Sample records for aeroacoustics

  1. Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System Development (United States)

    Hadid, A.; Lin, W.; Ascoli, E.; Barson, S.; Sindir, M.


    Many industrial and commercial products operate in a dynamic flow environment and the aerodynamically generated noise has become a very important factor in the design of these products. In light of the importance in characterizing this dynamic environment, Rocketdyne has initiated a multiyear effort to develop an advanced general-purpose Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System (CAAS) to address these issues. This system will provide a high fidelity predictive capability for aeroacoustic design and analysis. The numerical platform is able to provide high temporal and spatial accuracy that is required for aeroacoustic calculations through the development of a high order spectral element numerical algorithm. The analysis system is integrated with well-established CAE tools, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) through PATRAN, to provide cost-effective access to all of the necessary tools. These include preprocessing (geometry import, grid generation and boundary condition specification), code set up (problem specification, user parameter definition, etc.), and postprocessing. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the feasibility of such a system and to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm through numerical examples. Computations of vortex shedding noise were carried out in the context of a two-dimensional low Mach number turbulent flow past a square cylinder. The computational aeroacoustic approach that is used in CAAS relies on coupling a base flow solver to the acoustic solver throughout a computational cycle. The unsteady fluid motion, which is responsible for both the generation and propagation of acoustic waves, is calculated using a high order flow solver. The results of the flow field are then passed to the acoustic solver through an interpolator to map the field values into the acoustic grid. The acoustic field, which is governed by the linearized Euler equations, is then calculated using the flow results computed

  2. Aeroacoustic Research Techniques: Jets to Autos (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.


    Aeroacoustic research has benefited from the development of advanced techniques for the study of fluid mechanically generated noise New instrumentation; methodologies, information technologies, and facilities have evolved to help researchers investigate the complexities of aircraft and automobile noise. In this paper, research techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the subject closest to the author s experience: aircraft propulsion and airframe noise in simulated flight. A new technology developed for the study of aircraft airframe noise is described as a potential tool for the study of automobile noise. The important role of information technology in aeroacoustic research is discussed.

  3. Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The How-acoustic splitting technique for aeroacoustic computations is extended to simulate the propagation of acoustic waves generated by three-dimensional turbulent flows. In the flow part, a subgrid-scale turbulence model (the mixed model) is employed for large-eddy simulations. The obtained in...

  4. Tests of anechoic chamber for aeroacoustics investigations (United States)

    Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Belyaev, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.


    The paper presents the results of qualification tests in the new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) built in 2014-2015 and evaluation of the chamber quality in aeroacoustic experiments. It describes design features of the chamber and its sound-absorption lining. The qualification tests were carried out with tonal and broadband noise sources in the frequency range 100 Hz - 20 kHz for two different cases of the source arrangement. In every case, measurements were performed in three directions by traverse microphones. Qualification tests have determined that in the chamber there is a free acoustic field within radius of 2 m for tonal noise and 3 m for broadband noise. There was also evaluated acoustic quality of the chamber by measurements of the jet noise and vortex ring noise. The results of the experiments demonstrate that PNRPU anechoic chamber allows the aeroacoustic measurements to be performed to obtain quantitative results.

  5. A Wave Expansion Method for Aeroacoustic Propagation


    Hammar, Johan


    Although it is possible to directly solve an entire flow-acoustics problem in one computation, this approach remains prohibitively large in terms of the computational resource required for most practical applications. Aeroacoustic problems are therefore usually split into two parts; one consisting of the source computation and one of the source propagation. Although both these parts entail great challenges on the computational method, in terms of accuracy and efficiency, it is still better th...

  6. New formulation of Hardin-Pope equations for aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekaterinaris, J.A.


    Predictions of aeroacoustic disturbances generated by low-speed unsteady flows can be obtained with the two-step method proposed by Hardin and Pope (Hardin, J. C., and Pope, S. D., "An Acoustic/Viscous Splitting Technique for Computational Aeroacoustics," Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynam...

  7. Aero-acoustic modeling using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The splitting technique for aero-acoustic computations is extended to simulate three-dimensional flow and acoustic waves from airfoils. The aero-acoustic model is coupled to a sub-grid-scale turbulence model for Large-Eddy Simulations. In the first test case, the model is applied to compute laminar...

  8. Theoretical Aeroacoustics: Compiled Mathematical Derivations of Fereidoun 'Feri' Farassat (United States)

    Miller, Steven A. E.


    Dr. Fereidoun 'Feri' Farassat was a theoretical aero-acoustician at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. This book contains technical derivations, notes, and classes that Dr. Farassat produced during his professional career. The layout of the book has been carefully crafted so that foundational ideas through advanced theories, which altered the technical discipline of aeroacoustics, build upon one another. The book can be used to understand the theories of acoustics and learn one contemporary aeroacoustic prediction approach made popular by Dr. Farassat. Most importantly, this book gives the general reader insight into how one of NASA's best aeroacoustics theoreticians thought, constructed, and solved problems throughout his career.

  9. An aeroacoustically driven thermoacoustic heat pump. (United States)

    Slaton, W V; Zeegers, J C H


    The mean flow of gas in a pipe past a cavity can excite the resonant acoustic modes of the cavity--much like blowing across the top of a bottle. The periodic shedding of vortices from the leading edge of the mouth of the cavity feeds energy into the acoustic modes which, in turn, affect the shedding of the next vortex. This so-called aeroacoustic whistle can excite very high amplitude acoustic standing waves within a cavity defined by coaxial side branches closed at their ends. The amplitude of these standing waves can easily be 20% of the ambient pressure at optimal gas flow rates and ambient pressures within the main pipe. A standing wave thermoacoustic heat pump is a device which utilizes the in-phase pressure and displacement oscillations to pump heat across a porous medium thereby establishing, or maintaining, a temperature gradient. Experimental results of a combined system of aeroacoustic sound source and a simple thermoacoustic stack will be presented.

  10. Computational Aeroacoustics Using the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop a generalized lattice Boltzmann (GLB) approach as a potential computational aeroacoustics (CAA) tool for...

  11. Computational aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.Z.


    The present thesis consists of 19 selected papers dealing with the development and use of CFD methods for studying the aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind turbines. The main objective of the research was to develop new computational tools and techniques for analysing flows about wind turbines. A few papers deal with applications of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to wind turbines. In most cases the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier-Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code. In [6] - [8] different actuator disc techniques combined with CFD are presented. This includes actuator disc, actuator line and actuator surface techniques, which were developed to simulate flows past one or more wind turbines. In [9] and [10] a tip loss correction method that improves the conventional models was developed for use in combination with BEM or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor

  12. Multimodel methods for optimal control of aeroacoustics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guoquan (Rice University, Houston, TX); Collis, Samuel Scott


    A new multidomain/multiphysics computational framework for optimal control of aeroacoustic noise has been developed based on a near-field compressible Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a far-field linearized Euler solver both based on a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. In this approach, the coupling of near- and far-field domains is achieved by weakly enforcing continuity of normal fluxes across a coupling surface that encloses all nonlinearities and noise sources. For optimal control, gradient information is obtained by the solution of an appropriate adjoint problem that involves the propagation of adjoint information from the far-field to the near-field. This computational framework has been successfully applied to study optimal boundary-control of blade-vortex interaction, which is a significant noise source for helicopters on approach to landing. In the model-problem presented here, the noise propagated toward the ground is reduced by 12dB.

  13. Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    -Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical...... techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code, which originally was developed in a cooperation between DTU (Michelsen, 1992) and Risø (Sørensen, 1995). In [6] – [8] different actuator disc techniques combined...... was developed and implemented in the EllipSys2D/3D code. In [17] and [18] three dimensional flow-acoustic computations were carried out. Finally, the aero-acoustic formulation using high order Finite Difference schemes (Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP) / Optimized Compact schemes) was developed in [19...

  14. On the aeroacoustic properties of a beveled plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Velden W.C.P.


    Full Text Available The flow around a beveled flat plate model with an asymmetric 25 degrees trailing edge with three rounding radii is analyzed using a Navier-Stokes based open source software package OpenFOAM in order to predict the aeroacoustic properties of the models. A Large Eddy Simulation with a dynamic Smagorinsky and implicit model are used as closure model for the flow solver, and are compared regarding their aeroacoustic performance. Velocity coherence and pressure correlation is determined in spanwise direction. The acoustic far field spectrum is obtained by solving Curle’s analogy in frequency domain as a post-processing step.

  15. Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Stefan


    This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic

  16. Towards aeroacoustic sound generation by flow through porous media. (United States)

    Hasert, Manuel; Bernsdorf, Joerg; Roller, Sabine


    In this work, we present single-step aeroacoustic calculations using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Our application case consists of the prediction of an acoustic field radiating from the outlet of a porous media silencer. It has been proved that the LBM is able to simulate acoustic wave generation and propagation. Our particular aim is to validate the LBM for aeroacoustics in porous media. As a validation case, we consider a spinning vortex pair emitting sound waves as the vortices rotate around a common centre. Non-reflective boundary conditions based on characteristics have been adopted from Navier-Stokes methods and are validated using the time evolution of a Gaussian pulse. We show preliminary results of the flow through the porous medium.

  17. An acoustic spacetime and the Lorentz transformation in aeroacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Alastair Logan; Agarwal, Anurag; Lasenby, Joan


    This paper introduces acoustic space-time and Geometric Algebra as a new theoretical framework for modelling aeroacoustic phenomena. This new framework is applied to sound propagation in uniform flows. The problem is modelled by means of transformations that turn the convected wave equation into an ordinary wave equation, in either time-space coordinates or frequency-wavenumber coordinates. The transformations are shown to combine a Galilean transformation with a Lorentz transformation and geometrical and physical interpretations are provided. The Lorentzian frame is the natural frame for describing acoustic waves in uniform flow. A key feature of this frame is that it combines space and time in a way that is best described using a hyperbolic geometry. The power of this new theoretical framework is illustrated by providing simple derivations for two classical aeroacoustic problems: the free-field Greens function for the convected wave equation and the Doppler shift for a stationary observer and a source in un...

  18. NASA's Aeroacoustic Tools and Methods for Analysis of Aircraft Noise (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.


    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The ability to quantify aircraft noise at the source and ultimately at observers is required to develop low noise aircraft designs and flight procedures. Predicting noise at the source, accounting for scattering and propagation through the atmosphere to the observer, and assessing the perception and impact on a community requires physics-based aeroacoustics tools. Along with the analyses for aero-performance, weights and fuel burn, these tools can provide the acoustic component for aircraft MDAO (Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization). Over the last decade significant progress has been made in advancing the aeroacoustic tools such that acoustic analyses can now be performed during the design process. One major and enabling advance has been the development of the system noise framework known as Aircraft NOise Prediction Program2 (ANOPP2). ANOPP2 is NASA's aeroacoustic toolset and is designed to facilitate the combination of acoustic approaches of varying fidelity for the analysis of noise from conventional and unconventional aircraft. The toolset includes a framework that integrates noise prediction and propagation methods into a unified system for use within general aircraft analysis software. This includes acoustic analyses, signal processing and interfaces that allow for the assessment of perception of noise on a community. ANOPP2's capability to incorporate medium fidelity shielding predictions and wind tunnel experiments into a design environment is presented. An assessment of noise from a conventional and Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft using medium fidelity scattering methods combined with noise measurements from a model-scale HWB recently placed in NASA's 14x22 wind tunnel are presented. The results are in the form of community noise metrics and

  19. Benchmark Problems Used to Assess Computational Aeroacoustics Codes (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Envia, Edmane


    The field of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) encompasses numerical techniques for calculating all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from fundamental governing equations. Aeroacoustic problems typically involve flow-generated noise, with and without the presence of a solid surface, and the propagation of the sound to a receiver far away from the noise source. It is a challenge to obtain accurate numerical solutions to these problems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been at the forefront in developing and promoting the development of CAA techniques and methodologies for computing the noise generated by aircraft propulsion systems. To assess the technological advancement of CAA, Glenn, in cooperation with the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the AeroAcoustics Research Consortium, organized and hosted the Fourth CAA Workshop on Benchmark Problems. Participants from industry and academia from both the United States and abroad joined to present and discuss solutions to benchmark problems. These demonstrated technical progress ranging from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The results are documented in the proceedings of the workshop. Problems were solved in five categories. In three of the five categories, exact solutions were available for comparison with CAA results. A fourth category of problems representing sound generation from either a single airfoil or a blade row interacting with a gust (i.e., problems relevant to fan noise) had approximate analytical or completely numerical solutions. The fifth category of problems involved sound generation in a viscous flow. In this case, the CAA results were compared with experimental data.

  20. Aero-acoustic noise of wind turbines. Noise prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.


    Semi-empirical and CAA (Computational AeroAcoustics) noise prediction techniques are the subject of this expert meeting. The meeting presents and discusses models and methods. The meeting may provide answers to the following questions: What Noise sources are the most important? How are the sources best modeled? What needs to be done to do better predictions? Does it boil down to correct prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics around the rotor? Or is the difficult part to convert the aerodynamics into acoustics? (LN)

  1. Application of essentially nonoscillatory methods to aeroacoustic flow problems (United States)

    Atkins, Harold L.


    A finite-difference essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) method has been applied to several of the problems prescribed for the workshop sponsored jointly by the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering and by NASA Langley Research Center entitled 'Benchmark Problems in Computational Aeroacoustics'. The workshop focused on computational challenges specific to aeroacoustics. Among these are long-distance propagation of a short-wavelength disturbance, propagation of small-amplitude disturbances, and nonreflective boundary conditions. The shock capturing-capability inherent to the ENO method effectively eliminates oscillations near shock waves without the need to add and tune dissipation or filter terms. The method-of-lines approach allows the temporal and spatial operators to be chosen separately in accordance with the demands of a particular problem. The ENO method was robust and accurate for all problems in which the propagating wave was resolved with 8 or more points per wavelength. The finite-wave-model boundary condition, a local nonlinear acoustic boundary condition, performed well for the one-dimensional problems. The buffer-domain approach performed well for the two-dimensional test problem. The amplitude of nonphysical reflections were less than 1 percent of the exiting wave's amplitude.

  2. Aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators in a low-speed wind tunnel. (United States)

    Slaton, William V; Nishikawa, Asami


    The aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators with different neck geometries in a low-speed wind tunnel has been investigated. Experimental test results of this system reveal a strong aeroacoustic response over a Strouhal number range of 0.25 to 0.1 for both increasing and decreasing the flow rate in the wind tunnel. Aeroacoustic response in the low-amplitude range O(10(-3)) < Vac/Vflow < O(10(-1)) has been successfully modeled by describing-function analysis. This analysis, coupled with a turbulent flow velocity distribution model, gives reasonable values for the location in the flow of the undulating stream velocity that drives vortex shedding at the resonator mouth. Having an estimate for the stream velocity that drives the flow-excited resonance is crucial when employing the describing-function analysis to predict aeroacoustic response of resonators.

  3. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights (United States)

    Detandt, Yves


    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  4. Multi-model Simulation for Optimal Control of Aeroacoustics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Chen, Guoquan


    Flow-generated noise, especially rotorcraft noise has been a serious concern for bothcommercial and military applications. A particular important noise source for rotor-craft is Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI)noise, a high amplitude, impulsive sound thatoften dominates other rotorcraft noise sources. Usually BVI noise is caused by theunsteady flow changes around various rotor blades due to interactions with vorticespreviously shed by the blades. A promising approach for reducing the BVI noise isto use on-blade controls, such as suction/blowing, micro-flaps/jets, and smart struc-tures. Because the design and implementation of such experiments to evaluate suchsystems are very expensive, efficient computational tools coupled with optimal con-trol systems are required to explore the relevant physics and evaluate the feasibilityof using various micro-fluidic devices before committing to hardware.In this thesis the research is to formulate and implement efficient computationaltools for the development and study of optimal control and design strategies for com-plex flow and acoustic systems with emphasis on rotorcraft applications, especiallyBVI noise control problem. The main purpose of aeroacoustic computations is todetermine the sound intensity and directivity far away from the noise source. How-ever, the computational cost of using a high-fidelity flow-physics model across thefull domain is usually prohibitive and itmight also be less accurate because of thenumerical diffusion and other problems. Taking advantage of the multi-physics andmulti-scale structure of this aeroacoustic problem, we develop a multi-model, multi-domain (near-field/far-field) method based on a discontinuous Galerkin discretiza-tion. In this approach the coupling of multi-domains and multi-models is achievedby weakly enforcing continuity of normal fluxes across a coupling surface. For ourinterested aeroacoustics control problem, the adjoint equations that determine thesensitivity of the cost

  5. Aero-Acoustic Moldeling using Large Eddy Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The flow-acoustic splitting technique for aero-acoustic computations is extended to simulate the propagation of acoustic waves generated by three-dimensional turbulent flows. In the flow part, a sub-grid-scale turbulence model (the mixed model) is employed for Large-Eddy Simulations. The obtained...... instantaneous flow solution is employed as input for the acoustic part. At low Mach numbers the differences in scales and propagation speed between the flow and the acoustic field are quite large, hence different meshes and time-steps can be utilized for the two parts. The model is applied to compute flows past...... characteristics for angles of attack up to stall. For the acoustic solutions, predicted noise spectra are validated quantitatively against the experimental data of Brook et al. A parametrical study of the noise pattern for flows at angles of attack between 4 deg and 12 deg shows that the noise level is small...

  6. Application of a new finite difference algorithm for computational aeroacoustics (United States)

    Goodrich, John W.


    Acoustic problems have become extremely important in recent years because of research efforts such as the High Speed Civil Transport program. Computational aeroacoustics (CAA) requires a faithful representation of wave propagation over long distances, and needs algorithms that are accurate and boundary conditions that are unobtrusive. This paper applies a new finite difference method and boundary algorithm to the Linearized Euler Equations (LEE). The results demonstrate the ability of a new fourth order propagation algorithm to accurately simulate the genuinely multidimensional wave dynamics of acoustic propagation in two space dimensions with the LEE. The results also show the ability of a new outflow boundary condition and fourth order algorithm to pass the evolving solution from the computational domain with no perceptible degradation of the solution remaining within the domain.

  7. Fluid Dynamics Prize Otto Laporte Lecture:Turbulence and Aeroacoustics (United States)

    Comte-Bellot, Genevieve


    Some significant advances obtained over the years for two closely related fields, Turbulence and Aeroacoustics, are presented. Particular focus is placed on experimental results and on physical mechanisms. For example, for a 2D channel flow, skewness factors of velocity fluctuations are discussed. The study of isotropic turbulence generated by grids in the «Velvet wind tunnel» of Stanley Corrsin, constitutes a masterpiece. Of particular note are the Eulerian memory times, analysed for all wavenumbers. Concerning hot-wire anemometry, the potential of the new constant voltage technique is presented. Some results obtained with Particule Image Velocimetry are also reported. Two flow control examples are illustrated: lift generation for a circular cylinder, and noise reduction for a high speed jet. Finally, the propagation of acoustic waves through turbulence is considered. Experimental data are here completed by numerical simulations showing the possible occurrence of caustics.

  8. Computational aeroacoustics applications based on a discontinuous Galerkin method (United States)

    Delorme, Philippe; Mazet, Pierre; Peyret, Christophe; Ventribout, Yoan


    CAA simulation requires the calculation of the propagation of acoustic waves with low numerical dissipation and dispersion error, and to take into account complex geometries. To give, at the same time, an answer to both challenges, a Discontinuous Galerkin Method is developed for Computational AeroAcoustics. Euler's linearized equations are solved with the Discontinuous Galerkin Method using flux splitting technics. Boundary conditions are established for rigid wall, non-reflective boundary and imposed values. A first validation, for induct propagation is realized. Then, applications illustrate: the Chu and Kovasznay's decomposition of perturbation inside uniform flow in term of independent acoustic and rotational modes, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and acoustic diffraction by an air wing. To cite this article: Ph. Delorme et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  9. Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation (United States)

    Scott, James R.


    NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community.

  10. NASA Hybrid Wing Aircraft Aeroacoustic Test Documentation Report (United States)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Hoad, Danny; Becker, Lawrence; Humphreys, William M.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Dan; Pope, Dennis S.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Kuchta, Dennis H.; Plassman, Gerald E.; Moen, Jaye A.


    This report summarizes results of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) N2A-EXTE model aeroacoustic test. The N2A-EXTE model was tested in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 Tunnel) from September 12, 2012 until January 28, 2013 and was designated as test T598. This document contains the following main sections: Section 1 - Introduction, Section 2 - Main Personnel, Section 3 - Test Equipment, Section 4 - Data Acquisition Systems, Section 5 - Instrumentation and Calibration, Section 6 - Test Matrix, Section 7 - Data Processing, and Section 8 - Summary. Due to the amount of material to be documented, this HWB test documentation report does not cover analysis of acquired data, which is to be presented separately by the principal investigators. Also, no attempt was made to include preliminary risk reduction tests (such as Broadband Engine Noise Simulator and Compact Jet Engine Simulator characterization tests, shielding measurement technique studies, and speaker calibration method studies), which were performed in support of this HWB test. Separate reports containing these preliminary tests are referenced where applicable.

  11. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.


    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  12. Introduction to Generalized Functions with Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics (United States)

    Farassat, F.


    Generalized functions have many applications in science and engineering. One useful aspect is that discontinuous functions can be handled as easily as continuous or differentiable functions and provide a powerful tool in formulating and solving many problems of aerodynamics and acoustics. Furthermore, generalized function theory elucidates and unifies many ad hoc mathematical approaches used by engineers and scientists. We define generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support, then introduce the concept of generalized differentiation. Generalized differentiation is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some results of classical analysis, are derived with the generalized function theory. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed here are the derivations of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of the finite part of divergent integrals, the derivation of the Oswatitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and the analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics include the derivation of the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces, the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

  13. Application of aeroacoustic models to design of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Madsen, H.A. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)


    A design method is presented for wind turbine rotors. The design process is split into overall design of the rotor and detailed design of the blade tip. A numerical optimization tool is used together with a semi-empirical noise prediction code for overall rotor design. The noise prediction code is validated with measurements and good agreement is obtained both on the total noise emission and on the sensitivity to wind speed, tip pitch angle and tip speed. A design study for minimum noise emission for a 300 kW rotor shows that the total sound power level can be reduced by 3 dB(A) without loss in energy production and the energy production can be increased by 2% without increase in the total noise. Detailed CFD calculations are subsequently done to resolve the blade tip flow. The characteristics of the general flow and the tip vortex are found, and the relevant parameters for the aeroacoustic models are derived for a sharp rectangular tip. (au) 16 refs.

  14. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2003 highlights (United States)

    Schröder, W.


    This is a report on some highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2003, compiled from information provided to the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee of the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS). The CEAS currently comprises the national Aerospace Societies of France (Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France), Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt), Italy (Associazione Italiana di Aeronautica e Astronautica), The Netherlands (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Luchtvaarttechniek), Spain (Asociación de Ingenieros Aeronáuticos de España), Sweden (Flygtekniska Föreningen), Switzerland (Schweizerische Vereinigung für Flugwissenschaften) and the UK (The Royal Aeronautical Society).

  15. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 4: Computer user's manual for UAAP turboprop aeroacoustic code (United States)

    Menthe, R. W.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.


    The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) code calculates the airloads on a single rotation prop-fan, or propeller, and couples these airloads with an acoustic radiation theory, to provide estimates of near-field or far-field noise levels. The steady airloads can also be used to calculate the nonuniform velocity components in the propeller wake. The airloads are calculated using a three dimensional compressible panel method which considers the effects of thin, cambered, multiple blades which may be highly swept. These airloads may be either steady or unsteady. The acoustic model uses the blade thickness distribution and the steady or unsteady aerodynamic loads to calculate the acoustic radiation. The users manual for the UAAP code is divided into five sections: general code description; input description; output description; system description; and error codes. The user must have access to IMSL10 libraries (MATH and SFUN) for numerous calls made for Bessel functions and matrix inversion. For plotted output users must modify the dummy calls to plotting routines included in the code to system-specific calls appropriate to the user's installation.

  16. Aeroacoustic characterization of scaled canonical nose landing gear configurations (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    Aircraft noise is a critical issue in the commercial airline industry. Airframe noise is a subcomponent of aircraft noise and is generally dominant over jet engine noise during approach conditions, which can lead to high community impact. Landing gears have been identified as major components of airframe noise during landing configurations for commercial aircraft. They are perhaps the least understood contributors to airframe noise due to complex flow patterns associated with intricate gear component geometries. Nose landing gear in particular have received much attention in recent years, exhibiting acoustic signatures on the order of the main landing gear assembly of an aircraft, while simultaneously being more amenable to scaled wind tunnel testing. In order to characterize the acoustic signature of a complex geometry such as a nose landing gear, it is important to isolate, study, and understand the acoustic contributions of individual component geometries. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a correlation between the complex flow field nature and far-field acoustic signature of a nose landing gear sub-system. The model under investigation is a 1/2-scale shock-strut cylinder coupled with an adjustable torque link apparatus. This geometry was chosen due to its fundamental importance and implementation across a wide span of commercial aircraft. The fluid dynamic (surface pressure and stereoscopic particle image velocimety) and aeroacoustic (far-field microphone and phased array) experiments were performed in the University of Florida Aeroacoustic Flow Facility. The experimental data compare favorably with the results of a numerical simulation using PowerFLOW, a lattice-Boltzmann solver developed by the Exa Corporation. The far-field acoustic results of this dissertation have shown non-uniform scaling behavior as a function of frequency for the different model configurations tested. For frequencies that appropriately satisfied the condition of acoustic

  17. Prediction of noise radiation from basic configurations of landing gears by means of computational aeroacoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drage, P.; Wiesler, B.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Lier, L.J. van; Parchen, R.R.; Tibaut, P.


    Noise radiation from aircraft during the takeoff and landing has become a major issue for inhabitants living in the vicinity of airports and thus for regulation authorities and aircraft developers. However the numerical simulation of aeroacoustic noise, especially for complex geometries like a landi

  18. An Assessment of Ares I-X Aeroacoustic Measurements with Comparisons to Pre-Flight Wind Tunnel Test Results (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Reed, Darren K.


    During the recent successful launch of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle, aeroacoustic data was gathered at fifty-seven locations along the vehicle as part of the Developmental Flight Instrumentation. Several of the Ares I-X aeroacoustic measurements were placed to duplicate measurement locations prescribed in pre-flight, sub-scale wind tunnel tests. For these duplicated measurement locations, comparisons have been made between aeroacoustic data gathered during the ascent phase of the Ares I-X flight test and wind tunnel test data. These comparisons have been made at closely matching flight conditions (Mach number and vehicle attitude) in order to preserve a one-to-one relationship between the flight and wind tunnel data. These comparisons and the current wind tunnel to flight scaling methodology are presented and discussed. The implications of using wind tunnel test data scaled under the current methodology to predict conceptual launch vehicle aeroacoustic environments are also discussed.

  19. Theoretical and Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Metamaterials for Aeroacoustic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Iemma


    Full Text Available The advent, during the first decade of the 21st century, of the concept of acoustic metamaterial has disclosed an incredible potential of development for breakthrough technologies. Unfortunately, the extension of the same concepts to aeroacoustics has turned out to be not a trivial task, because of the different structure of the governing equations, characterized by the presence of the background aerodynamic convection. Some of the approaches recently introduced to circumvent the problem are biased by a fundamental assumption that makes the actual realization of devices extremely unlikely: the metamaterial should guarantee an adapted background aerodynamic convection in order to modify suitably the acoustic field and obtain the desired effect, thus implying the porosity of the cloaking device. In the present paper, we propose an interpretation of the metamaterial design that removes this unlikely assumption, focusing on the identification of an aerodynamically-impermeable metamaterial capable of reproducing the surface impedance profile required to achieve the desired scattering abatement. The attention is focused on a moving obstacle impinged by an acoustic perturbation induced by a co-moving source. The problem is written in a frame of reference rigidly connected to the moving object to couple the convective wave equation in the hosting medium with the inertially-anisotropic wave operator within the cloak. The problem is recast in an integral form and numerically solved through a boundary-field element method. The matching of the local wave vector is used to derive a convective design of the metamaterial applicable to the specific problem analyzed. Preliminary numerical results obtained under the simplifying assumption of a uniform aerodynamic flow reveal a considerable enhancement of the masking capability of the convected design. The numerical method developed shows a remarkable computational efficiency, completing a simulation of the entire

  20. From aerodynamics towards aeroacoustics: a novel natural velocity decomposition for the Navier-Stokes equations

    CERN Document Server

    Morino, Luigi


    A novel formulation for the analysis of viscous incompressible and compressible aerodynamics/aeroacoustics fields is presented. The paper is primarily of a theoretical nature, and presents the transition path from aerodynamics towards aeroacoustics. The basis of the paper is a variant of the so-called natural velocity decomposition, as v = ▿φ + w, where w is obtained from its own governing equation and not from the vorticity. With the novel decomposition, the governing equation for w and the generalized Bernoulli theorem for viscous fields assume a very elegant form. Another improvement pertains to the so-called material covariant components of w: For inviscid incompressible flows, they remain constant in time; minor modifications occur when we deal with viscous flows. In addition, interesting simplifications of the formulation are presented for almost-potential flows, namely for flows that are irrotational everywhere except for thin vortex layers, such as boundary layers and wakes. It is shown that, if th...

  1. Computational Aero-acoustics As a Tool For Turbo-machinery Noise Reduction (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.


    This talk will provide an overview of the field of computational aero-acoustics and its use in fan noise prediction. After a brief history of computational fluid dynamics, some of the recent developments in computational aero-acoustics will be explored. Computational issues concerning sound wave production, propagation, and reflection in practical turbo-machinery applications will be discussed including: (a) High order/High Resolution Numerical Techniques. (b) High Resolution Boundary Conditions. [c] MIMD Parallel Computing. [d] Form of Governing Equations Useful for Simulations. In addition, the basic design of our Broadband Analysis Stator Simulator (BASS) code and its application to a 2 D rotor wake-stator interaction will be shown. An example of the noise produced by the wakes from a rotor impinging upon a stator cascade will be shown.

  2. Predicting vibratory stresses from aero-acoustic loads (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew D.

    Sonic fatigue has been a concern of jet aircraft engineers for many years. As engines become more powerful, structures become more lightly damped and complex, and materials become lighter, stiffer, and more complicated, the need to understand and predict structural response to aeroacoustic loads becomes more important. Despite decades of research, vibration in panels caused by random pressure loads, such as those found in a supersonic jet, is still difficult to predict. The work in this research improves on current prediction methods in several ways, in particular for the structural response due to wall pressures induced by supersonic turbulent flows. First, solutions are calculated using time-domain input pressure loads that include shock cells and their interaction with turbulent flow. The solutions include both mean (static) and oscillatory components. Second, the time series of stresses are required for many fatigue assessment counting algorithms. To do this, a method is developed to compute time-dependent solutions in the frequency domain. The method is first applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system. The equations of motion are derived and solved in both the frequency domain and the time domain. The pressure input is a random (broadband) signal representative of jet flow. The method is then applied to a simply-supported beam vibrating in flexure using a line of pressure inputs computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A modal summation approach is used to compute structural response. The coupling between the pressure field and the structure, through the joint acceptance, is reviewed and discussed for its application to more complicated structures. Results from the new method and from a direct time domain method are compared for method verification. Because the match is good and the new frequency domain method is faster computationally, it is chosen for use in a more complicated structure. The vibration of a two-dimensional panel loaded by jet

  3. A domain decomposition method for the efficient direct simulation of aeroacoustic problems


    Utzmann, Jens


    A novel domain decomposition approach is developed in this thesis, which significantly accelerates the direct simulation of aeroacoustic problems. All relevant scales must be resolved with high accuracy, from the small, noise generating flow features (e.g., vortices) to the sound with small pressure amplitudes and large wavelengths. Furthermore, the acoustic waves must be propagated over great distances and without dissipation and dispersion errors. In order to keep the computational effort w...

  4. An Experimental Investigation of the Aeroacoustics of a Two-Dimensional Bifurcated Supersonic Inlet (United States)

    LI, S.-M.; HANUSKA, C. A.; NG, W. F.


