WorldWideScience

Sample records for advertising as topic

  1. Reconsidering advertising literacy as a defense against advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Lapierre, M.A.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that advertising literacy makes children less susceptible to advertising effects. However, empirical research does not provide convincing evidence for this view. In this article, we explain why advertising literacy as it is currently defined (i.e., conceptual knowledge of advert

  2. Topical peptides as cosmeceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadraj Vasant Pai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are known to have diverse biological roles, most prominently as signaling/regulatory molecules in a broad variety of physiological processes including defense, immunity, stress, growth, homeostasis and reproduction. These aspects have been used in the field of dermatology and cosmetology to produce short, stable and synthetic peptides for extracellular matrix synthesis, pigmentation, innate immunity and inflammation. The evolution of peptides over the century, which started with the discovery of penicillin, has now extended to their usage as cosmeceuticals in recent years. Cosmeceutical peptides may act as signal modulators of the extracellular matrix component, as structural peptides, carrier peptides and neurotransmitter function modulators. Transdermal delivery of peptides can be made more effective by penetration enhancers, chemical modification or encapsulation of peptides. The advantages of using peptides as cosmeceuticals include their involvement in many physiological functions of the skin, their selectivity, their lack of immunogenicity and absence of premarket regulatory requirements for their use. However, there are disadvantages: clinical evidence for efficacy is often weak, absorption may be poor due to low lipophilicity, high molecular weight and binding to other ingredients, and prices can be quite high.

  3. The Dynamics of Price and Advertising as Signals of Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ayar

    2007-01-01

    A monopolist introduces a new product of either low or high quality. It advertises to make consumers aware of the product and signals product quality using both price and advertising. When consumption does not re- veal product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than they would be if product quality is observable. Price rises and advertising falls as the fraction of aware consumers increases. When consumption reveals product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than...

  4. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors.

  5. Key Features of Political Advertising as an Independent Type of Advertising Communication

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    Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to the forms of mass communication, implemented through different communication channels; the presence of characteristics typical of any advertising as a form of mass communication (strategies and concepts promoting the program, ideas; an integrated approach to the selection of communication channels, means and the methods of informing the addressers that focus on the audience; the formation of psychological attitude to voting; the image nature; the manipulative potential. It is shown that the influence is the primary function of political advertising – it determines the key characteristics common to this type of advertising. Political advertising, reflecting the essence of the political platform of certain political forces, setting up voters for their support, forming and introducing into the mass consciousness a definite idea of the character of these political forces, creates the desired psychological attitude to the voting. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to formulate an operational definition of political advertising, which allowed to include the features that distinguish political advertising from other forms of political communication such as political PR which is traditionally mixed with political advertising.

  6. Key Features of Political Advertising as an Independent Type of Advertising Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to th...

  7. Advertising text as the form of social impact.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Nina; Tieliegina, Ksenia

    2014-01-01

    The given article is dedicated to the advertising text and its form of expression, social impact, and direct approaches to its study. The components of advertising texts are considered in detail. Definitions of all terms are available, related to advertising, as well as the role of the advertising text in society is defined.This article also provides a list of the main components of advertising. However, it should be noted that the presence of all components at once is not an obligatory point...

  8. TROPES AS A MEANS OF MANIPULATIVE COMMUNICATION IN ADVERTISING TEXTS

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    Anna Alexandrovna MAKARENKO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available he article highlights the substantial influence of advertising on the mass mind over the last decades. The influence of advertising on people’s opinions, aims and behaviors is of special interest for sociologists, psychologists, marketing specialists and linguists who are seeking to open the essence of the phenomenon of advertising and the mechanisms of its influence. Considering the functions of the advertising text, one can assert that the accent shifts gradually from the informational function to the manipulative one, which in its turn is based on the emotional influence. Expressive and stylistic means of advertising enrich the individual’s speech with particular expressiveness, figurativeness, emotionality and increase greatly its manipulative potential. The article highlights tropes (stylistic transfer of the name or figurative use of words to achieve better artistic expressiveness and their use as manipulative techniques in advertising texts. The article contains the analysis of the modern concept of advertising, considers the types of advertising texts in terms of their influence on the recipients of advertising, reveals the essence and distinctive features of mass mind manipulations through advertising texts, describes different tropes and mechanisms of their influence on the consumers’ mind. Examples of tropes, taken from English advertising slogans (database www.textart.ru served as the material under study. 

  9. Stickers as effective means of advertising

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    V.V. Bozhkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article presents the research results of the stickers features as effective means of advertising and the possibility of their use in the promotion of various products in the market. The essence of the concept “sticker” is analyzed. It is noted that sticker is understood as a label that is used to attract attention as a temporary means of information transmission (advertising, logistics, etc.. The results of the analysis. Application areas of stickers are investigated. It is determined that stickers are used in various fields of economics, in logistics, in management, in social networking, in advertising, etc. Special features of stickers’ application in various areas are analyzed. In particular, it is noted that in logistics stickers fulfil guarantee, identification, inventory and dated functions; in management – auxiliary functions (as stationery products; in social networks they are intended for communication and expressing emotions; in merchandising they are used with different purposes in the entrance area, on the trading floor, in checkout area, etc. Proposals for the use of stickers in various areas are systematized. Industrial companies can reflect logos on them and spread among contractors and potential buyers through exhibitions and personal contacts. In the future, they can be stuck on folders / files with the documents of the company and help them to find quickly. On the other hand, they constantly remind of this producer. The producers of goods (clothing, shoes, toys, etc. for children and teenagers can reflect a series of different images (so that they could be collected. The representatives of the target audience enthusiastically place stickers on their notebooks, diaries, computers, as well as backpacks, special boards, thereby spreading the advertising producers. With the help of stickers higher education establishments can fix in memory of different target groups (potential applicants

  10. Advertising as a Site of Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Reviews work on language contact phenomena in advertising. More emphasis is being placed on multilingual discourses in advertising and the ways in which these index identities, both of the products and services with which multiple cods are associated and of the consumers who peruse them. Also examines the various functions of different contact…

  11. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  12. An Advertisement and Article Analysis of Skin Products and Topics in Popular Women’s Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Basch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the United States, skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an esti­mated 5 million people treated per year and annual medical treatment expenditures that exceed 8 billion dollars. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 to enumerate the number of advertisements for skin products with and without Sun Protection Factor (SPF and to further analyze the specific advertise­ments for sunblock to determine if models, when present, depict sun safe behaviors and 2 to enumer­ate the number of articles related to the skin for content. Both aims include an assessment for differ­ences in age and in magazines targeting a Black or Latina population. Methods: The sample for this cross sectional study was comprised of 99 issues of 14 popular United States magazines marketed to women, four of which market to a Black or Latina audience. Results: There were 6,142 advertisements, of which 1,215 (19.8%, 95% CI: 18.8-20.8% were related to skin products. Among the skin product advertisements, 1,145 (93.8%, 95% CI: 93.9-96.3% depicted skin products without SPF. The majority of skin articles (91.2%, 95% CI: 91.7-100.0%, skin product advertisements (89.9%, 95% CI: 88.2-91.6%, and sunblock advertisements featuring models (were found in magazines aimed at the older (>24 yr audience. Conclusion: Future research on this topic could focus on the extent to which images in these maga­zines translate into risky health behaviors, such as sun seeking, or excessive other harmful effects of UV radiation.

  13. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

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    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.

  14. Consumer As Advertiser: A Conceptual Perspective1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Uzunoğlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The new mode of Internet, called Web 2.0, is a place which people actively use to share their emotions, thoughts, experiences, and memories on a daily basis. Additionally, they do not only share all of these in written format, but also express themselves visually by using photos and videos through social networks. In Web 2.0 and its phenomenon characteristic User Generated Content (UGC, consumers not only create their own advertisements but also act in them. This could be very beneficial for marketers in terms of understanding customers and reaching a wide range of target audiences. However, this situation shifts the balance of power from marketing practitioners to Internet users, which could create serious challenges for the marketing world. Consumers can promote a product but they can also jeopardize its brand equity, which can be mitigated by brand owners keeping close tabs on consumers. This article aims to provide a clearer understanding of user generated content platform, which would enables consumers to involve directly in advertising process. Additionally, the article discusses how user generated advertising (UGA is an important and contentious issue, because in a positive context it enables companies to gain brand ambassadors if they are satisfied enough, while in a negative context it might create anti-brand spokesmen and activists when they are not happy with brands. This conceptual analysis is designed to provide companies the perspective needed to develop new advertising and marketing communications strategies using a new user-driven approach to marketing.

  15. Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the…

  16. New advertising formats: advergames as a marketing communication tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sánchez García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Advergames are marketing communication-driven videogames. As a hybrid message, they combine advertising content and entertainment content, providing interesting opportunities to marketing communications in a new media environment where traditional advertising has lost effectiveness. This paper clarifies the concept of advergame, analysing the different types of advergames and their effects on marketing and communication goals. Furthermore some recommendations for implementing marketing communication through advergames are provided, as well as ethic and moral issues that should be considered.

  17. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  18. The Role of Social Media on Advertising: A Research on Effectiveness of Facebook Advertising on Enhancing Brand Image

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Milad

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research is based on Social media advertising which is one of the newest marketing topics. Marketers try to find out the best possible way to advertise their product and services in order to build relationship with customers and gain momentum to viral word of mouth marketing in social media. Social media advertising is a new version of corporate advertising which has been adopted as new techniques by many companies. Both two way communication and customized advertising are f...

  19. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising Audit As Marketing Communication Tool: Advertising Ethics

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    Selma KARABAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used by companies, which want to forest all the arrivals, is use effective advertisements aiming to bring out the properties of the product. Advertisement on consumers’ behaviors is one of the effective methods in creating demand for the product. It is a tool used in order to be distinguished in all respects of competition becoming widespread day by day. This study discusses advertisement ethics especially the ads on TV. Advertisement, by its nature, may have a have a misleading hidden character and cause unfair competition. The approach developed by consumers against such kinds of advertisements has been studied via data obtained by survey method. Consumers’ opinions on advertisement ethics were taken via Likert scale. The methods used for evaluating these surveys are Kolmogorov Smirnov test and One-Sample t-test.

  20. ADVERTISEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polish Airlines launches direct flight to Beijing LOT Polish Airlines has decided to resume flights to the Far East,starting with a direct flight between Warsaw and Beijing.The inaugural flight from Warsaw to Beijing was made on April 2, 2008.Poland’s national carrier returns to the Chinese market after an absence of nearly 10 years. In view of the considerable growth of China’s economy,the rapid development of the Polish market and the increasing economic cooperation and tourist exchange between Poland and the People’s Republic of China,LOT Polish Airlines has decided to expand its flight network with new services to Far Eastern destinations.The first of these will be a direct flight from Warsaw to Beijing."The launching of flights to Beijing is the first step toward expanding our long-distance flight network to include Far Eastern destinations,"said Wojciech K dziolka,LOT spokesman."We want to fly to the destinations our passengers want to go to.Due to the close economic relations between Asian countries and Poland as well as the rest of Europe and an ever-increasing number of tourists traveling to this region,the Far East seems to be a natural destination for LOT,"added Mr. K dziotka.

  1. Rhyme as reason in commercial and social advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkuková, Petra; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the rhyme-as-reason effect on new artificially created advertising slogans. Rhymes and non-rhymes were in Experiment 1 and 2 compared in a between-subjects design and in Experiment 3 in a within-subjects design. The quality of the form and content of the slogans was always evaluated by separate groups. In Experiment 1, we found a strong preference for rhyming slogans as opposed to their non-rhyming counterparts. Rhymes were rated as more likeable, more original, easier to remember, more suitable for campaigns, more persuasive and more trustworthy. In Experiment 2, social advertising messages were evaluated favorably in both rhyming and non-rhyming versions. However, when participants directly compared rhymes and non-rhymes on the same scale (Experiment 3), the difference between commercial and social advertising disappeared and for all slogans rhymes were clearly preferred to non-rhymes in terms of both form and content. A detailed analysis revealed that the rhymes scoring high on formal aspects were also favored in the questionnaire investigating content aspects.

  2. Advertising as a Communicative Phenomenon during the Spanish Civil War

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    Dra. Araceli Rodríguez Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a phenomenon that has helped to model societies during the last century. In order to know how it has participated in some change processes it is essential to analyse its communicative dimension. Within the theoretical framework of the History of Social Communication, this research studies the function of the commercial discourse during the Spanish Civil War. Results in three levels have been concluded with an analytic model focused on the messages spread in the press. First, the modern evolution of the advertising technique is confirmed. Second, the different alignment of advertising is compared with the propagandistic discourse of each faction, as well as with its ideological and commercial interests, and with the different relationship with consumers about events. Third, advertisements allow us to observe many details about current life better than the information censored does; specifically, the struggle to survive in the most damaged republican cities is clearly perceived. - Traducción supervisada por la Dra. María del Pino Montesdeoca (ULL.La publicidad es un fenómeno que ha ayudado a modelar las sociedades durante el último siglo y, para saber cómo ha participado en los procesos de cambio, es imprescindible analizar su dimensión comunicativa. Desde el marco teórico de la Historia de la Comunicación Social, este estudio aborda la función del discurso comercial durante la Guerra Civil española. Con un modelo analítico centrado en los mensajes difundidos en prensa se han obtenido resultados en tres niveles. Primero, se confirma la evolución moderna de la técnica publicitaria. Segundo, se compara la diferente alineación de la publicidad con el discurso propagandístico de las zonas enfrentadas, los intereses a los que respondía y la distinta interpelación a los consumidores respecto a los acontecimientos. Tercero, los anuncios permiten observar, mejor que la información censurada, ciertos detalles relativos a la

  3. Skybeams and 'light art' defined as 'advertising' for planning purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Taylor, M.

    2008-02-01

    Skybeams and light projections have been a long standing problem, not just because of possible light pollution, ecological and public safety issues, but also because there was confusion as to when planning permission was required. Under some circumstances a light beam could be used for 28 days without needing permission, whilst other users such as circuses would always need planning permission. The celebrated Guildford case saw a skybeam classified as an advert, and so needing planning permission (after lobbying by the Campaign for Dark Skies with local support), but this was not binding on later cases. So there was a lack of firm national guidance, or a court judgment clarifying the issue. However, the situation is now much clearer due to the new Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) (England) Regulations 2007.

  4. Description of older adults as depicted in magazine advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConatha, J T; Schnell, F; McKenna, A

    1999-12-01

    Negative attitudes about aging have been widespread and films, television, radio, and print media may serve as an important source of socialization or reflect the current views of older adults. This study focused on examination of the frequency of depictions of older men and women in 765 advertisements appearing in Time and Newsweek national weekly news magazines, and on an analysis of their roles suggested in photographs depicting a total of 2,505 persons. These were collected over a one-year period and coded by three persons. Analysis indicated that older adults, especially older women, were not only presented infrequently but, when presented roles, were often passive or dependent as is consistent with social stereotypes.

  5. Using Newspapers and Advertisement as a Focus for Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan; Kapici, Hasan Ozgur; Yager, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief literature review and useful suggestions for using advertisements as tools for organizing and accomplishing science teaching and learning. Newspapers and advertisements can be used as a context for developing scientific literacy and for promoting the development of critical thinking skills, through…

  6. The effectiveness of Internet advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Shpekht, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    The work on topic of The effectiveness of Internet advertising focuses on Internet advertising, which we use to advertise products and services, attracting new customers and increase total sales. The first part is presenting the basics of Internet advertising, describing different types of Internet advertising, their possibilities and restrictions. There are also presenting payment models for online advertising. The practical part is procesed on information from theoretical part for p...

