhanced viability, observed after 10 min at 65°C, resulted from the overexpression of HSP and from mechanisms not linked to protein synthesis. In order to analyze the thermoadaptation m...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urshev, Zoltan; Hajo, Karima; Lenoci, Leonardo; Bron, Peter A; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Alkema, Wynand; Wels, Michiel; Siezen, Roland J; Minkova, Svetlana; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-10-06

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LBB.B5 originates from homemade Bulgarian yogurt and was selected for its ability to form a strong association with Streptococcus thermophilus The genome sequence will facilitate elucidating the genetic background behind the contribution of LBB.B5 to the taste and aroma of yogurt and its exceptional protocooperation with S. thermophilus. Copyright © 2016 Urshev et al.

  16. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed)

    OpenAIRE

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a stan...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  18. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  19. Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinen, Laura; Tshuikina, Marina; Mäe, Andres; Pirhonen, Minna

    2004-12-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants.

  20. [The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus (L.) Thell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2018-02-01

    The present study is aimed to identify genetic variability between two species of Amaranthus viz., A. caudatus and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus, two economically important species, cultivated mainly for grain production. Karyomorphological studies in Amaranthus are scarce, probably due to higher number of small sized chromosomes. Karyomorphological studies were conducted using mitotic squash preparation of young healthy root tips. Karyological parameters and karyotypic formula were established using various software programs and tabulated the karyomorphometric and asymmetry indices viz., Disparity index, Variation coefficient, Total forma percentage, Karyotype asymmetry index, Syi index, Rec index, Interchromosomal and Intrachromosomal asymmetry index and Degree of asymmetry of karyotypes. The mitotic chromosome number observed for A. caudatus was 2n = 32 with a gametic number n = 16 and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus was 2n = 34 with a gametic number n = 17. In A. caudatus the chromosome length during somatic metaphase ranged from 0.8698 to 1.7722 μm with a total length of 39.1412 μm. In A. hybridus subsp. cruentus the length of chromosome ranged from 0.7756 to 1.9421 μm with a total length of 44.9922 μm. Various karyomorphometry and asymmetry indices analyzed revealed the extend of interspecific variation and their evolutionary status.

  2. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, A R; Andersson, R A; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T

    1998-08-01

    Production of extracellular, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, is coordinately controlled by a complex regulatory network. Insertion mutants in the exp (extracellular enzyme production) loci exhibit pleiotropic defects in virulence and the growth-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Two new exp mutations, designated expA and expS, were characterized. Introduction of the corresponding wild-type alleles to the mutants complemented both the lack of virulence and the impaired production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. The expA gene was shown to encode a 24-kDa polypeptide that is structurally and functionally related to the uvrY gene product of Escherichia coli and the GacA response regulator of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Functional similarity of expA and uvrY was demonstrated by genetic complementation. The expA gene is organized in an operon together with a uvrC-like gene, identical to the organization of uvrY and uvrC in E. coli. The unlinked expS gene encodes a putative sensor kinase that shows 92% identity to the recently described rpfA gene product from another E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strain. Our data suggest that ExpS and ExpA are members of two-component sensor kinase and response regulator families, respectively. These two proteins might interact in controlling virulence gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.

  3. Identification of an Extracellular Endoglucanase That Is Required for Full Virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

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    Tian Xia

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker disease, which is characterized by the formation of water-soaked lesions, white or yellow spongy pustules and brown corky canker. In this work, we report the contribution of extracellular endoglucanase to canker development during infection. The ectopic expression of nine putative cellulases in Escherichia coli indicated that two endoglucanases, BglC3 and EngXCA, show carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Both bglC3 and engXCA genes were transcribed in X. citri subsp. citri, however, only BglC3 protein was detected outside the cell in western blot analysis. The deletion of bglC3 gene resulted in complete loss of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase activity and delayed the onset of canker symptoms in both infiltration- and wound-inoculation assays. When growing in plant tissue, the cell density of bglC3 mutant was lower than that of the wild type. Our data demonstrated that BglC3 is an extracellular endoglucanase required for the full virulence of X. citri subsp. citri.

  4. Pharamcognostical and physicochemical characterization of Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Silvestris: an anatomical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, S.; Hanif, U.; Ajaib, M.