    An experiment was conducted on a two-dimensional bifurcated, supersonic inlet to investigate the aeroacoustics at take-off and landing conditions. A 104·1 mm (4·1 in) diameter turbofan simulator was coupled to the inlet to generate the noise typical of a turbofan engine. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained in an anechoic chamber under ground-static conditions (i.e., no forward flight effect). Results showed that varying the distance between the trailing edge of the bifurcated ramp of the inlet and the fan face had negligible effect on the total noise level. Thus, one can have a large freedom to design the bifurcated ramp mechanically and aerodynamically, with minimum impact on the aeroacoustics. However, the effect of inlet guide vanes' (IGV) axial spacing to the fan face has a first order effect on the aeroacoustics for the bifurcated 2-D inlet. As much as 5 dB reduction in the overall sound pressure level and as much as 15 dB reduction in the blade passing frequency tone were observed when the IGV was moved from 0·8 chord of rotor blade upstream of the fan face to 2·0 chord of the blade upstream. The wake profile similarity of the IGV was also found in the flow environment of the 2-D bifurcated inlet, i.e., the IGV wakes followed the usual Gauss' function.

  5. An Experimental Study on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of Maple-Seed-Inspired UAV Propellers (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Ning, Zhe


    Due to the auto-rotating trait of maple seeds during falling down process, flow characteristics of rotating maple seeds have been studied by many researchers in recent years. In the present study, an experimental investigation was performed to explore maple-seed-inspired UAV propellers for improved aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances. Inspired by the auto-rotating trait of maple seeds, the shape of a maple seed is leveraged for the planform design of UAV propellers. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the maple-seed-inspired propellers are examined in great details, in comparison with a commercially available UAV propeller purchased on the market (i.e., a baseline propeller). During the experiments, in addition to measuring the aerodynamic forces generated by the maple-seed-inspired propellers and the baseline propeller, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to quantify the unsteady flow structures in the wakes of the propellers. The aeroacoustic characteristics of the propellers are also evaluated by leveraging an anechoic chamber available at the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. The research work is supported by National Science Foundation under Award Numbers of OSIE-1064235.

  6. Towards a Numerical Description of Volcano Aeroacoustic Source Processes using Lattice Boltzmann Strategies (United States)

    Brogi, F.; Malaspinas, O.; Bonadonna, C.; Chopard, B.; Ripepe, M.


    Low frequency (characterization of volcanic plume source parameters. Using the classical source theory, acoustic data can be related to the exit velocity of the volcanic jet and to mass eruption rate, based on the geometric constrain of the vent and the mixture density. However, the application of the classical acoustic source models to volcanic explosive eruptions has shown to be challenging and a better knowledge of the link between the acoustic radiation and actual volcanic fluid dynamics processes is required. New insights into this subject could be given by the study of realistic aeroacoustic numerical simulations of a volcanic jet. Lattice Boltzmann strategies (LBS) provide the opportunity to develop an accurate, computationally fast, 3D physical model for a volcanic jet. In the field of aeroacoustic applications, dedicated LBS has been proven to have the low dissipative properties needed for capturing the weak acoustic pressure fluctuations. However, due to the big disparity in magnitude between the flow and the acoustic disturbances, even weak spurious noise sources in simulations can ruin the accuracy of the acoustic predictions. Reflected waves from artificial boundaries defined around the flow region can have significant influence on the flow field and overwhelm the acoustic field of interest. In addition, for highly multiscale turbulent flows, such as volcanic plumes, the number of grid points needed to represent the smallest scales might become intractable and the most complicated physics happen only in small portions of the computational domain. The implementation of the grid refinement, in our model allow us to insert local finer grids only where is actually needed and to increase the size of the computational domain for running more realistic simulations. 3D LBS model simulations for turbulent jet aeroacoustics have been accurately validated. Both mean flow and acoustic results are in good agreement with theory and experimental data available in the

  7. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas;


    The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine...

  8. Higher-Order Multilevel Framework for ADER Scheme in Computational Aeroacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S M


    The versatile Arbitrary-DERivative (ADER) scheme is cast in a multilevel framework (ML-ADER) for fast solution of system of linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The solution is cycled through spatial operators of varying accuracy while retaining highest-order accuracy by the use of a forcing function. Accuracy analysis of the multilevel framework including in the ML-ADER form is carried out in time-domain as well as frequency-domain. Results are obtained for benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics at a much reduced computational cost.

  9. Aeroacoustic power generated by a compact axisymmetric cavity: Prediction of self-sustained osciallation and influence of depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Manders, H.B.M.; Hirschberg, A.


    Aeroacoustic power generation due to a self-sustained oscillation by an axisymmetric compact cavity exposed to a low-Mach-number grazing flow is studied both experimentally and numerically. The feedback effect is produced by the velocity fluctuations resulting from a coupling with acoustic standing

  10. Aeroacoustic Testing of Wind Turbine Airfoils: February 20, 2004 - February 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenport, W.; Burdisso, R. A.; Camargo, H.; Crede, E.; Remillieux, M.; Rasnick, M.; Van Seeters, P.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve the understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. The motivation for this effort is the desire to exploit the large expanse of low wind speed sites that tend to be close to U.S. load centers. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. NWTC researchers are working hand in hand with engineers in industry to ensure that research findings are available to support ongoing design decisions.

  11. Working With the Wave Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized Functions (United States)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.


    The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized function (GF) theory to the wave equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing functions as continuous linear functionals. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the wave equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s function and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s function of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s function is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.

  12. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.


    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  13. Aeroacoustic Calculations of Wind Turbine Noise with the Actuator Line/ Navier-Stokes Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun


    to the local conditions and airfoil data. In the acoustic solver, the aeroacoustics is simulated by: (1) calculating the noise source using the improved engineering model (IBPM) based on the model developed by Brook, Pope and Marcolini (BPM); (2) introducing the noise source with an expected range......Noise regulations in many countries are becoming extremely strict and wind turbine noise is thus becoming a barrier for further development of onshore wind turbines. Low noise wind turbine airfoil and blade design is an important technique for noise reduction. However, the ow situation of a wind...... technique where the wind turbine flow is calculated by using the in-house actuator line/LES/Navier-Stokes technique and the acoustics is obtained by solving the acoustic perturbation equations. In the flow solver, the wind turbine blades are modelled by rotating lines with body forces determined according...

  14. Method to Produce Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection System Resistant to High Aeroacoustic Noise (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Calamito, Dominic P. (Inventor); Jong, Anthony (Inventor)


    A method of producing a three dimensional angle interlock ceramic fiber which is stable to high aeroacoustic noise of about 170 decibels and to high temperatures of about 2500 F is disclosed. The method uses multiple separate strands of a ceramic fiber or ceramic tow suitable for weaving having multiple warp fibers and multiple fill fibers woven with a modified fly-shuttle loom or rapier shuttleless loom which has nip rolls, a modified fabric advancement mechanism and at least eight harnesses in connection with a Dobby pattern chain utilizing sufficient heddles for each warp fiber and a reed which accommodates at least 168 ends per inch. The method produces a multilayered top fabric, rib fabric and single-layered bottom fabric.

  15. Aeromechanics and Aeroacoustics Predictions of the Boeing-SMART Rotor Using Coupled-CFD/CSD Analyses (United States)

    Bain, Jeremy; Sim, Ben W.; Sankar, Lakshmi; Brentner, Ken


    This paper will highlight helicopter aeromechanics and aeroacoustics prediction capabilities developed by Georgia Institute of Technology, the Pennsylvania State University, and Northern Arizona University under the Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP) sponsored by the Tactical Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). First initiated in 2004, the goal of the HQP was to develop high fidelity, state-of-the-art computational tools for designing advanced helicopter rotors with reduced acoustic perceptibility and enhanced performance. A critical step towards achieving this objective is the development of rotorcraft prediction codes capable of assessing a wide range of helicopter configurations and operations for future rotorcraft designs. This includes novel next-generation rotor systems that incorporate innovative passive and/or active elements to meet future challenging military performance and survivability goals.

  16. Aero-Acoustics of Modern Transonic Fans—Fan Noise Reduction from Its Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Xu; J.D. Denton


    The noise of aerodynamics nature from modern transonic fan is examined from its sources with the perspective of noise reduction through aero-acoustics design using advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.In particular the problems associated with the forward propagating noise in the front is addressed. It is identified that the shock wave spillage from the leading edge near the fan tip is the main source of the tone noise. Two different approaches have been studied to reduce the forward arc tone noise and two state-of-art transonic fans are designed using the strategies developed. The following rig tests show that while the fans exhibit other noise problems,the primary goals of noise reduction have been achieved through both fans and the novel noise reduction concept vindicated.

  17. Aeroacoustic research programs at the Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (United States)

    Yu, Yung H.; Schmitz, Fredric H.; Morse, H. Andrew


    The Army rotorcraft aeroacoustic programs are reviewed, highlighting the theoretical and experimental progress made by Army researchers in the physical understanding of helicopter impulsive noise. The two impulsive noise sources addressed over this past decade are high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, both of which have had and will continue to have an increasing influence on Army rotorcraft design and operations. The advancements discussed are in the areas of in-flight data acquisition techniques, small-scale-model tests in wind tunnels, holographic interferometry/tomographic techniques, and the expanding capabilities of computational fluid dynamics in rotorcraft acoustic problems. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental data, and parameters that govern model scaling are established. The very successful cooperative efforts between the Army, NASA, and industry are also addressed

  18. Identifying equivalent sound sources from aeroacoustic simulations using a numerical phased array (United States)

    Pignier, Nicolas J.; O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Boij, Susann


    An application of phased array methods to numerical data is presented, aimed at identifying equivalent flow sound sources from aeroacoustic simulations. Based on phased array data extracted from compressible flow simulations, sound source strengths are computed on a set of points in the source region using phased array techniques assuming monopole propagation. Two phased array techniques are used to compute the source strengths: an approach using a Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse and a beamforming approach using dual linear programming (dual-LP) deconvolution. The first approach gives a model of correlated sources for the acoustic field generated from the flow expressed in a matrix of cross- and auto-power spectral values, whereas the second approach results in a model of uncorrelated sources expressed in a vector of auto-power spectral values. The accuracy of the equivalent source model is estimated by computing the acoustic spectrum at a far-field observer. The approach is tested first on an analytical case with known point sources. It is then applied to the example of the flow around a submerged air inlet. The far-field spectra obtained from the source models for two different flow conditions are in good agreement with the spectra obtained with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings integral, showing the accuracy of the source model from the observer's standpoint. Various configurations for the phased array and for the sources are used. The dual-LP beamforming approach shows better robustness to changes in the number of probes and sources than the pseudo-inverse approach. The good results obtained with this simulation case demonstrate the potential of the phased array approach as a modelling tool for aeroacoustic simulations.

  19. Automated Development of Accurate Algorithms and Efficient Codes for Computational Aeroacoustics (United States)

    Goodrich, John W.; Dyson, Rodger W.


    The simulation of sound generation and propagation in three space dimensions with realistic aircraft components is a very large time dependent computation with fine details. Simulations in open domains with embedded objects require accurate and robust algorithms for propagation, for artificial inflow and outflow boundaries, and for the definition of geometrically complex objects. The development, implementation, and validation of methods for solving these demanding problems is being done to support the NASA pillar goals for reducing aircraft noise levels. Our goal is to provide algorithms which are sufficiently accurate and efficient to produce usable results rapidly enough to allow design engineers to study the effects on sound levels of design changes in propulsion systems, and in the integration of propulsion systems with airframes. There is a lack of design tools for these purposes at this time. Our technical approach to this problem combines the development of new, algorithms with the use of Mathematica and Unix utilities to automate the algorithm development, code implementation, and validation. We use explicit methods to ensure effective implementation by domain decomposition for SPMD parallel computing. There are several orders of magnitude difference in the computational efficiencies of the algorithms which we have considered. We currently have new artificial inflow and outflow boundary conditions that are stable, accurate, and unobtrusive, with implementations that match the accuracy and efficiency of the propagation methods. The artificial numerical boundary treatments have been proven to have solutions which converge to the full open domain problems, so that the error from the boundary treatments can be driven as low as is required. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present a method for developing highly accurate algorithms for computational aeroacoustics, the use of computer automation in this process, and a brief survey of the algorithms that

  20. Impact of turbulence on the prediction of linear aeroacoustic interactions: Acoustic response of a turbulent shear layer (United States)

    Gikadi, Jannis; Föller, Stephan; Sattelmayer, Thomas


    A powerful model to predict aeroacoustic interactions in the linear regime is the perturbed compressible linearized Navier-Stokes equations. Thus far, the frequently employed derivation suggests that the effect of turbulence and its associated Reynolds stresses is neglected and a quasi-laminar model is employed. In this paper, dynamic perturbation equations are derived incorporating the effect of turbulence and its interaction with perturbation quantities. This is done by employing a triple decomposition of the instantaneous variables. The procedure results in a closure problem for the Reynolds stresses for which a linear eddy-viscosity model is proposed. The resulting perturbation equations are applied to a grazing flow in a T-joint for which strong shear layer instabilities at certain frequencies are experimentally observed. Passive scattering properties of the grazing flow are validated against the experiments performed by Karlsson and Åbom and perturbation equations being quasi-laminar. We find that prediction models must include the effect of Reynolds stresses to capture the aeroacoustic interaction effects correctly. Neglecting its effect naturally results in the over prediction of vortex growth at the frequencies of shear layer instability and therewith in an over prediction of aeroacoustic interactions.

  1. Aeroacoustic simulation of slender partially covered cavities using a Lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    de Jong, A. T.; Bijl, H.; Hazir, A.; Wiedemann, J.


    The present investigation focuses on simulation of the aero-acoustic resonance of partially covered cavities with a width much larger than their length or depth, that represent simplified door and trunk lid gaps. These cavities are under influence of a low Mach number flow with a relatively thick boundary layer. Under certain conditions, flow-induced acoustic resonance can occur. The requirements to simulate the resonance behavior using a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) model are investigated. Special focus is put on the effect of simulation spanwise width and inflow conditions. In order to validate the simulations, experiments have been conducted on simplified geometries. The configuration consists of a partially covered, rectangular cavity geometry 32×50×250 mm3 in size, with opening dimensions of 8×250 mm. Cavity flow induced acoustic response is measured with microphones at different spanwise locations inside the cavity. Hot-wire measurements are performed to quantify the boundary layer characteristics. Furthermore, high speed time resolved particle image velocimetry is used to capture the instantaneous velocity field around the opening geometry. Flow simulations show that the turbulent fluctuation content of the boundary layer is important to correctly simulate the flow induced resonance response. A minimum simulation spanwise width is needed to show good resemblance with experimental cavity pressure spectra. When a full spanwise width simulation is employed, base mode and higher modes are retrieved.

  2. Cartesian Mesh Linearized Euler Equations Solver for Aeroacoustic Problems around Full Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukushima


    Full Text Available The linearized Euler equations (LEEs solver for aeroacoustic problems has been developed on block-structured Cartesian mesh to address complex geometry. Taking advantage of the benefits of Cartesian mesh, we employ high-order schemes for spatial derivatives and for time integration. On the other hand, the difficulty of accommodating curved wall boundaries is addressed by the immersed boundary method. The resulting LEEs solver is robust to complex geometry and numerically efficient in a parallel environment. The accuracy and effectiveness of the present solver are validated by one-dimensional and three-dimensional test cases. Acoustic scattering around a sphere and noise propagation from the JT15D nacelle are computed. The results show good agreement with analytical, computational, and experimental results. Finally, noise propagation around fuselage-wing-nacelle configurations is computed as a practical example. The results show that the sound pressure level below the over-the-wing nacelle (OWN configuration is much lower than that of the conventional DLR-F6 aircraft configuration due to the shielding effect of the OWN configuration.

  3. An experimental and theoretical study of the aeroacoustics of external-Coanda gas flares (United States)

    Parsons, Caroline

    Experimental and theoretical means have been used to investigate the fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics of both stepped and unstepped external Coanda flares. Flow visualization techniques have been used to observe the one-eight scale model flare flow fields whilst simultaneously carrying out various sound measurements in the hope of being able to relate observed flow features to specific types of aerodynamic noise. Particular attention has been paid to the stepped model flare in the present work, for comparison with previous work on the unstepped model flare. Test have been carried out on two full-scale flares of different sizes which confirm that the previously assumed inverse-length scaling law does indeed hold in the case of flare noise frequency. Comparisons can therefore be made between the results of model and full-size flare tests, and these indicate that although the full-size flare also emits discrete tones, the nature of these tones are very different from those emitted by the model flares. Several possible reasons for the differences in the two sets of results are discussed. A theoretical study of the high-frequency turbulent mixing noise associated with a model Indair flare jet has been carried out. Because of the complicated nature of such a curved radial wall-jet, the theory has first been developed for a plane two-dimensional wall-jet.

  4. Wavenumber-frequency deconvolution of aeroacoustic microphone phased array data of arbitrary coherence (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Cattafesta, Louis N.


    Deconvolution of aeroacoustic data acquired with microphone phased arrays is a computationally challenging task for distributed sources with arbitrary coherence. A new technique for performing such deconvolution is proposed. This technique relies on analysis of the array data in the wavenumber-frequency domain, allowing for fast convolution and reduced storage requirements when compared to traditional coherent deconvolution. A positive semidefinite constraint for the iterative deconvolution procedure is implemented and shows improved behavior in terms of quantifiable convergence metrics when compared to a standalone covariance inequality constraint. A series of simulations validates the method's ability to resolve coherence and phase angle relationships between partially coherent sources, as well as determines convergence criteria for deconvolution analysis. Simulations for point sources near the microphone phased array show potential for handling such data in the wavenumber-frequency domain. In particular, a physics-based integration boundary calculation is described, and can successfully isolate sources and track the appropriate integration bounds with and without the presence of flow. Magnitude and phase relationships between multiple sources are successfully extracted. Limitations of the deconvolution technique are determined from the simulations, particularly in the context of a simulated acoustic field in a closed test section wind tunnel with strong boundary layer contamination. A final application to a trailing edge noise experiment conducted in an open-jet wind tunnel matches best estimates of acoustic levels from traditional calculation methods and qualitatively assesses the coherence characteristics of the trailing edge noise source.

  5. Towards an effective non-reflective boundary condition for computational aeroacoustics (United States)

    Gill, James; Fattah, Ryu; Zhang, Xin


    A generic, non-reflective zonal transverse characteristic boundary condition is described for computational aeroacoustics, which shows superior performance to existing non-reflective boundary conditions for two-dimensional linearized Euler simulations. The new condition is based on a characteristic non-reflective method, and also contains optimised use of transverse characteristic terms and a zonal forcing region. The performance of the new method and several existing non-reflective acoustic boundary conditions is quantitatively compared using a plane wave test case. The performance of buffer zone, perfectly matched layer, far-field, and characteristic non-reflective methods is compared, following an optimisation of the tuneable parameters in each method to give best performance. The study uses a high-order linearised Euler equation solver to assess non-reflective boundary conditions with a variety of cases. The performance is compared for downstream travelling acoustic waves with varying frequency and incident angle, and at various Mach numbers. The current study includes a more comprehensive evaluation than previous studies which used constant values of tuneable parameters or qualitative assessment methods. The new zonal transverse characteristic boundary condition is shown to give improved performance in comparison to the other tested outflow boundary conditions for two-dimensional linearized Euler simulations, and is also shown to give good performance when used as an inflow condition.

  6. Aeroacoustic Simulation for NASA CC3 Centrifugal Compressor Operating at off Design Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqaradawi Mohamed


    Full Text Available This paper covers the characterization of the acoustic noise and the unsteady flow field of a high speed centrifugal compressor NASA CC3. In order to accurately predict the noise, all analyses are carried out through the use of Large Eddy Simulation and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings model for noise prediction. The relative effect of hub cavity on flow characteristics and sound levels is investigated, for a compressor stage with a total pressure ratio equal to 4, working from surge to near choke condition. In comparison with the experimental results from literature, the predicted compressor performance and flow field are predicted well. The hub cavity flow effect on the compressor aeroacoustic generated noise is shown in the paper. The unsteady static pressure and sound pressure levels are compared not only at different location but also for design and off design operating points. The internal flow results inside the hub cavity are presented at surge, design and near choke points. The conclusion is that the cavity effect of the centrifugal compressor cannot be ignored in the numerical prediction of aerodynamic generated noise. The impeller back plate of the rotor experiences a strong pressure fluctuation, which is maxima at the impeller outer radius for all operating point, but higher pressure values at the surge point.

  7. Three-Dimensional Application of DAMAS Methodology for Aeroacoustic Noise Source Definition (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.


    At the 2004 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustic Conference, a breakthrough in acoustic microphone array technology was reported by the authors. A Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) was developed which decouples the array design and processing influence from the noise being measured, using a simple and robust algorithm. For several prior airframe noise studies, it was shown to permit an unambiguous and accurate determination of acoustic source position and strength. As a follow-on effort, this paper examines the technique for three-dimensional (3D) applications. First, the beamforming ability for arrays, of different size and design, to focus longitudinally and laterally is examined for a range of source positions and frequency. Advantage is found for larger array designs with higher density microphone distributions towards the center. After defining a 3D grid generalized with respect to the array s beamforming characteristics, DAMAS is employed in simulated and experimental noise test cases. It is found that spatial resolution is much less sharp in the longitudinal direction in front of the array compared to side-to-side lateral resolution. 3D DAMAS becomes useful for sufficiently large arrays at sufficiently high frequency. But, such can be a challenge to computational capabilities, with regard to the required expanse and number of grid points. Also, larger arrays can strain basic physical modeling assumptions that DAMAS and all traditional array methodologies use. An important experimental result is that turbulent shear layers can negatively impact attainable beamforming resolution. Still, the usefulness of 3D DAMAS is demonstrated by the measurement of landing gear noise source distributions in a difficult hard-wall wind tunnel environment.

  8. Aeroacoustic Properties of Moderate Reynolds Number Elliptic and Rectangular Supersonic Jets. (United States)

    Kinzie, Kevin Wayne


    The aerodynamic and acoustic properties of supersonic elliptic, rectangular, and circular jets are experimentally investigated. All three jets are perfectly expanded with an exit Mach number of approximately 1.5 and are operated in the Reynolds number range of 25,000 to 50,000. The reduced Reynolds number facilitates the use of conventional hot-wire anemometry and a glow discharge excitation technique which preferentially excites the varicose or flapping modes in the jets. In order to simulate the high velocity and low density effects of heated jets, helium is mixed with the air jets. This allows the large-scale structures in the jet shear layer to achieve high enough convective velocity to radiate noise through the Mach wave emission process. Experiments in the present work focus on comparisons between the cold and simulated heated jet conditions and on the beneficial aeroacoustic properties of non-circular jets. Comparisons are also made between the elliptic and rectangular jets. When helium is added to the jets, the instability wave phase velocity is found to approach or exceed the ambient sound speed. The radiated noise is also louder and directed at a higher angle from the jet axis. In addition, near field hot-wire spectra are found to match the far-field acoustic spectra only for the helium/air mixture case. These results demonstrate that there are significant differences between unheated and heated asymmetric jets in the Mach 1.5 speed range, many of which have been found previously for circular jets. The asymmetric jets were also found to radiate less noise than the round jet at comparable operating conditions. Strong similarities were also found between the aerodynamic and acoustic properties of the elliptic and rectangular jets.

  9. Aeroacoustic source analysis using time-resolved PIV in a free jet (United States)

    Breakey, David E. S.; Fitzpatrick, John A.; Meskell, Craig


    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) has become a valuable tool for spatio-temporally resolved flow measurements. Current camera and laser technology has advanced such that time-domain events leading to sound generation can now be resolved over a reasonable spatial extent. This paper reports on the application of TR-PIV for the analysis of aeroacoustic sources in a free jet using the direct correlation between in-flow velocity fluctuations on the jet center-line and near-field pressure fluctuations. This correlation is considered both in the time domain and in the frequency domain (coherence), and the effect of TR-PIV errors on these estimates is considered by comparison to hot-wire anemometer measurements. In addition, a recently developed wavelet filtering technique is used to separate the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of recorded near-field pressure signals, enabling a gain in the signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that TR-PIV can recover the same time-domain correlation available from hot-wire and traditional PIV measurements, but that the frequency-domain estimates are corrupted by error, particularly at high frequencies. This result negates the principal benefit of using TR-PIV over PIV (the availability of coherence estimates). Despite this result, an analysis of the correlation signature gives evidence that large-scale, convecting, wave-like structures are associated with sound production, a result consistent with observations by many recent investigators. The analysis shows that in the presence of such large-scale structures, noise source localization based on the traditional correlation technique is ambiguous.

  10. An introduction to generalized functions with some applications in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics (United States)

    Farassat, F.


    In this paper, we start with the definition of generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support. The concept of generalization differentiation is introduced next. This is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some of the results of classical analysis, such as Leibniz rule of differentiation under the integral sign and the divergence theorem, are derived using the generalized function theory. It is shown that the divergence theorem remains valid for discontinuous vector fields provided that the derivatives are all viewed as generalized derivatives. This implies that all conservation laws of fluid mechanics are valid as they stand for discontinuous fields with all derivatives treated as generalized deriatives. Once these derivatives are written as ordinary derivatives and jumps in the field parameters across discontinuities, the jump conditions can be easily found. For example, the unsteady shock jump conditions can be derived from mass and momentum conservation laws. By using a generalized function theory, this derivative becomes trivial. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed in this paper are derivation of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of finite part of divergent integrals, derivation of Oswatiitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics presented here include the derivation of the Kirchoff formula for moving surfaces,the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

  11. Concurrent identification of aero-acoustic scattering and noise sources at a flow duct singularity in low Mach number flow (United States)

    Sovardi, Carlo; Jaensch, Stefan; Polifke, Wolfgang


    A numerical method to concurrently characterize both aeroacoustic scattering and noise sources at a duct singularity is presented. This approach combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with techniques of System Identification (SI): In a first step, a highly resolved LES with external broadband acoustic excitation is carried out. Subsequently, time series data extracted from the LES are post-processed by means of SI to model both acoustic propagation and noise generation. The present work studies the aero-acoustic characteristics of an orifice placed in a duct at low flow Mach numbers with the "LES-SI" method. Parametric SI based on the Box-Jenkins mathematical structure is employed, with a prediction error approach that utilizes correlation analysis of the output residuals to avoid overfitting. Uncertainties of model parameters due to the finite length of times series are quantified in terms of confidence intervals. Numerical results for acoustic scattering matrices and power spectral densities of broad-band noise are validated against experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the duct.

  12. 直升机气动噪声研究进展%Progress in aero-acoustic technology of helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平剑; 仲唯贵; 段广战


    The status and progress in helicopter aero-acoustic technology is presented,inclu-ding test technology,analysis method and rotor noise control technology.The advanced test technologies such as unsteady pressure measurement,flow field visualization and noise source lo-calization,have been implemented in the acoustic wind tunnel test of rotor noise,which is the es-sential instrument for helicopter aero-acoustic research.Flight test of helicopter aero-acoustic measurements has become a necessary technique in the programs of helicopter noise certification and helicopter noise reduction investigation.With the development of helicopter aero-acoustic noise analysis method,many software tools for rotor noise prediction have been developed and applied in the helicopter design and noise reduction research,based on the solutions of the FW-H equation and Kirchhoff equation.Low noise blade tip is the primary and effective method for heli-copter noise control,and is used widely in helicopter design.Moreover,new technologies such as noise abatement operation and active rotor noise control have been validated by flight test,but have not been used in helicopter design get.Initiated by the demands to design environmentally compatible helicopter,both societies of industry and academia will devote more effort in helicop-ter aero-acoustic technology research.%对直升机气动噪声的研究进展进行了综述,内容包括试验技术、理论分析方法和噪声抑制技术。声学风洞试验是直升机气动噪声研究的基本手段,其中非定常载荷测试、流场显示和声源定位等先进测试技术已实现应用;飞行试验在直升机噪声适航标准完善和噪声控制技术研究等方面已成为必不可少的研究和验证手段。直升机气动噪声的理论体系不断完善,包括声类比法、Kirchhoff/CFD 混合法等旋翼气动噪声分析方法都已形成分析程序,成为直升机研发的有效工具。直升机气动噪声

  13. Perfectly Matched Layer for Galbrun's aeroacoustic equation in a cylindrical coordinates system with an axial and a swirling steady mean flow (United States)

    Baccouche, Ryan; Tahar, Mabrouk Ben; Moreau, Solène


    A Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) for aeroacoustic problems using Galbrun's equation in the presence of an axial and a swirling steady mean flow is investigated in a cylindrical coordinates system. This equation is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description and leads to a wave equation written only in terms of the Lagrangian perturbation of the displacement. Galbrun's equation is solved by a mixed pressure-displacement Finite Element Method (FEM). To avoid instabilities in the presence of mean flow, a geometric transformation is presented. The validity and efficiency of the proposed PML formulation are established through comparisons with analytical, semi-analytical model based on Pridmore-Brown equation (extended to an axial and a swirling mean flow) and with multiple-scale models. The interest of the formulation is shown through an example of aeroacoustic radiation.

  14. Application of transient numeric simulation methods for calculating aeroacoustic sources of noise in axial blowers; Anwendung von instationaeren numerischen Simulationsmethoden zur Berechnung aeroakustischer Schallquellen bei Axialventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, H.


    The publication intends to contribute to the calculation of aeroacoustic noise of axial blowers. Using the example of a typical low-pressure axial blower, the transient flow field, aeroacoustic sound waves and noise emissions are calculated. Four methods of numeric flow simulation are used, each with a different degree of approximation. In order to investigate different noise development mechanisms, flow to the blower rotor was investigated in the undisturbed state and in a highly turbulent state. Low-frequency noise as a rule is dominated by mechanisms like secondary flow or turbulent inflow which can be predicted rather well by numeric simulations of medium accuracy. Higher-frequency noise resulting from the turbulent boundary layer can only be predicted by large eddy simulation, which is quite time-consuming. (orig.)

  15. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design (United States)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.


    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  16. Self-sustained aero-acoustic pulsations in gas transport systems: Experimental study of the influence of closed side branches (United States)

    Bruggeman, J. C.; Hirschberg, A.; van Dongen, M. E. H.; Wijnands, A. P. J.; Gorter, J.


    A theoretical model is proposed for the aero-acoustic sources responsible for low-frequency self-sustained pulsations in pipes with closed side branches. The theory successfully explains the acoustic and hydrodynamic conditions for resonance in experiments with a single side branch. It also predicts the order of magnitude of the pulsation amplitude and the effect of losses due to friction and radiation. A high pulsation level, with acoustic velocities of the order of magnitude of the main flow, is observed in a double side branch set-up when the edges at the junctions are rounded. When in the double side branch set-up the rounded upstream edge of the second T-joint is replaced by a sharp edge, the pulsation amplitude is reduced by a factor of five. This effect, which can be explained with the theory of vortex sound, leads us to the design of spoilers. Various "spoilers" have been tested in scale model and full scale experiments. Some of these reduce the pulsation level by 40 dB.

  17. An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans. Part 1; Aerodynamic Performance (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Koch, L. Danielle; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.


    Driven by the need for low production costs, electronics cooling fans have evolved differently than the bladed components of gas turbine engines which incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Drawing upon NASA Glenn's experience in the measurement and prediction of gas turbine engine aeroacoustic performance, tests have been conducted to determine if these tools and techniques can be extended for application to the aerodynamics and acoustics of electronics cooling fans. An automated fan plenum installed in NASA Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory was used to map the overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial cooling fan. In order to more accurately identify noise sources, diagnose performance limiting aerodynamic deficiencies, and validate noise prediction codes, additional aerodynamic measurements were recorded for two operating points: free delivery and a mild stall condition. Non-uniformities in the fan s inlet and exhaust regions captured by Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, and rotor blade wakes characterized by hot wire anemometry measurements provide some assessment of the fan aerodynamic performance. The data can be used to identify fan installation/design changes which could enlarge the stable operating region for the fan and improve its aerodynamic performance and reduce noise emissions.

  18. Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise (United States)

    Hanson, D. B.