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drugs as an argumentative activity type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, R.; Visser, J.; Rubinelli, S.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    With direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA), pharmaceutical companies can market their prescription drugs directly to consumers. In order to properly study the argumentative aspects of these advertisements from a pragma-dialectical perspective, it is necessary to characterize DTCA as an 'argumenta

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drugs as an argumentative activity type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, R.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    With direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA), pharmaceutical companies can market their prescription drugs directly to consumers. In order to properly study the argumentative aspect of these advertisements from a pragma-dialectical perspective, it is necessary to characterize DTCA as an ‘argumentat

  9. Parent and Adolescent Interaction in Television Advertisements as Consumer Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmete, Emine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…

  10. ASK: The Advertising Survival Kit; A Guide to Advertising in High School Newspapers and Yearbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Laurence B.

    The primary purpose of this booklet is to offer suggestions which will help alleviate some of the burdens involved in producing a school's publications, so that journalistic endeavors will not be damaged by economic difficulties. The first section discusses newspaper advertising and examines such topics as selling advertisements, sales approaches,…

  11. Modeling Newspaper Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joseph; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)

  12. A dynamic evolution model of human opinion as affected by advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gui-Xun; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Diao, Su-Meng; Xiong, Fei

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new model to investigate the dynamics of human opinion as affected by advertising, based on the main idea of the CODA model and taking into account two practical factors: one is that the marginal influence of an additional friend will decrease with an increasing number of friends; the other is the decline of memory over time. Simulations show several significant conclusions for both advertising agencies and the general public. A small difference of advertising’s influence on individuals or advertising coverage will result in significantly different advertising effectiveness within a certain interval of value. Compared to the value of advertising’s influence on individuals, the advertising coverage plays a more important role due to the exponential decay of memory. Meanwhile, some of the obtained results are in accordance with people’s daily cognition about advertising. The real key factor in determining the success of advertising is the intensity of exchanging opinions, and people’s external actions always follow their internal opinions. Negative opinions also play an important role.

  13. Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2014-10-01

    Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is - unless certain criteria are satisfied - students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided.

  14. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  15. Social networking as an advertising tool in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the behavioural patterns of users on Facebook with those on VKontakte using data collected by Facebook and a survey of Russian VKontakte users. The authors analyse the key differences between the two popular social networks, including what users perceived to be the most attractive options, the amount of time spent online and attitudes toward advertising. The results have been used to evaluate the potential of social networks (SMM for business promotion in Russia.

  16. Distraction caused by roadside advertising and information. [formerly known as: Roadside advertising and information and Advertising and information alongside the road.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Roadside advertising and information billboards can distract a driver from the driving task. Particularly billboards with moving parts, affect-laden roadside advertising, billboards placed in the central field of vision and billboards resembling traffic-relevant information draw the driver's attenti

  17. Pun in Beverage Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Technology Sichuan

    2015-01-01

    Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again. This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.

  18. Pun in Beverage Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again.This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.

  19. The Construction of Pop Culture in Advertising Discourse:Taking Coca-Cola Advertising as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官慧东

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes Coca-Cola advertising under Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework in the hope that con⁃sumers can better understand ideology behind advertising discourse. It reveals that Coca-Cola Company tries to construct pop cultures in its advertising discourse, in order to get recognition from its consumers. In turn, it contributes to the construction of the pop culture among the younger generation.

  20. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  1. Topical dexketoprofen as a cause of photocontact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abad, R; Paniagua, Ma J; Botey, E; Gaig, P; Rodriguez, P; Richart, C

    2004-01-01

    We reported on the case of a patient who developed a cutaneous eruption in a photoexposed area 1 week after a continous topical treatment with dexketoprofen (Enangel). Photopatch tests were positive for dexketoprofen, ketoprofen and piketoprofen and patch test was positive for piketoprofen. Control photopatch testing with dexketoprofen in 15 healthy volunteers was negative. Dexketoprofen, ketoprofen and piketoprofen are non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (arylpropionic acid derivatives) often used as topical anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that the benzophenone moiety of their chemical structure is the cause of their photosensitivity and cross-photoreaction.

  2. Forty Thousand Years of Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.

  3. Analysis on the Features of Advertising English-Take Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白易灵; 刘玮

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of linguistic style and a special being of market economy system, advertising has to be accordant to audience's taste and the mass psychology. Thanks to the special application field, the feature of advertising variety has its own characteristic compared with other English varieties. This essay takes the“EOS-1Ds Mark Iliac”as an example and makes a thorough investi-gation on the English of advertising.

  4. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  5. Large scale topic modeling made practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgreen, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number of docume......Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number...... topics at par with a much larger case specific vocabulary....

  6. 城市户外广告设置规划初探--以兰州新区为例%Exploration of Outdoors Advertisement Installation Planning-- Take the Lanzhou New Area as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌文超

    2014-01-01

    户外广告设置规划(以下简称“广告规划”)是户外广告管理的直接依据,其编制内容、深度和方法是规划研究的重点课题。本文以兰州新区为例,介绍了广告规划编制的探索与实践,期望对我国广告规划研究有所借鉴。%Outdoors advertisement instal ation planning is the direct basis for outdoor advertising management, the content, depth and method of planning formulation are the key research topics. This article take the Lanzhou New Area as the example, introduces the exploration and practice of advertising planning formulation, and provides certain reference for our country advertising planning.

  7. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mallarino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children’s eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  8. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  9. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05. No differences were seen in patients′ and investigator′s satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05. However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study′s results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma.

  10. So You Want to Be a Teacher Educator? The Job Advertisement as a Construction of Teacher Education in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Anne; Clarke, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes a Canadian perspective to a growing body of international research investigating teacher education, specifically as a category of academic work exemplified in employment advertisements. By investigating how Canadian employment advertisements in teacher education are constructed as mediating artefacts in the relationship…

  11. Solar thermal energy as a topic in secondary mathematics classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, A.; Brinkmann, K. [EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers. The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept. (orig.)

  12. 75 FR 17769 - In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of... Ester of Respondents Found in Default; Issuance of Cease and Desist Orders AGENCY: U.S. International... ethyl ester by reason of false advertising in violation of Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, 15...

  13. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  14. An investigation into the advantage of non–verbal measurement of emotion in television advertisements across South African generation / Poalses J.

    OpenAIRE

    Poalses, Jacolize

    2011-01-01

    Emotions have become an important research topic in both the behavioural sciences and advertising. Nowadays, emotions are acknowledged as an important mediator of cognitive and behavioural consumer responses to advertising. Consequently, researchers in marketing and advertising have emphasised the need to consider emotions as a crucial factor in the advertising process. To test the viability of this assumption, an empirical research study was conducted at the Behavioural and Communication Res...

  15. Preparing for a digital future - Advertising to Finnish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Miiluvaara, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the topic of online advertising. The main focus of the thesis is to find out how advertisers can reach Millennials through online advertising. The researcher explores which online channels Millennials prefer among other things. Therefore, the purpose of the thesis is to find out which advertising channels and formats advertisers should use in order to reach this generation and prepare for future trends. In other words, finding out which advertising methods advertisers sho...

  16. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MCM; Lo, ECM; Glenny, AM; Tsang, BWK; Worthington, HV; Marinho, VCC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic search of the Cochra...

  17. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Effect of Television Advertising on Food Intake in Children: Why Such a Sensitive Topic is Lacking Top-Level Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Foltran, Francesca; Berchialla, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at assessing the effect of television advertising on food intake in children from 4 to 12 years old. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed database and included if they assessed the effect of direct exposure to television food advertising over the actual energy intake of children. Seven studies out of 2166 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association between television advertising and energy intake is based on a very limited set of randomized researches lacking a solid ground of first-level evidence.

  18. The Role of Media Context in the Advertising Persuasion Process: A Modeling Attempt among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma BESBES KHOUAJA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding remains limited as to how a TV program affects the viewers’ reactions toward advertisements surrounding this program. This paper tries to shed light on this research topic, by proposing a global conceptualization of the media context effect on the performance of advertisements targeting young viewers. The paper equally stresses the theoretical as well as empirical contributions of this research.

  19. [Environmental history as an anthropologic topic. Contribution to "chemical anthropology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, G

    1990-06-01

    Human population history is firmly connected with temporal and regional changes of the environment. Whether natural or anthropogene, alteration of environmental features lead to changes of human life-style and to the development of adaptive strategies. The demand of resources for his subsistence has led man to diverse impacts on his environment since ever. Thus, environmental history is a scientific topic for anthropologists. The research potential of trace element studies of excavated human skeletons for the reconstruction of natural and socio-cultural environments as well as for distribution patterns of hazardous substances is outlined for the European Middle Ages. The scientific value of unravelling past man/environment-interrelationships for both the historical and applied sciences and the place of any "chemical anthropology" within this context is discussed.

  20. TOPICAL IMMUNIZATION AND THE USE OF CHITOSAN AS CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh prabhu K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the technological advances in biomedical sciences and the better understanding of how the immune system works, new immunisation strategies and vaccine delivery options, such sprays, patches, and edible formulations have been developed. Needle-free delivery of vaccines has become a global priority. Transcutaneous immunisation (TCI, topical application of vaccine antigens to the skin, can elicit systemic antibody and T-cell responses, suggesting that this new technique may provide a means for vaccination without needles. TCI requires the use of an adjuvant such as cholera toxin added to a vaccine antigen, such as diphtheria toxoid, to induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid. The adjuvant and antigen are thought to target Langerhans cells, potent antigen-presenting cells found in the superficial layers of the skin. TCI appears to be a highly practical technique for delivery of vaccines that provides unique access to the immune system.

  1. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin.

  2. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  3. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  4. Comparative Advertising in the Czech Republic: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative advertising had been traditionally banned in most EU countries and was allowed by the European law just relatively recently. That is why in the EU this form of advertising is relatively new, as opposed to the situation in the US, where comparative advertising has been widely used and well accepted by consumers for decades. The literature has been silent on the topic of the effectiveness of comparative advertising in the Czech Republic, as well as in other Central and Eastern European countries. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of comparative advertising campaigns in the Czech Republic. Using an online survey with 160 Czech respondents, we found that the attitude towards comparative advertising is rather positive in the Czech Republic. We also identified that the gender of the recipient influences the general perception of comparative advertising. On the other hand, the age of the recipient does not seem to be a moderator of the attitude towards comparative advertising, in general. The results also do not signal any impact of the gender and the age of the recipient on the change of the perception of any of the brands involved in the campaign. Managerial implications target mainly marketing and advertising managers responsible for Central European markets.

  5. Transforming Pedagogies with New Technologies: Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The author was keen to look at advertising with her online classes, both in Business Enterprise (looking at how businesses operate, target marketing, language used in business etc) and in Creative Writing as she felt that this was a topic which worked in both areas and was an important one due to the huge impact and the big intrusion that…

  6. Review of topical beta blockers as treatment for infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Sally L; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infantile hemangiomas changed from the use of oral corticosteroids to oral propranolol on the serendipitous discovery of propanolol's clinical effectiveness in 2008. Since then, clinicians have begun to use topical beta blockers--in particular, timolol maleate 0.5% gel forming solution--with good effect. Topical beta blockers are now used for lesions with both deep and superficial components and those that are amblyogenic. When initiated in the proliferative phase of the lesion, the effectiveness of the treatment can be seen within days. There is no consensus on dosing, treatment bioavailability, or clinical assessment of lesions, but these are topics for future research.

  7. VIDEO MATERIALS AS A MEANS OF PROMOTION AND ADVERTISING OF THE FIELDS OF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Malec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there were presented some information about marketing and advertisement in the aspect of acquiring customers-candidate for studies with the help of the film as a tool of this kind of action. The paper also shows the results of the survey research and their analysis in the scope of expected features which will be characteristic, according to the respondents, for above-mentioned transfer tool.

  8. Environment as a basis for the design of advertising structures by forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelevsky, Y. P.; Seryakov, V. A.; Mamontov, G. Y.; Tsarenko, D. T.

    2017-01-01

    A few different neighbouring styles of architectural forms are quite frequent in the cities of great historical past. As a result, a designer or architect has to solve the complex problem while designing the objects within such environment, i.e. one has to fit them naturally into the existing site development. Often, form making is found to be hard, due to the fact that the existing architectural forms of totally different stylistic execution coexist in the visual proximity. Presently, placement of the advertising bills in urban environment is both an urgent and debatable issue. On the one hand, advertising providers are keen to present their product bigger and brighter, on the other hand, the overall and eye-catching exhibition stands can be disharmonious with the surrounding architectural ensemble of the city. This situation is relevant for every cultural city.

  9. Ethical advertising in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graskemper, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.

  10. "Who would know better than the girls in white?" Nurses as experts in postwar magazine advertising, 1945-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily

    2012-01-01

    American advertising in the period immediately following the Second World War portrayed nurses as trusted advisers and capable professionals and frequently pictured them performing skilled work, including dispensing medicine and assisting in surgery. Advertisements published in a range of magazines whose target audiences varied by gender, race, age, and class show that nurses in postwar advertisements embodied two broad categories of representation: (a) medical authority, scientific progress, and hospital cleanliness; and (b) feminine expertise, especially in female and family health. Typically portrayed as young white women--although older nurses were occasionally depicted and black nurses appeared in advertisements intended for black audiences-nurses were especially prominent in advertisements for menstrual and beauty products, as well as products related to children's health. Although previous scholarly examinations of nurses in postwar mass media have emphasized their portrayal as hypersexual and incompetent, this investigation posits postwar advertising as a forum that emphasized nurses' professionalism, as well as complex expectations surrounding women's professional and domestic roles.

  11. Advertising identities: virtual galleries as places of identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zontea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the public presentation of self through virtual art galleries, singling out the field of photography. Photography has always been disputed as being part of the highbrow arts because of its popular character. Today, anyone who owes a photo camera can experience photography as art, without a rigorous training. Everybody is able to expose the photos freely to a large number of people, on the Internet. Consequently, the Internet opens up a virtual space, in which photo artists and amateurs can promote their works and exhibit them in a personal online gallery, which represents their place in the virtual vastness. Therefore, my research approaches the matter of the virtual gallery as an identitary place, being focused on finding out why artists choose to exhibit in virtual galleries. I asked myself what are the new functions of the virtual art galleries?Are they understood as online markers that distinguish the owners in these virtual environments? In other words, are these personal galleries a way of expressing online identities?

  12. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.

  13. Search word advertising as a part of company's marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Eroma, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Digital marketing is the fastest growing field of marketing across the globe. Companies of all sizes are gradually allocating more of their marketing budgets into digital media, as more traditional marketing medias, print, radio and television, are losing their importance and marketing impact. This is partly due to ever-changing consumer habits, especially how consumers nowadays consume media. Every day more and more people have the access to go online across the globe, and are spending more ...

  14. Children and advertising. The moral issues when children are seen as consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Collaku, Leonard, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is not a substantial subject restricted to the area of philosophical debates. The ethical process related to advertising begins when individuals and groups believe that advertising is harmful. Such beliefs may prove valid, depending on the target audience of the marketers and the intentions of the advertisers. One area of concern which has recently generated major consideration arises from children being the focus of marketing and advertising. Concerns about children‟s ability to fully...