    2018-01-01

    Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan, a medicinal herb belongs to family Amranthaceae. Pharamcognostical and physicochemical characterization of A. graecizans subsp. silvestris which included; macro and microscopic evaluation, phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of leaf, stem, root, fruit and seeds was investigated. Transverse sections of leaf, stem and root showed the arrangement of different cells, certain tissues that will serve as diagnostic characters to standardize this plant. The powder microscopy of leaf, stem, root, fruit and seed depicted various microscopic structures including; fibres, vessels, tracheids, oil cells, starch granules, cortical cells, cork cells, phloem, collenchyma and parenchyma tissues etc. In fluorescence analysis different colors were seen when extracts were exposed to ordinary and UV light. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of whole herb exhibited the occurrence of saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, sterols, lipids and alkaloids. Physicochemical analysis i.e. extractive values and ash values were calculated to strengthen standardization process. These findings and estimations will help in characterization, verification and quality maintenance of A. graecizans subsp. silvestris. (author)

  5. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2015-03-01

    Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  7. Production and characterization of bioemulsifier from a marine bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacterium strain SM7 was isolated as a bioemulsifier-producing bacterium from oil-spilled seawater in Songkhla lagoon, Thailand. It was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus based on morphology, biochemicalcharacteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 produced an extracellular emulsifying agent when grown in a minimal salt medium (pH 7.0 containing 0.3% (v/v n-heptadecane and 0.1% (w/v ammoniumhydrogen carbonate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at 30oC with agitation rate of 200 rpm. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation with a yield of 2.94 g/l and had a criticalemulsifier concentration of 0.04 g/ml. The crude bioemulsifier was capable of emulsifying n-hexadecane in a broad pH range (6-12, temperatures (30-121oC and in the presence of NaCl up to 12% (w/v. The bioemulsifier was stable in saltsolution ranging from 0 to 0.1% (w/v of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The broad range of pH stability, thermostability and salt tolerance suggested that the bioemulsifier from A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 could be useful in environmentalapplication, especially bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater.

  8. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  9. Co-culturing of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant to make high cell density for increased lactate productivity from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-03-01

    To increase the productivity of lactic acid, a co-culture of lactobacilli was made by mixing 1:1 ratio of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and a fast growing L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant. The culture was embedded on to polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes as a biofilm and used for fermentation. In order to prevent the cell leakage, the PUF cubes were further entrapped in calcium cross-linked alginate. The maximum lactic acid production using a high cell density free culture was >38 g l(-1) from ~40 g l(-1) of reducing sugar within 12 h of fermentation. Using PUF biofilms, the same yield of lactic acid attained after 24 h. When the cubes were further coated with alginate it took 36 h for the maximum yield. Even though, the productivity is slightly lesser with the alginate coating, cell leakage was decreased and cubes were reused without much decrease in production in repeated batches. Using a conventional control inoculum (3%, w/v), it took 120 h to yield same amount of lactic acid.

  10. Proposal to reclassify Roseivirga ehrenbergii (Nedashkovskaya et al., 2008) as Roseivirga seohaensis comb. nov., description of Roseivirga seohaensis subsp. aquiponti subsp. nov. and emendation of the genus Roseivirga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Chitra; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2016-12-01

    The genus Roseivirga currently includes five species: Roseivirga ehrenbergii, R. echinicomitans, R. spongicola, R. marina and R. maritima. Marinicola seohaensis SW-152T was renamed as Roseivirgaseohaensis SW-152T and then reclassified again as a later heterotypic synonym of R. ehrenbergii KMM 6017T. In this study, based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values obtained from in silico methods, together with fatty acid analyses and biochemical tests, we propose to reclassify R. ehrenbergii SW-152 as Roseivirga seohaensis comb. nov. (type strain SW-152T=KCTC 1231T=JCM 12600T). In this work, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and pink-pigmented strain designated as D-25T was isolated from seawater (Desaru Beach, Johor, Malaysia). The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that strain D-25T was related to the genus Roseivirga. Strain D-25T was found most closely related to R. seohaensis SW-152T based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, indicating that these strains belong to the same species. Thus, it is proposed to split the species R.oseivirga seohaensis into two novel subspecies, Roseivirga seohaensissubsp. seohaensis subsp. nov. (type strain SW-152T=KCTC 12312T=JCM 12600T) and Roseivirga seohaensissubsp. aquiponti subsp. nov. (type strain D-25T=KCTC 42709T=DSM 101709T) and to emend the description of the genus Roseivirga.