    A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

  19. 增升装置气动噪声研究现状与发展趋势%Current Status and Future Trend for Aero-acoustics Research on High-lift Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一菊; 段卓毅; 侯银珠


    在对绿色航空发展要求、噪声适航标准、机体噪声概念介绍的基础上,对增升装置气动噪声进行了详细论述,包括数值分析技术、试验研究、飞行试验、降噪设计等的研究现状;阐述了增升装置气动噪声研究的重要性,提出重视机理研究和数值分析方法验证工作的观点,指出增升装置气动与噪声一体化设计的发展趋势。%Based on the green aviation requirements, FAR noise standards, air frame noise sources, the state of the art of aero-acoustics techniques including CFD, wind tunnel test, flight test and noise reduction are discussed in details. The importance of aero-acoustics research on high-lift devices is described, the viewpoint of paying regard to mechanism research and verifying by digital analysis method is presented and the future trend of high- lift devices aero-acoustics, i.e. the aero acoustics and high-lift devices integrated design, is clearly pointed out.

  20. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.


    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  1. 内埋武器舱关键气动及声学问题研究%Investigation on key aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems of internal weapons bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继飞; 罗新福; 徐来武; 范召林


    An experimental investigation was conducted in a high speed wind tunnel to ex-plore key aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems of internal weapons bay.Steady pressure meas-urement,fluctuation pressure measurement and grid measurement were applied to obtain detailed characteristics of static pressure,fluctuating pressure and internal weapon aerodynamic in this experiment.Results indicated that flow types of internal weapons bay can be defined by the static pressure distributions on its floor.Aeroacoustic environment for open cavity flow is much worse than closed cavity flow,and the maximum sound pressure level can reach up to more than 170dB. Several tones of different modes can be found in the internal weapons bay sound pressure spectra. Internal weapon may occur large positive pitching moment during separating from the bay,and positive pitching moment is harmful to safe separation between fighter plane and weapons.Re-sults also indicated that mass-injection at the fore-edge of internal weapons bay can reduce static pressure gradient,suppress the intensity of noise and improve internal weapon’s aerodynamic separation characteristics.%以风洞试验为手段,在高速风洞中对内埋武器舱关键气动问题进行了深入研究。利用静态压力测量、脉动压力测量、网格测力等测试手段,获取了典型弹舱流场静压分布特性、气动声学特性以及武器分离特性。研究结果表明:舱内静压分布变化明显,可以此定义弹舱流场类型;开式弹舱流场气动声学环境恶劣,总声压级强度可达170dB 以上,且频谱曲线上存在多个明显的能量尖峰;武器从舱内分离过程中可能产生较大的抬头力矩,影响机/弹安全分离;在弹舱前缘施以流动控制能降低舱内静压梯度、抑制气动噪声,且有利于改善武器分离特性。

  2. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding (United States)

    Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.


    Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the

  3. Based on aerodynamic/aeroacoustic/structure coupling simulation study%基于气动(气动噪声)/结构耦合仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 张宁川


    Evaluating sound-vibration environment is a challenging task for vehicle. High-intensity acoustic loading which produced from the period of launching of shuttle, launch vehicle, spacecraft can excited local structure vibration, destroy apparatus of vehicle. Study about high noise intensity and prediction of random structure vibration received more and more attention in the aerospace-developed country. We summarized the present situation of integrated mechanics, presented the idea of aerodynamic noise/structure coupling, predicted the integrated mechanics of vehicle based on the coupling of three fields, physical acoustics, structural dynamics, and aerodynamic. Also, the key simulation technology about integrated mechanics of aerodynamic noise/structure coupling were analyzed, simulation method which presented in this paper inducted noise load into the existing research about aero elasticity, and constituted platform of three fields coupling. The modeling and simulation about Computing Fluid Dynamics / Computing Structure Dynamics /Computing Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CSD/CAA) coupling systems with the section were processed, and time domain structural response of section was acquired;also the feasibility of method was validated. We intended to develop the software of simulation and analysis of coupling analysis of multi-mechanics, structure, heat, aerodynamics, aerodynamic noise, and accumulated theoretical basic for advanced mechanics of hypersonic vehicles.%声振综合力学环境是航空航天飞行器的重要环境之一.航天飞机或运载火箭、飞船在起飞段产生强噪声环境,这种强噪声会激发局部结构振动,损伤飞行硬件,所以飞行器强噪声环境和随机结构振动预示受到了各航空航天大国的重视.综述了国内外综合力学环境研究现状,提出了气动(气动噪声)/结构耦合思想,即基于物理声学、结构动力学以及空气动力学的三场耦合,对飞行器综合力学环境进行预示.分

  4. KSC VAB Aeroacoustic Hazard Assessment (United States)


    for SBU considerations). The strongest source typically sits between 1.5-2 core lengths from the exit plane (shown in figure below). The core...Eq. 14 where c1, c2, c3, and c4 are correlation coefficients (omitted for SBU considerations). An important caveat to these empirical correlations is...9�()� − 10 are correlation coefficients (omitted for SBU considerations). Knowing the effective angle, directivity index is computed

  5. Numerical simulation and experimental research on aeroacoustics of steam-water j et mixing heater%喷管式汽水混合加热器气动噪声数值模拟与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟湘; 夏冰; 连晶红; 尹业彬


    热交换器是供热系统乃至动力系统中常见的重要设备之一,其中汽水混合加热器是一种直接将蒸汽与水混合以加热水的热交换装置。利用宽频噪声源模型对喷管式汽水混合加热器进行气动噪声数值模拟,获得了加热器的声场分布。在相同工况下实验测量了加热器表面噪声声压级,模拟值与实验值相比,误差为4.6%,说明宽频噪声源模型在模拟混合加热器表面噪声声压级方面有较好的精度,对喷管式汽水混合加热器的降噪改进设计具有重要的参考价值。%Heat exchanger is one of the common and important equipment of heating systems and power systems.Steam-water mixing heater is a kind of heat transfer equipment,which heats water by directly mixing water and steam.The broadband noise source model was applied to numerically simulate the aeroacoustics of j et pipe steam-water mixing heater in this paper and accoustic field distribution was obtained.The surface accoustic pressure level of the heater was also measured experimentally under the same conditions.The error of the numerical predictions compared to the measurments is within 4.6%.It reveals that broadband noise source model has the better accuracy in respect of simulating the surface sound pressure level of mixing heater,which has an important reference value for improving the design of noise reduction of the j et pipe steam-water mixing heater.

  6. Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) Overview and 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test. [conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center (United States)

    McCluer, Megan S.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)


    Most helicopter data trends cannot be extrapolated to tiltrotors because blade geometry and aerodynamic behavior, as well as rotor and fuselage interactions, are significantly different for tiltrotors. A tiltrotor model has been developed to investigate the aeromechanics of tiltrotors, to develop a comprehensive database for validating tiltrotor analyses, and to provide a research platform for supporting future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Model (FS TRAM) is a dual-rotor, powered aircraft model with extensive instrumentation for measurement of structural and aerodynamic loads. This paper will present the Full-Span TRAM test capabilities and the first set of data obtained during a 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test conducted in late 2000 at NASA Ames Research Center. The Full-Span TRAM is a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 Osprey aircraft, and a heavily instrumented NASA and U.S. Army wind tunnel test stand. Rotor structural loads are monitored and recorded for safety-of-flight and for information on blade loads and dynamics. Left and right rotor balance and fuselage balance loads are monitored for safety-of-flight and for measurement of vehicle and rotor aerodynamic performance. Static pressure taps on the left wing are used to determine rotor/wing interactional effects and rotor blade dynamic pressures measure blade airloads. All of these measurement capabilities make the FS TRAM test stand a unique and valuable asset for validation of computational codes and to aid in future tiltrotor designs. The Full-Span TRAM was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel from October through December 2000. Rotor and vehicle performance measurements were acquired in addition to wing pressures, rotor acoustics, and Laser Light Sheet (LLS) flow visualization data. Hover, forward flight, and airframe (rotors off) aerodynamic runs were performed. Helicopter-mode data were acquired during angle of attack and thrust sweeps for

  7. Theoretical and numerical method in aeroacoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper deals with the mathematical and numerical modeling of the aerodynamic noisegenerated by the fluid flow interaction with the solid structure of a rotor blade.Our analysis use Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Lighthill idea was to express the fundamental equationsof motion into a wave equation for acoustic fluctuation with a source term on the right-hand side. Theobtained wave equation is solved numerically by the spatial discretization. The method is applied inthe case of monopole source placed in different points of blade surfaces to find this effect of noisepropagation.

  8. Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Lab (AAPL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is an acoustically treated geodesic dome. The 130-ft-diameter dome is 65-ft high and acts as a noise barrier, protecting adjacent Glenn buildings and...

  9. Aeroacoustic properties of supersonic elliptic jets (United States)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.


    The aerodynamic and acoustic properties of supersonic elliptic and circular jets are experimentally investigated. The jets are perfectly expanded with an exit Mach number of approximately 1.5 and are operated in the Reynolds number range of 25 000 to 50 000. The reduced Reynolds number facilitates the use of conventional hot-wire anemometry and a glow discharge excitation technique which preferentially excites the varicose or flapping modes in the jets. In order to simulate the high-velocity and low-density effects of heated jets, helium is mixed with the air jets. This allows the large-scale structures in the jet shear layer to achieve a high enough convective velocity to radiate noise through the Mach wave emission process.

  10. Aero-Acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun


    are solved using the in-house flow solver EllipSys2D/3D which is a second-order finite volume code. The acoustic equations are solved using high-order finite difference schemes. The incompressible flow equations and the acoustic equations are solved at the same time levels where the pressure....... The acoustic solver consists of numerical schemes from fourth-order up to tenth-order accuracy, the use of different schemes are case dependent. In practice, at high Reynolds numbers when flow becomes turbulent, schemes with the highest order of accuracy are always used to resolve the small waves. For time...... integration, the classical 4-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is applied. Non-centered high-order schemes at numerical boundaries and high-order filter schemes are also discussed due to their importance. The method was validated against a few test cases and further applied for flows around a cylinder and an airfoil...

  11. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  12. Engine Test Cell Aeroacoustics and Recommendations (United States)


    SCIPVIX. AIAA J. 23, 505–514. DAVIES, M.G. & OLDFIELD, D.E.S. 1962. Tones from a choked axisymmetric jet. Acustica 12, 257–277. DAVIES, M.G...OLDFIELD, D.E.S. 1962. Tones from a choked axisymmetric jet. PART 2. The self-excited loop and mode of oscillation. Acustica 12, 267–277. HAMMITT, A.G

  13. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Maizi [Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables (cder). Alger (Algeria); Rabah, Dizene [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Haouari Boumdienne (USTHB). Alger (Algeria)


    This paper describes a hybrid approach forpredicting noise radiated from the rotating Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades, where the sources are extracted from an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stocks (URANS) simulation, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to calculate The near-field flow parameters around the blade surface that are necessary for FW-H codes. Comparisons with NREL Phase II experimental results are presented with respect to the pressure distributions for validating a capacity of the solver to calculate the near-field flow on and around the wind turbine blades, The results show that numerical data have a good agreement with experimental. The acoustic pressure, presented as a sum of thickness and loading noise components, is analyzed by means of a discrete fast Fourier transformation for the presentation of the time acoustic time histories in the frequency domain. The results convincingly show that dipole source noise is the dominant noise source for this wind turbine.

  14. Aeroacoustic computation of low mach number flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver Dahl, K. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)


    The possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines is explored. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound fields are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the charcteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solution for the problem of the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. (au)

  15. Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder aeroacoustic benchmarka) (United States)

    Brès, Guillaume A.; Freed, David; Wessels, Michael; Noelting, Swen; Pérot, Franck


    Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder benchmark are performed using lattice Boltzmann and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings methods. The numerical results are compared to experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center. The present study focuses on two configurations: the first configuration corresponds to the typical setup with uniform inflow and spanwise periodic boundary condition. To investigate installation effects, the second configuration matches the QFF setup and geometry, including the rectangular open jet nozzle, and the two vertical side plates mounted in the span to support the test models. For both simulations, the full span of 16 cylinder diameters is simulated, matching the experimental dimensions. Overall, good agreement is obtained with the experimental surface data, flow field, and radiated noise measurements. In particular, the presence of the side plates significantly reduces the excessive spanwise coherence observed with periodic boundary conditions and improves the predictions of the tonal peak amplitude in the far-field noise spectra. Inclusion of the contributions from the side plates in the calculation of the radiated noise shows an overall increase in the predicted spectra and directivity, leading to a better match with the experimental measurements. The measured increase is about 1 to 2 dB at the main shedding frequency and harmonics, and is likely caused by reflections on the spanwise side plates. The broadband levels are also slightly higher by about 2 to 3 dB, likely due to the shear layers from the nozzle exit impacting the side plates.

  16. High-speed PIV analysis of trailing edge aeroacoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pröbsting, S.; Serpieri, J.; Scarano, F.


    Tonal noise generated by airfoils observed at low to moderate Reynolds numbers is related to laminar boundary layer instabilities, which has lead to the term laminar boundary layer instability noise. The particular features of the acoustic spectrum have been discussed and a number of theories have b

  17. Physics Based Tool for Rotorcraft Computational Aeroacoustics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduction of noise is critical to the public acceptance and mission suitability of rotorcraft. Accurate prediction of rotorcraft noise is directly related to the...

  18. Computational Aeroacoustics Using the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research proposed targets airframe noise (AFN) prediction and reduction. AFN originates from complex interactions of turbulent flow with airframe components that...

  19. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (counterrotation). Volume 1: Model development (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Mani, R.; Gliebe, P. R.


    The isolated counterrotating high speed turboprop noise prediction program was compared with model data taken in the GE Aircraft Engines Cell 41 anechoic facility, the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel, and in NASA-Lewis' 8x6 and 9x15 wind tunnels. The predictions show good agreement with measured data under both low and high speed simulated flight conditions. The installation effect model developed for single rotation, high speed turboprops was extended to include counterotation. The additional effect of mounting a pylon upstream of the forward rotor was included in the flow field modeling. A nontraditional mechanism concerning the acoustic radiation from a propeller at angle of attach was investigated. Predictions made using this approach show results that are in much closer agreement with measurement over a range of operating conditions than those obtained via traditional fluctuating force methods. The isolated rotors and installation effects models were combines into a single prediction program, results of which were compared with data taken during the flight test of the B727/UDF engine demonstrator aircraft. Satisfactory comparisons between prediction and measured data for the demonstrator airplane, together with the identification of a nontraditional radiation mechanism for propellers at angle of attack are achieved.

  20. An Aero-Acoustic Tool for Terminal Area Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this highly interconnected world, transportation systems must feature increased flexibility and shorter door-to-door trip times to be successful. Shorter...

  1. Investigation Of Aeroacoustic Mechanisms By Remote Thermal Imaging (United States)

    Witten, Alan J.; Courville, George E.


    A hush house is a hangar-like structure designed to isolate, from the surrounding environment, the noise produced by extended aircraft engine operations during diagnostic testing. While hush houses meet this intended need by suppressing audible noise, they do emit significant subaudible acoustic energy which has caused structural vibrations in nearby facilities. As a first step in mitigating the problems associated with hush house induced vibrations, it is necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for the low frequency acoustic emissions. It was hypothesized that the low frequency acoustic waves are a result of acoustic Cherenkov radiation. This radiation is in the form of a coherent wave produced by the engine exhaust gas flow. The speed of sound in the exhaust gas is quite high as a result of its elevated temperature. Therefore, the gas flow is sonic or subsonic relative to its own sound speed, but is supersonic relative to sound speed in the surrounding cooler air and, as a result, produces acoustic Cherenkov radiation. To confirm this hypothesis, thermographic surveys were conducted to image the thermal structure of the engine exhaust gas within the hush house. In the near-field, these images revealed that the exhaust gases did not behave like a high Reynolds number turbulent jet, but rather, the transition to turbulence is delayed by a suppression in growth of the self-excited instability wave as a result of acoustic Cherenkov radiation.

  2. Advanced boundary element methods in aeroacoustics and elastodynamics (United States)

    Lee, Li

    In the first part of this dissertation, advanced boundary element methods (BEM) are developed for acoustic radiation in the presence of subsonic flows. A direct boundary integral formulation is first introduced for acoustic radiation in a uniform flow. This new formulation uses the Green's function derived from the adjoint operator of the governing differential equation. Therefore, it requires no coordinate transformation. This direct BEM formulation is then extended to acoustic radiation in a nonuniform-flow field. All the terms due to the nonuniform-flow effect are taken to the right-hand side and treated as source terms. The source terms result in a domain integral in the standard boundary integral formulation. The dual reciprocity method is then used to convert the domain integral into a number of boundary integrals. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the development of advanced BEM algorithms to overcome the multi-frequency and nonuniqueness difficulties in steady-state elastodynamics. For the multi-frequency difficulty, two different interpolation schemes, borrowed from recent developments in acoustics, are first extended to elastodynamics to accelerate the process of matrix re-formation. Then, a hybrid scheme that retains only the merits of the two different interpolation schemes is suggested. To overcome the nonuniqueness difficulty, an enhanced CHIEF (Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation) method using a linear combination of the displacement and the traction boundary integral equations on the surface of a small interior volume is proposed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate all the advanced BEM formulations.

  3. Simple Scaling of Multi-Stream Jet Plumes for Aeroacoustic Modeling (United States)

    Bridges, James


    When creating simplified, semi-empirical models for the noise of simple single-stream jets near surfaces it has proven useful to be able to generalize the geometry of the jet plume. Having a model that collapses the mean and turbulent velocity fields for a range of flows allows the problem to become one of relating the normalized jet field and the surface. However, most jet flows of practical interest involve jets of two or more co-annular flows for which standard models for the plume geometry do not exist. The present paper describes one attempt to relate the mean and turbulent velocity fields of multi-stream jets to that of an equivalent single-stream jet. The normalization of single-stream jets is briefly reviewed, from the functional form of the flow model to the results of the modeling. Next, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) data from a number of multi-stream jets is analyzed in a similar fashion. The results of several single-stream approximations of the multi-stream jet plume are demonstrated, with a 'best' approximation determined and the shortcomings of the model highlighted.

  4. Experimental characterization of airfoil boundary layers for improvement of aeroacoustic and aerodynamic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas


    blades makes a transition from laminar to turbulent. In the turbulent boundary layer eddies are created which are a potential noise sources. They are ineffective as noise source on the airfoil surface or in free flow, but when convecting past the trailing edge of the airfoil their efficiency is much...... and to improve it, because the predictions gave in general too low far field noise levels. Our main finding is that the acoustic formulations to relate the fluctuating surface pressure field close to the trailing edge of airfoil to the radiated far field sound give excellent results when compared to far field......, trailing edge noise can be evaluated by means of measured surface pressure field, even in cases where a direct measurement of trailing edge noise is not possible. This opens up great new vistas, i.e. by testing new airfoils in a standard industrial wind tunnel or by testing new wind turbine rotors...

  5. Construction of an anechoic chamber for aeroacoustic experiments and examination of its acoustic parameters (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Belyaev, I. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.


    The acoustic parameters of a new anechoic chamber constructed at Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) are presented. This chamber is designed to be used, among other things, for measuring noise from aerodynamic sources. Sound-absorbing wedges lining the walls of the chamber were studied in an interferometer with normal wave incidence. The results are compared to the characteristics of sound-absorbing wedges of existing anechoic facilities. Metrological examination of the acoustic parameters of the PNRPU anechoic chamber demonstrates that free field conditions are established in it, which will make it possible to conduct quantitative acoustic experiments.

  6. Aero-Acoustic Optimization of the Fans and Cooling Circuit on Sncf's X 72500 Railcar (United States)



    This paper presents the results of studies concerning the fans on SNCF's X 72500 railcar with a view to reducing the level of ambient noise. The paper first describes the operation of an axial fan and then the main sources of noise generated by this type of fan. The interactions between acoustic emissions and mass output are then described to illustrate the advantages of an acoustic and pneumatic predictive device. Finally, a new design of axial wheel on the SNCF railcar is described which has reduced the acoustic emission by 10 db whilst still improving the initial ventilation performance.

  7. On Physical Aeroacoustics with Some Implications for Low-Noise Aircraft Design and Airport Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M. B. C. Campos


    Full Text Available Air traffic is growing at a steady rate of 3% to 5% per year in most regions of the world, implying a doubling every 15–25 years. This requires major advances in aircraft noise reduction at airports, just not to increase the noise exposure due to the larger number of aircraft movements. In fact it can be expected, as a consequence of increased opposition to noise by near airport residents, that the overall noise exposure will have to be reduced, by bans, curfews, fines, and other means and limitations, unless significantly quieter aircraft operations are achieved. The ultimate solution is aircraft operations inaudible outside the airport perimeter, or noise levels below road traffic and other existing local noise sources. These substantial noise reductions cannot come at the expense of a degradation of cruise efficiency, that would affect not just economics and travel time, but would increase fuel consumption and emission of pollutants on a global scale. The paper reviews the: (i current knowledge of the aircraft noise sources; (ii the sound propagation in the atmosphere and ground effects that determine the noise annoyance of near-airport residents; (iii the noise mitigation measures that can be applied to current and future aircraft; (iv the prospects of evolutionary and novel aircraft designs towards quieter aircraft in the near term and eventually to operations inaudible outside the airport perimeter. The 20 figures and 1 diagram with their legends provide a visual summary of the review.

  8. Recent Development of Non-Linear Aeroacoustic Model for Wind Turbine Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A numerical algorithm for simulation of acoustic noise generation, based on collocated grids, has been developed.The approach, that was originally developed using a viscous/inviscid decomposition technique, involved two steps comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic...

  9. A Post-Processing System for Physics Based Derived Rotorcraft Computational Aero-Acoustics Simulations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Light, the makers of the FIELDVIEW CFD post-processing software, in response to NASA SBIR Phase 1 solicitation, proposes an effort that addresses A2.10...

  10. A Post-Processing System for Physics Based Derived Rotorcraft Computational Aero-Acoustics Simulations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Light, the makers of the FIELDVIEW CFD post-processing software, in response to NASA SBIR Phase 2 solicitation, proposes an effort that addresses A2.10...

  11. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (single rotation). Volume 1: Model development (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mani, R.; Mungur, P.


    A frequency-domain noncompact-source theory for the steady loading and volume-displacement (thickness) noise of high speed propellers has been developed and programmed. Both near field and far field effects have been considered. The code utilizes blade surface pressure distributions obtained from three-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamic flow field analysis programs as input for evaluating the steady loading noise. Simplified mathematical models of the velocity fields induced at the propeller disk by nearby wing and fuselage surfaces and by angle-of-attack operation have been developed to provide estimates of the unsteady loading imposed on the propeller by these potential field type interactions. These unsteady blade loadings have been coupled to a chordwise compact propeller unsteady loading noise model to provide predictions of unsteady loading noise caused by these installation effects. Finally, an analysis to estimate the corrections to be applied to the free-field noise predictions in order to arrive at the measurable fuselage sound pressure levels has been formulated and programmed. This analysis considers the effects of fuselage surface reflection and diffraction together with surface boundary layer refraction. The steady loading and thickness model and the unsteady loading model have been verified using NASA-supplied data for the SR-2 and SR-3 model propfans. In addition, the steady loading and thickness model has been compared with data from the SR-6 model propfan. These theoretical models have been employed in the evaluation of the SR-7 powered Gulfstream aircraft in terms of noise characteristics at representative takeoff, cruise, and approach operating conditions. In all cases, agreement between theory and experiment is encouraging.

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Performance of a Ventilation Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bianchi


    Full Text Available There are controversial requirements involved in developing numerical methodologies in order to compute the flow in industrial fans. The full resolution of turbulence spectrum in such high-Reynolds number flow configurations entails unreasonably expensive computational costs. The authors applied the study to a large unidirectional axial flow fan unit for tunnel ventilation to operate in the forward direction under ambient conditions. This delivered cooling air to the tunnel under routine operation, or hot gases at 400∘C under emergency conditions in the event of a tunnel fire. The simulations were carried out using the open source code OpenFOAM, within which they implemented a very large eddy simulation (VLES based on one-equation SGS model to solve a transport equation for the modelled (subgrid turbulent kinetic energy. This subgrid turbulence model improvement is a remedial strategy in VLES of high-Reynolds number industrial flows which are able to tackle the turbulence spectrum’s well-known insufficient resolution. The VLES of the industrial fan permits detecting the unsteady topology of the rotor flow. This paper explores the evolution of secondary flow phenomena and speculates on its influence on the actual load capability when operating at peak-pressure condition. Predicted noise emissions, in terms of sound pressure level spectra, are also compared with experimental results and found to agree within the uncertainty of the measurements.

  13. Identification of Landing Gear Aeroacoustic Noise Sources with the Synthetic Array Technique Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this program, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and collaborators propose to advance "synthetic phased array" technology to improve...

  14. Implicit Higher Order Temporal Differencing for Aeroacoustic and CFD Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a stand-alone implicit high order temporal differencing solver concept that will interface with research and commercial numerical analysis...

  15. 3D flow organization and dynamics in subsonic jets: Aeroacoustic source analysis by tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.V.


    To meet the increasingly stringent noise regulation, aircraft manufacturers are searching for solutions to jet noise. This, which constitutes a significant amount of the total noise emitted by civil aircrafts, is generated by the mixing processes between the exhaust flow leaving the engine and the a

  16. Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn


    compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...

  17. Practical computational aeroacoustics for complex confined scattering geometries in low mach number flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Jacobsen, Finn; Svendsen, Christian


    -compact surfaces are involved. Here the generation of noise is dominated by the interaction of the flow with a surface whose maximum dimension is shorter than the wavelength of interest. The analysis is based on the surface-source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The acoustic source data of the flow...

  18. Application of FUN3D Solver for Aeroacoustics Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear Configuration (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    Numerical simulations have been performed for a nose landing gear configuration corresponding to the experimental tests conducted in the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A widely used unstructured grid code, FUN3D, is examined for solving the unsteady flow field associated with this configuration. A series of successively finer unstructured grids has been generated to assess the effect of grid refinement. Solutions have been obtained on purely tetrahedral grids as well as mixed element grids using hybrid RANS/LES turbulence models. The agreement of FUN3D solutions with experimental data on the same size mesh is better on mixed element grids compared to pure tetrahedral grids, and in general improves with grid refinement.

  19. Effect of non-uniform mean flow field on acoustic propagation problems in computational aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun


    Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...

  20. Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles: Theory and Practice. Volume 2. Noise Control (United States)


    update the information in previous related publications, to provide a balanced viewpoint with both fundamental and applied aspects being considered, and to...ref. 92), it was concluded that the balance of evidence suggests that the number weighting is no more than, and is perhaps somewhat less than, the...Houtgast, T.; and Steeneken, H J M., A Review of the MTF Concept in Room Acoustics and Its Use for Estimating Speech Intelligibility in Auditoria . J

  1. Three-dimensional vortex analysis and aeroacoustic source characterization of jet core breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Scarano, F.


    The three-dimensional behavior of jet core breakdown is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet at Re = 5000 by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (TR-TOMO PIV). The investigated domain encompasses the range between 0 and 10 jet diameters. The characteristic pul

  2. Benchmark Data for Evaluation of Aeroacoustic Propagation Codes With Grazing Flow (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.


    Increased understanding of the effects of acoustic treatment on the propagation of sound through commercial aircraft engine nacelles is a requirement for more efficient liner design. To this end, one of NASA s goals is to further the development of duct propagation and impedance reduction codes. A number of these codes have been developed over the last three decades. These codes are typically divided into two categories: (1) codes that use the measured complex acoustic pressure field to reduce the acoustic impedance of treatment that is positioned along the wall of the duct, and (2) codes that use the acoustic impedance of the treatment as input and compute the sound field throughout the duct. Clearly, the value of these codes is dependent upon the quality of the data used for their validation. Over the past two decades, data acquired in the NASA Langley Research Center Grazing Incidence Tube have been used by a number of researchers for comparison with their propagation codes. Many of these comparisons have been based upon Grazing Incidence Tube tests that were conducted to study specific liner technology components, and were incomplete for general propagation code validation. Thus, the objective of the current investigation is to provide a quality data set that can be used as a benchmark for evaluation of duct propagation and impedance reduction codes. In order to achieve this objective, two parallel efforts have been undertaken. The first of these is the development of an enhanced impedance eduction code that uses data acquired in the Grazing Incidence Tube. This enhancement is intended to place the benchmark data on as firm a foundation as possible. The second key effort is the acquisition of a comprehensive set of data selected to allow propagation code evaluations over a range of test conditions.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Oscillations in a Mixer: An Internal Aeroacoustic Feedback System (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.


    The space-time conservation element and solution element method is employed to numerically study the acoustic feedback system in a high temperature, high speed wind tunnel mixer. The computation captures the self-sustained feedback loop between reflecting Mach waves and the shear layer. This feedback loop results in violent instabilities that are suspected of causing damage to some tunnel components. The computed frequency is in good agreement with the available experimental data. The physical phenomena are explained based on the numerical results.

  4. Improved Models for Prediction of Locally Intense Aeroacoustic Loads and Vibration Environments Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc. proposes an STTR program to develop innovative tools and methods that will significantly improve the accuracy of random vibration response...

  5. High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.


    High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

  6. Aeroacoustics of compressible subsonic jets: Direct Numerical Simulation of a low Reynolds number subsonic jet and the associated sound field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, P.D.


    Jet noise is an extensively studied phenomenon since the deployment of the first civil jet aircraft more than 50 years ago. Jet noise makes up a considerable portion of the total noise of jet aircraft, and the expansion of the numbers of airplanes and airports has only been possible by keeping the

  7. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding (United States)

    Amiet, R. K.


    A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

  8. Analysis-Driven Design Optimization of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction (United States)

    Scholten, William; Hartl, Darren; Turner, Travis


    Airframe noise is a significant component of environmental noise in the vicinity of airports. The noise associated with the leading-edge slat of typical transport aircraft is a prominent source of airframe noise. Previous work suggests that a slat-cove filler (SCF) may be an effective noise treatment. Hence, development and optimization of a practical slat-cove-filler structure is a priority. The objectives of this work are to optimize the design of a functioning SCF which incorporates superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) materials as flexures that permit the deformations involved in the configuration change. The goal of the optimization is to minimize the actuation force needed to retract the slat-SCF assembly while satisfying constraints on the maximum SMA stress and on the SCF deflection under static aerodynamic pressure loads, while also satisfying the condition that the SCF self-deploy during slat extension. A finite element analysis model based on a physical bench-top model is created in Abaqus such that automated iterative analysis of the design could be performed. In order to achieve an optimized design, several design variables associated with the current SCF configuration are considered, such as the thicknesses of SMA flexures and the dimensions of various components, SMA and conventional. Designs of experiment (DOE) are performed to investigate structural response to an aerodynamic pressure load and to slat retraction and deployment. DOE results are then used to inform the optimization process, which determines a design minimizing actuator forces while satisfying the required constraints.

  9. Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of Rotorcraft (l’ Aerodynamique et l’ aeroacoustique des aeronefs a voilure tournante). (United States)


    unsteady three-dimensional methods, each of La complexit6 de l’h~licoptbre se traduit naturellement them being well adapted to deal with a particular par... naturellement par experimencaux). Le programme effectue des iterations de tine meilleure evaluation de 1𔄀volution azimutale des fagon ’a trouver la...116me campagne d’cssais r~alis~e par I’ONERA et0 ECF ’a SIMA, Sur les rotors 7A et 7AD munis chacun’de plus de 100 capteurs instationnaires distribuuis

  10. Strouhal number dependency of the aero-acoustic response of wall perforations under combined grazing-bias flow (United States)

    Moers, E. M. T.; Tonon, D.; Hirschberg, A.


    The influence of low Mach number grazing-bias flow on the linear acoustic response of slit shaped wall perforations is determined in terms of a dimensionless acoustical impedance for Strouhal numbers based on the perforation width of order unity. The influence of edge geometries is studied by experiments. In particular, slanted slits under an angle of 30° with respect to the grazing flow direction are considered. Sound production, i.e. whistling potentiality corresponding to a negative real part of the impedance, is observed for various geometries and flow conditions. Sound production restricts the largest perforation size which can be used in practice for acoustical liners. Whistling in the limit cases of purely bias and purely grazing flows can be explained qualitatively in terms of Vortex Sound Theory. For combined bias/grazing flow, most of the oscillations in the impedance as a function of the Strouhal number are related to these limit behaviours. A configuration with thin sharp edges both upstream and downstream corresponds to commonly used theoretical models assuming an infinite thin wall. This configuration displays a behaviour drastically different from a more realistic perforation geometry with sharp square edges.