  15. Emotion-Eliciting Qualities of Television Campaign Advertising as a Predictor of Voting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John T.; Biggers, Thompson

    1986-01-01

    Relates political candidates' television advertising to voters' emotional reactions and voting behavior. Suggests that television campaign advertising elicits emotion along three continua: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness. Suggests that emotional response to such advertising is systematically related to voting…

  16. Banner Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Majoroš, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    History of internet advertising, types of internet advertising. Banner advertising, methods of payment for banner advertising, formats and technologies. Internet media market in Czech Republic, portals, servers, media agents, media agencies, SPIR association. Banner campaign, its planning, execution and evaluation. Videobanner campaign Nivea For Men, searching for the most effective format for videoadvertising on the internet.

  17. Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...

  18. ETHICS AND ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.

  19. On the Psychological Plausibility of "Topic" as a Construct in Research on Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the importance of sentence topic in written discourse. Training second language writers to identify sentence topics in drafts of their written work has been proposed as a central means of helping writers achieve greater coherence. The study explored the notion that "topic" is a psychological rather than linguistic concept, and…

  20. ADVERTISEMENT FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stopping the torrent of tobacco ads in China will take tringent legislation, experts say Advertisements promoting brand names such as Baisha, Hongta and Furongwang are a common sight in cities across China. Visible at bus stops, in railway stations, on top of buildings and at eye-level on apartment gates, to residents these cigarette companies are household names, though often the ads don't even mention cigarettes or smoking.

  1. Complementary Therapies for Idiopathic Hirsutism: Topical Licorice as Promising Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A and placebo (group B. Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients’ skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (p<0.001, and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only.

  2. Rhetoric and Lexicalisation as Aspects of Persuasive Strategy in the Language of Insurance Advertising in the Nigerian Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lekan Oyeleye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse function of rhetoric and lexicalisation in insurance advertising discourse in the Nigerian print media. It investigates how they are used as part of the advertisers’ strategies of persuasion. Published insurance advertisements were collected from three purposively selected Nigerian national newspapers The Guardian, The Punch and Daily Champion, complemented with billboard advertisements from all the southwestern states of Nigeria. These were analysed using insights from Gumperz (1982’s theory of interactional sociolinguistics and M.A.K. Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. The analysis reveals that the lexical choice of the advertisers contained a dominant use of skill-indicative lexical items which portrayed the insurance companies as experts in their field. There was also a strategic use of morality indicative lexical items, to persuade potential clients about the trustworthiness of the company. Risk-indicative and, action-provoking lexical items, pictorial rhetoric and rhetorical devices like metaphor, hyperbole and personification were employed as persuasive strategies. Keywords: lexicalisation, strategies of persuasion, insurance, advertising, rhetorical devices

  3. Factors influencing the intention to accept advertising in mobile social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Jafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The role and importance of advertising in today's world is no secret. Advertising can have a significant role on consumer behavioral intention. Increasing the use of mobile and social networks in mobile phones has provided a new opportunity for marketers to continuously advertise their products or services and also communicate directly with their consumers. Nevertheless, the trust of audiences on mobile advertising has been significantly reduced and people often consider mobile advertising as tool for companies deception. Given that between consumer attitude to general advertising and advertising on mobile there is a difference. It’s not clear what is consumers attitude about advertising messages on their mobile and mobile social networks and how their attitude affects consumers intention to acceptance. In order to address the influencing factors on mobile advertising acceptance the model was developed. This model examines social norms, influential factors on consumers’ attitude and intention to accept advertisements in mobile and mobile social networks. The results of the analysis. To test the research model, the data of 436 mobile users in Mashhad, Iran was collected by questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by Amos software. Findings show that social norms have significant impact on usefulness and perceived ease of use of mobile advertising. Moreover, trust, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have positive impact on users’ attitude toward mobile advertising. Finally it was shown that perceived usefulness and attitude toward mobile advertising has impact on intention to accept mobile advertising. Subject to the fact that this medium is in its emerging stage in Iran, this research findings are interpretable and extensible. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Research findings indicate that entertainment, informativeness, irritation, credibility

  4. Problems and Countermeasures in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is an important tie linking the international commercial activities.Advertisement language,as the main core of advertisements,plays an important role on conveying information.However,people usually suffer from some problems when they conduct advertising translation activities.This essay figures out the problems and the requirements of advertising translation, and some primary methods approaching to the most appropriate advertising translation.

  5. A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis:Taking a Car Advertisement as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕君

    2014-01-01

    This study is a multimodal discourse analysis of an initiative advertisement of the New Cayman released by the official website of Porsche, Follow the Code of Curve, based on the three-dimensional conception of discourse by Norman Fairclough. The research finds that the social trend of commercial advertising is becoming focusing on people instead of products.

  6. In ads we trust: religiousness as a predictor of advertising trustworthiness and avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Konig, R.; Smit, E.G.; Thorbjørnsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to provide insight into the relationship between religiousness, trust in advertising and advertisement avoidance. Design/methodology/approach - A survey of 4,984 participants from the USA, the UK, Germany, Spain and France was conducted. Findings - This paper shows that rel

  7. In ads we trust: religiousness as a predictor of advertising trustworthiness and avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Konig, R.P.; Smit, E.G.; Thorbjornsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide insight into the relationship between religiousness, trust in advertising and advertisement avoidance. Design/methodology/approach – A survey of 4,984 participants from the USA, the UK, Germany, Spain and France was conducted. Findings – This paper shows that rel

  8. Advertising English and ESP: the British Cosmopolitan ad as an example of ‘specialised’ text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Velasco Sacristán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Advertising English is characterised by several linguistic, pragmatic and functional features that distinguish it from other varieties of English that are not specialised. In this paper we have analysed the linguistic (i.e. graphic-phonologic, morpho-syntactic and lexico-semantic, pragmatic and functional features of advertising English, using a sample of 1142 advertisements run in British Cosmopolitan in 1999 and 2000, and have considered their closeness or distance from general English texts. In short, this analysis has proved that advertising English is a variety of ESP (English for Specific Purposes with a low degree of specialisation and of a social type, which is on the borderline between GE (General English and ESP. It has also proved that although related to EBE (English for Business and Economics, because of its economic content and purpose, advertising English seems to be closer to GE than EBE.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE ADVERTISING “WAITING ROOM” USED AS A PERSUASIVE RESOURCE FOR THE PROMOTION OF READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Nunes Silva Maciel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our proposal is to investigate the exploitation of children’s literature used as a persuasive resource for encouraging reading in the advertisement “Waiting Room”, created by the advertising agency DPZ, at the request of Itaú Social Foundation. Anchored in a qualitative exploratory research, with a critical-analytical approach, we analyzed the construction of the mentioned advertising text, considering the presence of digital culture in its constitution, in order to investigate the voices present and the resources used to convince the interlocutor to proceed to the reading of several texts included in the literary universe. In the search for the construction of sense, we highlighted the use of intertextuality, which weaves various discursive strands with children’s literature, in a dialogic movement of assimilation. The result indicated the usefulness of literature to be explored by multimodal texts, partly due to the convergence of languages that emerge from the joint of image, sound and movement.

  10. Advertising Through Social Media : Advertising plan for a hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugghe, Yann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written in order to develop advertising for the manor hotel Karolineburg, located in Kajaani, Finland, by using a social network as advertising media. This work also had for goal to show the possibility of social advertising and the benefits it can bring along. According to the situation of the company, findings and results revealed positive aspects of the work done.

  11. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.

  12. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing potent

  13. Advertising-induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); I.E. de Hooge (Ilona); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractConsumer embarrassment is an important concern for marketers. Yet, little is known about embarrassment in passive situations like advertising viewing. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The

  14. The Influence of Advertisements in Increasing the Sales in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Halit Karaxha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advertisement is a form of marketing communication which is used to encourage, convince or manipulate an audience (the viewers, listeners or readers, sometimes a special group to take or to continue taking some actions. Advertisements have an important role in increasing sales. Successful ads that result with the growth of sales require competent personnel including a number of specialists; therefore it is very necessary to choose the personnel carefully, to ensure firms a stable position in the market. Advertisement costs are quite large, but they have to be in accordance with the growth of sales. From the collected and analyzed data, we can conclude that kosovar businesses pay great attention to advertisements and share their budget for them. In this paper, the importance of advertisements in sales growth is explained, as well as how many ads do they do, how much budget do they share for this, for which kinds of media do they share more budget and what obstacles they encounter during the advertising. The paper consists of two parts: the part of literature review that is connected to the topic and the research part. Primary data was used for the realization of the paper, which was obtained through questionnaires by direct contact with the general managers, marketing managers, directors and owners with a wide knowledge about advertisements in enterprises. For the realization of this paper, quantitative methods were used.

  15. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising

  16. La publicite et l'enseignement du francais langue etrangere (Advertising and the Teaching of French as a Second Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerie, Charles de

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the use of advertisements as instructional material, indicating that they appear almost exclusively in advanced level textbooks for adults and that they are seldom exploited according to clearly defined objectives. Discusses various modes of utilization and suggests criteria for the selection of such materials. (MES)

  17. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  18. Race as a Dimension In Children's TV Advertising: The Need for More Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Thomas E.; Sheikh, Anees A.

    1977-01-01

    States that most of the current research in the area of television advertising for children excludes black subjects; reviews major studies of television and children and black versus white child development. (MB)

  19. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  20. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  1. The underlying processes of creative media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of t

  2. Topics in effective field theory as applied to lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Brian

    This thesis focuses on understanding aspects of hadronic physics using numerical and analytic computations which comprise the research fields of Lattice QCD and Effective Field Theories. Lattice QCD is a numerical approximation to QCD that is computed within a finite spacetime volume, a finite lattice spacing, and unphysically large values of the quark mass used to limit computational run time. Because Lattice QCD calculations are implemented with these constraints, it becomes necessary to understand how these constraints influence the physics if we are to extract physical observables. This requires the use and matching of an effective field theory for mesons and baryons which are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the effective field theory Lagrangian. We consider pion and nucleon interactions in Chapter 3 when computational demands force the use of small, spacetime lattices, and extract the axial charge of the nucleon. In Chapters 4 and 5 we examine systems of up to twelve particles of single species, pions or kaons, and mixed species systems of pions and kaons. From these systems we learn about the scattering lengths and three-body forces of these particles. These multi-particle systems also allow one to understand the behavior of finite density systems on the lattice. Lastly in Chapter 6, we examine parton distributions of the pion for a nonzero change in the pion's momentum. These are known as generalized parton distributions and reveal information regarding the valence quarks within a particular hadron. Before the advent of QCD, however, these particles were also known as partons.

  3. Solid effervescent formulations as new approach for topical minoxidil delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maíra N; Schulte, Heidi L; Duarte, Natane; Lima, Eliana M; Sá-Barreto, Livia L; Gratieri, Tais; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Cunha-Filho, Marcilio S S

    2017-01-01

    Currently marketed minoxidil formulations present inconveniences that range from a grease hard aspect they leave on the hair to more serious adverse reactions as scalp dryness and irritation. In this paper we propose a novel approach for minoxidil sulphate (MXS) delivery based on a solid effervescent formulation. The aim was to investigate whether the particle mechanical movement triggered by effervescence would lead to higher follicle accumulation. Preformulation studies using thermal, spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the compatibility between effervescent salts and the drug. The effervescent formulation demonstrated a 2.7-fold increase on MXS accumulation into hair follicles casts compared to the MXS solution (22.0±9.7μg/cm(2) versus 8.3±4.0μg/cm(2)) and a significant drug increase (around 4-fold) in remaining skin (97.1±29.2μg/cm(2)) compared to the drug solution (23.5±6.1μg/cm(2)). The effervescent formulations demonstrated a prominent increase of drug permeation highly dependent on the effervescent mixture concentration in the formulation, confirming the hypothesis of effervescent reaction favoring drug penetration. Clinically, therapy effectiveness could be improved, increasing the administration interval, hence, patient compliance. More studies to investigate the follicular targeting potential and safety of new formulations are needed.

  4. Vagueness in Advertising Discourse and its Motivations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁琪

    2008-01-01

    My study aims at introducing the theory of vagu eness,analyzing its linguistic realizations in advertising language from semantics,pragmatics,as well as psychology angles.The major purpose of this article is to draw advertisers' attention to the application of vagueness in advertising and make full use of th e psychology factors and to give them better knowledge of vague advertising so as to prepare them for the production of more successful advertisements.

  5. Analytical comparison of Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action about mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Tabatabaei Nasab; Saeed Saeeda Ardakani; Fateme Nikzad

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of high speed wireless network technologies and the increasing market penetration of cell phones the global advertising industry’s interest in using this medium as a means of marketing communication is rising. However, in spite of the increasing number of companies investing in mobile marketing campaigns, there is, as yet, little academic research on this topic and the nature and implications of this channel are not yet understood fully.Mobile advertising refers to advertis...

  6. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  7. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  8. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  9. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...

  10. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...

  11. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  12. Determinants of Temporal Variations in Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chanjin; Kaiser, Harry M.

    1998-01-01

    This article develops a varying-parameter advertising model which specifies advertising parameters as a function of variables representing advertising strategies and market environments to explain the varying nature of the advertising responses. Unlike prior models, this model allows researchers to examine the sources of change in advertising effectiveness over time. The model is applied to the New York City fluid milk market for the period from January 1986 through June 1995. Results indicat...

  13. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  14. 48 CFR 852.203-70 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising... Commercial advertising. As prescribed in 803.570-2, insert the following clause: Commercial Advertising (JAN... solicitation, he/she will not advertise the award of the contract in his/her commercial advertising in such...

  15. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement in advertisements—(1) General requirement. Except as provided in § 328.3(d), each... not insured in all of its advertisements requiring use of the official advertising statement....

  16. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  17. Advertising-induced Embarrassment

    OpenAIRE

    Puntoni, Stefano; de Hooge, Ilona; Verbeke, Willem

    2013-01-01

    textabstractConsumer embarrassment is an important concern for marketers. Yet, little is known about embarrassment in passive situations like advertising viewing. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing potentially embarrassing ads together with an audience that shares the social identity targeted by the message and viewing the same ads together with an audien...

  18. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Retnowati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

  19. Advertising in virtual space. An increasing threat for traditional advertising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan DINA

    Full Text Available Traditional advertising media used as a main TV, radio and print media. When the Internet has become one of the most important channels of communication between people, advertising has proposed to use this new medium to promote products and services on the market. Currently, more than 50% of the western countries population and share increasingly larger of population from other countries have Internet access, which creates a huge potential for online advertising.

  20. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  1. A Brief Analysis of Translation Principles in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游丽

    2015-01-01

    Advertising English, as an application language, has become universal and dependent. In this thesis, the author summarizes 3 translation principles in English advertisements, which provide the reference to the advertising translation.