  11. Identifikasi Gen Aerolysin dan Sensitivitas Antibiotik Aeromonas Hydrophila Penyebab Kematian Tukik (Lepidochelys olivacea di Pulau Serangan, Bali

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    Rima Ratnanggana Prasetya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathogene of Aeromonas hydrophila genes (Aerolysin as the cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death and to perform the antibiotic sensitivity test for antibiotic that often used in order to provide the best antibiotic treatment in the field case. The method used was the identification test using primary cultures on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA and Mac Conkey Agar (MCA medium, then followed by Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, and biochemical tests. Then, aerolysin genes detection was performed by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method, while oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and kanamycin were tested for their sensitivity. From five samples of dead Lepidochelys olivacea, bleeding on the liver and intestine were observed. The identification result of bacteria was found A. hydrophila, and identified the gene encoding aerolysin. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed a sensitive category of A. hydrophila with a sensitivity level were oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The main cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death in Turtle Conservation and Education Centre, Serangan Island, Bali was A. hydrophila which contains aerolysin genes, in which oxytetracycline seems to be the most effective drug for the treatment. ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuktikan adanya gen patogen (Aerolysin pada Aeromonas hydrophila sebagai penyebab kematian tukik penyu abu-abu serta mengetahui kepekaan obat antibiotic yang sering digunakan sehingga dapat memberikan terapi yang tepat pada kasus di lapangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah uji identifikasi menggunakan kultur primer pada media Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA dan Mac Conkey Agar (MCA, dilanjutkan uji pewarnaan Gram, uji oksidase, uji katalase, dan uji biokimiawi. Setelah itu dilakukan deteksi gen aerolysin menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, serta dilakukan uji sensitivitas antibiotik oxytetracycline

  12. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR for solar photocatalytic inactivation of aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Khan Sadia J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR, designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used. Results The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2, at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1. Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions, to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2 and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1 provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates. Conclusions This

  13. Stable transformation of the gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus with several cloning vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M J; Nakhei, H; Dreier, J; Lehtilä, K; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R; Metzler, M C

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we describe transformation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the potato ring rot bacterium, with plasmid vectors. Three of the plasmids used, pDM100, pDM302, and pDM306, contain the origin of replication from pCM1, a native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. We constructed two new cloning vectors, pHN205 and pHN216, by using the origin of replication of pCM2, another native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plasmids pDM302, pHN205, and pHN216 were stably maintained without antibiotic selection in various strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. We observed that for a single plasmid, different strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus showed significantly different transformation efficiencies. We also found unexplained strain-to-strain differences in stability with various plasmid constructions containing different arrangements of antibiotic resistance genes and origins of replication. We examined the effect of a number of factors on transformation efficiency. The best transformation efficiencies were obtained when C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus cells were grown on DM agar plates, harvested during the early exponential growth phase, and used fresh (without freezing) for electroporation. The maximal transformation efficiency obtained was 4.6 x 10(4) CFU/microgram of pHN216 plasmid DNA. To demonstrate the utility of this transformation system, we cloned a beta-1,4-endoglucanase-encoding gene from C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus into pHN216. When this construction, pHN216:C8, was electroporated into competent cells of a cellulase-deficient mutant, it restored cellulase production to almost wild-type levels.

  14. Aeromonas associated diarrhoeal disease in south Brazil: prevalence, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance Aeromonas associadas a diarréias no sul do Brasil: prevalência, fatores de virulência, e resistência a antibiótico