  11. Aero-acoustic simulation of a subsonic hot jet; Simulation aeroacoustique d'un jet chaud subsonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancherin, A.; Rahier, G.; Prieur, J.; Vuillot, F.; Lupoglazoff, N.


    This paper presents a numerical simulation of subsonic a hot jet (M 0,7) and its acoustic analysis. The MSD code of the ONERA is used to resolve the Navier-Stokes equations. A detailed study, parametric and theoretical is realized to analyze the influence of the formulation, the position, the part and the nature of the control surface on the acoustic calculation results. The acoustic predictions in far field are compared to measures realized by the ONERA in the anechoic CEPRA 19 wind tunnel. (A.L.B.)

  12. An experimental study on the aeroacoustics of wall-bounded flows : Sound emission from a wall-mounted cavity, coupling of time-resolved PIV and acoustic analogies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koschatzky, V.


    This thesis deals with the problem of noise. Sound is a constant presence in our lives. Most of the times it is something wanted and it serves a purpose, such as communication through speech or entertainment by listening to music. On the other hand, quite often sound is an annoying and unwanted by-p

  13. Validation of an Aero-Acoustic Wind Turbine Noise Model Using Advanced Noise Source Measurements of a 500kW Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas


    The measurement of a 500 kW stall-regulated wind turbine is investigated. Microphones located relatively close to the wind turbine are used to measure its acoustic emission. The operational conditions of the turbine, such as wind speed, are simultaneously monitored. In parallel, a wind turbine....... A good qualitative agreement is found. When wind speed increases, the rotor noise model shows that at high frequencies the stall noise becomes dominant. It also shows that turbulent inflow noise is dominant at low frequencies for all wind speeds and that trailing edge noise is dominant at low wind speeds...... and at frequencies above 200 Hz....

  14. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 2 Supplement. Computer Program for Calculating the Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Jets form Nozzles of Arbitrary Shape. (United States)


    noise) by specifying RMIN as input, but with NCBDY = 0. This option causes the computation to begin at r = RMIN(KA), where KA is the axial station...39990 70 COMPUTATION OF AFRO-ACOJ-TIC P’OPf-PTIFS O SI.PPPSSOM N)7ZLS CASE NO, I CkD 7-TIIPF AP=2.i N077LF - VJ=??00 FP, - rTJ=i600 nEr-p AXIAL LOCATION

  15. Development of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated With Transport-Class Aircraft Wings (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Kidd, Reggie T.; Hartl, Darren J.; Scholten, William D.


    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise produced by typical, transport-class aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Leading-edge slat noise is a prominent source of airframe noise. The concept of a slat-cove filler was proposed in previous work as an effective means of mitigating slat noise. Bench-top models were deployed at 75% scale to study the feasibility of producing a functioning slat-cove filler. Initial results from several concepts led to a more-focused effort investigating a deformable structure based upon pseudoelastic SMA materials. The structure stows in the cavity between the slat and main wing during cruise and deploys simultaneously with the slat to guide the aerodynamic flow suitably for low noise. A qualitative parametric study of SMA-enabled, slat-cove filler designs was performed on the bench-top. Computational models were developed and analyses were performed to assess the displacement response under representative aerodynamic load. The bench-top and computational results provide significant insight into design trades and an optimal design.

  16. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise (XMIN) on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design (United States)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.


    Characterization of flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is often studied via large scale wind tunnel testing. Boundary layer noise is measured by miniature pressure transducers installed in a model. Noise levels (2-5 dB ref. 20 µPa) can be induced when transducer is mounted out of flush with model outer surface. This effect must be minimized to accurately determine aerodynamically induced acoustic environments.

  17. 低马赫数条件下气动声场流场分裂求解方法研究%A Splitting Simulation Method for Aeroacoustic at Low Mach Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康乐; 陈迎春; 陶俊; 孙刚



  18. Effect of circumferential forward-skewed blade on aeroacoustic performance of axial fan%周向前弯叶片对轴流风扇气动声学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过试验获得低压轴流风扇前弯叶片声压级曲线和设计点1/3倍频程频谱,研究了叶片前弯角对风扇气动噪声的影响.通过数值方法,获得叶轮出口尾迹宽度的分布,分析了叶片前弯角对其影响.结果显示,随着叶片前弯角度的增加,风扇出口尾迹宽度呈现"先减小后增加"的变化特点,导致气动噪声也出现相同的变化规律,其中最低气动噪声出现在前弯6°~8°.气动噪声差异主要发生在300~4 000Hz.%Low pressure axial fan with forward-skewed rotor blade was studied. The re-lationship between sound pressure level and flow rate and 1/3 octave spectrum at design con-dition was obtained through aerodynamic noise experiment. The effects of blade forward skew angle on aerodynamic noise were analyzed. The distributions of wake width at outlet of rotors were obtained from simulation. The effects of blade forward skew angle on wake width were also analyzed. The results show that, with the increase of blade forward skew angle, the wake width declines and then increases, leading to similar relationship curves be-tween aerodynamic noise measurement data and flow rate. The lowest aerodynamic noise oc-curs at forward skew angle between 6° and 8°. The difference of aerodynamic noise among the rotors occurs mainly at frequency zone between 300 Hz and 4 000 Hz.

  19. Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and High Speed Grazing Flow Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An aeroacoustic computational code based upon a numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations will be developed to provide a deep understanding of the...

  20. Phased array technique for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed wind tunnel beamforming for aeroacoustics has become more and more prevalent in recent years. Still, there are major drawbacks as current microphone arrays...

  1. Wide band noise: Calculation of the wide-band aeroacoustic noise spectrum of axial blower rotors on the basis of flow field variables. With user info on the program 'SIBNOISE-AX'. Final report; Breitbandlaerm - Berechnung des breitbandigen aeroakustischen Geraeuschspektrums von Axialventilatorlaufraedern aus Stromfeldgroessen. Mit Benutzeranleitung zum Programm 'SIBNOISE-AX'. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolus, T.; Schneider, M.


    A computer program for predicting the wide-band noise spectrom of axial blower rotors from flow field variables was developed. First, a bibliographic search was carried out on current methods of noise prediction. The main input parameters of the selected methods were varied systematically in the sense of a sensitivity analysis in order to check the plausibility of the results and assess the accuracy required of the input parameters. The selected methods were implemented in a user-friendly PC program ('SIBNOISE-AX'). The methods and the computer program were tested using the example of two blowers, i.e. a low-pressure and a high-pressure axial blower. Both blowers were calculated without guide wheels as the research project focused on rotor wheel noise only. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained in a standard test stand in order to provide a data base. Time-averaged flow fields in the rotor wheels were calculated using a commercial CFD code, and parameters like boundary layer thickness and relevant velocities in the blade region were derived which - in addition to simple estimates - were used as input parameters in the noise prediction methods. The results provided by the calculations differed depending on the method employed, but some methods provided results that were in good agreement with the measurements. Their accuracy was sufficient even when the input parameters were only estimated and could be improved further by using the numerically calculated flow field parameters. The research project was thus completed successfully.

  2. Experimental Study on Aeroacoustics Control for High-Speed Partial Admission Turbine Based on Flow Path Optimal Design%基于流道优化的局部进气高速涡轮机气动噪声控制实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辛午; 黄洪雁; 马瑞贤; 刘占生


    The rotor-stator interaction is one of the main sources of turbomachine' s aerodynamic noise. For high-speed partial admission turbine,the fluid path optimal design methods including increasing the geomet-ric exit flow angle of nozzle,nozzle pitchdown,sigle-side modification for nozzle,and increasing the distance between rotor and stator were proposed to improve the flow state to control the discrete noise induced by rotor-sta-tor interaction. The test rig for turbine acoustic measurement was designed,and the noise reduction performance was measured and analysed for these optimal design methods. The results show that the distinctive noise is con-trolled significantly by the adopted optimal design methods,the sound pressure level at every rotating harmonic frequency is decreased, and the maximum reduction is about 7dB at 3125Hz. In most 1/3 octive frequencies, the noise amplitude is lower for optimal turbine,and the maximum decrease is 2.1dB.%动静叶干涉是涡轮机气动噪声的主要来源之一.针对局部进气高速涡轮机,为了抑制由动静叶干涉引起的单音辐射噪声,提出了增大喷嘴的几何出气角、喷嘴下俯、喷嘴单侧修型和增大动静叶间距的流道优化设计方法以控制涡轮机内的流动状况进而降低噪声辐射,并设计了涡轮机气动噪声测试实验台,测量并分析了优化措施的降噪效果.结果表明,涡轮机流道优化设计方法有效抑制了单音辐射噪声,使各个转子谐频处的离散噪声均得到降低,并在3125Hz处实现了最高达7dB的降噪量;在大部分的三分之一倍频程内,优化设计的涡轮机噪声幅值低于原始设计的涡轮机,最大降噪量为2.1dB.

  3. Flow induced pulsations in pipe systems (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jan Cornelis


    The aeroacoustic behavior of a low Mach number, high Reynolds number flow through a pipe with closed side branches was investigated. Sound is generated by coherent structures of concentrated vorticity formed periodically in the separated flow in the T-shaped junctions of side branches and the main pipe. The case of moderate pulsation amplitudes was investigated. It appears that the vortical flow in a T-joint is an aeroacoustic source of constant strength when acoustic energy losses due to radiation and friction are small but not negligible. When acoustic energy losses due to radiation and friction are negligible, the nonlinear character of vortex damping is the amplitude limiting mechanism. It is stressed that aeroacoustic sources should not be neglected in studies of the response of a piping lay-out with flow to, e.g., the pulsating output of a compressor.

  4. Compressive sensing beamforming based on covariance for acoustic imaging with noisy measurements. (United States)

    Zhong, Siyang; Wei, Qingkai; Huang, Xun


    Compressive sensing, a newly emerging method from information technology, is applied to array beamforming and associated acoustic applications. A compressive sensing beamforming method (CSB-II) is developed based on sampling covariance matrix, assuming spatially sparse and incoherent signals, and then examined using both simulations and aeroacoustic measurements. The simulation results clearly show that the proposed CSB-II method is robust to sensing noise. In addition, aeroacoustic tests of a landing gear model demonstrate the good performance in terms of resolution and sidelobe rejection.

  5. Slat Noise Predictions Using Higher-Order Finite-Difference Methods on Overset Grids (United States)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin


    Computational aeroacoustic simulations using the structured overset grid approach and higher-order finite difference methods within the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) solver framework are presented for slat noise predictions. The simulations are part of a collaborative study comparing noise generation mechanisms between a conventional slat and a Krueger leading edge flap. Simulation results are compared with experimental data acquired during an aeroacoustic test in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility. Details of the structured overset grid, numerical discretization, and turbulence model are provided.

  6. Insights into Airframe Aerodynamics and Rotor-on-Wing Interactions from a 0.25-Scale Tiltrotor Wind Tunnel Model (United States)

    Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.


    A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.

  7. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent and 12-Lobed E(exp 3) Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction (United States)

    Salikuddin, M.; Babbit, R. R.; Shin, H.; Wisler, S.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)


    The research described in this report has been funded by NASA Glenn Research Center as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) initiative. The program operates under the Large Engine Technologies (LET) as Task Order #3 1. Task Order 31 is a three year research program divided into three subtasks. Subtask A develops the experimental acoustic and aerodynamic subsonic mixed flow exhaust system databases. Subtask B seeks to develop and assess CFD-based aero-acoustic methods for subsonic mixed flow exhaust systems. Subtask B relies on the data obtained from Subtask A to direct and calibrate the aero-acoustic methods development. Subtask C then seeks to utilize both the aero-acoustic data bases developed in Subtask A and the analytical methods developed in Subtask B to define improved subsonic mixed-flow exhaust systems. The mixed flow systems defined in Subtask C will be experimentally demonstrated for improved noise reduction in a scale model aero-acoustic test conducted similarly to the test performed in Subtask A. The overall object of this Task Order is to develop and demonstrate the technology to define a -3EPNdB exhaust system relative to 1992 exhaust system technology.

  8. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Hrgovan, Iva; Okulov, Valery


    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/refe...

  9. Noise control of a flow around a cylinder using high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Belyaev, I. V.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Kazansky, P. N.; Kopiev, V. A.; Moralev, I. A.


    The effect of high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on the noise of a flow around a circular cylinder is experimentally studied. It is shown that the plasma actuators are able to reduce the vortex noise of a cylinder within the range of velocities typical for aeroacoustic applications.

  10. The effects of viscosity on sound radiation near solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morfey, C.L.; Sorokin, Sergey; Gabard, G.


    Although the acoustic analogy developed by Lighthill, Curle, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings for sound generation by unsteady flow past solid surfaces is formally exact, it has become accepted practice in aeroacoustics to use an approximate version in which viscous quadrupoles are neglected. Here...

  11. Fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.


    Progress in developing fiber-optic interferometric sensors for aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels, performed under the NASA program, is reported. Preliminary results show that the fiber-optic interferometer sensor array is a powerful instrument for solving complex acoustic measurement problems in wind tunnels, which cannot be resolved with the conventional transducer technique.

  12. Achieving accurate and efficient prediction of HVAC diaphragm noise at realistic Reynolds and Mach numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilloud, G.; Schram, C.; Golliard, J.


    Despite the aeroacoustic expertise reached nowadays in air and ground transportation, energy sector or domestic appliances, reaching a decibel accuracy of an acoustic prediction for industrial cases is still challenging. Strong investments are made nowadays by oil and gas companies to determine and

  13. The 6th FDR prize (United States)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki


    From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas

  14. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics in aeronautics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, P G


    The field of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and hybrids is a vibrant research area. This book runs through all the potential unsteady modelling fidelity ranges, from low-order to LES. The latter is probably the highest fidelity for practical aerospace systems modelling. Cutting edge new frontiers are defined.  One example of a pressing environmental concern is noise. For the accurate prediction of this, unsteady modelling is needed. Hence computational aeroacoustics is explored. It is also emerging that there is a critical need for coupled simulations. Hence, this area is also considered and the tensions of utilizing such simulations with the already expensive LES.  This work has relevance to the general field of CFD and LES and to a wide variety of non-aerospace aerodynamic systems (e.g. cars, submarines, ships, electronics, buildings). Topics treated include unsteady flow techniques; LES and hybrids; general numerical methods; computational aeroacoustics; computational aeroelasticity; coupled simulations and...

  15. Prediction of Sound Waves Propagating Through a Nozzle Without/With a Shock Wave Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.


    The benchmark problems in Category 1 (Internal Propagation) of the third Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Work-shop sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center are solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. The first problem addresses the propagation of sound waves through a nearly choked transonic nozzle. The second one concerns shock-sound interaction in a supersonic nozzle. A quasi one-dimension CE/SE Euler solver for a nonuniform mesh is developed and employed to solve both problems. Numerical solutions are compared with the analytical solution for both problems. It is demonstrated that the CE/SE method is capable of solving aeroacoustic problems with/without shock waves in a simple way. Furthermore, the simple nonreflecting boundary condition used in the CE/SE method which is not based on the characteristic theory works very well.

  16. Simulation of the noise transmission through automotive door seals

    CERN Document Server

    Hazir, Andreas


    Andreas Hazir is investigating the door seal contribution to the interior noise level of production vehicles. These investigations contain experimental contribution analyses of real production vehicles and of academic test cases as well as the development of a simulation methodology for noise transmission through sealing systems and side windows. The simulations are realized by coupling transient computational aeroacoustics of the exterior flow to nonlinear finite element simulations of the structural transmission. By introducing a linear transmission model, the setup and computational costs of the seal noise transmission are significantly reduced, resulting in the feasibility of numerical contribution analyses of real production vehicles. Contents Contribution Analyses of Production Vehicles Acoustic Excitation versus Aeroacoustic Excitation Development of a Simulation Methodology Sensitivity Analysis of Noise Transmission Simulations Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of automotive engineer...

  17. 部分スパン数値流体解析結果を利用した柱状物体からの空力音推定法 : 推定手法の構築および実証実験


    大嶋, 拓也; 寺尾, 道仁; 関根, 秀久; Oshima, Takuya; Terao, Michihito; Sekine, Hidehisa


    Estimation technique of aerodynamic sound radiation from a cylindrical body using results of partial-span CFD computation is presented. The technique replaces the calculation of Curie equation in Lighthill-Curle computational aeroacoustics technique, and is based on Morse-Ingard's and Goldstein's theory and coherence model function. The validation of the model function and the technique through wind-tunnel experiment results 1) measured coherence between surface fluid forces on the body surfa...

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan


    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh


    Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoust...

  19. Effective Actuation: High Bandwidth Actuators and Actuator Scaling Laws (United States)


    piezo elements mounted on structural members and devices that exhibited aeroacoustic resonance. The former type of actuator ( piezo ) was considered...Raman and Kibens (Raman et al. 2000). These experiments involved high-frequency forcing applied to low-speed flows using wedge piezo actuators and... Subharmonic Interaction and Wall Influence," AIAA- 86-1047, May, 1986. Davis, S. A., 2000, "The manipulation of large and small flow structures in single and

  20. Optimisation multidisciplinaire de pales d'hélice d'avion


    Marinus, Benoît


    Open rotors are known to have significant advantages in terms of propulsive efficiency. These advantages translate directly in reduced fuel burn so that they nowadays benefit from a surge of interest. At the same time, recent advances in numerical simulations make the application of multidisciplinary optimization for the demanding design of transonic propeller blades, an affordable option. Therefore, an optimization method in which the performance objectives of aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and...

  1. High‐order numerical simulations of flow‐induced noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    In this paper, the flow/acoustics splitting method for predicting flow‐generated noise is further developed by introducing high‐order finite difference schemes. The splitting method consists of dividing the acoustic problem into a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part...... are used for the spatial discretizations. Applications and validations of the new acoustics solver are presented for benchmark aeroacoustic problems and for flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Wind Energy Department: Scientific and technical progress 1999-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. Theobjective is to develop methods for design;......-year period 1999-2000. Additional information on the department and its activities can be found on World Wide Web (WWW) on the address The department's web pages are constantly updated....

  3. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades



    This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA), the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pres...

  4. Turbomachinery Fluid Mechanics and Control (United States)


    ratio. Both the rotor and stator blade rows in an axial turbomachine diffuse their respective incoming flow fields. Therefore flow control both cases, but are much more efficiently investigated in the stator blade row. 3 The blade rows in axial turbomachines are most accurately...Aeroacoustics & Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines , Sept 7-11, 2003 Duke University, Burham, NC. 39 Gorrell, S.E., Okiishi, T., and Copenhaver

  5. Aero-Mechanical Coupling in a High-Speed Compressor (United States)


    noise over a wide range of turbomachine operating conditions. Furthermore, such a scaling simplifies data processing since the average blade...J. Sound and Vibration, 237(2). Belz, J. and Hennings, H. (2006). Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines , chapter...Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines . Springer. Gallego-Garrido, J., Dimitriadis, G., and Wright, J. (2007). A class of methods for the analysis of blade tip

  6. Numerical prediction of flow induced noise in free jets of high Mach numbers


    Schönrock, Olaf


    A direct aeroacoustic simulation methodology is developed on the basis of the numerical schemes implemented in the commercial tool ANSYS CFX. The focus lies upon the efficient and direct numerical prediction of the flow-induced noise generated by natural gas and pneumatic applications. The respective compressed gas related components are characterized by tiny supersonic gas jets, strong noise emissions, poor accessibility by measurement techniques and excessive simulation costs in particular...

  7. ONERA. 1997 scientific and technical activities; ONERA. Activites scientifiques et techniques 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillot, F.; Lupoglazoff, N.; Dupays, J.; Basset, Th.; Daniel, E. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France); Devincre, B.; Veyssiere, P.; Kubin, L.; Saada, G. [ONERA, CNRS,LEM (France); Hertl, M.; Dorval, N.; Jolly, J. [ONERA-CNRS, Laboratoire Plasmas Reactifs en Interactions avec les Materiaux (France); Thierry, G.; Guillen, Ph.; Prieur, J.; Lewy, S.; Nastasi, V.; Lerat, A.; Sides, J.; Gely, D.; Chanetz, B.; Pot, T.; Jacquin, L.; Geffroy, P.; Merienne, M.C.; Mebarki, Y.; Reijasse, P.; Corbel, B.; Reijasse, P.; Murer, Y.; Millan, P.; Pauzin, S.; Reulet, P.; Coustols, E.; Sauvage, Ph.; Bissieres, D.; Estivalezes, J.L.; Lavergne, G.; Casalis, G.; Troff, B.; Thivet, F.; Moschetta, J.M.; Deniau, H.; Grondin, G.; Grenon, R.; Bettschart, N.; Gardarein, P.; Moens, F.; Costes, M.; Gaveriaux, R.; Flodrops, J.P.; Paquet, J.B.; Leplat, M.; Sgarzi, O.; Zamuner, B.; Moreau, P.; Collin, G.; Magre, P.; Duterque, J.; Hommel, J.; Masson, C.; Forconi, H.; Fradin, C.; Roehle, I.; Hervat, P.; Soucail, M.; Octor, H.; Marty, M.; Dorvaux, J.M.; Lavigne, O.; Mevrel, R.; Poulain, M.; Lapasset, G.; Morel, A.; Naka, S.; Sanchez, C.; Thomas, M.; Krapez, J.C.; Lepoutre, F.; Balageas, D.; Chaboche, J.L.; Jung, O.; Deletombe, E.; Malherbe, B.; Ousset, Y.; Sudre, O.; Parlier, M.; Guichet, B.; Bretheau, T.; Kruch, S.; Vassel, A.; Boust, F.; Flavin, E.; Petot, D.; Rapin, M.; Morvan, A.; Lebihan, D.; Petitjean, B.; Leconte, P.; Grisval, J.P.; Sauvignet, C.; Johan, Z.; Loiseau, A.; Lesturgie, M.; Martineau, P.; Titin-Schnaider, C.; Vieillard, G.; Dreuillet, P.; Castelli, J.C.; Lacour, D.; Ferriere, X.; Bonnet, P.; Gobin, V.; Alliot, J.C.; Grisch, F.; Labrune, L.; Larigaldie, S.; Ory, M.; Lalande, P.; Bondiou-Clegerie, A.; Kayser, P.; Deyrac, F.; Le Traon, O.; Besson, C.; Serrot, G.; Bodilis, M.; Duffaut, J.; Conan, J.M.; Mugnier, L.; Michau, V.; Fusco, T.; Madec, P.Y.; Rousset, G.; Simoneau, P.; Barillot, Ph.; Dolfi, A.; Robineau, J.; Mugnier, L.; Cassaing, F.; Rousset, G.; and others


    The ONERA is the first French research office in the aerospace domain. This annual report summarizes the main research studies carried out by the different ONERA departments in 1997 in the domains of fluid mechanics and energetics (numerical simulation, aero-acoustics, aerodynamics, propellants, propulsion systems), materials and structures (metals and processes, solid mechanics, material testing, composite materials and systems, structure dynamics, microstructures), physics (space environment, electromagnetism and radars, physical measurements, optics), data processing and systems, and technical means. (J.S.)

  8. Calcul direct du rayonnement acoustique généré par une cavité cylindrique sous une aile d'avion



    Aerodynamically generated noise sources are multiple for an airplane. During the landing phase, airframe noise is the main source. At the instigation of Airbus, the project AEROCAV (Aeroacoustics of cavities) deals with the noise produced by cylindrical burst-disk cavities located under the wings. An intense tonal noise is emitted. Numerical simulations of the noise generated by these cylindrical cavities are performed to investigate the noise source mechanisms by using Direct Noise Computati...

  9. The development of technologies and devices for protection from noise generated by power equipment (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Yablonik, L. R.


    The main lines of currently conducted research and development activities on suppressing noise produced by power-generating equipment are presented. Matters related to preventing the occurrence of aeroacoustic self-excited vibrations, optimizing dissipative noise silencers, using structural methods for damping acoustic vibrations, suppressing low-frequency noise, and analyzing the effectiveness of soundproof coatings are considered. The process diagrams and parameters of devices for suppressing noise generated during discharge into the atmosphere of high-pressure gaseous media are discussed.

  10. Fast Scattering Code (FSC) User's Manual: Version 2 (United States)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Dun, M. H.; Pope, D. Stuart


    The Fast Scattering Code (version 2.0) is a computer program for predicting the three-dimensional scattered acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time-harmonic, incident sound with aerostructures in the presence of potential background flow. The FSC has been developed for use as an aeroacoustic analysis tool for assessing global effects on noise radiation and scattering caused by changes in configuration (geometry, component placement) and operating conditions (background flow, excitation frequency).

  11. On the Comparison of the Long Penetration Mode (LPM) Supersonic Counterflowing Jet to the Supersonic Screech Jet (United States)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Chang, Chau-Lyan.; Jones, Jess H.; Dougherty, N. Sam


    The authors provide a brief overview of the classic tonal screech noise problem created by underexpanded supersonic jets, briefly describing the fluid dynamic-acoustics feedback mechanism that has been long established as the basis for this well-known aeroacoustics problem. This is followed by a description of the Long Penetration Mode (LPM) supersonic underexpanded counterflowing jet phenomenon which has been demonstrated in several wind tunnel tests and modeled in several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The authors provide evidence from test and CFD analysis of LPM that indicates that acoustics feedback and fluid interaction seen in LPM are analogous to the aeroacoustics interactions seen in screech jets. Finally, the authors propose applying certain methodologies to LPM which have been developed and successfully demonstrated in the study of screech jets and mechanically induced excitation in fluid oscillators for decades. The authors conclude that the large body of work done on jet screech, other aeroacoustic phenomena, and fluid oscillators can have direct application to the study and applications of LPM counterflowing supersonic cold flow jets.

  12. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.


    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  13. A Comparative Study of a 1/4-Scale Gulfstream G550 Aircraft Nose Gear Model (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Liu, Fei; Yardibi, Tarik; Cattafesta, Louis; Van de Ven, Thomas


    A series of fluid dynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel experiments are performed at the University of Florida Aeroacoustic Flow Facility and the NASA-Langley Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel Facility on a high-fidelity -scale model of Gulfstream G550 aircraft nose gear. The primary objectives of this study are to obtain a comprehensive aeroacoustic dataset for a nose landing gear and to provide a clearer understanding of landing gear contributions to overall airframe noise of commercial aircraft during landing configurations. Data measurement and analysis consist of mean and fluctuating model surface pressure, noise source localization maps using a large-aperture microphone directional array, and the determination of far field noise level spectra using a linear array of free field microphones. A total of 24 test runs are performed, consisting of four model assembly configurations, each of which is subjected to three test section speeds, in two different test section orientations. The different model assembly configurations vary in complexity from a fully-dressed to a partially-dressed geometry. The two model orientations provide flyover and sideline views from the perspective of a phased acoustic array for noise source localization via beamforming. Results show that the torque arm section of the model exhibits the highest rms pressures for all model configurations, which is also evidenced in the sideline view noise source maps for the partially-dressed model geometries. Analysis of acoustic spectra data from the linear array microphones shows a slight decrease in sound pressure levels at mid to high frequencies for the partially-dressed cavity open model configuration. In addition, far field sound pressure level spectra scale approximately with the 6th power of velocity and do not exhibit traditional Strouhal number scaling behavior.

  14. Analysis and modeling of infrasound from a four-stage rocket launch. (United States)

    Blom, Philip; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen


    Infrasound from a four-stage sounding rocket was recorded by several arrays within 100 km of the launch pad. Propagation modeling methods have been applied to the known trajectory to predict infrasonic signals at the ground in order to identify what information might be obtained from such observations. There is good agreement between modeled and observed back azimuths, and predicted arrival times for motor ignition signals match those observed. The signal due to the high-altitude stage ignition is found to be low amplitude, despite predictions of weak attenuation. This lack of signal is possibly due to inefficient aeroacoustic coupling in the rarefied upper atmosphere.

  15. A 3-D discontinuous Galerkin Method for jet engine buzz-saw noise propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remaki, M.; Habashi, W.G. [McGill Univ., Computational Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:;; Ait-Ali-Yahia, D. [Pratt and Whitney Canada, CFD Group, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:; Jay, A. [Pratt and Whitney Canada, Dept. of Acoustics and Installation, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents a 3-D methodology for solving jet engine aero-acoustics problems in the presence of strong shocks and rarefactions. For example, turbofan engines suffer from Multiple Pure Tone noise, also called Buzz-saw noise, generated by the fan when the blade rotational tip speed is supersonic. These waves are composed of a series of shocks and rarefactions produced by a coalescence of shocks due to non-uniformities in the blade spacing and in the blade stagger angles, arising from manufacturing tolerances.

  16. On the simulation of industrial gas dynamic applications with the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method (United States)

    Hempert, F.; Hoffmann, M.; Iben, U.; Munz, C.-D.


    In the present investigation, we demonstrate the capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method for high order accuracy computation of gas dynamics. The internal flow field of a natural gas injector for bivalent combustion engines is investigated under its operating conditions. The simulations of the flow field and the aeroacoustic noise emissions were in a good agreement with the experimental data. We tested several shock-capturing techniques for the discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Based on the validated framework, we analyzed the development of the supersonic jets during different opening procedures of a compressed natural gas injector. The results suggest that a more gradual injector opening decreases the noise emission.

  17. Several rotor noise sources and treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    Noise has been a design consideration in the development of advanced blades and turbines at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. During atmospheric testing associated with these efforts various types of aeroacoustic noise have been encountered. This presentation discusses several of these noise sources and treatments used to mitigate or eliminate the noise. Tonal noise resulting from tip-vortex/trailing-edge interaction and laminar separation bubbles was found to be easily eliminated. Impulsive noise resulting from blade/vortex interaction for rotors that furl and that due to tower shadow can be mitigated by various means. (au)

  18. Wind energy department: Scientific and technical progress 1999 - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, G. [eds.


    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. The objective is to develop methods for design; test and siting of wind turbines; prediction of wind loads and wind resources as well as methods to determine the dispersion, transformation and effect of air pollution. The present report describes the organisation of the department and presents selected scientific highlights and results from the two-year period 1999-2000. (au)

  19. A method for obtaining a statistically stationary turbulent free shear flow (United States)

    Timson, Stephen F.; Lele, S. K.; Moser, R. D.


    The long-term goal of the current research is the study of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) as a tool for aeroacoustics. New algorithms and developments in computer hardware are making possible a new generation of tools for aeroacoustic predictions, which rely on the physics of the flow rather than empirical knowledge. LES, in conjunction with an acoustic analogy, holds the promise of predicting the statistics of noise radiated to the far-field of a turbulent flow. LES's predictive ability will be tested through extensive comparison of acoustic predictions based on a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and LES of the same flow, as well as a priori testing of DNS results. The method presented here is aimed at allowing simulation of a turbulent flow field that is both simple and amenable to acoustic predictions. A free shear flow is homogeneous in both the streamwise and spanwise directions and which is statistically stationary will be simulated using equations based on the Navier-Stokes equations with a small number of added terms. Studying a free shear flow eliminates the need to consider flow-surface interactions as an acoustic source. The homogeneous directions and the flow's statistically stationary nature greatly simplify the application of an acoustic analogy.

  20. Toward Establishing a Realistic Benchmark for Airframe Noise Research: Issues and Challenges (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    The availability of realistic benchmark configurations is essential to enable the validation of current Computational Aeroacoustic (CAA) methodologies and to further the development of new ideas and concepts that will foster the technologies of the next generation of CAA tools. The selection of a real-world configuration, the subsequent design and fabrication of an appropriate model for testing, and the acquisition of the necessarily comprehensive aeroacoustic data base are critical steps that demand great care and attention. In this paper, a brief account of the nose landing-gear configuration, being proposed jointly by NASA and the Gulfstream Aerospace Company as an airframe noise benchmark, is provided. The underlying thought processes and the resulting building block steps that were taken during the development of this benchmark case are given. Resolution of critical, yet conflicting issues is discussed - the desire to maintain geometric fidelity versus model modifications required to accommodate instrumentation; balancing model scale size versus Reynolds number effects; and time, cost, and facility availability versus important parameters like surface finish and installation effects. The decisions taken during the experimental phase of a study can significantly affect the ability of a CAA calculation to reproduce the prevalent flow conditions and associated measurements. For the nose landing gear, the most critical of such issues are highlighted and the compromises made to resolve them are discussed. The results of these compromises will be summarized by examining the positive attributes and shortcomings of this particular benchmark case.