  2. Topical cyclosporin as an alternative treatment for vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail AS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Salim Ismail,1,2 Rohana Taharin,2 Zunaina Embong11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Jalan Resindensi, Pulau Pinang, MalaysiaAbstract: Here, a case of vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis that responded well to topical cyclosporin is reported. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of bilateral blepharokeratoconjunctivitis was regularly treated with lid scrubbing using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids as well as an intermittent course of oral doxycycline for the past year. She developed acute onset bilateral eye redness associated with poor vision in her right eye. Both eyes showed marked diffuse hyperemic conjunctiva with corneal vascularization. The presence of corneal vascularization obscured the visual axis in the right eye. The condition did not improve with regular intensive lid hygiene using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids. She was started on topical cyclosporin A 0.5% every 6 hours. There was a dramatic regression of corneal vascularization after 3 days on topical cyclosporin, with marked improvement in visual acuity. This is a single case in which cyclosporin improved the status of the ocular surface. A large cohort study is required to justify its effectiveness in treating blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and to test its potential as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in comparison to conventional corticosteroids.Keywords: blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporin

  3. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  4. ADVERTISING WITH SOCIAL DISCOURSE AS A BRAND POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: REVIEW OF RESEARCH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE LATVIAN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivars Helde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the nature of the social discourse of advertising used as a brand positioning technique. The focus is on consumer advertising that is directed at the promotion of selected products or services to the general public. The study is neither meant to exhaust all aspects of this particular discourse, nor present the answers to all the problems posed. The aims of this paper include analyzing varying commercial advertisements (both product/non-product ads to investigate the intentions and techniques of consumer product companies for reaching more consumers and selling more products. Norman Fairclough’s ‘3-D model’ and Kress and van Leeuwen’s ‘grammar of visual design’ present methods for use by professionals in this respect, but we focus on the use of stereotypes in our study.Traditionally, stereotypes are defined as patterns or schemes by which people organize their behaviors and activities. Psychologists have been extremely interested in the persuasion techniques used by advertisers. The implicit question that most of these studies have entertained is whether advertising has become a force that molds cultural mores and individual behaviors, or whether it constitutes no more than a ‘mirror’ of deeper cultural tendencies within urbanized contemporary society.The one thing which everyone agrees upon, is that advertising has become one of the most recognizable and appealing forms of social communication to which everyone in society is exposed.However, it could be said from the results of this study that the producers of ads generally use power and ideology to change people’s behavior and thoughts. In cases where ‘old’ stereotypes were effective, there was no attempt to change the consumer’s habits, but rather the power of the ad was in preserving their customary behaviors. This is achieved through reinforcing behaviors known to be similar to the traditional values identified by customers. When we considered

  5. Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, R E; Scott, D K

    Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires.

  6. Research on Memetic Phenomena in Commercial Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2015-01-01

    Meme plays an important role in the development of advertisement as a unit of culture.Its replication and transmission provide an effective means for creating advertisements and a new way for us to analyze advertising language.Two ways including memetic genotype and memetic phenotype for memes to be replicated and transmitted in the advertising language are analyzed.Then,how to successfully create commercial advertisements is explored.Finally,it is concluded that the concise,familiar,popular and original memes can contribute to successful commercial advertisements.

  7. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  8. Advertising in the Sznajd Marketing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian

    The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, is applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice, the smaller the amount of advertising is needed to convince the whole market.

  9. Advertising effects in Sznajd marketing model

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schulze

    2002-01-01

    The traditional Sznajd model, as well as its Ochrombel simplification for opinion spreading, are applied to marketing with the help of advertising. The larger the lattice is the smaller is the amount of advertising needed to convince the whole market

  10. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  11. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  12. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the lev

  13. Lipid nano/submicron emulsions as vehicles for topical flurbiprofen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-You; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chang, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chia-Hsuan; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2004-01-01

    The application of lipid nano/submicron emulsions as topical drug carrier systems for the percutaneous absorption of flurbiprofen was investigated. The lipid emulsions were made up of isopropyl myristate (IPM), soybean oil, or coconut oil as the oil phase, egg lecithin as the predominant emulsifier, and double-distilled water as the external phase. Stearylamine (SA) and deoxycholic acid (DA) also were used to produce positively and negatively charged emulsions. To evaluate the physicochemical properties of the lipid emulsions, particle size by laser light scattering, the image of atomic force microscopy, and relaxation time values by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were determined. The in vitro permeation data showed that incorporation of SA significantly reduced the topical delivery of flurbiprofen. On the other hand, incorporation of DA exhibited no or a negligible effect on drug permeation. Enhancement of drug absorption was observed when adding oleic acid as part of the oil phase. The in vivo topical application of flurbiprofen from selected lipid emulsions showed a similar trend to the in vitro status. Furthermore, the intersubject variability was considerably reduced by lipid emulsions than by aqueous suspensions in both the in vitro and in vivo experiments. The irritant profiles of lipid emulsions showed that IPM elicited higher irritation than soybean oil. The incorporation of oleic acid also produced skin disruption. The results in the present study suggest the feasibility of lipid emulsions for the topical delivery of flurbiprofen.

  14. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  15. Application of Pun in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan; Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates the definition of pun,especially its features, as well as the typical application of pun in English advertisements in order to emphasize its importance in daily usage both for advertisers and to target readers.It aims to demonstrate the importance of grasping the gist of pun in English advertisements.

  16. Medicalisation of food advertising. Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (d) media genres to which nutrition and health claims in food advertising pertained. This so-called "medicalisation" of food advertising may promote images of the body and mind as malfunctioning unless remedied by the use of--advertised--products.

  17. Advertising literacy and children's susceptibility to advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children's advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children's advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising li

  18. Treatment of corneal squamous cell carcinoma using topical 1% 5-fluorouracil as monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbandt, Daniel M; Driskell, Elizabeth A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the use of topical 1% 5-fluorouracil as a sole therapy for canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A 12-year-old castrated male pug was evaluated for a well-demarcated, central, 3 mm in diameter, pale pink, raised, right corneal mass. An incisional biopsy was obtained using a #64 beaver blade after topical anesthesia and without sedation. A definitive diagnosis of corneal SCC was obtained after histopathologic evaluation of the biopsy. Topical 1% 5-fluorouracil ointment was applied to the right eye four times daily for 2 weeks followed by no treatment for 2 weeks, then treatment again twice daily for 2 weeks. The cornea remained free of recurrence 10 months after cessation of treatment. In dogs affected with corneal SCC, topical 1% 5-fluorouracil monotherapy may be a viable and cost-effective treatment option with minimal side effects. This chemotherapy agent may also have an effect on corneal pigmentation. Chronic cyclosporine therapy did not contribute to the pathogenesis of corneal SCC in the case described.

  19. Advertising information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Although all advertising material is expected to conform to ethical(medical)standards,inclusion in this publication does not constitute a guarantee or endorsement of the quality or value of such product or of the claims made of it by its manufacturer.Covered in the abstract and citation database Scopus~.Full text available on ScienceDirect~.

  20. Advertising and the Seven Sins of Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....

  1. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  2. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  3. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  4. 25 CFR 162.606 - Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 162.606 Section 162.606 Indians BUREAU OF... § 162.606 Advertisement. Except as otherwise provided in this part, prior to granting a lease or permit.... Advertisements will call for sealed bids and will not offer preference rights....

  5. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as...

  6. Some Linguistic Features in Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2009-01-01

    "Advertising" might be defined as any means of bringing information to the public for the purpose of drawing attention to manufactured goods, services, shops, or entertainments. Distinguished from other varieties like English in lit-erature, English in news and English in science, advertising English enjoys many other interesting features. This paper intends to discuss some linguistic features in Advertising English.

  7. Advertising to the End Consumers by Pharmaceutical Companies: Blessing or Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last several years have seen an increase inthe number of direct to consumer advertisements by pharmaceutical companies.Direct to Consumer advertisements (DTC means targeting the end consumerthrough advertisements on television, radio, in newspapers, magazines, and theInternet. The qualitative study presents data and supports  the need for a future quantitative study toask physicians and consumers their opinions on whether pharmaceutical companiesshould be allowed to advertise directly to the end consumer. This article reviewsthe literature on this controversial topic, supporting the need to explore thereserach questions in greater detail. A review of the literature suggests thereis financial motivation on the part of the pharmaceutical companies to increasetheir sales by advertsing directly to the end consumer as opposed to performingan educational service to the consumer.

  8. The Future of Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAHIDA ASHIQ

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese business is in love with advertising. It is regarded as the only way to hammer home a message to consumers. The bigger the billboard, the brasher the TV commercial, the better the reach to the Chinese public. But Chinese companies hoping to establish valued brands in the West will be disappointed if they try to rely on advertising. Increasingly in the West, it is regarded as an outmoded way of communicating with the public, a waste of budget. And there are some surprising converts to this position.

  9. Towards a triadic creative role: Hong Kong advertising creatives' responses to the rise of social media

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pui Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The rise of social media has significant implications for the advertising industry, particularly for the relationships between marketers, consumers and advertising agencies. In fact, the entire advertising landscape has been developing in response to the emergence of digital technologies and advertising media, and the roles of these key stakeholders of the advertising industry and how they perform in the social media era are still not clear. Most previous research on this topic...

  10. In vitro analysis of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Zuidema, Johan; Visscher, Susan H; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2011-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents can be used to treat problematic bleedings in patients who undergo surgery. Widely used are the collagen- and gelatin-based hemostats. This study aimed to develop a fully synthetic, biodegradable hemostatic agent to avoid exposure to animal antigens. In this in vitro study the suitability of different newly developed polyurethane-based foams as a hemostatic agent has been evaluated and compared to commonly used agents. An experimental in vitro test model was used in which human blood flowed through the test material. Different modified polyurethane foams were compared to collagen and gelatin. The best coagulation was achieved with collagen. The results of the polyurethane foam improved significantly by increasing the amount of polyethylene glycol. Therefore, the increase of the PEG concentration seems a promising approach. Additional in vivo studies will have to be implemented to assess the application of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

  11. Advertising Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon

    The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…

  12. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors.

  13. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  14. [Medical topics of the Goethe period as reflected in the Goethe Dictionary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaps, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with some medical topics which were mentioned or discussed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and can thus be found in the dictionary which lists and explains all the words he used, the Goethe Dictionary. The author makes a case for the use of this primarily literary and linguistic work e. g. as source material for historians of medicine and shows some of its possible uses.

  15. Which Type of Antismoking Advertisement Is Perceived as More Effective? An Experimental Study With a Sample of Australian Socially Disadvantaged Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; d'Este, Catherine; Durkin, Sarah; Doran, Christopher

    2015-11-11

    Purpose . Evaluate the perceived effectiveness of key antismoking messages among highly disadvantaged smokers and assess the impact of nicotine dependence and cessation cognitions on message processing. Design . The experimental crossover trial, undertaken between March and December 2012, randomly exposed participants to two of three antismoking advertisements delivered via touchscreen computer. Setting . Welfare recipients were recruited from a community service organization in New South Wales, Australia. Subjects . Subjects were 354 smokers (79% response rate). Participants resided in government rental housing (52%), earned less than AUD$400/wk (72%), and received their primary income from government welfare (95%). Intervention . Three 30-second antismoking television advertisements representing common campaign themes: why to quit (graphic imagery), why to quit (personal testimonial), or how to quit. Measures . An 11-item scale assessed perceived effectiveness and message acceptance. An eight-item cessation cognitions index assessed motivations and readiness to quit, and the heaviness of smoking index was used to classify nicotine dependence. Analysis . Descriptive statistics, generalized linear mixed models, and multiple linear regression analyses are reported. Results . Why-to-quit advertisements were perceived as significantly more effective than the how-to-quit advertisement (all p advertisements providing good reasons to quit may be the most effective in promoting the antismoking message among groups with high smoking rates.

  16. Microemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of voriconazole: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Gladious Naguib; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim; El-Milligi, Mohamed Farid

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate microemulsion (ME) as a topical delivery system for the poorly water-soluble voriconazole. Different ME components were selected for the preparation of plain ME systems with suitable rheological properties for topical use. Two permeation enhancers were incorporated, namely sodium deoxycholate or oleic acid. Drug-loaded MEs were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and in vitro permeation studies using guinea pig skin. MEs based on polyoxyethylene(10)oleyl ether (Brij 97) as the surfactant showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior and were loaded with voriconazole. Jojoba oil-based MEs successfully prolonged voriconazole release up to 4 h. No significant changes in physical or rheological properties were recorded on storage for 12 months at ambient conditions. The presence of permeation enhancers favored transdermal rather than dermal delivery. Sodium deoxycholate was more effective than oleic acid for enhancing the voriconazole permeation. Voriconazole-loaded MEs, with and without enhancers, showed significantly better antifungal activity against Candida albicans than voriconazole supersaturated solution. In conclusion, the studied ME formulae could be promising vehicles for topical delivery of voriconazole.

  17. Resina Draconis as a topical treatment for pressure ulcers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqi; Xiong, Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Jie; Mao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have reported on Resina Draconis (RD) as a topical treatment for pressure ulcers. To evaluate these studies, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the efficacy of RD for pressure ulcers. We searched eight electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials in which RD treatment was compared with other topical treatment of pressure ulcers from 1980 to 2014. Selection of studies, study appraisal, data extraction and analysis were undertaken using standard methods. Fourteen randomized controlled trials were included involving 618 patients. The results of the meta-analysis showed that, RD treatment was significantly associated with a higher healing rate for pressure ulcers (risk ratio 2.07, 95% confidence intervals 1.73-2.48, p < 0.001). The results of descriptive analysis showed that, compared with the control group, RD treatment shortened healing time. As for safety, adverse reactions had not been reported. These results suggest that RD can improve the healing rate for pressure ulcers and shorten the healing time, compared with other topical treatments. However, due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, this conclusion needs to be proved by more high quality studies.

  18. Book history as a research topic in Croatian journals from 2001 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Tingle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the scope and content of Croatian research output in the field of book history, determine which Croatian journals publish papers on book history, the topics covered and the number of scholars who do research in this field. The research was conducted on the corpus of 177 papers published in 17 Croatian journals from 2001 to 2010. The data collected indicates that few journals regularly publish papers on book history, and only one journal explicitly states book history as its major area of interest. Furthermore, it is evident that very few scholars regularly or occasionally do research on book history. The topics covered in selected papers bear witness to a wide range of interests, but only few papers follow recent trends in world book history research. This paper, however, does not cover scholarly or trade monographs and conference proceedings published during the time under investigation, which is one of the limitations of the current research. Still, the output in scholarly and trade journals, which are the main channels of scholarly communication, provides a relevant sample for determining the incidence of book history as a research topic in Croatian science. These findings are the main research contribution of this paper.

  19. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  20. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or...

  1. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1) The... ingredients in the advertisement shall be the same as the order of listing of ingredients on the label of...

  2. 19 CFR 127.25 - Advertisement of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sale. 127.25 Section 127.25... § 127.25 Advertisement of sale. (a) Regular advertising. Except as prescribed in § 127.28 (c), (d), and... advertisement shall be conspicuously posted in the customhouse, and, if deemed necessary, at some other...

  3. Medicalisation of food advertising: Nutrition and health claims in magazine food advertisements 1900-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2009-01-01

    Food advertising increasingly portrays food as a type of medicine. A content analysis of magazine food advertisements in 1990 through 2008 shows that this was manifested with time more in the (a) nutrition claims and (b) health claims made in food advertisements, as well as the (c) food groups and (

  4. Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream at home is as effective as treating it with topical silver nitrate in the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: There is a lack of evidence on the best treatment option for umbilical granuloma. The primary aim of this study was to compare three treatments for umbilical granuloma: standard treatment with topical silver nitrate, clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) and ethanol wipes. The secondary aim......%) in the outpatient clinic, 30 infants had topical clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) applied at home, and 34 infants received cleansing with ethanol wipes (82%) at home. RESULTS: Silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) were significantly superior to ethanol wipes, with shorter healing times...... and higher resolution rates (p = 0.0001). Healing time and resolution rates were identical for silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%). Mild side effects were occasionally reported, all of which were self-limiting. CONCLUSION: Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate...