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    Ivani M.F. Guerra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas were isolated from 27 (6.6% of 408 patients admitted with acute gastroenteritis in two hospitals at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Isolates were classified as A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, and A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. The highest prevalence of Aeromonas associated infections occurred in lactants and children. Virulence genes (aerA -aerolysin/hemolysin, ahpA -serine-protease, satA - glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipA -lipase, and ahyB -elastase and virulence factors (hemolytic, proteolitic, lipolitic activities, and biofilm formation were identified in most A. hydrophila and A. veronii biotype sobria isolates, with lower frequencies on A. caviae. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, cephalotin, and cephazolin, and most of them (>70% exhibited resistance to imipenem, carbenicillin, amoxillin/sulbactan, and piperacillin. Multiple-resistance, more than four antibiotics, was evidenced in 29.6% of the isolates. The most efficient antibiotics were the quinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, and the aminoglycosides (amikacin and netilmicin.Aeromonas foram isoladas de 27 (6.6% dos 408 pacientes admitidos com gastroenterite aguda em dois hospitais do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os isolados foram classificados com A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, e A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. A maior prevalência de Aeromonas ocorreu em lactantes e crianças. Genes (aerA -aerolisina/hemolisina, ahpA -serina-protease, satA - glicerofosfolipidio-colesterol aciltransferase, lipA -lipase, e ahyB -elastase e factores (atividade hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica, e formação de biofilme de virulência foram identificados na maioria dos isolados de A. hydrophila e A. veronii biotype sobria, com freqüências menores em A. caviae. Todos os isolados de Aeromonas apresentaram resistência a ampicilina, ticarcilina/ácido clavulânico, cefalotina e cefazolina, e a maior parte

  15. Effect of Soil Slope on the Appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Water Running off Grassland Soil after Application of Contaminated Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

  16. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Detection and analysis of hemolysin genes in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozi; Rahayu, K.; Daruti, D. N.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to detect of Aeromonas hydrophila carrying the hlyA gene in guramy by PCR assay. A total of 5 A. hydrophila strains were isolated from gouramy with different location and furthermore genotypic of all A. hydrophila strains havedetected by PCR assay for 16S rRNA gene. The primers used in the PCR targeted a 592-bp fragment of the hlyA gene coding for the hemolysin gene. Particularly hlyA genes are responsible for haemolysin toxins production in this genus. After gel electrophoresis, the amplicons from representative strains of the A. hydrophila were purified using extraction kit and were subjected to the DNA sequencing analysis. The results showed that: (i) the 592bp amplicon of the hlyA gene was detected in 5/6 of the A. hydrophila; (ii) the nucleotide blast results of hemolysin gene sequences of the strains of A. hydrophila revealed a high homology of 90-97 % with published sequences, and;(iii) the protein blast showed 95-98 % homology when compared to the published sequences. The PCR clearly identified the haemolysin-producing strains of A. hydrophila by detection in hlyA genes and may have application as a rapid species-specific virulence test.

  18. Evaluation of traditional plant extracts for innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance against fish bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, E. H.; Saptiani, G.; Kusuma, I. W.; Suwinarti, W.; Nugroho, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate effect of ethanol herbal extracts of Boesenbergia pandurata, Solanum ferox and Zingimber zerumbet on Tilapia (Oreochromis nilaticus) innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. Fish were intramuscularly injected with 0.1 mL/fish (1010 CFU mL-1) of each bacterium on the day 6th of post treatment using extract by several methods (injection, oral administration and immersion). The doses of extract were 600 ppm of B. pandurata, 900 ppm S. ferox and 200 ppm of Z. zerumbet. The percentage mortality, Relative Percent Survival (RPS) and innate immune response were assessed on weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. All the methods were effective to enhance the immune parameters after 2 weeks application and the RPS of treatment reached more than 90 %. The results showed that the injection method of extracts was the most effective method to control A. hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. The result indicated that all the doses of extracts could be significantly influence the immune response and protect the health status of tilapia against A. hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. infections.

  19. Aeromonas caviae inhibits hepatic enzymes of the phosphotransfer network in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Verdi, C M; Dos Santos, K L M; Da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Vizzotto, B S; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have been demonstrated that phosphotransfer network, through the adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities, allows for new perspectives leading to understanding of disease conditions associated with disturbances in energy metabolism, metabolic monitoring and signalling. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by Aeromonas caviae alters hepatic AK and PK activities of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Hepatic AK and PK activities decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, as well as the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Also, a severe hepatic damage was observed in the infected animals due to the presence of dilation and congestion of vessels, degeneration of hepatocytes and loss of liver parenchyma architecture and sinusoidal structure. Therefore, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that experimental infection by A. caviae inhibits key enzymes linked to the communication between sites of ATP generation and ATP utilization. Moreover, the absence of a reciprocal compensatory mechanism between these enzymes contributes directly to hepatic damage and for a severe energetic imbalance, which may contribute to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na + , K + -ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 μg ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 μg ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 μg ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments.