  1. Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts via Simulations Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach (United States)

    Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    Unsteady computations are presented for a high-fidelity, 18% scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e. flap deflected at 39 degree and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW® to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. In addition to the baseline geometry, which was presented previously, various noise reduction concepts for the flap and main landing gear are simulated. In particular, care is taken to fully resolve the complex geometrical details associated with these concepts in order to capture the resulting intricate local flow field thus enabling accurate prediction of their acoustic behavior. To determine aeroacoustic performance, the farfield noise predicted with the concepts applied is compared to high-fidelity simulations of the untreated baseline configurations. To assess the accuracy of the computed results, the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic impact of the noise reduction concepts is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental results for the same model. The trends and effectiveness of the simulated noise reduction concepts compare well with measured values and demonstrate that the computational approach is capable of capturing the primary effects of the acoustic treatment on a full aircraft model.

  2. Subharmonic tonal noise from backflow vortices radiated by a low-speed ring fan in uniform inlet flow. (United States)

    Magne, Stéphan; Moreau, Stéphane; Berry, Alain


    In order to highlight the mechanisms responsible for subharmonic tonal noise, a complete aeroacoustic study of a ring fan in presence of a uniform inlet flow is conducted. Unsteady RANS simulations with a compressible flow solver are used to compute the flow field and identify the acoustic sources on the rotor. The tip clearance recirculation shows upstream vortices that impinge the rotor blades and create the main source of unsteadiness on the fan. Since these vortices rotate at a lower speed than the rotor, the frequency of the impact is lower than the blade passing frequency. The acoustic signature is computed by propagating the noise sources located on the rotor surfaces using two methods: A Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings analogy in the time-domain and an analytical model in the frequency-domain based on the compact rotating dipole formulation. A comparison with experimental results confirms that the aeroacoustic phenomena responsible for the subharmonic tonal noise are well captured and properly propagated by the acoustic codes.

  3. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu


    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  4. Prediction and Reduction of Aerodynamic Noise of the Multiblade Centrifugal Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Zhou


    Full Text Available An aerodynamic and aeroacoustic investigation of the multiblade centrifugal fan is proposed in this paper, and a hybrid technique of combining flow field calculation and acoustic analysis is applied to solve the aeroacoustic problem of multiblade centrifugal fan. The unsteady flow field of the multiblade centrifugal fan is predicted by solving the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with conventional computing techniques for fluid dynamics. The principal noise source induced is extracted from the calculation of the flow field by using acoustic principles, and the modeled sources on inner and outer surfaces of the volute are calculated with multiregional boundary element method (BEM. Through qualitative analysis, the sound pressure amplitude distribution of the multiblade centrifugal fan in near field is given and the sound pressure level (SPL spectrum diagram of monitoring points in far field is obtained. Based on the analysis results, the volute tongue structure is adjusted and then a low-noise design for the centrifugal fan is proposed. The comparison of noise tests shows the noise reduction of improved fan model is more obvious, which is in good agreement with the prediction using the hybrid techniques.

  5. Evaluation of the aero-optical properties of the SOFIA cavity by means of computional fluid dynamics and a super fast diagnostic camera (United States)

    Engfer, Christian; Pfüller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Lutz, Thorsten; Krämer, Ewald; Röser, Hans-Peter


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5 m reflecting telescope housed in an open cavity on board of a Boeing 747SP. During observations, the cavity is exposed to transonic flow conditions. The oncoming boundary layer evolves into a free shear layer being responsible for optical aberrations and for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic disturbances within the cavity. While the aero-acoustical excitation of an airborne telescope can be minimized by using passive flow control devices, the aero-optical properties of the flow are difficult to improve. Hence it is important to know how much the image seen through the SOFIA telescope is perturbed by so called seeing effects. Prior to the SOFIA science fights Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using URANS and DES methods were carried out to determine the flow field within and above the cavity and hence in the optical path in order to provide an assessment of the aero-optical properties under baseline conditions. In addition and for validation purposes, out of focus images have been taken during flight with a Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC). Depending on the binning factor and the sub-array size, the SFDC is able to take and to read out images at very high frame rates. The paper explains the numerical approach based on CFD to evaluate the aero-optical properties of SOFIA. The CFD data is then compared to the high speed images taken by the SFDC during flight.

  6. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [ALCOA Specialty Metals Division, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069 (United States)]. E-mail:; Connor, Jeffery [Material Science Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ridder, Stephen [Metallurgical Processing Group, NIST, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8556, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)


    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.


    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.

  8. Computational analysis of noise reduction devices in axial fans with stabilized finite element formulations (United States)

    Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Sheard, A. G.; Tezduyar, T. E.


    The paper illustrates how a computational fluid mechanic technique, based on stabilized finite element formulations, can be used in analysis of noise reduction devices in axial fans. Among the noise control alternatives, the study focuses on the use of end-plates fitted at the blade tips to control the leakage flow and the related aeroacoustic sources. The end-plate shape is configured to govern the momentum transfer to the swirling flow at the blade tip. This flow control mechanism has been found to have a positive link to the fan aeroacoustics. The complex physics of the swirling flow at the tip, developing under the influence of the end-plate, is governed by the rolling up of the jet-like leakage flow. The RANS modelling used in the computations is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin methods, supplemented with the DRDJ stabilization. Judicious determination of the stabilization parameters involved is also a part of our computational technique and is described for each component of the stabilized formulation. We describe the flow physics underlying the design of the noise control device and illustrate the aerodynamic performance. Then we investigate the numerical performance of the formulation by analysing the inner workings of the stabilization operators and of their interaction with the turbulence model.

  9. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction (United States)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)


    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  10. Prediction of Hydrodynamic Noise of Open Cavity Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Donghan; WANG Yu


    In this paper, the hydrodynamically generated noise by the flow over an open cavity is studied. First, aeroacoustic theories and computational aeroacoustic(CAA)methodologies are reviewed in light of hydrodynamic acoustics, based on which, a hybrid method is presented. In the coupling procedure, the unsteady cavity flow field is computed using large-eddy simulation(LES), while the radiated sound is calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H)acoustic analogy with acoustic source terms extracted from the time-dependent solutions of the unsteady flow. The hybrid LES-FW-H acoustic analogy method is tested with an open cavity flow at Mach number of 0.006 and Reynolds number of 105. Following the reflection theorem of Powell, the contributions from different source terms are quantified, and the terms involving wall-pressure fluctuations are found to account for most of the radiated intensity. The radiation field is investigated in the frequency domain. For the longitudinal direction, the sound propagates with a dominant radiation downstream the cavity in the near-field and a flatter directivity in the far-field, while for the spanwise direction, the acoustic waves have a similar propagation along +z and-z directions, with no visible directivity.

  11. Application of a Beamforming Technique to the Measurement of Airfoil Leading Edge Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geyer


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the use of microphone array technology and beamforming algorithms for the measurement and analysis of noise generated by the interaction of a turbulent flow with the leading edge of an airfoil. Experiments were performed using a setup in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel, where the turbulent inflow is provided by different grids. In order to exactly localize the aeroacoustic noise sources and, moreover, to separate airfoil leading edge noise from grid-generated noise, the selected deconvolution beamforming algorithm is extended to be used on a fully three-dimensional source region. The result of this extended beamforming are three-dimensional mappings of noise source locations. Besides acoustic measurements, the investigation of airfoil leading edge noise requires the measurement of parameters describing the incident turbulence, such as the intensity and a characteristic length scale or time scale. The method used for the determination of these parameters in the present study is explained in detail. To demonstrate the applicability of the extended beamforming algorithm and the experimental setup as a whole, the noise generated at the leading edge of airfoils made of porous materials was measured and compared to that generated at the leading edge of a common nonporous airfoil.

  12. Numerical simulation of tonal fan noise of computers and air conditioning systems (United States)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Gavrilyuk, V. N.; Timushev, S. F.


    Current approaches to fan noise simulation are mainly based on the Lighthill equation and socalled aeroacoustic analogy, which are also based on the transformed Lighthill equation, such as the wellknown FW-H equation or the Kirchhoff theorem. A disadvantage of such methods leading to significant modeling errors is associated with incorrect solution of the decomposition problem, i.e., separation of acoustic and vortex (pseudosound) modes in the area of the oscillation source. In this paper, we propose a method for tonal noise simulation based on the mesh solution of the Helmholtz equation for the Fourier transform of pressure perturbation with boundary conditions in the form of the complex impedance. A noise source is placed on the surface surrounding each fan rotor. The acoustic fan power is determined by the acoustic-vortex method, which ensures more accurate decomposition and determination of the pressure pulsation amplitudes in the near field of the fan.

  13. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, and recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research (United States)

    Hanson, C. E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.


    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  14. A Preliminary Axial Fan Design Method with the Considerat ion of Performance and Noise Characteristics (United States)

    Lee, Chan; Kil, Hyun Gwon


    Presented in this paper are a fan's aero-acoustic performance method and its computation procedure which combines aerodynamic flow field data, performances and noise levels of fan. The internal flow field and the performance of fan are analyzed by the through-flow modeling, inviscid pitch-averaged quasi-3D flow analysis combined with flow deviation and pressure loss distribution models. Based on the predicted internal flow field dada by the trough-flow modeling, fan noise is predicted by two models for the discrete frequency noise due to rotating steady aerodynamic thrust and blade interaction and for the broadband noise due to turbulent boundary layer and wake vortex shedding. The present predictions of the flow distribution, the performance and the noise level of fan are well agreed with actual test results.

  15. Experimental and numerical study on aerodynamic noise of outdoor unit of room air conditioner with different grilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie; Ouyang, Hua; Wu, Yadong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Shanghai Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)


    The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of outdoor unit with two different types of grille have been investigated in present study. Experimental results indicate that the grille sharp will affect the flow rate and increase broadband noise level of outdoor unit. Based on noise generation mechanism and CFD simulation, vortex shedding noise model and inlet turbulence noise model are adopted to predict the broadband noise level of outdoor unit. When vortex shedding noise is concerned, the wake parameters should be calculated at 3 mm downstream of grille to achieve good accuracy. Inlet turbulence noise is generated from the interaction between blade wake and the grille, and plays less important role in present outdoor unit configuration. In comparison with experimental results, it is shown that the broadband noise prediction method could provide reasonable accuracy and the error between prediction and experiment is less than 1 dBA. (author)

  16. Flow-induced cylinder noise formulated as a diffraction problem for low Mach numbers (United States)

    Gloerfelt, X.; Pérot, F.; Bailly, C.; Juvé, D.


    The role of surfaces in the mechanism of sound generation by low Mach number flows interacting with solid nonvibrating surfaces is well established by the classical aeroacoustic papers by Powell, Doak, Ffowcs Williams, Crighton, or Howe. It can be formulated as a problem of diffraction of the flow sources by the rigid body. The present study illustrates this statement in the case of flow-induced cylinder noise. Curle's formulation is analytically and numerically compared to a formulation based on an exact Green's function tailored to a cylindrical geometry. The surface integral of Curle's formulation represents exactly the diffraction effects by the rigid body. The direct and scattered parts of the sound field are studied. In this low Mach number configuration, the cylinder is compact, and the scattered (dipole) field dominates the direct (quadrupole) field. The classical properties of the scattering by a cylinder are retrieved by considering a point quadripole source near the cylinder surface.

  17. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation of Moist Air on Unsteady Behaviour of Shock Waves around a Circular Arc Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru MATSUO; Kenbu TERAMOTO; Ashraful ALAM; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI; Heuy Dong KIM; Shen YU


    The unsteady phenomena in the transonic flow around airfoils are observed in the flow field of fan, compressor blades and butterfly valves, and this often causes serious problems such as the aeroacoustic noise, the vibration. In the transonic or supersonic flow where vapour is contained in the main flow, the rapid expansion of the flow may give rise to a non-equilibrium condensation. However, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation on the transonic internal flows around the airfoil has not yet been clarified satisfactorily. In the present study, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation of moist air on the self-excited shock wave oscillation on a circular arc blade was investigated numerically. The results showed that in the case with non-equilibrium condensation, frequencies of the flow oscillation became smaller than those without the non-equilibrium condensation.

  18. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Techniques Developed for Measuring Gas Flow Velocity, Density, Temperature, and Turbulence (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.; Panda, Jayanta


    Nonintrusive optical point-wise measurement techniques utilizing the principles of molecular Rayleigh scattering have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain time-averaged information about gas velocity, density, temperature, and turbulence, or dynamic information about gas velocity and density in unseeded flows. These techniques enable measurements that are necessary for validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational aeroacoustic (CAA) codes. Dynamic measurements allow the calculation of power spectra for the various flow properties. This type of information is currently being used in jet noise studies, correlating sound pressure fluctuations with velocity and density fluctuations to determine noise sources in jets. These nonintrusive techniques are particularly useful in supersonic flows, where seeding the flow with particles is not an option, and where the environment is too harsh for hot-wire measurements.

  19. Response Analysis Of Payload Fairing Due To Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Cherian


    Full Text Available Abstract During flight missions launch vehicles are subjected to a severe dynamic pressure loading aero-acoustic and structure-borne excitations of various circumstances which can endanger the survivability of the payload and the vehicles electronic equipment and consequently the success of the mission. The purpose of the fairing is to protect the satellite from damage during launch until deployment in space. Both the structural and acoustic loads are significant during the first few minutes of a launch and have the potential to damage the payload. This paper describes the analysis of mechanical structure and the inner acoustic cavity of the payload fairing subjected to acoustic field. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of the fairing is analyzed using Statistical Energy Analysis SEA Model. The software VA One is used for the statistical energy analysis of launch vehicle payload fairing due to acoustic excitation.

  20. Accoustic aerials measure the sound. Akustische Antennen vermessen den Schall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, U. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Turbulenzforschung)


    In the frame of the co-operation with the French Air Travel Research Centre ONERA an aerial with a total of 161 microphones has been applied in September 1998 for measurements at flying heights above 100 metres. The plane microphone array of the DLR for an analysis of high frequencies was combined with the crucial array of ONERA for lower frequencies. The measurements provide information on the noise source and on already existing low-noise solutions. In order to abate efficiently the noise emission of identified sources additional investigations at models and original parts must be carried out in aero-acoustic wind channels. Investigations were realised upon co-ordination with the DLR Institute for Design Aerodynamics. (orig.)

  1. Review and analysis of the DNW/Model 360 rotor acoustic data base (United States)

    Zinner, R. A.; Boxwell, D. A.; Spencer, R. H.


    A comprehensive model rotor aeroacoustic data base was collected in a large anechoic wind tunnel in 1986. Twenty-six microphones were positioned around the azimuth to collect acoustic data for approximately 150 different test conditions. A dynamically scaled, blade-pressure-instrumented model of the forward rotor of the BH360 helicopter simultaneously provided blade pressures for correlation with the acoustic data. High-speed impulsive noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, low-frequency noise, and broadband noise were all captured in this extensive data base. Trends are presentes for each noise source, with important parametric variations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this data base and illustrate its potential for predictive code validation.

  2. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.


    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  3. Gust Acoustic Response of a Swept Rectilinear Cascade Using The Space-Time CE/SE Method (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Himansu, A.; Jorgenson, P. C.; Chang, S. C.


    The benchmark problem 3 in Category 3 of the third Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) Workshop sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem concerns the unsteady response of a rectilinear swept cascade to an incident gust. The acoustic field generated by the interaction of the gust with swept at plates in the cascade is computed by solving the 3D nonlinear Euler equations using the space-time CE/SE method. A parallel version of the 3D CE/SE Euler solver is employed to obtain numerical solutions for several sweep angles. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with the analytical solutions.

  4. Gust Acoustics Computation with a Space-Time CE/SE Parallel 3D Solver (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Himansu, A.; Chang, S. C.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)


    The benchmark Problem 2 in Category 3 of the Third Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) Workshop is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem concerns the unsteady response of an isolated finite-span swept flat-plate airfoil bounded by two parallel walls to an incident gust. The acoustic field generated by the interaction of the gust with the flat-plate airfoil is computed by solving the 3D (three-dimensional) Euler equations in the time domain using a parallel version of a 3D CE/SE solver. The effect of the gust orientation on the far-field directivity is studied. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with analytical solutions, showing a reasonable agreement.

  5. Some improvements to the model of discrete sound field nearby multi-propeller aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同庆; 李晓东; 周盛


    Improvements to the mathematical-physical model of discrete sound field of multi-propeller aircraft have been made by using aeroacoustic analogy method, which considers the effects of fuselage boundary as well as the interference process of the multiple propeller sound field. The calculated results illustrate the effects of fuselage on the propeller sound field, the ’beating noise’ phenomenon and the principle of noise control of synchrophaser system. The model for boundaries with arbitrary shapes can also be used to calculate the effects of rigid boundaries in other harmonic sound fields. Results for sound scattering of a rigid sphere in a planar harmonic wave calculated by using this model are satisfactorily coincident with those by the analytical method.

  6. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;


    , Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...... that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated...... with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model....

  7. Single velocity-component modeling of leading edge turbulence interaction noise. (United States)

    Gill, J; Zhang, X; Joseph, P


    A computational aeroacoustics approach is used to predict leading edge turbulence interaction noise for real airfoils. One-component (transverse), two-component (transverse and streamwise), and three-component (transverse, streamwise, and spanwise) synthesized turbulence disturbances are modeled instead of harmonic transverse gusts, to which previous computational studies of leading edge noise have often been confined. The effects of the inclusion of streamwise and spanwise disturbances on the noise are assessed. It is shown that accurate noise predictions can be made by modeling only transverse disturbances which reduces the computational expense of simulations. The accuracy of using only transverse disturbances is assessed for symmetric and cambered airfoils, and also for airfoils at non-zero angle of attack.

  8. Gen 2.0 Mixer/Ejector Nozzle Test at LSAF June 1995 to July 1996 (United States)

    Arney, L. D.; Sandquist, D. L.; Forsyth, D. W.; Lidstone, G. L.; Long-Davis, Mary Jo (Technical Monitor)


    Testing of the HSCT Generation 2.0 nozzle model hardware was conducted at the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility, LSAF. Concurrent measurements of noise and thrust were made at critical takeoff design conditions for a variety of mixer/ejector model hardware. Design variables such as suppressor area ratio, mixer area ratio, liner type and thickness, ejector length, lobe penetration, and mixer chute shape were tested. Parallel testing was conducted at G.E.'s Cell 41 acoustic free jet facility to augment the LSAF test. The results from the Gen 2.0 testing are being used to help shape the current nozzle baseline configuration and guide the efforts in the upcoming Generation 2.5 and 3.0 nozzle tests. The Gen 2.0 results have been included in the total airplane system studies conducted at MDC and Boeing to provide updated noise and thrust performance estimates.

  9. Acoustics and Thrust of Separate Flow Exhaust Nozzles With Mixing Devices Investigated for High Bypass Ratio Engines (United States)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.


    Typical installed separate-flow exhaust nozzle system. The jet noise from modern turbofan engines is a major contributor to the overall noise from commercial aircraft. Many of these engines use separate nozzles for exhausting core and fan streams. As a part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field led an experimental investigation using model-scale nozzles in Glenn s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The goal of the investigation was to develop technology for reducing the jet noise by 3 EPNdB. Teams of engineers from Glenn, the NASA Langley Research Center, Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Corporation, the Boeing Company, GE Aircraft Engines, Allison Engine Company, and Aero Systems Engineering contributed to the planning and implementation of the test.

  10. Effect of Moist Air on Transonic Internal Flow around a Plate (United States)

    Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    The unsteady phenomena in the transonic flow around airfoils are observed in the flow field of fan, compressor blades and butterfly valves, and this causes often serious problems such as the aeroacoustic noise and the vibration. In the transonic or supersonic flow where vapor is contained in the main flow, the rapid expansion of the flow may give rise to a non-equilibrium condensation. In the present study, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation of moist air on the shock induced flow field oscillation around a plate was investigated numerically. The results showed that in the case with non-equilibrium condensation, the flow field aerodynamic unsteadiness is reduced significantly compared with those without the non-equilibrium condensation.

  11. Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators finite elements for computational multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, Manfred


    Like the previous editions also the third edition of this book combines the detailed physical modeling of mechatronic systems and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element (FE) method. Thereby, the basic chapter concerning the Finite Element (FE) method is enhanced, provides now also a description of higher order finite elements (both for nodal and edge finite elements) and a detailed discussion of non-conforming mesh techniques. The author enhances and improves many discussions on principles and methods. In particular, more emphasis is put on the description of single fields by adding the flow field. Corresponding to these field, the book is augmented with the new chapter about coupled flow-structural mechanical systems. Thereby, the discussion of computational aeroacoustics is extended towards perturbation approaches, which allows a decomposition of flow and acoustic quantities within the flow region. Last but not least, applications are updated and restructured so that the book meets mode...

  12. 17th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Peltzer, Inken


    This volume contains the contributions to the 17th Symposium of STAB (German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association). STAB includes German scientists and engineers from universities, research establishments and industry doing research and project work in numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for aerospace but also for other applications. Many of the contributions collected in this book present results from national and European Community sponsored projects. This volume gives a broad overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany and spans a wide range of topics: airplane aerodynamics, multidisciplinary optimization and new configurations, hypersonic flows and aerothermodynamics, flow control (drag reduction and laminar flow control), rotorcraft aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and structural dynamics, numerical simulation, experimental simulation and test techniques, aeroacoustics as well as the new fields of biomedical flows, convective flows, aerodynamics and acoustics of high-s...

  13. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich


    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  14. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP neural network and genetic algorithm (GA, the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, stable operating range, and aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement was performed in outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The optimized blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade midspan and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at midspan. In addition, the measured spectrums show that the broadband noise of the impeller is dominant.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIU Jie; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhao-Hui


    This article presents the flow mechanism analysis and experimental study of a forward-skewed impeller and a radial impeller in low pressure axial fan. The forward-skewed blade was obtained by the optimization design of the radial blade and CFD technique. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade has demonstrated the improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, Stable Operating Range (SOR) and less aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement and computation were performed for outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The results show the forward-skewed blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade mid-span and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at mid-span.

  16. Development of the Compact Jet Engine Simulator from concept to useful test rig (United States)

    Hoedebecke, Blake Louis

    Two Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units were designed for integrated wind tunnel acoustic experiments involving a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) vehicle. To meet the 5.8% scale of the HWB model, Ultra Compact Combustor technology from the Air Force Research Laboratory was used. The CJES units were built and integrated with a control system in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. The combustor liners, plug--vane and flow conditioner components were built in-house at Langley Research Center. The operation of the CJES units was mapped and fixes found for combustor instability tones and rig flow noise. The original concept remained true, but the internal hardware evolved through out the process. The CJES units sucssfully completed the HWB validation test and can be used for acoustic testing or propulsion integration studies that require jet engines.

  17. The Analysis and Construction of Perfectly Matched Layers for the Linearized Euler Equations (United States)

    Hesthaven, J. S.


    We present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the absorption of acoustic waves. The split set of equations is shown to be only weakly well-posed, and ill-posed under small low order perturbations. This analysis provides the explanation for the stability problems associated with the split field formulation and illustrates why applying a filter has a stabilizing effect. Utilizing recent results obtained within the context of electromagnetics, we develop strongly well-posed absorbing layers for the linearized Euler equations. The schemes are shown to be perfectly absorbing independent of frequency and angle of incidence of the wave in the case of a non-convecting mean flow. In the general case of a convecting mean flow, a number of techniques is combined to obtain a absorbing layers exhibiting PML-like behavior. The efficacy of the proposed absorbing layers is illustrated though computation of benchmark problems in aero-acoustics.

  18. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander


    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  19. On the Simulation of Industrial Gas Dynamic Applications with the Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Hempert; M.Hoffmann; U.Iben; C.-D.Munz


    In the present investigation,we demonstrate the capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method for high order accuracy computation of gas dynamics.The internal flow field of a natural gas injector for bivalent combustion engines is investigated under its operating conditions.The simulations of the flow field and the aeroacoustic noise emissions were in a good agreement with the experimental data.We tested several shockcapturing techniques for the discontinuous Galerkin scheme.Based on the validated framework,we analyzed the development of the supersonic jets during different opening procedures of a compressed natural gas injector.The results suggest that a more gradual injector opening decreases the noise emission.

  20. A First Look at the DGEN380 Engine Acoustic Data from a Core-Noise Perspective (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.


    This work is a first look at acoustic data acquired in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory using the Price Induction DGEN380 small turbofan engine, with particular emphasis on broadband combustor (core) noise. Combustor noise is detected by using a two-signal source separation technique employing one engine-internal sensor and one semi-far-field microphone. Combustor noise is an important core-noise component and is likely to become a more prominent contributor to overall airport community noise due to turbofan design trends, expected aircraft configuration changes, and advances in fan-noise-mitigation techniques. This work was carried out under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Fixed Wing Project, Quiet Performance Subproject

  1. A combustion model for studying the effects of ideal gas properties on jet noise (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerin; Tinney, Charles


    A theoretical combustion model is developed to simulate the influence of ideal gas effects on various aeroacoustic parameters over a range of equivalence ratios. The motivation is to narrow the gap between laboratory and full-scale jet noise testing. The combustion model is used to model propane combustion in air and kerosene combustion in air. Gas properties from the combustion model are compared to real lab data acquired at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi as well as outputs from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Analysis code. Different jet properties are then studied over a range of equivalence ratios and pressure ratios for propane combustion in air, kerosene combustion in air and heated air. The findings reveal negligible differences between the three constituents where the density and sound speed ratios are concerned. Albeit, the area ratio required for perfectly expanded flow is shown to be more sensitive to gas properties, relative to changes in the temperature ratio.

  2. Viscous effects on the acoustics and stability of a shear layer over a non-rigid wall

    CERN Document Server

    Khamis, Doran


    The effect of viscosity and thermal conduction on the acoustics in a shear layer above an impedance wall is investigated numerically and asymptotically by solving the linearised compressible Navier-Stokes equations (LNSE). Viscothermal effects are found to be as important as shear, and therefore including only shear by solving the linearised Euler equations (LEE) is questionable. In particular, the damping rate of upstream propagating waves is found to be underpredicted by the LEE, and dramatically so in certain instances. The effects of viscosity on stability are also found to be important. Short wavelength disturbances are stabilised by viscosity, greatly altering the characteristic wavelength and maximum growth rate of instability. For the parameters considered here (chosen to be typical of aeroacoustic situations), the Reynolds number below which the flow stabilizes ranges from $10^5$ to $10^7$. By assuming a thin but nonzero-thickness boundary layer, asymptotic analysis leads to a system of boundary laye...

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Negative Impulsive Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToshiakiSETOGUCHI; ShenYU; 等


    A compression wave discharged from an open end of a tube causes positive impulsive noise,Active noise cancellation which is the cancelling of the noise by the addition of an inverse wave is a useful technique for reducing impulsive noise,The main objective of this study is to present the design for a negative impulsive wave generator utilizing unsteady mass influx.In this paper,in order to clarify the relationship between the unsteady mass influx and the negative impulsive wave,numerical and aeroacoustic analyses have been carried out using an unsteady expansion wave discharged from an open end of a shock tube.As a result,the effect of an unsteady expansion wave on a negative impulsive wave was charified.

  4. 5th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Werner; Peng, Shia-Hui; Schwamborn, Dieter


    This book gathers the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, which was held on March 19-21 in College Station, Texas, USA. The different chapters, written by leading experts, reports on the most recent developments in flow physics modelling, and gives a special emphasis to industrially relevant applications of hybrid RANS-LES methods and other turbulence-resolving modelling approaches. The book addresses academic researchers, graduate students, industrial engineers, as well as industrial R&D managers and consultants dealing with turbulence modelling, simulation and measurement, and with multidisciplinary applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), such as flow control, aero-acoustics, aero-elasticity and CFD-based multidisciplinary optimization. It discusses in particular advanced hybrid RANS-LES methods. Further topics include wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) methods, embedded LES, and a comparison of the LES methods with both hybrid RANS-LES and URANS methods. ...

  5. Analytic subject index to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectural acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other topics in acoustics.

  6. Analytic subject index to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the gen- eration and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectura] acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other tooics in acou.~tic.~.

  7. Numerical Predictions of Mode Reflections in an Open Circular Duct: Comparison with Theory (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Hixon, Ray


    The NASA Broadband Aeroacoustic Stator Simulation code was used to compute the acoustic field for higher-order modes in a circular duct geometry. To test the accuracy of the results computed by the code, the duct was terminated by an open end with an infinite flange or no flange. Both open end conditions have a theoretical solution that was used to compare with the computed results. Excellent comparison for reflection matrix values was achieved after suitable refinement of the grid at the open end. The study also revealed issues with the level of the mode amplitude introduced into the acoustic held from the source boundary and the amount of reflection that occurred at the source boundary when a general nonreflecting boundary condition was applied.

  8. Integrating CFD, CAA, and Experiments Towards Benchmark Datasets for Airframe Noise Problems (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Yamamoto, Kazuomi


    Airframe noise corresponds to the acoustic radiation due to turbulent flow in the vicinity of airframe components such as high-lift devices and landing gears. The combination of geometric complexity, high Reynolds number turbulence, multiple regions of separation, and a strong coupling with adjacent physical components makes the problem of airframe noise highly challenging. Since 2010, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has organized an ongoing series of workshops devoted to Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC). The BANC workshops are aimed at enabling a systematic progress in the understanding and high-fidelity predictions of airframe noise via collaborative investigations that integrate state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, and in depth, holistic, and multifacility measurements targeting a selected set of canonical yet realistic configurations. This paper provides a brief summary of the BANC effort, including its technical objectives, strategy, and selective outcomes thus far.

  9. Deconvolution for the localization of sound sources using a circular microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn


    During the last decade, the aeroacoustic community has examined various methods based on deconvolution to improve the visualization of acoustic fields scanned with planar sparse arrays of microphones. These methods assume that the beamforming map in an observation plane can be approximated...... by a convolution of the distribution of the actual sources and the beamformer's point-spread function, defined as the beamformer's response to a point source. By deconvolving the resulting map, the resolution is improved, and the side-lobes effect is reduced or even eliminated compared to conventional beamforming....... Even though these methods were originally designed for planar sparse arrays, in the present study, they are adapted to uniform circular arrays for mapping the sound over 360°. This geometry has the advantage that the beamforming output is practically independent of the focusing direction, meaning...

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Bionic Serrated Structures on the Aerodynamic Noise of a Circular Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shi; Chengchun Zhang; Jing Wang; Luquan Ren


    Flow control can effectively reduce the aerodynamic noise radiated from a circular cylinder.As one of the flow control methods,a bionic method,inspired by the serrations at the leading edge of owls' wing,was proposed in this paper.The effects of bionic serrated structures arranged on the upper and lower sides of a cylinder on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the cylinder were numerically investigated.At a free stream speed of 24.5 m·s-1,corresponding to Reynolds number of 1.58 × 104,the simulation results indicate that the bionic serrated structures can decrease the frequency of the vortex shedding and control the fluctuating aerodynamic force acting on the cylinder,thus reduce the aerodynamic noise.A qualitative-view of the vorticity in the wake of the cylinder suggest that the serrated structures reduce aerodynamic sound by suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices.

  11. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts (United States)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  12. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  13. Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays (United States)

    Alstrom, Robert Bruce

    Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.