  5. Emotional or Rational? The Determination of the Influence of Advertising Appeal on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigaliunaite Viktorija

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In prevailing competition-based market economy, organizations have to search factors influencing advertising effectiveness. This research aims at developing the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness. While achieving the aim of the article, the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature is provided. Furthermore, traditional marketing research methods as well as neuromarketing research methods are applied in order to determine the influences of different advertising appeals on advertising effectiveness. As a research result, the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness is elaborated. Accordingly, this research fills the gap in scientific literature by determining the influences of emotional and rational appeals on print / outdoor advertising effectiveness in the context of convenience product category. Moreover, by answering the research question, the contribution to the field emerges in integrating both marketing theory and neuroscience in order to analyze and evaluate consumer behavior.

  6. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwi Pratama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey

  7. An Analysis on Advertising Language from the Perspective of Memetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Shi-wei

    2016-01-01

    Memetics is a new theory to explain the formation and development of language. It is of great importance in the development of advertising language. The paper is going to study advertising language from the perspective of memetics and at the same time try to study and summarize the sources of advertising language as well as the characteristics of language use. The study will provide the advertising designers with a strong theoretical basis for advertising creation and help us understand memetics deeply.

  8. Semantic Presupposition in Advertisement Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芸芸

    2008-01-01

    Presupposition is. a very important linguistic concept that originates from philosophy. It is often considered as a kind of pragmatic inference. In linguistics it can be classified as semantic presupposition and Pragmatic presupposition. This article will deals with semantic presupposition. Besides the most important characteristics constancy under negation, presupposition boasts some other characteristics, namely unidirectionality, subjectiveness and latency, which exactly fulfill the demands of advertising. Because presupposition, used in advertising, can not possible risk caused by ostentation or direct assertion. On this account, presupposition is adopted into advertising as a pragmatic strategy.

  9. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  10. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  11. GLOBAL ADVERTISING MARKET – THE DYNAMICS OF THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nichifor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising as a form of impersonal communication aimed at a wide and diffuse audience, is the ideal tool to promote products targeting large markets in which consumers are not strong differentiated in terms motivations, preferences, attitudes, etc. Currently, in the global advertising market we can find extremely powerful organizations whose work often exceeds local and even regional economic sphere. From simple expertise in advertising, these organizations have expanded their services to a growing number of communication tools, organizing their activity to better respond to client’s requirements. These kind of advertising organizations alongside global advertisers are the key factors in the dynamics of this market. This article focuses on presenting some data regarding global expenditure in advertising, establishing as reference points the years 2002 and 2012. Moreover, we concentrated on expenditures by regions and advertisers, and on revenues obtained by advertising organizations and advertising networks, starting from official data provided by Advertising Age and Euromonitor.

  12. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Fariba; Rajabnejhad, Saeid; Partoazar, Ali Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Syedmoradi, Leila; Rajabnejhad, Mohammad Reza; Amani, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Eugenol is the main constituent of clove oil with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, for the first time, O/W nanoemulsion of eugenol was designed for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects as a topical delivery system. Topical formulations containing 1%, 2% and 4% of eugenol as well as a nanoemulsion system containing 4% eugenol and 0.5% piroxicam were prepared. Further to physicochemical examinations, such as determination of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and physical stability, anti-inflammatory activity was examined in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The optimum formulation was found to contain 2% eugenol (oil phase), 14% Tween 20 (surfactant) and 14% isopropyl alcohol (co-surfactant) in water. Nanoemulsion with polydispersity index of 0.3 and median droplet diameter of 24.4 nm (d50) was obtained. Animal studies revealed that the nanoemulsions exhibited significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity after 1.5 h, compared with marketed piroxicam gel. Additionally, it was shown that increasing the concentration of eugenol did not show higher inhibition of inflammation. Also, the nanoemulsion having piroxicam showed less anti-inflammatory properties compared with the nanoemulsion without piroxicam.

  14. Topical Simvastatin as Host-Directed Therapy against Severity of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Suraj P.; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Hurdayal, Ramona; Guler, Reto; Brombacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that statins mediate protection against intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes in mice. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of simvastatin as a topical or systemic host-directed drug therapy in controlling inflammatory responses in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (LV39). In an ear infection model, topical application of simvastatin directly on established lesions significantly reduced severity of the disease reflected by ear lesion size and ulceration. The host protective effect was further accompanied by decreased parasite burden in the ear and draining lymph nodes in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Pre-treatment of these mice on a low-fat cholesterol diet and systemic simvastatin also reduced footpad swelling, as well as parasite burdens and ulceration/necrosis in the more robust footpad infection model, demonstrating the prophylactic potential of simvastatin for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mechanistically, following L. major infection, simvastatin-treated primary macrophages responded with significantly reduced cholesterol levels and increased production of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, simvastatin-treated macrophages displayed enhanced phagosome maturation, as revealed by increased LAMP-3 expression in fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrate that simvastatin treatment enhances host protection against L. major by increasing macrophage phagosome maturation and killing effector functions. PMID:27632901

  15. Learning about Teaching the Extracurricular Topic of Nanotechnology as a Vehicle for Achieving a Sustainable Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a…

  16. A content analysis of food advertising on Turkish television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçil Ok, Mehtap; Ercan, Aydan; Kaya, Fatih Suleyman

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive content analysis of Television (TV) food advertising and compare various food advertisements on free-to-air Turkish national TV channels by broadcast time (duration) and frequency over the period of a week (19-25 April 2012). TV food advertisements were the unit of content analysis in this study. Each advertisement identified as promoting a food product was analysed for content; non-food advertisements were not analysed, although they were counted as a proportion of the advertisements aired. We recorded all programmes for 4 h each per day (7 p.m.-11 p.m.), totalling 84 h. Five types of food-related advertisements were identified (basic foods, junk foods, meat products, beverages and fast food), and six types of non-food advertisements. The Student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the mean broadcast time of all prime time advertising for the two groups. The mean broadcast times for prime time, non-food advertisements showed a statistically significant difference (p advertisements increased during this time period, while the broadcast time per beverage advertisement decreased (ratio = 20.8 s per ads). As a result, TV food advertising increased not only during dinner time but also in overall broadcast time (per advertisement). These findings may be useful for explaining how advertising can negatively influence food choices, thereby increasing public awareness of the need for health messages targeting obesity.

  17. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  18. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  19. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... EPA interprets these provisions as extending to advertisements in any advertising medium to which... reasonably likely to be understood by persons to whom the advertisement is addressed. For printed advertising... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered...

  20. IN-GAME ADVERTISING: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS FOR ADVERTISERS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina GHIRVU

    2012-01-01

    The increase fragmentation of mass-media and the decline on television efficiency in promotion and market targeting, determined the appearance and development of new methods, more efficient for communicating with consumers, especially for gaining attention of those who are not for the moment consumers of a specific brand. The attempt of finding new promotion methods, video games found a place as a new advertising environment. In-game advertising is remarkable due to its numerous benefits, fir...

  1. SOCIOLINGUISTIC PECULIARITIES OF ADVERTISEMENT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina, N.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the text of the English-language advertising as a special type of discourse, which morphological and syntactic features are directly dependent on the target audience, which this type of text is created for, and provides some observations made in the course of practical linguistic studies of English advertisement texts. A proportional system of the most general male and female social roles is worked out here that helps to analyze different types of advertisement texts according to their grammatical functions, which helps not only to detect their impact in our everyday life but also gives a field for the further development of advertisement as a type of discourse.

  2. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF ADVERTISING PROJECTS FOR TOURISM COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Tolmachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic. The relevance of the article is that today tourism is a massive social and economic phenomenon of global scale, as is known, any vacation begins with advertising. Therefore, for the progressive development of tourism companies need to develop an eff ective strategy and tactics of advertising projects. Potential consumers have become more discerning and prudent, so a consultant position with the fl ood of information does not work. Works expert position, when the product is as if created for the client, that is, the product exists only in synchronism with the buyer. In view of this increased competition between operators of tourist services, and certain segments of the market saturation of a significant amount of travel products with a similar orientation, a unique role for the positioning on the basis of marketing strategy as a process for creating a unique tourism product in the market.The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to study the features of the marketing strategies of advertising processes in the market of travel agencies and find directions of their improvement in current economic conditions.Article Objectives: To investigate the nature and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes"; systematize criteria for the classification of the Company's strategy in the market of tourist services; analyze the features of advertising projects and identify promising directions for improving the marketing strategies.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative analysis methods.Results. The essence and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes." The features of the market of tourist services, allocated target audiences, identifies key factors and trends in the development of this market.The new system is a product of values, square S. Kovalev, who identified four existing mentality of the person. When advertising article or video include

  3. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  4. English in Advertising: Generic Intertextuality in a Globalizing Media Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, AN H.

    2010-01-01

    Across the globe, the use of English is a popular advertising technique. The ever expanding body of studies on this topic has revealed a number of explanations for the use of English in the advertising. It can be related to the larger marketing strategy of a campaign, to the cultural connotations English carries, or English can be used for…

  5. Drama advertisements: moderating effects of self-relevance on the relations among empathy, information processing, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; Vercollier, Sarah Drissi; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2003-06-01

    The effects of drama versus lecture format in public service advertisements are studied in a 2 (format) x 2 (malaria vs AIDS) factorial design. Two structural equation models are built (one for each level of self-relevance), showing two distinct patterns. In both low and high self-relevant situations, empathy plays a key role. Under low self-relevance conditions, drama enhances information processing through empathy. Under high self-relevant conditions, the advertisement format has neither significant cognitive or empathetic effects. The information processing generated by the highly relevant topic affects viewers' empathy, which in turn affects the attitude the advertisement and the behavioral intent. As predicted by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the advertisement format enhances the attitudes and information processing mostly under low self-relevant conditions. Under low self-relevant conditions, empathy enhances information processing while under high self-relevance, the converse relation holds.

  6. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  7. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DALIA PETCU; SORIN SUCIU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; CIPRIAN OBRAD

    2012-01-01

    Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  8. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALIA PETCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  9. Discussion on outdoor urban advertisement planning system with Wuhu experience as an example%以芜湖经验论城市户外广告规划体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双杰

    2014-01-01

    Taking Wuhu city as an example,the paper introduces urban outdoor advertisement planning system,and describes urban outdoor ad-vertisement planning system construction methods from three aspects of integral outdoor advertisement planning,specific outdoor advertisement control planning and outdoor advertisement planning design,with a view to play its function of promote economic development.%以芜湖市为例,对城市户外广告规划体系进行了介绍,从户外广告设置总体规划、户外广告控制性详细规划、户外广告规划设计三方面阐述了城市户外广告规划体系的构建方法,以期发挥其带动经济发展的功能。

  10. Gaining trust as well as respect in communicating to motivated audiences about science topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Dupree, Cydney

    2014-09-16

    Expertise is a prerequisite for communicator credibility, entailing the knowledge and ability to be accurate. Trust also is essential to communicator credibility. Audiences view trustworthiness as the motivation to be truthful. Identifying whom to trust follows systematic principles. People decide quickly another's apparent intent: Who is friend or foe, on their side or not, or a cooperator or competitor. Those seemingly on their side are deemed warm (friendly, trustworthy). People then decide whether the other is competent to enact those intents. Perception of scientists, like other social perceptions, involves inferring both their apparent intent (warmth) and capability (competence). To illustrate, we polled adults online about typical American jobs, rated as American society views them, on warmth and competence dimensions, as well as relevant emotions. Ambivalently perceived high-competence but low-warmth, "envied" professions included lawyers, chief executive officers, engineers, accountants, scientists, and researchers. Being seen as competent but cold might not seem problematic until one recalls that communicator credibility requires not just status and expertise but also trustworthiness (warmth). Other research indicates the risk from being enviable. Turning to a case study of scientific communication, another online sample of adults described public attitudes toward climate scientists specifically. Although distrust is low, the apparent motive to gain research money is distrusted. The literature on climate science communicators agrees that the public trusts impartiality, not persuasive agendas. Overall, communicator credibility needs to address both expertise and trustworthiness. Scientists have earned audiences' respect, but not necessarily their trust. Discussing, teaching, and sharing information can earn trust to show scientists' trustworthy intentions.

  11. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF ADVERTISING - SOME INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nichifor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advertising as a tool of communication, but mostly as a marketing tool is subject to many theories and explanatory and normative models. Its contents and performed functions are not yet defined in general recognized theory. Present article focuses on the analysis of advertising in terms of its specific persuasive effort and communication process. Advertising seen as a process is based on the general scheme of the marketing communication process, with a number of specific features related to its content. The persuasive effort is related to creation of favorable attitudes or reinforcing existing attitudes. This process of persuasion is closely linked to the concept of attitude. Most theories of advertising have explored the connection between persuasion and attitude, identifying possible responses that the receiver can give to advertising information. Following lines develop these two important aspects associated with advertising theory, even if they are not the only issues that are debated in the literature.

  12. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  13. Contraceptive advertising in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebow, M A

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that most Americans support the advertising of family planning methods, the minority opposition has influenced the formulation of contraceptive advertising policies. This article attempts to clarify the current status of contraceptive advertising and to suggest a sensible public policy for the future. Opening with a review of opinion polls taken since 1985, the article points out that 70% of station managers reported their belief that contraceptive advertising would offend many people despite the fact that 87% of respondents in a public survey indicated no objection to such advertising. The policies that network television stations have adopted are traced from those instituted in the 1960s by the National Association of Broadcaster's Code Authority. These policies govern the airing of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) as well as advertisements. Magazines and newspapers also resist accepting contraceptive advertising, although they do not face the same regulations as the broadcast media. US Food and Drug Administration policies also act as a barrier to product-specific advertisements on network television despite the fact that the American Medical Association no longer opposes such advertising and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists offered to provide valid information about advertising claims to the media. A review of attempts to advertise contraceptives shows that opposition has dropped significantly in the past 10 years for advertisements in newspapers, on cable television, in magazines, on some commercial television stations, and on many radio stations. However, the major television networks still fail to accept such advertisements. Part of the change that is occurring can be attributable to the emergence of AIDS and the need to promote methods to prevent the disease. However, much AIDS-related advertising has been in the form of PSAs, which are less and less available. The major obstacles to contraceptive advertising today

  14. New business models for advertisers: The video games sector in Spain. Advergaming Vs Ingame Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sebastián Morillas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims the advertising efficiency video games have in Spain, which is of theutmost importance considering results from latest studies on effectiveness. Video gameshave become one of the most valuable platforms used by advertisers when looking fornew ways to reinforce brand awareness. This study seeks to explain the reasons whybrands are using the advergaming and ingame advertising in order to have their advertisingmessages being effectively reached by the target audience. The topic proposedin this paper deploys a qualitative research methodology focused on a bibliographicreview, in-depth interviews and the analysis of several case studies. Results obtained bythis research may help companies to develop effective marketing and communicationstrategies.