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin C in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus after Aeromonas hydrophila infection

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    Zisheng Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cathepsin C (CTSC (dipeptidyl peptidase I, DPPI, is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and involves in a variety of host reactions. However, the information of CTST in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, an amphibian species with important evolutionary position and economic values, remained unclear. Results: The full-length salamander CTSC cDNA contained a 96 bp of 5′-UTR, a 1392 bp of ORF encoding 463 amino acids, and a 95 bp of 3′-UTR. The salamander CTSC possessed several sequence features similar to other reported CTSCs such as a signal peptide, a propeptide and a mature peptide. The active site triad of Cys, His and Asn were also found existing in salamander CTSC. Salamander CTSC mRNA was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues with significantly variant expression level. The highest expression of CTSC was in intestine, followed with stomach, spleen, lung and brain. Following Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 12 h, salamander CTSC was significantly up-regulated in several tissues including lung, spleen, brain, kidney, heart, stomach and skin. Conclusion: CTSC plays roles in the immune response to bacterial infection, which provided valuable information for further studying the functions of CTSC in salamander. Keywords: cDNA, CTSC, Dipeptidyl peptidase I, Gene expression, Hydrophila, Immune, Peptide, Sequence, Tissue

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

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    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  4. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  5. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP, as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet, on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P<0.05 in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β was also downregulated (P<0.5 after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita.

  6. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and identification of Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 as TBTC- and lead-resistant estuarine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC)- and lead-resistant estuarine bacterium from Mandovi estuary, Goa, India was isolated and identified as Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 based on biochemical characteristics and FAME analysis. It tolerates TBTC and lead up to 1.0 and 1.4 mM, respectively, in the minimal salt medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.4 % glucose. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed a unique morphological pattern in the form of long inter-connected chains of bacterial cells on exposure to 1 mM TBTC, whereas cells remained unaltered in presence of 1.4 mM Pb(NO₃)₂ but significant biosorption of lead (8 %) on the cell surface of this isolate was clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins of this lead-resistant isolate interestingly demonstrated three lead-induced proteins with molecular mass of 15.7, 16.9 and 32.4 kDa, respectively, when bacterial cells were grown under the stress of 1.4 mM Pb (NO₃)₂. This clearly demonstrated their possible involvement exclusively in lead resistance. A. caviae strain KS-1 also showed tolerance to several other heavy metals, viz. zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. Therefore, we can employ this TBTC and lead-resistant bacterial isolate for lead bioremediation and also for biomonitoring TBTC from lead and TBTC contaminated environment.

  8. Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 results in cell wall damage and enhanced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lu; Xue, Wen; Wang, Yaping; Ju, Jiansong; Zhao, Baohua

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on the alanine racemase gene (alr-2), which is involved in the synthesis of d-alanine that forms the backbone of the cell wall. A stable alr-2 knockout mutant of Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 was constructed. When the mutant was supplemented with d-alanine, growth was unaffected; deprivation of d-alanine caused the growth arrest of the starved mutant cells, but not cell lysis. No alanine racemase activity was detected in the culture of the mutant. Additionally, a membrane permeability assay showed increasing damage to the cell wall during d-alanine starvation. No such damage was observed in the wild type during culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed deficiencies of the cell envelope and perforation of the cell wall. Leakage of UV-absorbing substances from the mutants was also observed. Thus, the partial viability of the mutants and their independence of d-alanine for growth indicated that inactivation of alr-2 does not impose an auxotrophic requirement for d-alanine. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Hesperidin Inhibits Inflammatory Response Induced by Aeromonas hydrophila Infection and Alters CD4+/CD8+ T Cell Ratio