  14. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)


    The tilt rotor aircraft holds great promise for improving air travel in the future. It's benefits include vertical take off and landing combined with airspeeds comparable to propeller driven aircraft. However, the noise from a tilt rotor during approach to a landing is potentially a significant barrier to widespread acceptance of these aircraft. This approach noise is primarily caused by Blade Vortex Interactions (BVI), which are created when the blade passes near or through the vortex trailed by preceding blades. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test will measure the noise from a tilt rotor during descent conditions and demonstrate several possible techniques to reduce the noise. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test at NASA Ames Research Center will measure acoustics and performance for a full-scale XV-15 rotor. A single XV-15 rotor will be mounted on the Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test will be conducted in helicopter mode with forward flight speeds up to 100 knots and tip path plane angles up to +/- 15 degrees. These operating conditions correspond to a wide range of tilt rotor descent and transition to forward flight cases. Rotor performance measurements will be made with the RTA rotor balance, while acoustic measurements will be made using an acoustic traverse and four fixed microphones. The acoustic traverse will provide limited directionality measurements on the advancing side of the rotor, where BVI noise is expected to be the highest. Baseline acoustics and performance measurements for the three-bladed rotor will be obtained over the entire test envelope. Acoustic measurements will also be obtained for correlation with the XV-15 aircraft Inflight Rotor Aeroacoustic Program (IRAP) recently conducted by Ames. Several techniques will be studied in an attempt to reduce the highest measured BVI noise conditions. The first of these techniques will use sub-wings mounted on the blade tips. These subwings are expected to alter the size

  15. Computation of Gust-Cascade Interaction Using the CE/SE Method (United States)

    Wang, X.-Y.; Himansu, A.; Chang, S.-C.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.


    The problem 2 in Category 3 of the 4th Computational Aeroacoustic(CAA) Workshop is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem models rotor-stator interaction in a 2D cascade. It involves complex geometries and flow physics including vortex shedding and acoustic radiation. The parallel version of the 2D nonlinear Euler solver is used with an unstructured triangular mesh to solve this problem. The Giles approach is incorporated with the CE/SE method to handle non-equal pitches of the rotor and stator. Validation on the Giles approach is performed using Problem 3.1 in the 2nd CAA Workshop. The space-time CE/SE method is a finite volume method with second-order accuracy in both space and time. The flux conservation is enforced in both space and time instead of space only. It has low numerical dissipation and dispersion errors. It uses simple non-reflecting boundary conditions and is compatible with unstructured meshes. It is simple, flexible, and generate reasonably accurate solutions. The CE/SE method has been successfully applied to solve numerous practical problems, especially aeroacoustic problems. Some preliminary numerical results of the benchmark problem 3.2 of the 4th CAA Workshop are shown. The steady-state pressure contour is plotted. The mean pressure distribution on the blade surface is compared with Turbo solution showing a good agreement. The sound pressure level versus the rotor harmonic n at the six designated positions on the blade surface, three locations at inlet plane, and three locations at the outlet plane are plotted. It can be seen that the acoustic response exists only at the excitation frequencies (n = 1,2,3). On the blade surface, the acoustic wave at n = 1 is dominant, while at the inlet and outlet planes, the sound pressure level at n = 2 becomes the largest, which is similar to the results presented. The distribution of sound pressure level at different spatial modes along the z

  16. Establishing Consensus Turbulence Statistics for Hot Subsonic Jets (United States)

    Bridges, James; Werner, Mark P.


    Many tasks in fluids engineering require knowledge of the turbulence in jets. There is a strong, although fragmented, literature base for low order statistics, such as jet spread and other meanvelocity field characteristics. Some sources, particularly for low speed cold jets, also provide turbulence intensities that are required for validating Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. There are far fewer sources for jet spectra and for space-time correlations of turbulent velocity required for aeroacoustics applications, although there have been many singular publications with various unique statistics, such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, designed to uncover an underlying low-order dynamical description of turbulent jet flow. As the complexity of the statistic increases, the number of flows for which the data has been categorized and assembled decreases, making it difficult to systematically validate prediction codes that require high-level statistics over a broad range of jet flow conditions. For several years, researchers at NASA have worked on developing and validating jet noise prediction codes. One such class of codes, loosely called CFD-based or statistical methods, uses RANS CFD to predict jet mean and turbulent intensities in velocity and temperature. These flow quantities serve as the input to the acoustic source models and flow-sound interaction calculations that yield predictions of far-field jet noise. To develop this capability, a catalog of turbulent jet flows has been created with statistics ranging from mean velocity to space-time correlations of Reynolds stresses. The present document aims to document this catalog and to assess the accuracies of the data, e.g. establish uncertainties for the data. This paper covers the following five tasks: Document acquisition and processing procedures used to create the particle image velocimetry (PIV) datasets. Compare PIV data with hotwire and laser Doppler

  17. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill


    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  18. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.


    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  19. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.


    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  20. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.


    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  1. Computation of Aerodynamic Noise Radiated from Ducted Tail Rotor Using Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Ma


    Full Text Available A detailed aerodynamic performance of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD technique. The general governing equations of turbulent flow around ducted tail rotor are given and directly solved by using finite volume discretization and Runge-Kutta time integration. The calculations of the lift characteristics of the ducted tail rotor can be obtained. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combining computational aeroacoustic with boundary element method (BEM has been proposed. The computational steps include the following: firstly, the unsteady flow around rotor is calculated using the CFD method to get the noise source information; secondly, the radiate sound pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy Curle equation in the frequency domain; lastly, the scattering effect of the duct wall on the propagation of the sound wave is presented using an acoustic thin-body BEM. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels are compared with the known technique for validation. The sound pressure directivity and scattering effect are shown to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method.

  2. Landing Gear Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using Building-Cube Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sasaki


    Full Text Available Landing gear noise prediction method is developed using Building-Cube Method (BCM. The BCM is a multiblock-structured Cartesian mesh flow solver, which aims to enable practical large-scale computation. The computational domain is composed of assemblage of various sizes of building blocks where small blocks are used to capture flow features in detail. Because of Cartesian-based mesh, easy and fast mesh generation for complicated geometries is achieved. The airframe noise is predicted through the coupling of incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver and the aeroacoustic analogy-based Curle’s equation. In this paper, Curle’s equation in noncompact form is introduced to predict the acoustic sound from an object in flow. This approach is applied to JAXA Landing gear Evaluation Geometry model to investigate the influence of the detail components to flows and aerodynamic noises. The position of torque link and the wheel cap geometry are changed to discuss the influence. The present method showed good agreement with the preceding experimental result and proved that difference of the complicated components to far field noise was estimated. The result also shows that the torque link position highly affects the flow acceleration at the axle region between two wheels, which causes the change in SPL at observation point.

  3. Application of Fast Multipole Methods to the NASA Fast Scattering Code (United States)

    Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.


    The NASA Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a versatile noise prediction program designed to conduct aeroacoustic noise reduction studies. The equivalent source method is used to solve an exterior Helmholtz boundary value problem with an impedance type boundary condition. The solution process in FSC v2.0 requires direct manipulation of a large, dense system of linear equations, limiting the applicability of the code to small scales and/or moderate excitation frequencies. Recent advances in the use of Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) for solving scattering problems, coupled with sparse linear algebra techniques, suggest that a substantial reduction in computer resource utilization over conventional solution approaches can be obtained. Implementation of the single level FMM (SLFMM) and a variant of the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) into the FSC is discussed in this paper. The culmination of this effort, FSC v3.0, was used to generate solutions for three configurations of interest. Benchmarking against previously obtained simulations indicate that a twenty-fold reduction in computational memory and up to a four-fold reduction in computer time have been achieved on a single processor.

  4. The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction (United States)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.


    Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  5. Assessment of Soft Vane and Metal Foam Engine Noise Reduction Concepts (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hughes, Chris


    Two innovative fan-noise reduction concepts developed by NASA are presented - soft vanes and over-the-rotor metal foam liners. Design methodologies are described for each concept. Soft vanes are outlet guide vanes with internal, resonant chambers that communicate with the exterior aeroacoustic environment via a porous surface. They provide acoustic absorption via viscous losses generated by interaction of unsteady flows with the internal solid structure. Over-the-rotor metal foam liners installed at or near the fan rotor axial plane provide rotor noise absorption. Both concepts also provide pressure-release surfaces that potentially inhibit noise generation. Several configurations for both concepts are evaluated with a normal incidence tube, and the results are used to guide designs for implementation in two NASA fan rigs. For soft vanes, approximately 1 to 2 dB of broadband inlet and aft-radiated fan noise reduction is achieved. For over-the-rotor metal foam liners, up to 3 dB of fan noise reduction is measured in the low-speed fan rig, but minimal reduction is measured in the high-speed fan rig. These metal foam liner results are compared with a static engine test, in which inlet sound power level reductions up to 5 dB were measured. Brief plans for further development are also provided.

  6. Flow-Structure-Acoustic Interaction Computational Modeling of Voice Production inside an Entire Airway (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian


    Human voice quality is directly determined by the interplay of dynamic behavior of glottal flow, vibratory characteristics of VFs and acoustic characteristics of upper airway. These multiphysics constituents are tightly coupled together and precisely coordinate to produce understandable sound. Despite many years' research effort, the direct relationships among the detailed flow features, VF vibration and aeroacoustics still remains elusive. This study utilizes a first-principle based, flow-structure-acoustics interaction computational modeling approach to study the process of voice production inside an entire human airway. In the current approach, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the glottal flow; A finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the vocal vibration; A high-order immersed boundary method based acoustics solver is utilized to directly compute sound. These three solvers are fully coupled to mimic the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. The geometry of airway is reconstructed based on the in-vivo MRI measurement reported by Story et al. (1995) and a three-layer continuum based vocal fold model is taken from Titze and Talkin (1979). Results from these simulations will be presented and further analyzed to get new insight into the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study is expected to improve the understanding of fundamental physical mechanism of voice production and to help to build direct cause-effect relationship between biomechanics and voice sound.

  7. Capturing coherent structures and turbulent interfaces in wake flows by means of the Organised Eddy Simulation, OES and by Tomo-PIV (United States)

    Deri, E.; Ouvrard, H.; Braza, M.; Hunt, J.; Hoarau, Y.; Cazin, S.; Cid, E.; Harran, G.


    The present study aims at a physical analysis of the coherent and chaotic vortex dynamics in the near wake around a flat plate at incidence, to provide new elements in respect of the flow physics turbulence modelling for high-Reynolds number flows around bodies. This constitutes nowadays a challenge in the aeronautics design. A special attention is paid to capture the thin shear layer interfaces downstream of the separation, responsible for aeroacoustics phenomena related to noise reduction and directly linked to an accurate prediction of the aerodynamic forces. The experimental investigation is carried out by means of tomographic PIV. The interaction of the most energetic coherent structures with the random turbulence is discussed. Furthermore, the POD analysis allowed evaluation of 3D phase averaged dynamics as well as the influence of higher modes associated with the finer-scale turbulence. The numerical study by means of the Organised Eddy Simulation, OES approach ensured a reduced turbulence diffusion that allowed development of the von Karman instability and of capturing of the thin shear-layer interfaces, by using appropriate criteria based on vorticity and dissipation rate of kinetic energy. A comparison between the experiments and the simulations concerning the coherent vortex pattern is carried out.

  8. Experimental study of the aerodynamic noise radiated by cylinders with different cross-sections and yaw angles (United States)

    Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Smith, M. G.


    Vortex shedding from cylinders has been extensively studied due to its occurrence in many engineering fields. Many experimental studies reported in the literature focus on the aerodynamics of the vortex shedding process but the literature about the radiated noise is more scarce. The aim of the work presented here is to extend the available noise data. Aero-acoustic wind tunnel tests were carried out using cylinders with different cross-sections: circular, square, rectangular and elliptical. Flow speeds between 20 and 50 m/s were used, corresponding to Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.6×104 to 1.2×105. The dependence of the noise on the yaw angle, flow speed, cross-sectional shape, angle of attack and radiation angle (directivity) is assessed. The results obtained are compared, where possible, with those found in the literature for similar cases. It is intended that the results can be used for the validation and calibration of numerical and empirical aerodynamic noise prediction models.

  9. Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction (United States)

    Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes


    The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.

  10. Optimised prefactored compact schemes for linear wave propagation phenomena (United States)

    Rona, A.; Spisso, I.; Hall, E.; Bernardini, M.; Pirozzoli, S.


    A family of space- and time-optimised prefactored compact schemes are developed that minimise the computational cost for given levels of numerical error in wave propagation phenomena, with special reference to aerodynamic sound. This work extends the approach of Pirozzoli [1] to the MacCormack type prefactored compact high-order schemes developed by Hixon [2], in which their shorter Padé stencil from the prefactorisation leads to a simpler enforcement of numerical boundary conditions. An explicit low-storage multi-step Runge-Kutta integration advances the states in time. Theoretical predictions for spatial and temporal error bounds are derived for the cost-optimised schemes and compared against benchmark schemes of current use in computational aeroacoustic applications in terms of computational cost for a given relative numerical error value. One- and two-dimensional test cases are presented to examine the effectiveness of the cost-optimised schemes for practical flow computations. An effectiveness up to about 50% higher than the standard schemes is verified for the linear one-dimensional advection solver, which is a popular baseline solver kernel for computational physics problems. A substantial error reduction for a given cost is also obtained in the more complex case of a two-dimensional acoustic pulse propagation, provided the optimised schemes are made to operate close to their nominal design points.

  11. Calculation of the Acoustic Spectrum of a Cylindrical Vortex in Viscous Heat-Conducting Gas Based on the Navier–Stokes Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Petrova


    Full Text Available An extremely interesting problem in aero-hydrodynamics is the sound radiation of a single vortical structure. Currently, this type of problem is mainly considered for an incompressible medium. In this paper a method was developed to take into account the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gas. The acoustic radiation frequency of a cylindrical vortex on a flat wall in viscous heat-conducting gas (air has been investigated. The problem is solved on the basis of the Navier–Stokes equations using the small initial vorticity approach. The power expansion of unknown functions in a series with a small parameter (vorticity is used. It is shown that there are high-frequency oscillations modulated by a low-frequency signal. The value of the high frequency remains constant for a long period of time. Thus the high frequency can be considered a natural frequency of the vortex radiation. The value of the natural frequency depends only on the initial radius of the cylindrical vortex, and does not depend on the intensity of the initial vorticity. As expected from physical considerations, the natural frequency decreases exponentially as the initial radius of the cylinder increases. Furthermore, the natural frequency differs from that of the oscillations inside the initial cylinder and in the outer domain. The results of the paper may be of interest for aeroacoustics and tornado modeling.

  12. Aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchová J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the general solution of aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester. Governing equations are presented in form of Lighthill acoustic analogy, as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation. This equation is based on conservation laws of fluid mechanics rather than on the wave equation. Thus, the FW-H equation is valid even if the integration surface is in nonlinear region. That’s why the FWH method is superior in aeroacoustics. The FW-H method is implemented in program Fluent and the numerical solution is acquired by Fluent code.The general solution of acoustic signal generated by lightning arrester is shown and the results in form of acoustic pressure and frequency spectrum are presented. The verification of accuracy was made by evaluation of Strouhal number. A comparison of Strouhal number for circumfluence of a cylinder and the lightning arrester was done, because the experimental data for cylinder case are known and these solids are supposed to be respectively in shape relation.

  13. Proper orthogonal decomposition-based spectral higher-order stochastic estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, Woutijn J., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Tinney, Charles E. [Center for Aeromechanics Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    A unique routine, capable of identifying both linear and higher-order coherence in multiple-input/output systems, is presented. The technique combines two well-established methods: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Higher-Order Spectra Analysis. The latter of these is based on known methods for characterizing nonlinear systems by way of Volterra series. In that, both linear and higher-order kernels are formed to quantify the spectral (nonlinear) transfer of energy between the system's input and output. This reduces essentially to spectral Linear Stochastic Estimation when only first-order terms are considered, and is therefore presented in the context of stochastic estimation as spectral Higher-Order Stochastic Estimation (HOSE). The trade-off to seeking higher-order transfer kernels is that the increased complexity restricts the analysis to single-input/output systems. Low-dimensional (POD-based) analysis techniques are inserted to alleviate this void as POD coefficients represent the dynamics of the spatial structures (modes) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. The mathematical framework behind this POD-based HOSE method is first described. The method is then tested in the context of jet aeroacoustics by modeling acoustically efficient large-scale instabilities as combinations of wave packets. The growth, saturation, and decay of these spatially convecting wave packets are shown to couple both linearly and nonlinearly in the near-field to produce waveforms that propagate acoustically to the far-field for different frequency combinations.

  14. Auralization of NASA N+2 Aircraft Concepts from System Noise Predictions (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russel H.


    Auralization of aircraft flyover noise provides an auditory experience that complements integrated metrics obtained from system noise predictions. Recent efforts have focused on auralization methods development, specifically the process by which source noise information obtained from semi-empirical models, computational aeroacoustic analyses, and wind tunnel and flight test data, are used for simulated flyover noise at a receiver on the ground. The primary focus of this work, however, is to develop full vehicle auralizations in order to explore the distinguishing features of NASA's N+2 aircraft vis-à-vis current fleet reference vehicles for single-aisle and large twin-aisle classes. Some features can be seen in metric time histories associated with aircraft noise certification, e.g., tone-corrected perceived noise level used in the calculation of effective perceived noise level. Other features can be observed in sound quality metrics, e.g., loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation strength and tone-to-noise ratio. A psychoacoustic annoyance model is employed to establish the relationship between sound quality metrics and noise certification metrics. Finally, the auralizations will serve as the basis for a separate psychoacoustic study aimed at assessing how well aircraft noise certification metrics predict human annoyance for these advanced vehicle concepts.

  15. Validation of Methods to Predict Vibration of a Panel in the Near Field of a Hot Supersonic Rocket Plume (United States)

    Bremner, P. G.; Blelloch, P. A.; Hutchings, A.; Shah, P.; Streett, C. L.; Larsen, C. E.


    This paper describes the measurement and analysis of surface fluctuating pressure level (FPL) data and vibration data from a plume impingement aero-acoustic and vibration (PIAAV) test to validate NASA s physics-based modeling methods for prediction of panel vibration in the near field of a hot supersonic rocket plume. For this test - reported more fully in a companion paper by Osterholt & Knox at 26th Aerospace Testing Seminar, 2011 - the flexible panel was located 2.4 nozzle diameters from the plume centerline and 4.3 nozzle diameters downstream from the nozzle exit. The FPL loading is analyzed in terms of its auto spectrum, its cross spectrum, its spatial correlation parameters and its statistical properties. The panel vibration data is used to estimate the in-situ damping under plume FPL loading conditions and to validate both finite element analysis (FEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods for prediction of panel response. An assessment is also made of the effects of non-linearity in the panel elasticity.

  16. Prospects for Nonlinear Laser Diagnostics in the Jet Noise Laboratory (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Hart, Roger C.; Fletcher, mark T.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Henderson, Brenda S.


    Two experiments were conducted to test whether optical methods, which rely on laser beam coherence, would be viable for off-body flow measurement in high-density, compressible-flow wind tunnels. These tests measured the effects of large, unsteady density gradients on laser diagnostics like laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The first test was performed in the Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel (LSAWT) of NASA Langley Research Center's Jet Noise Laboratory (JNL). This flow facility consists of a dual-stream jet engine simulator (with electric heat and propane burners) exhausting into a simulated flight stream, reaching Mach numbers up to 0.32. A laser beam transited the LSAWT flow field and was imaged with a high-speed gated camera to measure beam steering and transverse mode distortion. A second, independent test was performed on a smaller laboratory jet (Mach number < 1.2 and mass flow rate < 0.1 kg/sec). In this test, time-averaged LITA velocimetry and thermometry were performed at the jet exit plane, where the effect of unsteady density gradients is observed on the LITA signal. Both experiments show that LITA (and other diagnostics relying on beam overlap or coherence) faces significant hurdles in the high-density, compressible, and turbulent flow environments similar to those of the JNL.

  17. Development of Optophone with No Diaphragm and Application to Sound Measurement in Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Sonoda


    Full Text Available The optophone with no diaphragm, which can detect sound waves without disturbing flow of air and sound field, is presented as a novel sound measurement technique and the present status of development is reviewed in this paper. The method is principally based on the Fourier optics and the sound signal is obtained by detecting ultrasmall diffraction light generated from phase modulation by sounds. The principle and theory, which have been originally developed as a plasma diagnostic technique to measure electron density fluctuations in the nuclear fusion research, are briefly introduced. Based on the theoretical analysis, property and merits as a wave-optical sound detection are presented, and the fundamental experiments and results obtained so far are reviewed. It is shown that sounds from about 100 Hz to 100 kHz can be simultaneously detected by a visible laser beam, and the method is very useful to sound measurement in aeroacoustics. Finally, present main problems of the optophone for practical uses in sound and/or noise measurements and the image of technology expected in the future are shortly shown.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad jafari


    Full Text Available Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the fan were considered via solving the conservation of mass and momentum equations in their unsteady form. To validate the acoustic code, NACA 0012 airfoil was simulated in a two dimension domain and the emitted noise was calculated for Re=2×105. Good agreement between numerical and experimental results was observed by applying FW-H equations for predicting noise of the fan. To validate the simulated aerodynamic results, a Bladeless fan with a 60cm diameter was constructed and experimentally tested. In addition, the difference between the experimental and numerical results was acceptable for this fan. Moreover, the experimental results in the present study showed that this fan is capable to be designed and used for various industrial applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varapaev Vladimir Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available In the article, the authors present their findings generated at the laboratory of aerodynamic and aero-acoustic testing of structural units of MGSU. The authors provide information about the principle of operation and a brief description of the experimental test bed designated for the physical research of patterns of air flows arising inside building premises of various geometric shapes. The authors also demonstrate the basic parameters of the test bed, the principle of operation of its recording devices and some of its characteristics. The test bed is designated for the identification of characteristics of three-dimensional flows of models under research and for the verification of results of numerical studies. The measurement bed has advanced measurement and registration units. The management principle is based on the method of digital flow visualization, PIV method and Doppler flow meter implemented in the LDA anemometer. The test stand generates two or three component vector fields of turbulent gas flow velocities. It may be applicable to the study of liquids in case of research of hydraulics-related problems. Some results of the flow study are provided in the article, as well.

  20. Identification of Material Parameters for the Simulation of Acoustic Absorption of Fouled Sintered Fiber Felts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lippitz


    Full Text Available As a reaction to the increasing noise pollution, caused by the expansion of airports close to residential areas, porous trailing edges are investigated to reduce the aeroacoustic noise produced by flow around the airframe. Besides mechanical and acoustical investigations of porous materials, the fouling behavior of promising materials is an important aspect to estimate the performance in long-term use. For this study, two sintered fiber felts were selected for a long-term fouling experiment where the development of the flow resistivity and accumulation of dirt was observed. Based on 3D structural characterizations obtained from X-ray tomography of the initial materials, acoustic models (Biot and Johnson–Champoux–Allard in the frame of the transfer matrix method were applied to the sintered fiber felts. Flow resistivity measurements and the measurements of the absorption coefficient in an impedance tube are the basis for a fouling model for sintered fiber felts. The contribution will conclude with recommendations concerning the modeling of pollution processes of porous materials.

  1. Flow Field and Acoustic Predictions for Three-Stream Jets (United States)

    Simmons, Shaun Patrick; Henderson, Brenda S.; Khavaran, Abbas


    Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze a three-stream nozzle parametric design space. The study varied bypass-to-core area ratio, tertiary-to-core area ratio and jet operating conditions. The flowfield solutions from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code Overflow 2.2e were used to pre-screen experimental models for a future test in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Flowfield solutions were considered in conjunction with the jet-noise-prediction code JeNo to screen the design concepts. A two-stream versus three-stream computation based on equal mass flow rates showed a reduction in peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the three-stream jet relative to that for the two-stream jet which resulted in reduced acoustic emission. Additional three-stream solutions were analyzed for salient flowfield features expected to impact farfield noise. As tertiary power settings were increased there was a corresponding near nozzle increase in shear rate that resulted in an increase in high frequency noise and a reduction in peak TKE. As tertiary-to-core area ratio was increased the tertiary potential core elongated and the peak TKE was reduced. The most noticeable change occurred as secondary-to-core area ratio was increased thickening the secondary potential core, elongating the primary potential core and reducing peak TKE. As forward flight Mach number was increased the jet plume region decreased and reduced peak TKE.

  2. Serration Design Methodology for Wind Turbine Noise Reduction (United States)

    Mathew, J.; Singh, A.; Madsen, J.; Arce León, C.


    Trailing edge serrations are today an established method to reduce the aeroacoustic noise from wind turbine blades. In this paper, a brief introduction to the aerodynamic and acoustic design procedure used at LM Wind Power is given. Early field tests on serrations, retrofitted to the turbine blades, gave preliminary indication of their noise reduction potential. However, a multitude of challenges stand in the way of any proof of concept and a viable commercial product. LM undertook a methodical test and validation procedure to understand the impact of design parameters on serration performance, and quantify the uncertainties associated with the proposed designs. Aerodynamic and acoustic validation tests were carried out in number of wind tunnel facilities. Models were written to predict the aerodynamic, acoustic and structural performance of the serrations. LM serration designs have evolved over the period of time to address constraints imposed by aero performance, structural reliability, manufacturing and installation. The latest LM serration offering was tested in the field on three different wind turbines. A consistent noise reduction in excess of 1.5 dB was achieved in the field for all three turbines.

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.


    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  4. Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions (United States)

    Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.


    This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.

  5. HART-II Acoustic Predictions using a Coupled CFD/CSD Method (United States)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.


    This paper documents results to date from the Rotorcraft Acoustic Characterization and Mitigation activity under the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. The primary goal of this activity is to develop a NASA rotorcraft impulsive noise prediction capability which uses first principles fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. During this effort, elastic blade motion and co-processing capabilities have been included in a recent version of the computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). The CFD code is loosely coupled to computational structural dynamics (CSD) code using new interface codes. The CFD/CSD coupled solution is then used to compute impulsive noise on a plane under the rotor using the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. This code system is then applied to a range of cases from the Higher Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test II (HART-II) experiment. For all cases presented, the full experimental configuration (i.e., rotor and wind tunnel sting mount) are used in the coupled CFD/CSD solutions. Results show good correlation between measured and predicted loading and loading time derivative at the only measured radial station. A contributing factor for a typically seen loading mean-value offset between measured data and predictions data is examined. Impulsive noise predictions on the measured microphone plane under the rotor compare favorably with measured mid-frequency noise for all cases. Flow visualization of the BL and MN cases shows that vortex structures generated in the prediction method are consist with measurements. Future application of the prediction method is discussed.

  6. Simulation studies of a recorder in three dimensions. (United States)

    Giordano, N


    The aeroacoustics of a recorder are explored using a direct numerical simulation based on the Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions. The qualitative behavior is studied using spatial maps of the air pressure and velocity to give a detailed picture of jet dynamics and vortex shedding near the labium. In certain cases, subtle but perhaps important differences in the motion of the air jet near the edge of the channel as compared to the channel center are observed. These differences may be important when analyzing experimental visualizations of jet motion. The quantitative behavior is studied through analysis of the spectrum of the sound pressure outside the instrument. The effect of chamfers and of changes in the position of the labium relative to the channel on the tonal properties are explored and found to be especially important in the attack portion of the tone. Changes in the spectrum as a result of variations in the blowing speed are also investigated as well as the behavior of the spectrum when the dominant spectral component switches from the fundamental to the second harmonic mode of the resonator tube.

  7. Advances in Parallelization for Large Scale Oct-Tree Mesh Generation (United States)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Karman, Steve L.


    Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging problem. An automated method for the parallel generation of very large scale off-body hierarchical meshes is presented here. This work enables large scale parallel generation of off-body meshes by using a novel combination of parallel grid generation techniques and a hybrid "top down" and "bottom up" oct-tree method. Meshes are generated using hardware commonly found in parallel compute clusters. The capability to generate very large meshes is demonstrated by the generation of off-body meshes surrounding complex aerospace geometries. Results are shown including a one billion cell mesh generated around a Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle geometry, which was generated on 64 processors in under 45 minutes.

  8. Blind separation of incoherent and spatially disjoint sound sources (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Pereira, Antonio; Kellermann, Walter


    Blind separation of sound sources aims at reconstructing the individual sources which contribute to the overall radiation of an acoustical field. The challenge is to reach this goal using distant measurements when all sources are operating concurrently. The working assumption is usually that the sources of interest are incoherent - i.e. statistically orthogonal - so that their separation can be approached by decorrelating a set of simultaneous measurements, which amounts to diagonalizing the cross-spectral matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is traditionally used to this end. This paper reports two new findings in this context. First, a sufficient condition is established under which "virtual" sources returned by PCA coincide with true sources; it stipulates that the sources of interest should be not only incoherent but also spatially orthogonal. A particular case of this instance is met by spatially disjoint sources - i.e. with non-overlapping support sets. Second, based on this finding, a criterion that enforces both statistical and spatial orthogonality is proposed to blindly separate incoherent sound sources which radiate from disjoint domains. This criterion can be easily incorporated into acoustic imaging algorithms such as beamforming or acoustical holography to identify sound sources of different origins. The proposed methodology is validated on laboratory experiments. In particular, the separation of aeroacoustic sources is demonstrated in a wind tunnel.

  9. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  10. Computational study of a contoured plug-nozzle as a supersonic jet noise suppressor (United States)

    Khavaran, A.; Das, A. P.; Das, I.S.


    The report summarizes a computational jet noise study of an ideal contoured plug-nozzle (CPN). The gasdynamics of the jet flows have been predicted using the CFD code, NPARC with k-epsilon turbulence model; these data are then used as inputs to perform the noise computations based on the modified version of General Electric MGB code. The study covers a range of operating pressure ratio, 2.0 less than xi less than 5.0 (shockless flow at design pressure ratio, xi(d) = 3.62). The agreement of the computational aeroacoustics results with the available experimental data may be considered to be favorable. The computational results indicate consistent noise reduction effectiveness of the CPN at all operating pressure ratios. At the design pressure ratio (shockless), the codes predict overall sound pressure levels within +3.O dB of the experimental data. But at the off-design pressure ratios (flaws with shocks), the agreement is rather mixed. The theory overpredicts the OASPL's at all pressure ratios except at lower angles to the jet axis in overexpanded mode (xi less than xi(d)), the deviations being within 4.5 dB. The mechanism of shock formations in the CPN jet flows is noted to be basically different from those in the convergent-divergent nozzle jet flows.

  11. Counter Rotating Fans—An Aircraft Propulsion for the Future?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Schimming


    In the mid seventies a new propulsor for aircraft was designed and investigated-the so-called PROPFAN.With regard to the total pressure increase, it ranges between a conventional propeller and a turbofan with very high bypass ratio.This new propulsion system promised a reduction in fuel consumption of 15 to 25% compared to engines at that time. A lot of propfans (Hamilton Standard, USA) with different numbers of blades and blade shapes have been designed and tested in wind tunnels in order to find an optimum in efficiency, Fig. 1. Parallel to this development GE, USA, made a design of a counter rotating unducted propfan, the so-called UDF, Fig.2. A prototype engine was manufactured and investigated on an in-flight test bed mounted at the MD82 and the B727. Since that time there has not been any further development of propfans (except AN 70 with NK 90—engine, Ukraine, which is more or less a propeller design) due to relatively low fuel prices and technical obstacles. Only technical programs in different countries are still going on in order to prepare a data base for designing counter rotating fans in terms of aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and aeroelasticities.In DLR, Germany, a lot of experimental and numerical work has been undertaken to understand the physical behaviour of the unsteady flow in a counter rotating fan.

  12. Far-field noise and internal modes from a ducted propeller at simulated aircraft takeoff conditions (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.


    The ducted propeller offers structural and acoustic benefits typical of conventional turbofan engines while retaining much of the aeroacoustic benefits of the unducted propeller. A model Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The ADP model was designed and manufactured by the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and propeller axis angles-of-attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe which identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 5 dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane sector, which may relate to inlet duct geometry. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by propeller axis angle-of-attack at rotor speeds of at least 96 percent design.

  13. Initial Assessment of Acoustic Source Visibility with a 24-Element Microphone Array in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center (United States)

    Horne, William C.


    Measurements of background noise were recently obtained with a 24-element phased microphone array in the test section of the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by120-Foot Wind Tunnel at speeds of 50 to 100 knots (27.5 to 51.4 m/s). The array was mounted in an aerodynamic fairing positioned with array center 1.2m from the floor and 16 m from the tunnel centerline, The array plate was mounted flush with the fairing surface as well as recessed in. (1.27 cm) behind a porous Kevlar screen. Wind-off speaker measurements were also acquired every 15 on a 10 m semicircular arc to assess directional resolution of the array with various processing algorithms, and to estimate minimum detectable source strengths for future wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies. The dominant background noise of the facility is from the six drive fans downstream of the test section and first set of turning vanes. Directional array response and processing methods such as background-noise cross-spectral-matrix subtraction suggest that sources 10-15 dB weaker than the background can be detected.