  15. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  16. Analysis of Attitude in Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃良

    2014-01-01

    Using authentic texts as data, the study mainly explores attitude from the aspects of affect, judgment and appreciation in advertising English under the framework of systemic functional theory. Attitude is an important part of evaluation, and evaluation is regarded as a central part of the meaning of any text, which is especially true of advertising texts. Through the discussion about Attitude, it is shown that many English advertisements contain information that expresses attitudinal meanings, which makes advertising more convincing and able to evoke affinity, and that the values of affect, judgment and appreciation all occur predominantly as positive categories.

  17. Internet and Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.

  18. Physical Carboxymethylscleroglucan/Calcium Ion Hydrogels as Modified Drug Delivery Systems in Topical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Casadei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A carboxymethyl derivative of scleroglucan (Scl-CM with a 65±5% carboxylic group degree of derivatization (DD was recently synthesized and characterized. Aqueous solutions of the polymer underwent to a sharp transition toward a gel like behaviour in the presence of divalent ions such as Ca+2. Physical hydrogels with different Scl-CM/Ca+2 ratios were prepared and characterized for their rheological behaviour. Their potential as drug delivery systems was also evaluated. To this end three non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were loaded into the hydrogels obtained with 2% w/v solution of Scl-CM and 0.05 and 0.1 M CaCl2. The release rate of the drugs was critically related to the salt concentration. By an appropriate combination of the hydrogels prepared using different amounts of salt, it was possible to obtain a system able to release diclofenac with zero-order kinetics. Primary skin irritation tests showed a good biocompatibility of the new polymer, as well as of its hydrogels. These results suggest a potential of the new hydrogels for the development of modified delivery systems in topical formulations.

  19. The advertising strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKOUBI Mohamed Lamine

    2013-01-01

    We will try to demonstrate, through the display of the various advertising creation strategies and their evolution, how the advertising communication passed from of a vision or a strategy focused on the product, to a vision focused on the brand. The first advertising strategy that was applied by advertising agencies is the"Unique Selling Proposition";it focused only on the product advantages and its philosophy dominated the advertising world, throughout its various evolutions, till the nineties but this is without counting the introduction of the new advertising strategies that brought a more brand oriented philosophy to the ground.

  20. Advertising Expenditures in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Leff, Nathaniel H; John U Farley

    1980-01-01

    Relative to market size, would one expect advertising expenditures to be higher or lower in the developing countries as compared with the more developed countries? This paper discusses some features of the marketing environment in the developing countries in order to clarify some of the conceptual issues which advertising raises for optimizing marketing and public policy decisions in the LDCs. In addition, new measures of advertising intensity in less developed and more developed countries ar...

  1. Concept-based Recommendations for Internet Advertisement

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatov, Dmitry I

    2009-01-01

    The problem of detecting terms that can be interesting to the advertiser is considered. If a company has already bought some advertising terms which describe certain services, it is reasonable to find out the terms bought by competing companies. A part of them can be recommended as future advertising terms to the company. The goal of this work is to propose better interpretable recommendations based on FCA and association rules.

  2. Advertising Strategies: Corporate and Product-Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    develop the theme for that program first. We would then develop individual market advertising as a promotional activity supporting or capitalizing on...pp. 16-22. 4. Banks, Seymour. ’Trends Affecting the Implementation of Advertising and Promotion ," Journal of Marketing , Vol. 37 (January 1973): pp... market research study performed at least once every one to five years to evaluate their corporate advertising programs. (5) Absolute answers do not

  3. Look How Little I′m Advertising!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagwell, Kyle; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    This paper studies the role of advertising and prices as signals of quality in a purely static setting, where repeat purchases are suppressed altoghether, but where advertising affects demand directly. We first show, under standard regularity assumptions, that the high-quality firm will distort its...... price upwards and its level of advertising downwards compared to the complete-information case. We then show, under relatively mild additional conditions, that the high-quality firm will choose a level of advertising below that of the low-quality firm, even if the high-quality firm advertises most under...... complete information. Hence, empirically, a high price and a modest advertising budget may well signal high quality....

  4. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  5. Topical issues of functioning a region as a social-economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Andreyevich Timofeyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the topical issues of forming a region as a socialeconomic system. Methods systematic approach based on general scientific methods of empirical and theoretical research such as observation and comparison analysis and synthesis induction and deduction as well as comparativehistorical method statistical methods macroeconomic analysis. Results the major issues of applying a systematic approach to the analysis of the region as a socioeconomic system were explored and analyzed. The authors proved the most important features of the system considered different points of view on the content of the region as a system category analyzed the basic paradigm of the region functioning identified specific properties inherent to the region as a system conducted analysis of the modern Russian and foreign literature which showed that at present there is no consensus about the structural content of the region as an economic system at mesolevel suggested the authorsrsquo definition of the region category conclusions were made about the applicability of systematic approach to analyzing a region as a socioeconomic system. Scientific novelty the trends and problems of the region formation as an economic system were specifiedin the form of components of a single social and economic system the conceptual scheme for the region development as a socioeconomic system at mesolevel was proposed the author39s definition of the regionwas given. The suggested conceptual framework focuses on regional subsystems each of which is characterized by resources capacity the effective use of which is intended to ensure the sustainable and competitive territory development while increasing the quality of life of the population under federalism and globalization. Practical significance conclusions and suggestions can be used by public authorities in the strategic policy development for the effective management of the Russian regions. nbsp

  6. Mesoporous silica as a carrier for topical application: the Trolox case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, L; Ugazio, E; Sapino, S; Iliade, P; Miletto, I; Berlier, G

    2012-08-28

    As part of a recent research effort aimed at employing mesoporous materials for controlled drug delivery, this paper presents MCM-41 as a carrier for topical application, using Trolox as a model unstable guest molecule. The complexes between Trolox and MCM-41 were prepared by employing different inclusion procedures, varying solvent, method and pretreatment of the silica matrix. The objectives of this study were to determine Trolox loading, analyze its integrity and availability after immobilization on mesoporous silica, evaluate MCM-41 influence on Trolox photodegradation and establish whether the preparation method significantly influences complex properties. The characterization analyses (XRD, TGA, DSC and FTIR) confirmed the hydrogen-bonding interaction and Trolox structure preservation. Gas-volumetric analysis showed a consistent decrease in surface area and in pore volume and diameter with respect to bare MCM-41 indicating that Trolox was mainly located within mesopores. In vitro diffusion tests showed a slower release of Trolox after inclusion in the MCM-41 matrix; at the same time UV irradiation studies highlighted an increased photostability for the complex particularly in O/W emulsion. Moreover the radical scavenging activity of Trolox was maintained after immobilization. In all cases, differences were observed in all tested samples, suggesting that results could be optimized by modifying the inclusion procedure and by improving the guest loading.

  7. Dialogism in Advertising Persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cruz Pistori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes two advertisements from the same brand, but produced in different local media: France and Brazil. It aims to pursue the interrelation and nexus needed between the verbal, visual and extraverbal dimensions to produce and understand the effects of persuasive sense. Concepts from ancient and modern Rhetoric, as well as dialogic discourse analysis notions and categories, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the article’s theoretical-methodological basis. In the chosen advertisements, we observe the tense way they reflect and refract reality and how this is expressed in concrete utterances, constructed according to genre coercions. By analyzing the produced meaning effects, we especially highlight the presence of persuasion in different dialogic relationships allowed by the texts, audience importance in effect construction of text persuasive meaning, and proximity between advertisement and epidictic genre in ancient rhetoric. Persuasive dialogic relationships express broad and different spheres of human activity, in connection with the organization of social life, space and time; in fact, they are not aimed at product purchase, but at access to a way of life, which is linked to ideological values of privilege.

  8. 75 FR 49363 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Permanent Increase in Standard Coverage Amount; Advertisement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Standard Coverage Amount; Advertisement of Membership; International Banking; Foreign Banks August 10, 2010... Regulations as follows: PART 328--ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  9. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2015-10-25

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television.

  10. Sobrietology in Social Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nikolaeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy. 

  11. Sobrietology in Social Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nikolaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy. 

  12. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  13. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  14. New distribution channels for advertising through computer games and mobile devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivagnanasuntharam, Sivasathees

    2008-01-01

    The development in advertising industry has lately gone from open advertising through few, major distribution channels to a hidden and targeting advertising integrated into everyday life. Advertisers grow increasingly unhappy with the value delivered by the traditional mediums. They turn to alternative distribution channels in order to increase the success rate of advertising campaigns. Channels seen as unattractively with little purchasing power previously are attracting advertisers attenti...

  15. Working Capital Management as a routine: An action based access to the topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kroflin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In times of unstable capital markets on the one side and historically low interests on the other, working capital management must be discussed from different perspectives. Limited sources of liquidity, and the high refinancing risk of lending companies, make the reduction of current assets and liabilities an even more important management task than before. On the other hand, low interest rates raise the need for defining the optimum level for working capital. Little research and empirical evidence exists when it comes to lifting working capital targets to create value. The objective of the present paper is to give evidence on whether German companies adapt their behavior in terms of handling working capital in the actual economic environment and to describe which practices have been established to perform this adaptation. The given analysis is based on a qualitative study. The data used have been gathered in 2014 and 2015 during semi structured interviews with CFOs or financial executives of 15 German and Austrian industrial firms. Our study suggests that adaptation is realized rather by moderating management attention and focus to the topic of capital cost but not by adjusting the financial targets themselves. This is because working capital reduction as become a management routine.

  16. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  17. Topical treatment with propranolol gel as a supplement to the existing treatment of hemangiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Schneider; Andreas Reimer; Hansjoerg Cremer; Peter Ruef

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic treatment with propranolol is proven to be effective for patients with hemangiomas with less side-effect. We used a propranolol gel for topical use on hemangiomas. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed 148 patients who had been treated topically with propranolol gel for 12 weeks. We analyzed the data of patients and clinically gave each hemangioma a "hemangioma score" to determine the treatment success. Results: In 147 of the 148 patients, strong signs of resolution under treatment included lightening, paling, and less vascularization. The hemangioma score showed a signifi cant decrease during the treatment. Relevant serum levels of propranolol were not found. Adverse effects were rare and not related to propranolol. Conclusion: Topical treatment with propranolol gel is suitable for specific hemangiomas in addition to cryotherapy and systemic treatment with propranolol.

  18. Efficacy of 2% Lidocaine Injection as a Topical Agent in Cataract Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyong Huang; Bin Liu; Jiewei Liu; Jinxing Xu; Zhende Lin

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 2% Lidocaine injection is an effective topical anesthetic agent for non-phaco small incision cataract surgery.Setting: Charity eye clinic supported by Hellen Keller International.Methods:One hundred and twenty-five consecutive cataract surgery patients received topical anesthesia with 2% Lidocaine injection solution just 1 and 0.5 minutes prior to non-phaco small incision cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Each patient was asked about pain or piessure sensation during the operation.Results: The surgeon felt ease in the operations. Many patients (93/125) were comfort during the whole surgery. Only 9 patients′ score was above level 3,mostly complained during the nucleus extraction; Among those whose score was level 1~2, 82.6%(19/23)claimed discomfort at middle of the operation (nucleus extraction) or the beginning (creating the conjunctival flap).Conclusion: Lidocaine injection solution(2%) was an effective topical anesthesia agent in cataract surgery.

  19. On theTranslation Methods and Theory of International Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Advertisement, as a way to propagandize products, always plays its role in the special stage. A successful advertisement would help the manufacturer to achieve a large sale while an unsuccessful even a bad one would do the contrast work. Advertising is an activity containing intelligence, patience, art and diligence. With the globalization and China' s entering WT0, more and more Chinese products get the opportunity of entering world market. In this battle without smoke of gun powder, the most powerful weapon is commercial advertisement. Therefore, advertisement becomes more important. At the same time, the translation of advertising plays its role as to internationalize advertisement to the world. It seems as a bridge overpass different countries and languages. However, due to the difference among cultures, problems appear how to be a good advertising translator and how to make an excellent translation of advertising. This thesis tries to analyses the criteria and strategies of advertising translation after the discussion of the types, structure and features of style of advertisements and states that there is no an established method for advertising translation. What we should do is to be flexible to deal with the various advertisements we meet.

  20. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  1. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  2. Nanostructured lipid carriers as robust systems for topical lidocaine-prilocaine release in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Alcântara, Ana C S; Castro, Simone R; Guilherme, Viviane A; Barbosa, Raquel M; de Paula, Eneida

    2016-10-10

    In dental practice, local anesthesia causes pain, fear, and stress, and is frequently the reason that patients abandon treatment. Topical anesthetics are applied in order to minimize the discomfort caused by needle insertion and injection, and to reduce the symptoms of superficial trauma at the oral mucosa, but there are still no efficient commercially available formulations. Factorial design is a multivariate data analysis procedure that can be used to optimize the manufacturing processes of lipid nanocarriers, providing valuable information and minimizing development time. This work describes the use of factorial design to optimize a process for the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) based on cetyl palmitate and capric/caprylic triglycerides as structural lipids and Pluronic 68 as the colloidal stabilizer, for delivery of the local anesthetics lidocaine and prilocaine (both at 2.5%). The factors selected were the excipient concentrations, and three different responses were followed: particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The encapsulation efficiency of the most effective formulations (NLC 2, 4, and 6) was evaluated by the ultrafiltration/centrifugation method. The formulations that showed the highest levels of encapsulation were tested using in vitro release kinetics experiments with Franz diffusion cells. The NLC6 formulation exhibited the best sustained release profile, with 59% LDC and 66% PLC released after 20h. This formulation was then characterized using different techniques (IR-ATR, DSC, DRX, TEM, and NTA) to obtain information about its molecular organization and its physicochemical stability, followed during 14months of storage at 25°C. This thorough pre-formulation study represents an important advance towards the development of an efficient pre-anesthetic for use in dentistry.

  3. Analytical comparison of Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action about mobile advertising acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tabatabaei Nasab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of high speed wireless network technologies and the increasing market penetration of cell phones the global advertising industry’s interest in using this medium as a means of marketing communication is rising. However, in spite of the increasing number of companies investing in mobile marketing campaigns, there is, as yet, little academic research on this topic and the nature and implications of this channel are not yet understood fully.Mobile advertising refers to advertisements delivered through a mobile device in form of text message. Current research is considered as applied objectively and its methodology is descriptive-analytical. Research data is gathered through distribution of questionnaire among a sample of 578 Yazd university students. To study users' attitude and intention, Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action are applied for accepting mobile advertising. Also SPSS16 and Lisrel 850 softwares are used for data analysis and research models are compared according to goodness of fit indices. On the basis of Lisrel structural equation results, both aforementioned models of mobile advertising acceptance were well-fitted and it is proved that the theory of reasoned action was fitted better than Technology Acceptance Model.

  4. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes by promoting ... growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin ...

  5. Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Tammaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens.