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    Abdelaziz S. A. Abuelsaad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is associated with a number of human diseases. Hesperidin (HES has been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of HES treatment on inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila infection in murine. Methods. A. hydrophila-infected mice were treated with HES at 250 mg/kg b.wt./week for 4 consecutive weeks. Phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and CD14 expression on intestinal infiltrating monocytes were evaluated. The expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on stimulated HUVECs and RAW macrophage was evaluated. Results. Percentage of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal tissues of infected treated mice was highly significantly increased; however, phagocytic index, ROS production, CD8+ T cells percentage, and CD14 expression on monocytes were significantly reduced. On the other hand, HES significantly inhibited A-LPS- and A-ECP-induced E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on HUVECs and ICAM-1 expression on RAW macrophage. Conclusion. Present data indicated that HES has a potential role in the suppression of inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila toxins through downmodulation of ROS production and CD14 and adhesion molecules expression, as well as increase of CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio.

  10. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  11. Protective effect of probiotic diets on haematobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus (Jerdon 1849 against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Gurusamy Chelladurai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the protective effect of probiotic diets on haemotobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus (Sporolac, comprising about 0.1 g, 0.2 g and 0.3 g. Control group of fish were fed without L. acidophilus. After 60 d of feeding the fishes in experimental group were injected with 1 mL of A. hydrophila and were supplemented with probiotic diets. The control group fishes were injected with 1 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results: Blood samples were collected for haematobiochemical analysis, while samples of the liver, and gills were examined for path histology after 7 d of infection. The result showed that the growth parameters, weight gain, specific growth rate were better in infected group maintained on the probiotic diet compared to those in control group. The haematology parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell, white blood cell, total serum protein, Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl, glucose, cholesterol and total immunoglobulin concentration and the pathohistology of the liver, gills were better in the infected fish maintained on the probiotic diet than those in the group fed the control diet. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that L. acidophilus is useful as a probiotic agent in Mystus montanus against A. hydrophila.

  12. Lethal dose and clinical signs of Aeromonas hydrophila in Arapaima gigas (Arapaimidae), the giant fish from Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcia K R; Sampaio, Luciana S; Proietti-Junior, Aldo A; Yoshioka, Eliane T O; Rodrigues, Dália P; Rodriguez, Anselmo F R; Ribeiro, Ricardo A; Faria, Fernando S E D V; Ozório, Rodrigo O A; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-05-30

    Aeromonas hydrophila is causing substantial economic losses in world aquaculture. This study determined the tolerance limit (LD50-96h) of A. hydrophila in Arapaima gigas, and also investigated the clinical signs after intradermal inoculation. Arapaima gigas fingerlings were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0 (control), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(6), 1.0×10(7), 1.0×10(9) and 1.0×10(10)CFU/mL of A. hydrophila for the determination of LD50-96h, which was 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL. In another trial with intradermal inoculation of 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL A. hydrophila, there was a 91.6% of mortality between 8 and 23h, and several clinical signs were found. As follows: depigmentation in the tegument, lesions in the tail and fins, loss of balance, reduction of respiratory movements, hemorrhagic foci, necrotic hemorrhages in the kidney, liver and swim bladder, splenomegaly, ascites in the abdominal cavity and hyperemia, enlargement of the gall bladder, among other clinical signs observed. The results showed that A. gigas has a relative tolerance to A. hydrophila when compared to other Neotropical fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  14. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  15. Phenotypic variation in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolates derived from intestinal tracts of marine and freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, S; Yuasa, K; Washio, S; Abe, T; Ikuno, E; Sugita, H

    2009-09-01

    We compared phenotypic characteristics of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis derived from different sources including the intestinal tract of marine fish and freshwater fish, and cheese starter culture. In the phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences (1371 bp), freshwater fish-, marine fish- and cheese starter culture-derived strains were identical to that of L. lactis subsp. lactis previously reported. Fermentation profiles determined using the API 50 CH system were similar except for fermentation of several sugars including l-arabinose, mannitol, amygdalin, saccharose, trehalose, inulin and gluconate. The strains did have distinct levels of halotolerance: marine fish-derived strains > cheese starter-derived strain > freshwater fish-derived isolate. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis showed extensive diversity in phenotypic adaptation to various environments. The phenotypic properties of these strains suggested that L. lactis subsp. lactis strains from fish intestine have additional functions compared with the cheese starter-derived strain that has previously described. The unique phenotypic traits of the fish intestinal tract-derived L. lactis subsp. lactis might make them useful as a probiotics in aquaculture, and contribute to the development of functional foods and novel food additives, since the strains derived from fish intestines might have additional functions such as antibacterial activity.