  14. Modifications to the 4x7 meter tunnel for acoustic research: Engineering feasibility study (United States)


    The NASA-Langley Research Center 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel is currently being used for low speed aerodynamics, V/STOL aerodynamics and, to a limited extent, rotorcraft noise research. The deficiencies of this wind tunnel for both aerodynamics and aeroacoustics research have been recognized for some time. Modifications to the wind tunnel are being made to improve the test section flow quality and to update the model cart systems. A further modification of the 4 x 7 Meter Wind Tunnel to permit rotorcraft model acoustics research has been proposed. As a precursor to the design of the proposed modifications, NASA is conducted both in-house and contracted studies to define the acoustic environment within the wind tunnel and to provide recommendations or the reduction of the wind tunnel background noise to a level acceptable to acoustics researchers. One of these studies by an acoustics consultant, has produced the primary reference documents that define the wind tunnel noise sources and outline recommended solutions.

  15. On the acoustics of a circulation control airfoil (United States)

    Reger, R.; Nickels, A.; Ukeiley, L.; Cattafesta, L. N.


    A two-dimensional elliptical circulation control airfoil model is studied in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel. Far-field acoustics are obtained via a 55 microphone phased array. Single microphone spectra are also obtained, and it is shown that background noise is significant. In order to circumvent this problem, beamforming is employed. The primary sources of background noise are from the tunnel collector and jet/sidewall interaction. The deconvolution approach to mapping acoustic sources (DAMAS) is employed to remove the effects of the array point spread function. Spectra are acquired by integrating the DAMAS result over the source region. The resulting DAMAS spectral levels are significantly below single microphone levels. Although the DAMAS levels are reduced from those of a single microphone or delay and sum beamforming (DAS), they are still above those of a NACA 0012, estimated using NAFNoise, at the same geometric and free-stream conditions. A scaling analysis is performed on the processed array data. With a constant free-stream velocity and a varying jet velocity the data scale as jet Mach number to the 6th power. If the momentum coefficient is held constant and the free-stream velocity is varied the data scale as free-stream Mach number to the 7th power.

  16. Vortex Noise Reductions from a Flexible Fiber Model of Owl Down (United States)

    Jaworski, Justin; Peake, Nigel


    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. The down is presently idealized as a collection of independent and rigid fibers, which emerge perpendicularly from a rigid plane and are allowed to rotate under elastic restraint. Noise generation from an isolated fiber is effected by its interaction with a point vortex, whose motion is induced by the presence of the rigid half-plane and the elastically-restrained fiber. Numerical evaluations of the vortex path and acoustic signature furnish a comparison with known analytical results for stationary fibers, and results from this primitive model seek to address how aerodynamic noise could be mitigated by flexible fibers.

  17. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  18. Linearized Euler Equations for the Determination of Scattering Matrices for Orifice and Perforated Plate Configurations in the High Mach Number Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schulze


    Full Text Available The interaction of a plane acoustic wave and a sheared flow is numerically investigated for simple orifice and perforated plate configurations in an isolated, non-resonant environment for Mach numbers up to choked conditions in the holes. Analytical derivations found in the literature are not valid in this regime due to restrictions to low Mach numbers and incompressible conditions. To allow for a systematic and detailed parameter study, a low-cost hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamic/Computational Aeroacoustic (CFD/CAA methodology is used. For the CFD simulations, a standard k–ϵ Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model is employed, while the CAA simulations are based on frequency space transformed linearized Euler equations (LEE, which are discretized in a stabilized Finite Element method. Simulation times in the order of seconds per frequency allow for a detailed parameter study. From the application of the Multi Microphone Method together with the two-source location procedure, acoustic scattering matrices are calculated and compared to experimental findings showing very good agreement. The scattering properties are presented in the form of scattering matrices for a frequency range of 500–1500 Hz.

  19. The Structure and Noise Reduction Capacity of Owl Down (United States)

    Jaworski, Justin; Clark, Ian; Alexander, Nathan; Devenport, William; Daly, Conor; Peake, Nigel; Glegg, Stewart


    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. Photographic analysis of the owl down reveals a unique forest-like structure, whereby the down fibers rise straight up from the wing surface and then bend into the flow direction to form a porous canopy, with an open area fraction of approximately 70%. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the canopy feature reduces dramatically the turbulent pressure levels on the wing surface by up to 30dB, which affects the roughness noise characteristic of the down in a manner consistent with the theory of flows over and through vegetation. Mathematical models developed for the turbulence noise generation by the down fibers and for the mixing-layer instability above the porous canopy furnish a theoretical basis to understand the influence of the down geometric structure on its self-noise signature and noise suppression characteristics.

  20. Pointing and control system performance and improvement strategies for the SOFIA Airborne Telescope (United States)

    Graf, Friederike; Reinacher, Andreas; Jakob, Holger; Lampater, Ulrich; Pfueller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Fasoulas, Stefanos


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has already successfully conducted over 300 flights. In its early science phase, SOFIA's pointing requirements and especially the image jitter requirements of less than 1 arcsec rms have driven the design of the control system. Since the first observation flights, the image jitter has been gradually reduced by various control mechanisms. During smooth flight conditions, the current pointing and control system allows us to achieve the standards set for early science on SOFIA. However, the increasing demands on the image size require an image jitter of less than 0.4 arcsec rms during light turbulence to reach SOFIA's scientific goals. The major portion of the remaining image motion is caused by deformation and excitation of the telescope structure in a wide range of frequencies due to aircraft motion and aerodynamic and aeroacoustic effects. Therefore the so-called Flexible Body Compensation system (FBC) is used, a set of fixed-gain filters to counteract the structural bending and deformation. Thorough testing of the current system under various flight conditions has revealed a variety of opportunities for further improvements. The currently applied filters have solely been developed based on a FEM analysis. By implementing the inflight measurements in a simulation and optimization, an improved fixed-gain compensation method was identified. This paper will discuss promising results from various jitter measurements recorded with sampling frequencies of up to 400 Hz using the fast imaging tracking camera.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of broadband trailing edge noise from a NACA 0012 airfoil (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bodony, Daniel


    Commercial jet-powered aircraft produce unwanted noise at takeoff and landing when they are close to near-airport communities. Modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines have reduced jet exhaust noise sufficiently such that noise from the main fan is now significant. In preparation for a large-eddy simulation of the NASA/GE Source Diagnostic Test Fan, we study the broadband noise due to the turbulent flow on a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero degree angle-of-attack, a chord-based Reynolds number of 408,000 and a Mach number of 0.115 using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES). The flow conditions correspond to existing experimental data. We investigate the roughness-induced transition-to-turbulence and sound generation from a DNS perspective as well as examine how these two features are captured by a wall model. Comparisons between the DNS- and WMLES-predicted noise are made and provide guidance on the use of WMLES for broadband fan noise prediction. AeroAcoustics Research Consortium.

  2. Rotor-rotor interaction for counter-rotating fans. Part 1: Three-dimensional flowfield measurements (United States)

    Shin, Hyoun-Woo; Whitfield, Charlotte E.; Wisler, David C.


    The rotor wake/vortex flowfield generated in a scale model simulator of General Electric's counter-rotating unducted fan (UDF) engine was investigated using three-dimensional hot-wire anemometry. The purpose was to obtain a set of benchmark experimental aerodynamic data defining the rotor wake and vortex structure, particularly in the tip region, and to relate this observed flow structure to its acoustic signature. The tests were conducted in a large, freejet anechoic chamber. Measurements of the three components of velocity were made at axial stations upstream and downstream of each rotor for conditions that simulate takeoff, cutback, and approach power. Two different forward blade designs were evaluated. The tip vortices, the axial velocity defect in the vortex core, and differences in the interaction of the wakes and vortices generated by the forward and aft rotor are used to explain differences in noise generated by the two different rotor designs. Part 1 presents the three-dimensional flowfield measurements. Part 2 (aeroacoustic prediction and analysis), which will be presented later, will give an acoustic prediction using the measured data.

  3. Aerodynamic Noise Propagation Simulation using Immersed Boundary Method and Finite Volume Optimized Prefactored Compact Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LIU; Keqi WU


    Based on the immersed boundary method (IBM) and the finite volume optimized pre-factored compact (FVOPC) scheme, a numerical simulation of noise propagation inside and outside the casing of a cross flow fan is estab-lished. The unsteady linearized Euler equations are solved to directly simulate the aero-acoustic field. In order to validate the FVOPC scheme, a simulation case: one dimensional linear wave propagation problem is carried out using FVOPC scheme, DRP scheme and HOC scheme. The result of FVOPC is in good agreement with the ana-lytic solution and it is better than the results of DRP and HOC schemes, the FVOPC is less dispersion and dissi-pation than DRP and HOC schemes. Then, numerical simulation of noise propagation problems is performed. The noise field of 36 compact rotating noise sources is obtained with the rotating velocity of 1000r/min. The PML absorbing boundary condition is applied to the sound far field boundary condition for depressing the numerical reflection. Wall boundary condition is applied to the casing. The results show that there are reflections on the casing wall and sound wave interference in the field. The FVOPC with the IBM is suitable for noise propagation problems under the complex geometries for depressing the dispersion and dissipation, and also keeping the high order precision.

  4. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt


    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  5. Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.


    A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.

  6. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System (United States)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.


    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  7. Acoustic response modeling of energetics systems in confined spaces (United States)

    González, David R.; Hixon, Ray; Liou, William W.; Sanford, Matthew


    In recent times, warfighting has been taking place not in far-removed areas but within urban environments. As a consequence, the modern warfighter must adapt. Currently, an effort is underway to develop shoulder-mounted rocket launcher rounds suitable with reduced acoustic signatures for use in such environments. Of prime importance is to ensure that these acoustic levels, generated by propellant burning, reflections from enclosures, etc., are at tolerable levels without requiring excessive hearing protection. Presented below is a proof-of-concept approach aimed at developing a computational tool to aid in the design process. Unsteady, perfectly-expanded-jet simulations at two different Mach numbers and one at an elevated temperature ratio were conducted using an existing computational aeroacoustics code. From the solutions, sound pressure levels and frequency spectra were then obtained. The results were compared to sound pressure levels collected from a live-fire test of the weapon. Lastly, an outline of work that is to continue and be completed in the near future will be presented.

  8. A study on the multi-freedom broadband impedance model for time-domain simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; LI Xiaoyan


    The purpose of this paper is to construct a general broadband impedance model, which is suited for predicting acoustic propagation problems in time domain. A multi-freedom broadband impedance model for sound propagation over impedance surfaces is proposed and the corresponding time domain impedance boundary condition is presented. Basing on the extended Helmholtz resonator, the multi-freedom impedance model is constructed through combing with a sum of rational functions in the form of general complex-conjugate pole-residue pairs and it is proved that the impedance model is well posed. The impedance boundary condition can be implemented into a computational aeroacoustics solver by a rectlrsive convolution technique, which results in a fast and computationally efficient algorithm. The two dimensional and three dimensional benchmark problems are selected to validate the accuracy of the proposed impedance model and time domain simulations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the reference solutions. It is demonstrated that the proposed impedance model can be used to describe the broadband characteristics of acoustic liners, and the corresponding time domain impedance boundary condition is viable and accurate for the prediction of sound propagation over broadband impedance surfaces.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of a beveled trailing-edge flow field and noise emission (United States)

    van der Velden, W. C. P.; Pröbsting, S.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; de Jong, A. T.; Guan, Y.; Morris, S. C.


    Efficient tools and methodology for the prediction of trailing-edge noise experience substantial interest within the wind turbine industry. In recent years, the Lattice Boltzmann Method has received increased attention for providing such an efficient alternative for the numerical solution of complex flow problems. Based on the fully explicit, transient, compressible solution of the Lattice Boltzmann Equation in combination with a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawking aeroacoustic analogy, an estimation of the acoustic radiation in the far field is obtained. To validate this methodology for the prediction of trailing-edge noise, the flow around a flat plate with an asymmetric 25° beveled trailing edge and obtuse corner in a low Mach number flow is analyzed. Flow field dynamics are compared to data obtained experimentally from Particle Image Velocimetry and Hot Wire Anemometry, and compare favorably in terms of mean velocity field and turbulent fluctuations. Moreover, the characteristics of the unsteady surface pressure, which are closely related to the acoustic emission, show good agreement between simulation and experiment. Finally, the prediction of the radiated sound is compared to the results obtained from acoustic phased array measurements in combination with a beamforming methodology. Vortex shedding results in a strong narrowband component centered at a constant Strouhal number in the acoustic spectrum. At higher frequency, a good agreement between simulation and experiment for the broadband noise component is obtained and a typical cardioid-like directivity is recovered.

  10. Optimal Design and Acoustic Assessment of Low-Vibration Rotor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini


    Full Text Available An optimal procedure for the design of rotor blade that generates low vibratory hub loads in nonaxial flow conditions is presented and applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight, a condition where vibrations and noise become severe. Blade shape and structural properties are the design parameters to be identified within a binary genetic optimization algorithm under aeroelastic stability constraint. The process exploits an aeroelastic solver that is based on a nonlinear, beam-like model, suited for the analysis of arbitrary curved-elastic-axis blades, with the introduction of a surrogate wake inflow model for the analysis of sectional aerodynamic loads. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to identify low vibratory hub loads rotor blades as well as to assess the robustness of solution at off-design operating conditions. Further, the aeroacoustic assessment of the rotor configurations determined is carried out in order to examine the impact of low-vibration blade design on the emitted noise field.

  11. Discharge of a shock Wave from an Open End of a Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HideoKashimura; HiroyasuNakayama; 等


    When a pressure wave propagates along a constant area straight tube and reaches at the open end,an impulsive wave is emitted outwared from the tube exit toward the surrounding area and causes an impulsive noise like a sonic oom.In order to clarify the magnitude of an impulsive wave obtainde by the discharge of a weak shock wave from an open end of a tube in relation to the noise problem and the industrial devices,the experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out for various strength of a shock wave.A simple open end shock tuby with the flange at the tube exit was used and the numerical calculation using the TVD scheme was performed.The effective equations which concerns with the magnitude of an impulsive wave generated by the emission of a shock wave have been obtained from the procedure of the open end correction based on the aeroacoustic theory and the numerical results.The influence of open end correction length and the diameter of a flange on the magnitude of an impulsive wave has been discussed.

  12. 风轮机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [篇名 ] 40kW pitch & flap type wind turbine generator system, [ 篇名 ] A design and performance prediction of shrouded wind turbine with brimmed-diffuser, [ 篇名 ] A framework for dynamic and aeroelastic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines, [篇名] A frequency domain approach to wind turbines for flicker analysis, [ 篇名 ] A hybrid power system with using alternative energy facilities in isolated island, [ 篇名 ] A neuro-fuzzy model for the control operation of a wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system, [ 篇名 ] A new maximum power point tracking control scheme for wind generation, [篇名] A new power stabilization control system based on making use of mechanical inertia of a variable-speed w ind-turbine for stand-alone wind-diesel applications, [篇名 ] A study of a wind farm power system, [ 篇名 ] A STUDY OF STRAIGHT WING VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE GENERATION SYSTEMS (A PEFORMANCE CALCULATION ABOUT STRAIGHT WING VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE), [篇名] Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Field Tests of an Operating Wind Turbine, [ 篇名 ] Acoustic emission monitoring of small wind turbine blades, [ 篇名 ] Aero-acoustic computations of wind turbines, [ 篇名 ] Aerodynamic Loads on a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotor Exerted by Turbulent Inflow.

  13. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang


    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  14. Time-resolved transglottal pressure measurements in a scaled up vocal fold model (United States)

    Ringenberg, Hunter; Krane, Michael; Rogers, Dylan; Misfeldt, Mitchel; Wei, Timothy


    Experimental measurements of flow through a scaled up dynamic human vocal fold model are presented. The simplified 10x scale vocal fold model from Krane, et al. (2007) was used to examine fundamental features of vocal fold oscillatory motion. Of particular interest was the temporal variation of transglottal pressure multiplied by the volume flow rate through the glottis throughout an oscillation cycle. Experiments were dynamically scaled to examine a range of frequencies, 100 - 200 Hz, corresponding to the male and female voice. By using water as the working fluid, very high resolution, both spatial and temporal resolution, was achieved. Time resolved movies of flow through symmetrically oscillating vocal folds will be presented. Both individual realizations as well as phase-averaged data will be shown. Key features, such as randomness and development time of the Coanda effect, vortex shedding, and volume flow rate data have been presented in previous APS-DFD meetings. This talk will focus more on the relation between the flow and aeroacoustics associated with vocal fold oscillations. Supported by the NIH.

  15. Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.


    Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.


    Howe, M S; McGowan, R S


    An analysis is made of the sound generated by the time-dependent throttling of a nominally steady stream of air through a small orifice into a flow-through resonant cavity. This is exemplified by the production of voiced speech, where air from the lungs enters the vocal tract through the glottis at a time variable volume flow rate Q(t) controlled by oscillations of the glottis cross-section. Voicing theory has hitherto determined Q from a heuristic, reduced complexity 'Fant' differential equation (G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, 1960). A new self-consistent, integro-differential form of this equation is derived in this paper using the theory of aerodynamic sound, with full account taken of the back-reaction of the resonant tract on the glottal flux Q. The theory involves an aeroacoustic Green's function (G) for flow-surface interactions in a time-dependent glottis, so making the problem non-self-adjoint. In complex problems of this type it is not usually possible to obtain G in an explicit analytic form. The principal objective of the paper is to show how the Fant equation can still be derived in such cases from a consideration of the equation of aerodynamic sound and from the adjoint of the equation governing G in the neighbourhood of the 'throttle'. The theory is illustrated by application to the canonical problem of throttled flow into a Helmholtz resonator.

  17. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.

  18. Assessment of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary treatment with highly accurate gust-airfoil interaction results (United States)

    Crivellini, A.


    This paper deals with the numerical performance of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary condition. This technique is well known and widely adopted, but only recently have the reasons for a sponge failure been recognised, in analysis by Mani. For multidimensional problems, the ineffectiveness of the method is due to the self-reflections of the sponge occurring when it interacts with an oblique acoustic wave. Based on his theoretical investigations, Mani gives some useful guidelines for implementing effective sponge layers. However, in our opinion, some practical indications are still missing from the current literature. Here, an extensive numerical study of the performance of this technique is presented. Moreover, we analyse a reduced sponge implementation characterised by undamped partial differential equations for the velocity components. The main aim of this paper relies on the determination of the minimal width of the layer, as well as of the corresponding strength, required to obtain a reflection error of no more than a few per cent of that observed when solving the same problem on the same grid, but without employing the sponge layer term. For this purpose, a test case of computational aeroacoustics, the single airfoil gust response problem, has been addressed in several configurations. As a direct consequence of our investigation, we present a well documented and highly validated reference solution for the far-field acoustic intensity, a result that is not well established in the literature. Lastly, the proof of the accuracy of an algorithm for coupling sub-domains solved by the linear and non-liner Euler governing equations is given. This result is here exploited to adopt a linear-based sponge layer even in a non-linear computation.

  19. Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method Being Developed (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Himansu, Ananda; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching-Yuen; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tao


    The engineering research and design requirements of today pose great computer-simulation challenges to engineers and scientists who are called on to analyze phenomena in continuum mechanics. The future will bring even more daunting challenges, when increasingly complex phenomena must be analyzed with increased accuracy. Traditionally used numerical simulation methods have evolved to their present state by repeated incremental extensions to broaden their scope. They are reaching the limits of their applicability and will need to be radically revised, at the very least, to meet future simulation challenges. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, researchers have been developing a new numerical framework for solving conservation laws in continuum mechanics, namely, the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method, or the CE/SE method. This method has been built from fundamentals and is not a modification of any previously existing method. It has been designed with generality, simplicity, robustness, and accuracy as cornerstones. The CE/SE method has thus far been applied in the fields of computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, and computational electromagnetics. Computer programs based on the CE/SE method have been developed for calculating flows in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. Results have been obtained for numerous problems and phenomena, including various shock-tube problems, ZND detonation waves, an implosion and explosion problem, shocks over a forward-facing step, a blast wave discharging from a nozzle, various acoustic waves, and shock/acoustic-wave interactions. The method can clearly resolve shock/acoustic-wave interactions, wherein the difference of the magnitude between the acoustic wave and shock could be up to six orders. In two-dimensional flows, the reflected shock is as crisp as the leading shock. CE/SE schemes are currently being used for advanced applications to jet and fan noise prediction and to chemically

  20. A Comparison of the Noise Characteristics of a Conventional Slat and Krueger Flap (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Thomas, Russell H.; Housman, Jeffery A.


    An aeroacoustic test of two types of leading-edge high-lift devices has been conducted in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility. The test compares a conventional slat with a notional equivalent-mission Krueger flap. The test matrix includes points that allow for direct comparison of the conventional and Krueger devices for equivalent-mission configurations, where the two high-lift devices satisfy the same lift requirements for a free air flight path at the same cruise airfoil angle of attack. Measurements are made for multiple Mach numbers and directivity angles. Results indicate that the Krueger flap shows similar agreement to the expected power law scaling of a conventional flap, both in terms of Strouhal number and fixed frequency (as a surrogate for Helmholtz number). Directivity patterns vary depending on the specific slat and Krueger orientations. Varying the slat gap while holding overlap constant has the same influence on both the conventional slat and Krueger flap acoustic signature. Closing the gap shows dramatic reduction in levels for both devices. Varying the Krueger overlap has a different effect on the data when compared to varying the slat overlap, but analysis is limited by acoustic sources that regularly present themselves in model-scale wind tunnel testing but are not present for full-scale vehicles. The Krueger cavity is found to have some influence on level and directivity, though not as much as the other considered parameter variations. Overall, while the spectra of the two devices are different in detail, their scaling behavior for varying parameters is extremely similar.

  1. Turbulence and heat excited noise sources in single and coaxial jets (United States)

    Koh, Seong Ryong; Schröder, Wolfgang; Meinke, Matthias


    The generation of noise in subsonic high Reynolds number single and coaxial turbulent jets is analyzed by a hybrid method. The computational approach is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) and solutions of the acoustic perturbation equations (APE). The method is used to investigate the acoustic fields of one isothermal single stream jet at a Mach number 0.9 and a Reynolds number 400,000 based on the nozzle diameter and two coaxial jets whose Mach number and Reynolds number based on the secondary jet match the values of the single jet. One coaxial jet configuration possesses a cold primary flow, whereas the other configuration has a hot primary jet. Thus, the configurations allow in a first step the analysis of the relationship of the flow and acoustic fields of a single and a cold coaxial jet and in a second step the investigation of the differences of the fluid mechanics and aeroacoustics of cold and hot coaxial jets. For the isothermal single jet the present hybrid acoustic computation shows convincing agreement with the direct acoustic simulation based on large-eddy simulations. The analysis of the acoustic field of the coaxial jets focuses on two noise sources, the Lamb vector fluctuations and the entropy sources of the APE equations. The power spectral density (PSD) distributions evidence the Lamb vector fluctuations to represent the major acoustic sources of the isothermal jet. Especially the typical downstream and sideline acoustic generations occur on a cone-like surface being wrapped around the end of the potential core. Furthermore, when the coaxial jet possesses a hot primary jet, the acoustic core being characterized by the entropy source terms increases the low frequency acoustics by up to 5 dB, i.e., the sideline acoustics is enhanced by the pronounced temperature gradient.

  2. Development and Calibration of a Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Array for Propulsion and Airframe Noise Flyover Measurements (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Johns, Zachary


    A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed consisting of a large channelcount, field-deployable microphone phased array suitable for airframe noise flyover measurements for a range of aircraft types and scales. The array incorporates up to 185 hardened, weather-resistant sensors suitable for outdoor use. A custom 4-mA current loop receiver circuit with temperature compensation was developed to power the sensors over extended cable lengths with minimal degradation of the signal to noise ratio and frequency response. Extensive laboratory calibrations and environmental testing of the sensors were conducted to verify the design's performance specifications. A compact data system combining sensor power, signal conditioning, and digitization was assembled for use with the array. Complementing the data system is a robust analysis system capable of near real-time presentation of beamformed and deconvolved contour plots and integrated spectra obtained from array data acquired during flyover passes. Additional instrumentation systems needed to process the array data were also assembled. These include a commercial weather station and a video monitoring / recording system. A detailed mock-up of the instrumentation suite (phased array, weather station, and data processor) was performed in the NASA Langley Acoustic Development Laboratory to vet the system performance. The first deployment of the system occurred at Finnegan Airfield at Fort A.P. Hill where the array was utilized to measure the vehicle noise from a number of sUAS (small Unmanned Aerial System) aircraft. A unique in-situ calibration method for the array microphones using a hovering aerial sound source was attempted for the first time during the deployment.

  3. Advanced overset methods for vortex dominated flows (United States)

    Foster, Norman F.

    A newly implemented computational method of high-order accuracy is presented for the accurate calculation of unsteady vortical structures that may produce aeroacoustic sources, or affect downstream structural responses. The method involves prediction of the mean flow field by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that employs high-order discretization on overlapping (overset) grid systems. The method dramatically reduces the artificial dissipation and dispersion of vortical flow features that would ordinarily be lost or degraded with the use of current methods. Complex domains are discretized using an overset grid strategy that allows for the use of multiple high quality structured meshes. The high-order method is developed and incorporated into a generalized overset grid assembly scheme, which allows high-order spatial accuracy of the NSE solutions to be maintained across overset grid boundaries. Comparisons are made to calculations that do not preserve high-order accuracy at overset boundaries, and insight is obtained into the effects and sensitivities of different treatments of overlapping boundaries. A nested block adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method has also been developed, within the context of the overset paradigm. The method is shown to significantly improve accuracy for a given computational cell count by tracking dynamic vortical features using appropriate dynamic refinement and coarsening, and its implementation in the context of the high-order overset method is presented. The computational procedures presented herein are tested against analytic and canonical cases (slightly compressible, M ≤ 0.5, and incompressible mean flows) in order to characterize the accuracy of flow field calculations using high-order discretization and overset schemes across overlapping grid boundaries. The methods are also extended to far more complex systems including the transport of rotorcraft hub vorticity to

  4. GPU Implementation of High-order Finite Difference for Duct Sound Propagation%计算气动声学高阶差分格式的GPU并行实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟伟超; 宋文滨; 许尧


    We present an implementation of high- order finite difference CAA algorithms using GPU for problems of sound radiation from an unflanged duct. In this paper, we firstly described 2. 5D Linearized Euler Equations, the programming models of GPU and the principles of parallel tuning on GPU. Then we implemented the finite difference calculation on GPU. Numerical experiments showed that, comparing with serial CPU code and parallel MPI code,the GPU implementation can use fewer resources when reaching the same computation efficient. Compared with sequential algorithm on cluster,using GPU on workstation can gain a speed up of more than 3.%以圆管构型的声传播为分析对象,研究了基于图形处理器GPU的计算气动声学(Computational Aeroacoustics,CAA)高阶有限差分算法的并行实现,并与CPU串行及MPI并行实现作了对比分析.首先介绍了管道简化模型的2.5维线化欧拉方程和GPU的编程模式以及调优参考准则,然后给出了相关物理量的空间离散方法的GPU实现.数值实验的结果表明,与CPU串行及MPI并行程序的结果相比,使用GPU的程序实现在达到与MPI并行同样的计算效率时,可以使用更少的计算资源.较之cluster上串行算法,工作站上GPU并行算法在使用不同网格规模的情况下可达到的3倍多的加速比.

  5. PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.


    While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.

  6. Constrained Spectral Conditioning for spatial sound level estimation (United States)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.


    Microphone arrays are utilized in aeroacoustic testing to spatially map the sound emitted from an article under study. Whereas a single microphone allows only the total sound level to be estimated at the measurement location, an array permits differentiation between the contributions of distinct components. The accuracy of these spatial sound estimates produced by post-processing the array outputs is continuously being improved. One way of increasing the estimation accuracy is to filter the array outputs before they become inputs to a post-processor. This work presents a constrained method of linear filtering for microphone arrays which minimizes the total signal present on the array channels while preserving the signal from a targeted spatial location. Thus, each single-channel, filtered output for a given targeted location estimates only the signal from that location, even when multiple and/or distributed sources have been measured simultaneously. The method is based on Conditioned Spectral Analysis and modifies the Wiener-Hopf equation in a manner similar to the Generalized Sidelobe Canceller. This modified form of Conditioned Spectral Analysis is embedded within an iterative loop and termed Constrained Spectral Conditioning. Linear constraints are derived which prevent the cancellation of targeted signal due to random statistical error as well as location error in the sensor and/or source positions. The increased spatial mapping accuracy of Constrained Spectral Conditioning is shown for a simulated dataset of point sources which vary in strength. An experimental point source is used to validate the efficacy of the constraints which yield preservation of the targeted signal at the expense of reduced filtering ability. The beamforming results of a cold, supersonic jet demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative improvement obtained when using this technique to map a spatially-distributed, complex, and possibly coherent sound source.

  7. The study of noise source identifying in wind tunnel with clean arithmetic based on spatial source coherence%基于相干声源CLEAN算法的常规风洞声源辨识研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小见; 赵磊; 陈农


    The CLEAN arithmetic based on Spatial Source Coherence is developed and then applied to the wind tunnel test in the paper. The mechanism for this method is introducing a clean beam to instead the main lobe of beam picture iteratively, and getting rid of side lobe for background noise of wind tunnel or microphones distribution in phase array. The data from test in wind tunnel is optimized with this method. The results show that it improves the resolving power of low frequency noise and increases the signal-to-noise of the aero-acoustics test greatly. In the paper, coefficient K for judging the performance of phase array is also introduced, which including the effect to the resolving power both for frequency and distance from array to sound source plane. To some point, it is helpful to improve the efficiency for the coefficient K inducted.%发展应用了基于相干声源假设的CLEAN优化算法,该算法通过反复引入洁净波束来代替波束图上主瓣,逐步去掉由于背景噪声或者阵列阵元分布特点引入的旁瓣.用该算法对风洞实验结果进行了优化,提高了低频噪声的分辨率和试验的信噪比.还首次提出衡量相阵列声源分辨率的综合指标系数K,它综合反映了不同分析频率、不同阵列与声源平面距离对声源分辨率的影响,在一定程度上可以提高阵列设计的效率.

  8. Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets (United States)

    Violato, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio


    The three-dimensional behavior of flow transition in circular and 6-chevron jets at Re = 5000 is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. The emphasis is on the unsteady organization of coherent flow structures, which play a role in the generation of acoustic noise. Shedding and pairing of vortices are the most pronounced phenomena observed in the near field of the circular jet. The first and second pairing amplify the axial pulsatile motion in the jet column and lead to the growth of azimuthal waves culminating in the breakup of the vortex ring. Streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity are observed in the outer region and move inward and outward under the effect of the vortex rings. In the jet with chevrons, the axisymmetric ring-like coherence of the circular jet is not encountered. Instead, streamwise flow structures of azimuthal vorticity emanate from the chevron apices, and counter-rotating streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity develop from the chevron notches. The decay of streamwise vortices is accompanied by the formation of C-shaped structures. The three-dimensional analysis allows quantifying the vortex stretching and tilting activity, which, for the circular jet exit, is related to the azimuthal instabilities and the streamwise vortices connecting the vortex rings. In the chevron jet, stretching and tilting peak during the formation of C-structures. Following Powell's aeroacoustic analogy, the spatial distribution of the source term is mapped, evaluating the temporal derivative of the Lamb vector. The spatio-temporal evolution of such source term is visualized revealing that the events of highest activity are associated with the processes of vortex-ring pairing and vortex-ring disruption for the circular jet, and with the decay of streamwise instabilities and the formation of C-shaped structures for the chevron case.

  9. Numerical simulation of the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones (United States)

    Li, X. D.; Gao, J. H.