  6. In vitro analysis of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I.; van Oeveren, Wim; Zuidema, Johan; Visscher, Susan H.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents can be used to treat problematic bleedings in patients who undergo surgery. Widely used are the collagen- and gelatin-based hemostats. This study aimed to develop a fully synthetic, biodegradable hemostatic agent to avoid exposure to animal antigens. In this in vitro study

  7. Experiences of Teaching the Heat Energy Topic in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lilia; Dahlan, Fathiyah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current debate in Malaysia about the teaching of science and mathematics in English, a qualitative study was undertaken involving a purposeful sampling of three non-physics teachers to ascertain how well equipped they were with the necessary pedagogical content knowledge relating to the teaching of the topic of "heat…

  8. Oral Language Development as a Precursor to Literacy. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl B., Ed.

    Research suggests that oral language development is directly related to literacy, and is crucial for success in learning to be literate. This topical bibliography and commentary discusses language acquisition theories, components of language, phonology in literacy, and a first-grade classroom study that explored "literate talk" in the classroom…

  9. Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeyer, Lynn

    Television and television advertising, because of their pervasiveness and intrusiveness, have been identified by many as potent, formative, and usually negative influences within our culture. Print media, including magazine advertising, although perhaps less potent, are perceived as equally important. The effects of gender portrayals on audiences…

  10. ADVERTISING TEXT AS THE REFLECTION OF SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CHANGES AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEP (ON THE MATERIALS OF YENISEYSKAYA GUBERNIYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Yurlov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the modern level of History development its local and social fields are increasingly getting popular since they meet the requirements of innovation and actuality of scientific work. These fields allow to lead in the research new, often alternative, sources revealing new facets of traditional issues of precise historical period. In this work the author on the base of advertising texts in newspapers using quantity and content analysis researches the changes of business climate, main forms of companies organization, and their development in Yeniseyskaya guberniya in the 1920s. Moreover, taking newspaper advertisements the author highlights the periods of business activity having got it as a result of market and political conjuncture. The length of each period is 2 years and caused by the economic crisis in 1923, 1925, 1927 and 1929. Thus, materials of advertisements prove sinusoidal development of business through the periods of ups and downs and give the opportunity for researching market behavior of local entrepreneurs. 

  11. Development of terbinafine solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y-C

    2012-08-01

    was higher than that of Lamisil® OnceTM at 12 hours, and it was almost the same as that of Lamisil® OnceTM at 24 hours. It was concluded that the application of ACP1-GM1 for 12 hours might have an efficacy comparable to that of Lamisil® OnceTM for 24 hours, which would resolve the practical problem of the longer administration period that is necessary for Lamisil® OnceTM.Keywords: terbinafine, solid lipid nanoparticle, topical delivery system

  12. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has... advertisement no later than 45 days from the date the Fund receives notice of the incident and shall...

  13. Compliance of Parenting Magazines Advertisements with American Academy of Pediatrics Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Berger, Jennifer N; Sheehan, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined 3218 advertisements from the two parenting magazines with highest circulation in the United States. The authors compared each advertisement for a product for use by children, against all the published recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on topics such as toy safety, helmet use, age-defined choking hazards, infant sleep safety, and others. Any advertisement with images or products which went against a published AAP recommendation was deemed as non-adherence and was categorized according to the statement it contradicted. Nearly one in six (15.7%) of the advertisements contained example(s) of non-adherence to AAP recommendations, with twelve categories of offense represented. Categories ranked by overall share from most to least include: non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical treatments, age-defined choking hazards, vitamins, cold medicine, formula, oral care, screen time, toy/playground safety, infant sleep, nutrition, water safety, and fall risk. Given that repeated exposure to messages in advertisements has been associated with changes in health decision-making, and parents often turn to parenting magazines for advice and ideas regarding their children, the publishers might consider screening the content in order to prevent confusing and potentially dangerous messages from being disseminated in the media.

  14. The ethics of advertising for health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Arnold, Robert M; London, Alex John

    2014-01-01

    Advertising by health care institutions has increased steadily in recent years. While direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising is subject to unique oversight by the Federal Drug Administration, advertisements for health care services are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and treated no differently from advertisements for consumer goods. In this article, we argue that decisions about pursuing health care services are distinguished by informational asymmetries, high stakes, and patient vulnerabilities, grounding fiduciary responsibilities on the part of health care providers and health care institutions. Using examples, we illustrate how common advertising techniques may mislead patients and compromise fiduciary relationships, thereby posing ethical risks to patients, providers, health care institutions, and society. We conclude by proposing that these risks justify new standards for advertising when considered as part of the moral obligation of health care institutions and suggest that mechanisms currently in place to regulate advertising for prescription pharmaceuticals should be applied to advertising for health care services more broadly.

  15. AdSplit: Separating smartphone advertising from applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhar, Shashi; Wallach, Dan S

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of smartphone applications today rely on third-party advertising services, which provide libraries that are linked into the hosting application. This situation is undesirable for both the application author and the advertiser. Advertising libraries require additional permissions, resulting in additional permission requests to users. Likewise, a malicious application could simulate the behavior of the advertising library, forging the user's interaction and effectively stealing money from the advertiser. This paper describes AdSplit, where we extended Android to allow an application and its advertising to run as separate processes, under separate user-ids, eliminating the need for applications to request permissions on behalf of their advertising libraries. We also leverage mechanisms from Quire to allow the remote server to validate the authenticity of client-side behavior. In this paper, we quantify the degree of permission bloat caused by advertising, with a study of thousands of downloaded ap...

  16. STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ADVERTISING TEXTS OF INFORMATIVE AND COMPARATIVE TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Poddubskaya, O.N.; Lineva, E.A.; SAVELIEVA E.B.; Yakovleva, E. N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this article is related to the fact that nowadays advertising has a very strong impact both on the consumer market, political and cultural life of society, and on the language and its development as a system. Advertising has given rise to the development of a special set of stylistic features of a text, formed under the influence of reviving advertising traditions in the Russian language and under the active impact of energetic and pushy European advertising. The purpose of t...

  17. 25 CFR 163.15 - Advertisement of sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sales. 163.15 Section 163.15 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.15 Advertisement of sales. Except as provided in §§ 163.13, 163.14, 163.16... advertisement shall be approved by the officer who will approve the instrument of sale. Advertised sales...

  18. A review of the literature about the usage of music in the advertisements as the factor which affects the attitude of the target market

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur Batı

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of marketing communication, particularly in advertising, music has been a prevailing feature. Past research have examined the effects of music in advertising in relation to attention, memory, attitudes and purchase intention. This article examines the works that analyze related music structure and how music helps creating meaning in advertising. Literature is reviewed and analyzed by means of consumer attitude through the brand and advertising, brand recall, pleasure and arousal,...

  19. Language, Cognition, and Manipulation in Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This research examines advertising discourse in Russian and English as acts of communicative exchange and interpersonal relationship between advertising discourse participants. The purpose was to identify and describe the way that viewers process information contained in television commercials and how they become consumers moving from getting…

  20. Linguistic and Cultural Differences on Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertising language can be regarded as a special art which mixes cultural backgrounds and the tendency of the times.People from different regions understand advertising culture in different ways.Thus,if people want to overcome the difficulties carried by two cultural backgrounds and linguistic habits,they must make the translation fit the local linguistic and cultural characteristics.

  1. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed as a crime.Up to now,those who have endorsed products have only been required to bear administrative and civil responsibilities.

  2. Second Screen Advertising: A Typology of Multiscreening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segijn, C.M.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    The advertising industry has undergone a rapid transformation in recent years. New communication technologies such as live streaming, gaming, social media, online brand communities and blogs have given advertisers new platforms to communicate and promote their messages. Two remarkable phenomena are

  3. Analysis on Rhetoric Means in English Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊

    2015-01-01

    advertising as an applied language is a widely used exchanging medium in our society.This thesis is written mainly from three perspectives of phonetic rhetoric,lexical rhetoric,and syntactical rhetoric.By analyzing the application of rhetorical means in English advertising,the author explains the functions and results of these means.

  4. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  5. The Impact of Visual Appearance on User Response in Online Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Zhou, Yang; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Mao, Jianchang; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Display advertising has been a significant source of revenue for publishers and ad networks in online advertising ecosystem. One of the main goals in display advertising is to maximize user response rate for advertising campaigns, such as click through rates (CTR) or conversion rates. Although in the online advertising industry we believe that the visual appearance of ads (creatives) matters for propensity of user response, there is no published work so far to address this topic via a systematic data-driven approach. In this paper we quantitatively study the relationship between the visual appearance and performance of creatives using large scale data in the world's largest display ads exchange system, RightMedia. We designed a set of 43 visual features, some of which are novel and some are inspired by related work. We extracted these features from real creatives served on RightMedia. We also designed and conducted a series of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of visual features for CTR prediction, ra...

  6. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  7. TAXATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rifat ORTAÇ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of Internet and in particular social media as advertising tools brings the question of how the advertisement in social media should be taxed. This is not only seen as a problem in our country, but in the international platform as well. In the first part of the study, the definition of social media is given; in the second part, Social Media Brand Communities and Fun Pages are discussed; in the third part, a comparison of Social Media Con- tents and Public Goods, Global Public Goods and Club Goods is made; in the fourth part that Conclusion and Suggestions how social media is taxed is discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6... drug, nor may an advertisement contain a quantitative statement of safety or effectiveness (a) unless... effectiveness is supported by substantial evidence derived from adequate and well-controlled studies as...

  9. The Stylistic Features of Advertising English Viewed from Syntactic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hai-quan; QIAN Li-na

    2009-01-01

    As a functional variety, advertising English has its distinctive linguistic features.This paper attempts to concen-trate on the analysis of syntactic features of a series of advertising English examples in order to help readers gain a deep understanding of advertising English and offer some suggestions in its writing.

  10. The role of the advertising agency: Standardization/Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Isayeva, Aygul

    2011-01-01

    In this article the role of advertising agency in global marketing strategy has been examined. The developed matrix examines the contingencies that influence the success of the company's global advertising strategy. This research reviews how the company, as the principal, may determine the nature of its relationship with the advertising agency and the degree of adaptation vs. standardization necessary in each situation.

  11. Persuasive Structures in Advergames. Conveying Advertising Messages through Digital Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, T.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the game industry and changes in the advertising landscape in recent years have led to a keen interest of marketers in using digital games for advertising purposes. Digital games specifically designed for a brand with the aim of conveying an advertising message, are known as adverga

  12. Study on the application of fuzzy words in advertising language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晋芳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays,to impress and entice consumers more effectively,fuzzy words are naturally adopted by advertisers in language of advertising.1.Introduction In the contemporary society,advertising may be regarded as an indispensable element of our culture because it affects every aspect of our daily life.So,there is an urgent need for the systematical study

  13. 36 CFR 223.80 - When advertisement is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When advertisement is... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.80 When advertisement is required. Except as otherwise provided in this part each sale in...

  14. 48 CFR 53.205-1 - Paid advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paid advertisements. 53... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.205-1 Paid advertisements. SF 1449, prescribed in 53.212, shall be used to place orders for paid advertisements as specified in 5.503....

  15. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and... PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.7 Air transportation advertisements and solicitations... part as “September 11th Security Fee” in all its advertisements and solicitations for...

  16. 7 CFR 982.64 - Creditable promotion and advertising reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable promotion and advertising reports. 982.64... promotion and advertising reports. Each handler shall file such reports of creditable promotion including paid advertising conducted pursuant to § 982.58 as recommended by the Board and approved by...

  17. 48 CFR 3452.227-72 - Advertising of awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Clauses 3452.227-72 Advertising of awards. As prescribed in 3427.472, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders: Advertising of Awards (AUG 1987) The contractor...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.237-72 - Prohibition on advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on advertising... Prohibition on advertising. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1213.7101 and 1237.7003, insert the following clause: Prohibition on Advertising (JAN 1996) The contractor or its representatives (including training...

  19. A Peircean Inspired Typology of Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent

    2010-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that Peircean semiotics can reveal how the construction of comprehension is at least partly a function of the structure of composition, the scope of this article is to present a new categorization of print advertising. The categorization consists of six different advertising...... types and is developed on the basis of an analysis of 150 quarto-, half-, and full-page advertisements from the Danish morning paper Berlingske Tidende. There are basically two traditions in advertising research — a semiotic one and a cognitive one. But none of these traditions have been used to suggest...... a possible relation between composition and the effects of comprehension, as the conceptual foundation for a categorization seems, as does the Peircean variant of semiotics, to be very limited in advertising research as such. Generally seen, the purpose of the development of the present categorization...

  20. Relationships between the Advertising Appeal and Behavioral Intention: The Mediating role of the Attitude towards Advertising Appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Syed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between the advertising appeal, attitude and behavioral intention is dynamic in nature, however, little research has been pursued towards explaining the mediating role of attitude towards the advertising in link of the advertising appeal with the behavioral intention. Researchers have identified the importance of the attitude in the connection of the advertising appeal within the framework of the (TPB which remains unaddressed in the explicating the mediation of the attitude in relationship of advertising appeal and behavioral intention. This paper aims to provide insight of the attitude towards the advertising as the mediating factor in explaining the relationship between the advertising appeal and behavioral intention. In addition, this paper is only a theoretical exploration, it is expected that this work lead towards an explanation of the mediating role of the attitude to address the relation of advertising appeal and intention which may be studied further to determine the empirical finding about the other dynamic of the (TPB.

  1. The emergence and institutional co-determination of sustainability as a teaching topic in interdisciplinary science teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes an institutional perspective on the topic of sustainability in order to analyse how this ‘idea’ enters science teacher education through an interdisciplinary approach. It shows how the development and implementation of a course for Danish pre-service teachers was conditioned......, conceptualised through a new reference model that separates the analysis from the usual sustainability dimensions. The findings reveal how sustainability as a teaching topic can be a unifying idea in an interdisciplinary setting. Disciplinary differences evidently impact course planning and implementation...

  2. Public Sphere - Political Advertisement Relationship in Turkey: Analysing Political Advertisements of JDP in General Elections 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dağtaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.

  3. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  4. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  5. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-06-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation.

  6. THE CHANGE OF WOMEN'S MEDIA ROLE IN ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF FEMALE SUBJECT CONSCIOUSNESS--TAKING THE PROCTER & GAMBLE'S "LIKE A GIRL"ADVERTISEMENT AS AN EXAMPLE%广告传播中女性媒介角色变化与女性主体意识建构--以宝洁“Like A Girl”广告为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桃巧; 赖红波

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of feminism, women's status is rising and people begin to pay more attention to women. It affects the advertising communication, and more and more advertisement begin to notice the awakening of female subjectivity, which in turn promotes the change of female’s media role. The influence of the two is mutual. This paper wil be based on the background of the new media advertising communication, taking Procter & Gamble's advertisement as an example to study the influence of the public service advertisement on the construction of female subjectivity.%近年来,随着女性主体意识的苏醒,女性地位日渐提高,社会对女性的关注也越来越多,这在一定程度上影响了广告传播,越来越多的广告开始将目光看向女性主体意识的苏醒,这也反过来推动女性媒介角色的变化,两者的影响是相互的。本文将以新媒体广告传播为背景,以宝洁系列广告为例,浅析广告传播中社会关怀对推动女性主体意识建构的影响。

  7. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  8. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Srinivasan; Prashanth Shenai; Laxmikanth Chatra; Veena KM; Prasanna Kumar Rao

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that ...

  9. Food, Health Children – Juvenile Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Fidelis Dias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this essay was to discuss the regulation of advertising to children and adolescents. In methodological terms, it included the points of view of the food industry, associations of advertisers, government, and organizations representing consumers. We analyzed ethics in advertising, social representations, and studies that investigate the influence of gifts on purchase behavior and nutritional anthropology. The discussion proposed in the essay revolves around the influence of advertising on food choices of children and youth, and the central issue is to consider whether such influences are ethically justified and whether the food consumed would contribute to health risks, such as weight gain and obesity. The results suggest that advertisements influence food choices and often promote products of questionable nutritional quality.