  16. Profiles of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Milk Fermented with Different Proportional Combinations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Tong; Wang, Dan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Rulin; Ren, Weiyi; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-09-29

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are key factors in the fermentation process and the final quality of dairy products worldwide. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the proportions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from traditionally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia on the profile of volatile compounds produced in samples. Six proportional combinations (1:1, 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10,000) of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 were considered, and the volatiles were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) against an internal standard. In total, 89 volatile flavor compounds, consisting of aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified. Among these, some key flavor volatile compounds were identified, including acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, acetoin, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methyl-1-butanol. The of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 influenced the type and concentration of volatiles produced. In particular, aldehydes and ketones were present at higher concentrations in the 1:1000 treatment combination than in the other combinations. Our findings emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate proportions of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus for the starter culture in determining the final profile of volatiles and the overall flavor of dairy products.

  17. Profiles of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Milk Fermented with Different Proportional Combinations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Dan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are key factors in the fermentation process and the final quality of dairy products worldwide. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the proportions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from traditionally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia on the profile of volatile compounds produced in samples. Six proportional combinations (1:1, 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10,000 of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 were considered, and the volatiles were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS against an internal standard. In total, 89 volatile flavor compounds, consisting of aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified. Among these, some key flavor volatile compounds were identified, including acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, acetoin, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methyl-1-butanol. The of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 influenced the type and concentration of volatiles produced. In particular, aldehydes and ketones were present at higher concentrations in the 1:1000 treatment combination than in the other combinations. Our findings emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate proportions of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus for the starter culture in determining the final profile of volatiles and the overall flavor of dairy products.

  18. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: presencia en los alimentos y su relación con la enfermedad de Crohn Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in food and its relationship with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cirone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis o enfermedad de Johne es una enteritis crónica producida por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, que afecta a bovinos y a otras especies. En la Argentina se ha caracterizado en rodeos bovinos y de ciervos, con aislamientos tipificados en distintos patrones genéticos. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ha sido vinculado en humanos con una inflamación crónica del intestino, denominada enfermedad de Crohn. Existen evidencias clínicas y experimentales que relacionan a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis con la enfermedad en el humano, mediante su detección por PCR y por cultivo a partir de biopsias de órganos, de leche materna y de sangre de pacientes afectados. La leche y sus subproductos serían posibles fuentes de infección y se ha sugerido que M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis resistiría las condiciones de pasteurización. Diversos trabajos de investigación demostraron que esta micobacteria podría estar presente en leches comercializadas en diversos países, como Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, República Checa, y también en la Argentina. La presencia de M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis en productos lácteos y agua de consumo ha sido relacionada con la resistencia del microorganismo tanto a los procesos de elaboración como a los factores climáticos adversos, lo que enfatiza el rol de los alimentos y del agua como vías de transmisión al humano. Las investigaciones en curso podrían ratificar el riesgo y las implicancias de la exposición del humano a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis a través de los alimentos y del agua contaminados, para determinar la importancia de la paratuberculosis como enfermedad zoonótica.Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of the cattle and other small ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In Argentina, the strains were characterized in beef and dairy cattle and deer in different genetic patterns by molecular tools. M. avium

  19. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

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    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  20. Comparison of the acidifying activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from goat's milk and Valdeteja cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Calleja, C; Carballo, J; Capita, R; Bernardo, A; García-López, M L

    2002-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the acid production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from goat's milk and goat cheese (Valdeteja variety) in order to select a suitable starter culture for industrial goat cheese manufacturing. The titrable acidity of 45 Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a home-made batch of Valdeteja cheese with excellent sensory characteristics was measured over a period of 18 h. The strains were divided into two groups depending on the acid production rate: 20 fast acid producer (F) strains and 25 slow acid producer (S) strains. The kinetic parameters (lag phase, maximum acid production rate and value of upper asymptote curve) of the acid production curves for F and S strains were significantly (P titrable acidity of F and S strains were observed after the second hour of incubation. An F strain acetoin producer (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 470Ch2) was selected as autochthonous starter culture for industrial Valdeteja goat cheese manufacturing.