    In this paper an axisymmetric computational aeroacoustic procedure is developed to investigate the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones. The axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the two equations standard k-ɛ turbulence model modified by Turpin and Troyes ["Validation of a two-equation turbulence model for axisymmetric reacting and non-reaction flows," AIAA Paper No. 2000-3463 (2000)] are solved in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system. A generalized wall function is applied in the nozzle exit wall region. The dispersion-relation-preserving scheme is applied for space discretization. The 2N storage low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. Much attention is paid to far-field boundary conditions and turbulence model. The underexpanded axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones are simulated over the Mach number from 1.05 to 1.2. Numerical results are presented and compared with the experimental data by other researchers. The simulated wavelengths of A0, A1, A2, and B modes and part of simulated amplitudes agree very well with the measurement data by Ponton and Seiner ["The effects of nozzle exit lip thickness on plume resonance," J. Sound Vib. 154, 531 (1992)]. In particular, the phenomena of modes jumping have been captured correctly although the numerical procedure has to be improved to predict the amplitudes of supersonic jet screech tones more accurately. Furthermore, the phenomena of shock motions are analyzed. The predicted splitting and combination of shock cells are similar with the experimental observations of Panda ["Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets," J. Fluid. Mech. 363, 173 (1998)]. Finally, the receptivity process is numerically studied and analyzed. It is shown that the receptivity zone is associated with the initial thin shear layer, and the incoming and reflected sound waves.

  10. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab


    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  11. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike


    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  12. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.


    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra- rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts/configurations were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and lower noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of 'propfan' performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data and higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system. Contemporary designs have demonstrated high net efficiency, approximately 86%, at 0.78 Mach, and low noise, greater than 15 EPNdB cumulative margin to Chapter 4 when analyzed on a NASA derived aircraft/mission. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller/open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The remaining technical challenges to a production engine include

  13. Viscous effects on the acoustics and stability of a shear layer over an impedance wall (United States)

    Khamis, Doran; Brambley, Edward James


    The effect of viscosity and thermal conduction on the acoustics in a shear layer above an impedance wall is investigated numerically and asymptotically by solving the compressible linearised Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that viscothermal effects can be as important as shear, and therefore including shear while neglecting viscothermal effects by solving the linearised Euler equations is questionable. In particular, the damping rate of upstream propagating waves is found to be dramatically under-predicted by the LEE in certain instances. The effects of viscosity on stability are also found to be important. Short wavelength disturbances are stabilised by viscosity, greatly altering the characteristic wavelength and maximum growth rate of instability. For the parameters typical of aeroacoustic simulations considered here, the Reynolds number below which the flow stabilizes ranges from $10^5$ to $10^7$. By assuming a thin but nonzero-thickness boundary layer, asymptotic analysis leads to a system of boundary layer governing equations for the acoustics. This system may be solved numerically to produce an effective impedance boundary condition, applicable at the wall of a uniform inviscid flow, that accounts for both the shear and viscosity within the boundary layer. An alternative asymptotic analysis in the high frequency limit yields a different set of equations with analytic solutions. The acoustic mode shapes and axial wavenumbers from both asymptotic analyses compare well with numerical solutions of the full LNSE. A closed-form effective impedance boundary condition is derived from the high-frequency asymptotics, suitable for application in frequency-domain numerical simulations. Finally, surface waves are considered, and it is shown that a viscous flow over an impedance lining supports a greater number of surface wave modes than an inviscid flow.

  14. Proceedings of the XXII A.I.VE.LA. National Meeting (United States)

    Primo Tomasini, Enrico


    A.I.VE.LA. - the Italian Association of Laser Velocimetry and non-invasive diagnostics - is a non-profit cultural association whose objective is to promote and support research in the field of non-contact or minimally invasive measurement techniques, particularly electromagnetic-based techniques and optical techniques. Through its Annual Meeting, AIVELA aims to create an active and stimulating forum where current research results and technical advances can be exchanged and the development of new systems for laboratory use, field testing and industrial application can be promoted. The techniques covered include Laser Doppler Anemometry - LDA, Phase Doppler Anemometry - PDA, Image Velocimetry - PIV, Flow visualization techniques, Spectroscopic measurement techniques (LIF, Raman, etc.), Laser Doppler Vibrometry - LDV, Speckle Pattern Interferometry - ESPI, Holographic techniques, Shearography, Digital Image Correlation - DIC, Moiré techniques, Structured light techniques, Infrared imaging, Photoelasticity, Image based measurement techniques, Ultrasonic sensing, Acoustic and Aeroacoustic measurements, etc. The first Annual Meeting was held back in October 1992 and since then there has been a large consensus among the research and scientific communities that the papers presented at the event are of a high scientific interest. The XXII AIVELA Annual Meeting was held at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Rome Tor Vergata on 15-16 December 2014 and was organised in collaboration with the International Master Courses in "Protection Against CBRNe Events". This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the event. The detailed Programme of the Meeting can be found at: Trusting our Association and its initiatives will meet your interest, I wish to thank you in advance for your kind attention and hope to meet you soon at one of our events.

  15. A new experimental method for the determination of the effective orifice area based on the acoustical source term (United States)

    Kadem, L.; Knapp, Y.; Pibarot, P.; Bertrand, E.; Garcia, D.; Durand, L. G.; Rieu, R.


    The effective orifice area (EOA) is the most commonly used parameter to assess the severity of aortic valve stenosis as well as the performance of valve substitutes. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) may be used for in vitro estimation of valve EOA. In the present study, we propose a new and simple method based on Howe’s developments of Lighthill’s aero-acoustic theory. This method is based on an acoustical source term (AST) to estimate the EOA from the transvalvular flow velocity measurements obtained by PIV. The EOAs measured by the AST method downstream of three sharp-edged orifices were in excellent agreement with the EOAs predicted from the potential flow theory used as the reference method in this study. Moreover, the AST method was more accurate than other conventional PIV methods based on streamlines, inflexion point or vorticity to predict the theoretical EOAs. The superiority of the AST method is likely due to the nonlinear form of the AST. There was also an excellent agreement between the EOAs measured by the AST method downstream of the three sharp-edged orifices as well as downstream of a bioprosthetic valve with those obtained by the conventional clinical method based on Doppler-echocardiographic measurements of transvalvular velocity. The results of this study suggest that this new simple PIV method provides an accurate estimation of the aortic valve flow EOA. This new method may thus be used as a reference method to estimate the EOA in experimental investigation of the performance of valve substitutes and to validate Doppler-echocardiographic measurements under various physiologic and pathologic flow conditions.

  16. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Nathan E.


    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  17. Theoretical Investigation of the Vortex Shedding Noise from the Wake of Airfoil%机翼尾迹脱落涡噪声的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The vortex shedding noise has been revealed as an important wing noise source on some modern commercial aircraft based on the fly-over measurements with a planar microphone array by Michel (1998). In this paper, an analytical model is presented for predicting this vortex shedding noise. The downstream wake of a 2-dimensional airfoil is assumed to be dominated by the von Karman vortex street, and the strength and the shedding frequency of the wake vortex are determined from the wake structure model. An aero-acoustic model is developed based on the Howe's unified theory of trailing edge noise and is incorpo-rated with the wake model to predict the sound pressure level and directivity of vortex shedding noise. The predicted vortex shedding frequencies, sound pressure levels and directivities compare favorably with the measured results for 6 modern commercial aircraft.%Michel等人1998年应用平面传声器阵列对飞机过顶噪声进行的测量研究首次发现,机翼尾迹脱落涡噪声是某些类型飞机重要的噪声源。为发展一种预测这种噪声源的理论预测模型,应用von Karman涡街模型模拟二维机翼下游尾迹脱落涡,尾迹涡的强度和脱落频率应用这个模型进行计算。基于Howe后缘噪声理论,并结合尾迹模型,本文发展了一种预测脱落涡噪声声压级和指向特征的气动声学模型。对6架现代商用飞机的机翼尾迹脱落涡噪声的计算表明,本文理论模型预测的涡脱落频率、声压级以及噪声的指向性等与实验测量结果有较好的一致性。

  18. The sound of oscillating air jets: Physics, modeling and simulation in flute-like instruments (United States)

    de La Cuadra, Patricio

    Flute-like instruments share a common mechanism that consists of blowing across one open end of a resonator to produce an air jet that is directed towards a sharp edge. Analysis of its operation involves various research fields including fluid dynamics, aero-acoustics, and physics. An effort has been made in this study to extend this description from instruments with fixed geometry like recorders and organ pipes to flutes played by the lips. An analysis of the jet's response to a periodic excitation is the focus of this study, as are the parameters under the player's control in forming the jet. The jet is excited with a controlled excitation consisting of two loudspeakers in opposite phase. A Schlieren system is used to visualize the jet, and image detection algorithms are developed to extract quantitative information from the images. In order to study the behavior of jets observed in different flute-like instruments, several geometries of the excitation and jet shapes are studied. The obtained data is used to propose analytical models that correctly fit the observed measurements and can be used for simulations. The control exerted by the performer on the instrument is of crucial importance in the quality of the sound produced for a number of flute-like instruments. The case of the transverse flute is experimentally studied. An ensemble of control parameters are measured and visualized in order to describe some aspects of the subtle control attained by an experienced flautist. Contrasting data from a novice flautist are compared. As a result, typical values for several non-dimensional parameters that characterize the normal operation of the instrument have been measured, and data to feed simulations has been collected. The information obtained through experimentation is combined with research developed over the last decades to put together a time-domain simulation. The model proposed is one-dimensional and driven by a single physical input. All the variables in the

  19. 高速列车气动噪声Lighthill声类比的有限元分析%Finite Elements Analysis of High - speed Train Wind Noise in Lighthill' s Acoustic Analogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓宇; 高阳; 程亚军; 刘凤华


    With the constant increase of the trains' speed, the aerodynamic noise gradually succeeds the traditional track noise and becomes the main noise source of the high-speed trains. In this paper, a hybrid CFD/CAA wind noise model for the high speed trains based on Lighthill' s analogy is constructed utilizing a professional finite elements acoustic simulator ACTRAN-Aeroacoustics. Numerical results of fluid and acoustic fields are reported and discussed. Some important issues for further development of the simulation model are discussed. The simulation results show that there are three dominant locations for the aerodynamic noise sources which depend on the shape of the train. With the use of this model, the influence of the train's shape on the wind noise can be analyzed, and the optimization for low noise design of the train can be realized.%随列车行驶速度逐年提高,气动噪声源逐渐超越轮轨噪声成为高速列车最主要噪声源.通过ACTRAN -Aeroacoustics建立基于Lighthill声类比理论的高速列车气动噪声CFD/CAA混合数值分析模型.计算并讨论非定常流场与气动声场计算结果,并分析此数值模型可以进一步完善的一些重要方面.目前数值模拟结果表明列车高速行驶状态气动噪声源主要集中在与车身气动外形密切相关的三类位置上,且通过当前模型可以有效剖析列车车身气动外形设计对气动噪声的影响以及相应的高速列车低噪音优化途径.

  20. Simulation Study on Serodynamic Noise of the High Speed Trains Based on CAA%基于CAA的高速动车组气动噪声仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成强; 邢海英; 郑继峰


    随着列车运行速度的提高,气动噪声在总噪声中所占的比重越来越大,降低气动噪声已成为影响高速铁路可持续发展的关键问题。在理论研究基础上,采用了混合法来研究高速动车组受电弓周围的气动噪声特性。首先,对高速列车在RANS(雷诺平均模拟)方法计算下的统计结果进行分析,研究高速列车受电弓区域的流场特征。然后,应用非线性声学求解方法(NLAS)研究近场噪声,分析了不同部位对气动噪声的贡献。最后,采用FW-H声学比拟方法来分析远场气动噪声,通过不同测试点研究了远场噪声分布特性。%With train speeding up, the aeroacoustics of the high-speed train is becoming more and more important. Reducing aerodynamic noise has become one of the most significant factors to control the noise of the high-speed train. This paper adopted the hybrid method to study the aerodynamic noise around the high-speed train panto⁃graph. The feature of the pantograph's flow field dominates the generation of aerodynamic noise, therefore the flow field obtained by the RANS solution is firstly analyzed. Then the nonlinear acoustics solver (NLAS) approach is ad⁃opted to study the aerodynamic noise in the near field of the CRH3 high speed train. Finally, far field aerodynamic noise study is carried out by solving the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawking (FW-H) equation. By use of probes, the contri⁃bution of different parts of the pantograph for aerodynamic noise is discussed.

  1. The DAN-AERO MW experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bak, C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Gaunaa, M. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Fuglsang, P. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark)); Romblad, J.; Olesen, N.A. (Vestas Wind Systems, Ringkoebing (Denmark)); Enevoldsen, P.; Laursen, J. (Siemens Wind Power, Ballerup (Denmark)); Jensen, Leo (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark))


    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risoe DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to establish an experimental data base which can provide new insight into a number of fundamental aerodynamic and aero-acoustic issues, important for the design and operation of MW size turbines. The most important issue is the difference between airfoil characteristics measured under 2D, steady conditions in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were measured on a 2MW NM80 turbine with an 80 m rotor. One of the LM38.8 m blades on the rotor was replaced with a new LM38.8 m blade where instruments for surface pressure measurements at four radial sections were build into the blade during the blade production process. Additionally, the outmost section on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents of the inflow turbulence. In parallel, 2D wind tunnel measurements on common airfoils for wind turbine applications have been conducted in three different wind tunnels at Delft

  2. 喷射流场及其辐射声场数值模拟%Numerical simulation of jet flow field and its radiated sound field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宗睿; 王乐勤; 周忠海


    为研究喷管结构对射流噪声的影响,采用大涡模拟对不同截面形状喷口形成的非定常湍射流场进行了数值模拟.在流场计算的基础上,结合Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings积分方程对远场声场进行了计算,得到不同喷管结构对应的湍射流场的流动结构及其辐射噪声的频谱特性.计算结果表明,椭圆形截面喷管的出口附近存在大量的旋涡结构,增大了射流边界层处的气流掺混,从而降低了射流核心区的长度,有效抑制了喷射噪声,在5种不同结构的喷管中,椭圆形截面的喷管对应的辐射声压最低,而矩形喷管对应的辐射声压最高;在射流方向的30°~ 75°扇形区域内,辐射声信号最强且存在明显的指向性.%In order to study the effect of nuzzle structure on aeroacoustic noise, the unsteady turbulent jet flow generated by nozzles with different cross-section shapes was numerically simulated by large-eddy simulation. Based on the simulation results of jet flow, the far-field sound field was calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings integral equation- The structures of unsteady turbulent flow of different nozzles and the spectrum characteristics of the radiated noise were obtained. Results show that a large number of vortex structures were found at the exit of the nozzle with an elliptical cross section. The vortices enhanced the gas entraining at the jet boundary layer. As a result, the radiated noise was reduced by shortening the potential core. Among five kinds of nozzles,the radiated sound pressure level of the elliptical nozzle was the minimun, while the radiated sound pressure level of the rectangular nozzle was found to be the maximum. In the fan-shaped region of 30° to 75° along the jet direction, the radiated acoustic signal was the strongest and displayed significant directivity.

  3. Numerical analysis on noise of rotor with unconventional blade tips based on CFD/Kirchhoff method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bo; Zhao Qijun; Xu Guohua; Ye Liang; Wang Junyi


    A solver is developed aiming at efficiently predicting rotor noise in hover and forward flight.In this solver,the nonlinear near-field solutions are calculated by a hybrid approach which includes the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations based on a moving-embedded grid system and adaptive grid methodology.A combination of the third-order upwind scheme and flux-difference splitting scheme,instead of the second-order center-difference scheme which may cause larger wake dissipation,has been employed in the present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The sound pressure data in the near field can be calculated directly by solving the Navier-Stokes equations,and the sound propagation can be predicted by the Kirchhoffmethod.A harmonic expansion approach is presented for rotor far-field noise prediction,which gives an analytical expression for the integral function in the Kirchhoff formula.As a result,the interpolation process is simplified and the efficiency and accuracy of the interpolation are improved.Then,the high-speed impulsive (HIS) noise of a helicopter rotor at different tip Mach numbers and on different observers is calculated and analyzed in hover and forward flight,which shows a highly directional characteristic of the rotor HIS noise with a maximum value in the rotor plane,and the HSI noise weakens rapidly with the increasing of the directivity angle.In order to investigate the effects of the rotor blade-tip shape on its aeroacoustic characteristics,four kinds of blade tips are designed and their noise characteristics have been simulated.At last,a new unconventional CLOR-Ⅱ blade tip has been designed,and the noise characteristics of the presented CLOR-Ⅱ model rotor have been simulated and measured compared to the reference rotors with a rectangular or swept-back platform blade tip.The results demonstrate that the unconventional CLOR-Ⅱblade tip can significantly reduce the HSI noise of a rotor.

  4. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise (United States)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method

  5. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bodony, Daniel J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    its accuracy is limited by computing precision, and we demonstrate it on the aeroacoustic control of a mixing layer with a challengingly broad range of turbulence scales. For comparison, the error from a corresponding discretization of the continuous-adjoint equations is quantified to potentially explain its limited success in past efforts to control jet noise. The differences are illuminating: the continuous-adjoint is shown to suffer from exponential error growth in (reverse) time even for the best-resolved largest turbulence scales. Implications for jet noise reduction and turbulence control in general are discussed.

  6. 适用于时域计算的多自由度宽频阻抗模型研究%Study on the multi-freedom broadband impedance model for time-domain simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 李小艳


    The purpose of this paper is to construct a general broadband impedance model which is suited for predicting acoustic propagation problems in time domain. A multi-freedom broadband impedance model for sound propagation over impedance surfaces is proposed and the corresponding time domain impedance boundary condition is presented. Basing on the Extended Helmholtz resonator, the multi-freedom impedance model is constructed through combing with a sum of rational functions with general complex-conjugate pole-residue pairs and it is proved that the impedance model is well-posed. The impedance boundary condition can be implemented into a computational aeroacoustics solver by a recursive convolution technique which results in a fast and computationally efficient algorithm. The two dimensional and three dimensional benchmark problems are selected to validate the accuracy of the current impedance model and time domain simulations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the reference solutions. It is demonstrated that the proposed impedance model can be used to describe the broadband characteristics of acoustic liners. And the corresponding time domain impedance boundary condition is viable and accurate for the prediction of sound propagation over broadband impedance surfaces.%旨在建立通用且适定的宽频阻抗模型用于时域数值模拟计算.基于扩展的Helmholtz共振腔阻抗模型,通过引入共轭复数极点-残值对有理分式组合的方式,提出了一种新型多自由度宽频阻抗模型,并证明了该模型的适定性.频域内阻抗边界条件通过傅里叶反变换的方法转换为宽频时域阻抗边界条件,时域模拟采用递推算法快速实现.分别采用二维和三维标准问题对该宽频阻抗模型及相应的时域边界条件进行校核,数值解和参考解一致.研究结果表明所提出的多自由度阻抗模型能够描述声衬宽频特性,相应的宽频时域阻抗边界条件可以精确预测

  7. High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.


    . The overall conclusion of these design studies was that the cut chevron concept is a critical enabling step in bringing the variable geometry core chevron within reach. The presence of the cut may be aerodynamically undesirable in some respects, but it is present only when the chevron is not immersed in the core jet exhaust. When deployed, the gap closes as the chevron tip enters the high-speed, high-temperature core stream. Aeroacoustic testing and flow visualization support the contention that this cut is inconsequential to chevron performance.

  8. Investigation of the flow-field of two parallel round jets impinging normal to a flat surface (United States)

    Myers, Leighton M.

    The flow-field features of dual jet impingement were investigated through sub-scale model experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate the environment of a Short Takeoff, and Vertical Landing, STOVL, aircraft performing a hover over the ground, at different heights. Two different dual impinging jet models were designed, fabricated, and tested. The Generation 1 Model consisted of two stainless-steel nozzles, in a tandem configuration, each with an exit diameter of approximately 12.7 mm. The front convergent nozzle was operated at the sonic Mach number of 1.0, while the rear C-D nozzle was generally operated supersonically. The nozzles were embedded in a rectangular flat plate, referred to as the lift plate, which represents a generic lifting surface. The lift plate was instrumented with 36 surface pressure taps, which were used to examine the flow entrainment and recirculation patterns caused by varying the stand-off distance from the nozzle exits to a flat ground surface. The stand-off distance was adjusted with a sliding rail frame that the ground plane was mounted to. Typical dimensionless stand-off distances (ground plane separation) were H/DR = 2 to 24. A series of measurements were performed with the Generation 1 model, in the Penn State High Speed Jet Aeroacoustics Laboratory, to characterize the basic flow phenomena associated with dual jet impingement. The regions of interest in the flow-field included the vertical jet plume(s), near impingement/turning region, and wall jet outwash. Other aspects of interest included the loss of lift (suckdown) that occurs as the ground plane separation distance becomes small, and azimuthal variation of the acoustic noise radiation. Various experimental methods and techniques were used to characterize the flow-field, including flow-visualization, pressure rake surveys, surface mounted pressure taps, laser Doppler velocimetry, and acoustic microphone arrays. A second dual impinging jet scale model, Generation 2

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation Code Developed for Propulsion Applications (United States)

    DeBonis, James R.


    A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of

  10. Application of Tomo-PIV in a large-scale supersonic jet flow facility (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.


    aeroacoustics research.

  11. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.


    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both

  12. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited (United States)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.


    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not

  13. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  14. Suppression of Instability Waves in Numerical Simulations of Sound Propagation From Aft Ducts%管道后传声数值模拟的不稳定波抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旦望; 李晓东; 李小艳; 胡方强


    在管道后传声的数值模拟中,必须考虑平均流剪切层的散射效应,然而在非均匀剪切流动下时域求解线化欧拉方程会面临Kelvin-Helmholtz不稳定波产生和放大的难题。已有的不稳定波抑制技术通常很难获得令人满意的结果。本文采用一种混合方法,首先引入有限时段的宽频声源波包将声波和不稳定波分离,进而采用声源滤波器技术对不稳定波进行抑制。数值验证算例选择半无限长轴对称环形硬壁直管道,采用计算气动声学方法时域求解2.5维线化欧拉方程,无背景流动的数值解与解析解符合很好,验证了程序的精度与可靠性,非均匀流动算例则表明所采用波包加声源滤波器混合方法对不稳定波抑制效果明显,对声场影响很小,充分显示了该方法的精度与可行性。%The scattering effects from mean flow shear layer should be accounted for in the numerical simulation of sound propagation from aft ducts.However,the time domain simulation of the linearized Euler equation has to face the difficulties of the generation and amplification of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability waves in non-uniform shear flows.The available methods for the suppression of the instability waves are difficult to give satisfactory results.The main objective of this paper is to check the feasibility of a hybrid method.Firstly,a broadband sound source wave packet with limited time span is introduced for the separation of acoustic waves from instability waves.Then,a source filtering technique is adopted to suppress the instability waves.Half infinitely length annular ducts are selected for numerical validations.The 2.5D linearized Euler equations are solved in the time domain with a computational aeroacoustics approach.Numerical results agree fairly well with analytical solutions for no mean flow cases which show the accuracy and reliability.Furthermore,it is demonstrated that the wave packet method with the help of source

  15. Blowers. 2. ed.; Ventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommes, L.; Fricke, J.; Grundmann, R. (eds.)


    Economic efficiency, high availability, materials and wear resistance are still the main goals of development on the blower sector, together with noise reduction. Subjects: (a) Modified methods for calculation and design of axial and radial blowers; (b) Test stand measurements of aerodynamic and acoustic performance; (c) Problems of experimental determination of performance data; (d) effects of the installation conditions and thre resulting electric field disturbances influencing the aerodynamic and acoustic blower characteristics; (e) Centrifugal and vibration loads on the rotors; (f) Determination of the axial thrust of radial blowers; (g) Special designs and specifications for special applications; (h) Blower noise: Sources, measurement, prediction; (i) Noise reduction measures; (j) Specific aspects of working with solid-gas mixtures. The book presents a wide range of research findings, modern design methods and problem solutions. Fundamentals of fluidics, thermodynamics, similarity mechanics and aeroacoustics are discussed in detail in as far as they are of importance for blower construction. This second edition was revised with a view to practical applicability and to the latest state of research. (orig.) [German] Ventilatoren sind zentraler Bestandteil aller lueftungstechnischen Anlagen- und Geraetesysteme und daher fuer deren Funktionstuechtigkeit von ausschlaggebender Bedeutung. Sie zaehlen nach der heute gueltigen Definition zu den Stroemungsmaschinen, in denen mechanische Energie in Stroemungsenergie umgewandelt wird. Nach der Norm reicht bei Ventilatoren der Bereich der Druckerhoehung des Foerdermediums zwischen Ventilatoreintritt und -austritt bis zu 30 000 Pa, entsprechend einem Druckverhaeltnis bis zu 1,3. Hauptentwicklungsziele bei Ventilatoren sind nach wie vor die Steigerung der Wirtschaftlichkeit, Betriebssicherheit, Werkstoffbelastbarkeit und Verschleissfestigkeit. Darueber hinaus spielen im Rahmen des staendig wachsenden Umweltbewusstseins

  16. Aeroelastic research programme EFP-2001[YAW;STALL]; Forskning i aeroelasticitet EFP-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H. (ed.)


    The project covers the one year period from mid 2001 to mid 2002 and is the last part of a 5 years research programme on aeroelasticity. The overall objectives of the project are to improve the load and design basis for wind turbines and to ensure in collaboration with industry a continu-ously running process on development of new designs and solution of actual problems. Specifi-cally the main objectives for the present period are the following: a) development of a design tool for analysis of dynamic stability b) investigations of blade tip aerodynamics and blade tip design on basis of 3D CFD computa-tions c) publication of an airfoil catalogue d) load reduction using new control strategies e) aeroacoustic modelling of noise propagation During the present project period the computer code HAWCModal has been finished. The code computes the modal characteristics for a turbine as function of rotational speed. It is based on the structural modelling in the aeroelastic code HAWC and uses the same input files. The computed eigen frequencies are shown in a Campbell diagram and the corresponding modal forms can be shown graphically for an operating turbine. Finally, the structural damping is also computed by the code. HAWCModal is the basis for the stability analysis tool HAWCStab which is now under devel-opment. With HAWCStab the aeroelastic stability of a turbine can be analysed. The complex aerodynamics at three different blade tip shapes have been analysed with the three-dimensional CFD code EllipSys3D. The tip vortex was visualised and the lift and drag coef-ficients in the tip region were analysed in order to study the influence of the tip geometry on the performance and aerodynamic damping. An airfoil catalogue containing computations on 28 different airfoils for wind turbine applica-tion in comparison with experimental data has been developed and is available via the internet. Besides the main themes of the project as mentioned above there have been research

  17. Dynamic Test Mechanism of Weapon Cabin’s Door in FL-24 Wind Tunnel%FL-24风洞武器舱舱门动态试验装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄存栋; 徐来武; 吴继飞; 高鹏


    针对先进作战飞机发射或投放武器后,武器舱舱门的高速运动将对周围流场产生强烈干扰的问题,在FL-24风洞中建立了舱门开闭动态模拟试验装置。介绍试验装置的构成,利用舱门和舱内布置的动态及静态压力传感器对如舱门动态载荷特性、舱内气动噪声特性、以及St数变化影响等进行研究,并通过预先分析运动历程,估算驱动舱门所需力矩和电机功率,进行机电系统优化设计,反复调试控制程序,达到舱门转动高速响应、精确定位的目的。试验结果表明:试验装置设计合理,运行可靠,舱门最短开/闭时间约为0.15 s,能够准确模拟舱门高速开闭历程,并可拓展到其他多项试验研究。%Aiming at intense interference on fluid field close to weapon cabin’s door, which takes place before/after launching or injecting of fighting plane’s weapon, a dynamic test mechanism of weapon cabin’s door was established successfully in FL-24 wind tunnel. Constituent of the mechanism is introduced. It was used to research aerodynamic loads of weapon cabin’s door, and aero-acoustic noise of weapon bay, and the influence of theirs with variable St, with dynamic and static pressure sensors that were planted in the door and weapon cavity of the test equipment. The model door can turn responsively and accurately by analysis of rotating process, and calculating of drive torque, and estimate motor power, and optimization design of mechanical-electronic system, and a lot of adjusting on control program. The experimental results indicate that the dynamic test mechanism is designed reasonably and can run reliably. The shortest opening/closing time is about 0.15s of weapon cabin’s door. The system has capacity to simulate opening or closing process of the door precisely. At the same time, more test ability of the mechanism can be expanded.

  18. Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment (United States)

    Gopalan, Harish

    The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous

  19. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Hansen, Kurt S.


    conference to bring together scientists and engineers working in the fields of aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics, aeroelastic control, wind conditions and wind farms. The first conference entitled `The Science of making Torque from Wind' was organized by DUWIND and held at Delft University, 19-21 April 2004. Owing to the great success of this conference where more than 60 papers were presented, we decided to follow it with a similar conference at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in Lyngby. It is our hope that others will take up the idea and continue this series of conferences. An explicit objective of the conference is to meet the high standards applied in several other branches of science and technology. The EAWE has the responsibility for the scientific quality of the content. All papers presented at the conference have had an abstract review as well as a full paper review by at least two reviewers. Out of the approximately 120 submitted abstracts, 86 papers were finally approved to be presented at the conference. It is expected that many of the papers will subsequently be published in scientific journals. Toward that end, the editors of Wind Energy and Journal of Solar Energy Engineering have expressed their interest in letting the most promising papers be subjected to a second review, for the purpose of having them published as journal papers. The EWEA staff is thanked for organizing the PR on the conference and the EAWE board members for valuable help in the reviewing process and for delivering session chairmen. Staff members at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at DTU and Risø were responsible for the organization. Special thanks go to DTU for providing lecture and meeting rooms, and to LM Glasfiber, Vestas Wind Systems and Siemens Wind Power for financial support. Jens Nørkær Sørensen, Conference Chairman 21 June 2007

  20. SOFIA's secondary mirror assembly: in-flight performance and control approach (United States)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Lammen, Yannick; Roeser, Hans-Peter


    dependent non-linearity the underlying model of the Kalman filter adapts in real-time to those two parameters. This highly specialized controller was developed over the course of years and only the final design is introduced here. The main intention of this contribution is to present the currently achieved performance of the SOFIA chopper over the full amplitude, frequency, and temperature range. Therefore a range of data gathered during in-flight tests aboard SOFIA is displayed and explained. The SMM's three main performance parameters are the transition time between two chop positions, the stability of the Secondary Mirror when exposed to the low pressures, low temperatures, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic excitations present when the SOFIA observatory operates in the stratosphere at speeds of up to 850 km/h, and finally the closed-loop bandwidth available for fast pointing corrections.

  1. Mixing and Transition Control Studied (United States)


    Considerable progress in understanding nonlinear phenomena in both unbounded and wallbounded shear flow transition has been made through the use of a combination of high- Reynolds-number asymptotic and numerical methods. The objective of this continuing work is to fully understand the nonlinear dynamics so that ultimately (1) an effective means of mixing and transition control can be developed and (2) the source terms in the aeroacoustic noise problem can be modeled more accurately. Two important aspects of the work are that (1) the disturbances evolve from strictly linear instability waves on weakly nonparallel mean flows so that the proper upstream conditions are applied in the nonlinear or wave-interaction streamwise region and (2) the asymptotic formulations lead to parabolic problems so that the question of proper out-flow boundary conditions--still a research issue for direct numerical simulations of convectively unstable shear flows--does not arise. Composite expansion techniques are used to obtain solutions that account for both mean-flow-evolution and nonlinear effects. A previously derived theory for the amplitude evolution of a two-dimensional instability wave in an incompressible mixing layer (which is in quantitative agreement with available experimental data for the first nonlinear saturation stage for a plane-jet shear layer, a circular-jet shear layer, and a mixing layer behind a splitter plate) have been extended to include a wave-interaction stage with a three-dimensional subharmonic. The ultimate wave interaction effects can either give rise to explosive growth or an equilibrium solution, both of which are intimately associated with the nonlinear self-interaction of the three dimensional component. The extended theory is being evaluated numerically. In contrast to the mixing-layer situation, earlier comparisons of theoretical predictions based on asymptotic methods and experiments in wall-bounded shear-flow transition have been somewhat lacking

  2. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.


    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from