  10. Laconism in the advertisement discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Mateus Kogawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates the construction of a particular kind of statement called laconism. The discursive form is constructed by an enunciation modality that aggregates military, religious and economic spaces, and is characterized by ‘tell more in fewer words’. It is the hallmark of Greek civilization and typical of Christ’s universal phrases. The enunciation structure is basic and omnipresent in the myth construction within consumer society. Current investigation deals with the advertising discourse, more particularly, Coca-Cola advertisings, as a contemporary myth. French Discourse Analysis coupled to Foucault’s and Barthes’s works foreground the essay.

  11. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective.

  12. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Intercultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that cover a fairly long period of time – among them the textbooks by two Slovenian authors: Južnič (1938 and Grad (1954, as well as some generally-used French textbooks, such as Cours de langue et de civilisation françaises (1953, Le nouveau sans frontières (1988 and Nouveau rond point (2011. The article is based on the hypothesis that high culture is more likely to be present in the older textbooks, which are based on traditional methods, whereas in modern textbooks more popular, everyday topics can be found. It is also presumed that topics in modern textbooks are, compared to their more traditional counterparts, introduced in an intercultural manner which could encourage students to compare the culture of the foreign country with their own. Both hypotheses are partly confirmed. In Slovenian textbooks there are very few culture-based topics. On the other hand, they are present in all French textbooks, regardless of the methodology. It is true that Mauger introduces more high culture than the others and that the intercultural topics are presented only in the most recent textbook. In all the others, it is exclusively the culture of the target country that is introduced.

  13. Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising literacy in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. In doing so, this dissertation not only deepens the existing theoretical and empirical insights on children’s advertising litera...

  14. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  15. Advertising of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    It is estimated that 1.7 million fertile and sexually active women in Great Britain do not use any reliable form of contraception. There is a need for better information regarding contraception, a need which could be filled by commercial advertising of family planning in general and specific contraceptive products in particular. Mass media and public advertising of family planning services is permitted in Britain. Funds available for such purposes are inadequate for continued advertising. The law should be changed to allow advertising for specific brands of condoms, spermicides, and pills. IUDs and diaphragms are used in too small numbers to make advertising worthwhile. The objection to contraceptive advertising is that it would be offensive to the public. However, public opinion research confounds this theory.

  16. Advertising on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social media? What is the impact of social media on mainstream media, why to advertise on social media? and what should be the strategy for advertising on social media. The author is of the view that in the year 2013, $4 billion will be spent on social media advertising across the globe and social media industry will generate over 1,00,000 new jobs all around the world.

  17. Development and in vitro assessment of alginate bilayer films containing the olive compound hydroxytyrosol as an alternative for topical chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Tan, Say-Lee

    2015-11-30

    Topical chemotherapy is the application of cancer drugs directly onto the skin, which has become a standard treatment for basal cell carcinoma. Due to the promising results in the treatment of skin cancer, topical chemotherapy has recently been applied to breast cancer patients because some breast cancer tissues are only superficial. Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from olives that is present in high amounts in Hidrox(®) olive extract, has been shown to have a protective effect on normal cells and selective antitumor activities on cancerous cells. The aims of the present study were to develop an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) and to investigate its potential use as a topical chemotherapeutic agent. Alginate films were characterized for swelling and for physical, thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties. Drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release tests were also investigated. The alginate bilayer films containing Hidrox(®), HB2, showed controlled release of hydroxytyrosol at a flux of 0.094±0.009 mg/cm(2)/h. The results of the cytotoxic assay showed that the HB2 films were dose-dependent and could significantly reduce the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) at 150 μg/mL for a cell viability of 29.34±4.64%. In conclusion, an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) can be a potential alternative for topical chemotherapeutic agent for skin and breast cancer treatment.

  18. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and... such as advertising, customer relations, etc. (b) Advertising means the use of media to promote...

  20. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including...

  1. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material...

  2. Advertising on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...

  3. PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Hanna , Febrianti

    2013-01-01

    Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOPICAL EMLA CREAM AS LOCAL ANAESTHETIC IN VENEPUNCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodicherla Siva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The efficacy of a topical anaesthetic formulation, EMLA 5% cream (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics in obtunding the pain produced by intravenous cannulation was determined in our study. This study aims at evaluating the eff icacy of EMLA cream in producing dermal analgesia for venous cannulation and the effect of timing of application of EMLA cream prior to cannulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Amongst 60 patients, EMLA cream was applied for 60 minutes in 20 patients, 30 minutes in another 20 and in the remaining 20 no cream or placebo was applied. RESULTS Pain was assessed in all the groups by a 4-point rank score. It was found that patients with EMLA cream had lower pain scores and decreased haemodynamic stress response to venous cannulation when compared to the control group. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Maximum analgesia was observed in patients who had EMLA cream applied for 60 minutes. No significant side effects were seen with this formulation

  5. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Sander, Birgit; Brøndsted, Adam Elias;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The late post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 10-30s ) to blue light is reduced in glaucoma, suggesting that pupillometry can be used in clinical glaucoma evaluation. Since animal studies have indicated that common anti-glaucomatous agents affect the iris muscle, we investigated...... the short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular on the PIPR10-30s. METHODS: In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects...... reduced by all three drugs after 3.5 h (p glaucoma medications did not interfere with the blue light elicited PIPR. Dorzolamide reduced pupil size, while timolol reduced both pupil size and maximal contraction to red...

  6. INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features

  7. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  8. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  9. Localization of international advertisements under the background of cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of cross-culture, advertisements for international brands or products have encountered several obstacles, such as verbal signs and non-verbal signs, values and moral concepts, religious beliefs and customs as wel as policy and decree. To cope with such impediments, these ads have to be designed local y in facets like brand name, slogan, advertising image, advertising spokesman and creative advertising. This text discusses the localization of international advertisements from five main points.

  10. Who is Responsible for Advertising Ethics Proper Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayıp ÖZDEMİR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates who is the responsible from the lack of ethics of advertisings’ content. 5 stakeholders (advertisers, advertising agencies, media, governmental and non-governmental organizations and, consumers are responsible from the ethics of preparation and broadcasting of the advertisings. Quantitative and qualitative data are collected to determine lack of ethics of the advertising. In this study 1103 questionnaires analyzed that collected from throughout Turkey. According to the result of this study, advertising agencies and the media are perceived as more responsible than the other stakeholders.

  11. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    influence the navy recruiting and advertising goals. Results from our study can influence advertisement targeting goals and also better aid in the...250 advertising studies to deduce a formula on how advertising works . They developed a framework, seen in Figure 2, to help classify the advertising...advertising works : What do we really know? Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 26-43. By using the framework and classifying studies into different models

  12. A COGNITIVE-AXIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO PRINT ECO-ADVERTISEMENTS IN THE ECONOMIST: THE ENERGY SECTOR UNDER SCRUTINY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Felices Lago

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to map out some of the dominant values in print advertisements announcing different types of environmentally friendly products and services from energy (oil, electricity, etc. and heavy industry corporations. We will analyse the qualities and values explicitly linked to ecological samples through metaphors, metonymies and image schemas and the way in which they are introduced in advertising
    discourse. To this end, we have selected a corpus of sample advertisements published in 12 editions of The Economist, a well-known, prestigious business magazine. The Lakoffian semantics analysis will be used in order to give us a more reliable estimate of values and metaphorical processes linked to environmental topics as well as an account of the cognitive and discursive means used to denote them.

  13. Adaptive User Profiles in Pervasive Advertising Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Florian; Balz, Moritz; Kristes, Stefanie; Shirazi, Alireza Sahami; Mennenöh, Julian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Schröder, Hendrik; Goedicke, Michael

    Nowadays modern advertising environments try to provide more efficient ads by targeting costumers based on their interests. Various approaches exist today as to how information about the users' interests can be gathered. Users can deliberately and explicitly provide this information or user's shopping behaviors can be analyzed implicitly. We implemented an advertising platform to simulate an advertising environment and present adaptive profiles, which let users setup profiles based on a self-assessment, and enhance those profiles with information about their real shopping behavior as well as about their activity intensity. Additionally, we explain how pervasive technologies such as Bluetooth can be used to create a profile anonymously and unobtrusively.

  14. Advertising. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit uses advertisements for products low in cholesterol as a link to a discussion of the nutrient, fat. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the students, and factual nutrition…

  15. Advertisement Policy - 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ADVERTISEMENT POLICY - 2016Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences of academic or research interest through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.Your advertisements in our journal will keep your products getting boost every quarter in the nook and corner of the country through our journal which is the forefront of community health. The journal is indexed and abstracted in more than 70 databases worldwide including SCOPUS, Index Medicus SEAR, Bioline International, DOAJ, WHO HINARI, Indian Science Abstract, etc. Apart from the print advertisement, we also consider advertisement on web, bulk subscriptions, gift subscriptions or reprint purchases for distribution.Note: Indian Journal of Community Health does not give medical advice and will not be able to respond to inquiries about specific diseases, medical or surgical conditions, diagnosis, treatments or contact of another person. Advertisement Rate – 2016Category INRInside Full Back Cover (color15,000Inside Full Back Cover (B & W10,000Full Page (Color10,000Half Page (Color5,000Full Page (B & W5,000Half Page (B & W2,000 Sponsorship Rate - Supplementary IssueThe cost towards publishing a single special issue of IJCH is Rs. 75,000/- per issue. The above mentioned cost is based on the following specifications i.e.  Page size 8.5" X 11", Printing Offset printing, Pages - 90 b/w + 10 full color pages + 4

  16. [A contribution to the development of advertising in pharmacy II. Historical development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranová, Vilma

    2012-10-01

    The article deals with the development of regulation of advertising of medicinal products in the Czech Lands of the Habsburg Monarchy and Czechoslovakia in the years 1775-1938. Advertising medicines had and has its specifics and its regulation had been addressed by specific standards and linked to other health laws and regulations. Regulation of advertising of medicinal products has undergone a long process from the initial total ban on advertising to the establishment of clear rules, some of which, such as restrictions on advertising prescription-only medicines only to the professional healthcare press, are still valid.

  17. Government Public Service Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ganjar Runtiko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Public service advertising is one of the government strategies to promote the development program. At the national level, the government prefers television as a medium for advertising. As for the local level, the government usually tend to choose lower-cost ads. In Banyumas, many public service announcements using outdoor media such as billboards, banners, or posters. Characteristics of outdoor media that promotes design in attracting the attention of an audience became a challenge for designers. On the other hand, the messages also require the space in public service announcements. This study wants to know about how the execution of the design of outdoor advertising services in the community in efforts to combine the design with a message to be delivered. The study, sought to examine aspects of the design using the composition interpretation methods and verbal composition of outdoor advertising with discourse analysis methods.This research concludes that the government public service announcements desain still needs to be improved according to the rules of visual communication design.

  18. 实践教学与广告策划课融合的探析--以参加全国大学生广告艺术大赛为例%Analysis of the integration of practice teaching and advertising planning course--Taking participate in the national advertising art design competition for college students as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕兵

    2013-01-01

    The national advertising art design competition provides a good opportunity for the combination of advertising planning course and market practice, which makes the topic enter into the classroom and teaching, students targeted for learning, creation, practice in fresh business topics, making them from ignorance to knowledge, constantly absorb nutrients to enrich themselves. For students, every game is in the continuous cycle and progress of"learning in practice, and practice in learning". Only through the actual operation, in order to truly understand the advertisement plan is to be carried out. In the practice of teaching and learning, students learn to study communicate, create, integrate, implementation and problem solving.%全国大学生广告艺术大赛提供了一个广告策划课与市场实践结合的很好契机,它让企业的选题走进课堂,融入教学,学生有针对性的进行学习、创作,在鲜活的企业选题中进行实践,使他们从无知到认识,从浅薄到深入,不断地吸取养分充实自己。对学生来说,每次比赛都是在“实践中学习,和学习中实践”的不断循环和进步。只有通过实际操作,才能在真正意义上了解广告策划是怎样做出来的。在教与学的实践中学生学会了研究、沟通、创造、整合、执行和解决问题。

  19. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wzorek LF

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results: A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  20. MCM-41 as a useful vector for rutin topical formulations: synthesis, characterization and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Gloria; Gastaldi, Lucia; Sapino, Simona; Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Chirio, Daniela; Ugazio, Elena

    2013-11-30

    Rutin, the glycoside of quercetin, could be used in topical preparations because of its antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, but its employ in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products is limited by poor physico-chemical stability. These issues were addressed by preparing, characterizing and testing rutin inclusion complexes with MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The effect of surface functionalization with aminopropyl groups (NH₂-MCM-41) on the molecules properties was studied. The organic/inorganic interaction was confirmed by many techniques. In particular, the high inclusion of rutin in the pores of NH₂-MCM-41 was assessed by XRD, TGA, gas-volumetric analysis (BET), while FTIR spectroscopy allowed to analyse with great detail the molecular interaction with the inorganic surface. Rutin was stabilized against UV degradation, mostly by its inclusion in NH₂-MCM-41. Ex vivo studies showed a greater accumulation in porcine skin in the case of rutin complexed with NH₂-MCM-41. Not only antioxidant properties of rutin were maintained after immobilization but, with aminopropyl silica, the metal-chelating activity increased noticeably. The immobilization of rutin in aminopropyl silica resulted in better performance in terms of activity and photostability, suggesting the importance of functionalization in stabilizing organic molecules within silica pores.

  1. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.

  2. Misselling as a New Topic of Financial Education? A Didactic Analysis of Investment Advise after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loerwald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal financial investments are, as a matter of course, a topic of economic education because they are a life situation which is inherently economical. In contrast, faulty advising in banks which has become focussed upon due to the extent it has played a part in the recent financial crisis is mentioned neither in curricula nor in educational text books. Numerous private funds have been exposed as unprofitable investments. One reason for this problem is to be found in the marketing staff of the banks who did not invest their customer’s funds securely enough – and the customers did not notice it. What conclusions can be drawn from this for general financial education after the financial crisis? The economic education has failed to address the topic of “faulty advising in banks” as well. On the basis of categorical economic didactics the following contribution will analyse whether one has an exemplary case here upon which students can win generalized, transferable insights. In this context, the topic of personal financial investments will be classified in an efficient manner and the risk of opportunism in advising situations will be analysed with the help of the positive principal-agent theory. The results of this analysis of informational asymmetries within financial markets give direction to the development and revision of curricula in the didactics of economic education. With the following article a sustainable theoretical fundament will be created to underscore the obligatory inclusion of this topic in curricula as well as its realisation for target groups in school text books.

  3. 原生广告的创意与反思--以凤凰网原生广告为个案%Creativity and Reflection of Native Advertising:Taking Ifeng Net as the Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德团; 周嘉宁; 肖夕鹃

    2015-01-01

    国内凤凰网于2013年率先引入原生广告,形成了以内容营销为内核的运作模式,推出原生品牌新闻、视频、栏目、专题、频道五大类原生广告。凤凰网原生广告的创意源于两个方面:一是按广告主的需求定制,以新闻化的方式运作广告;二是以新媒体为平台全息化塑造品牌,建立与消费者的关系。简言之,原生广告的创意本质是通过新媒体平台的内容生产与传播,实现媒体的新闻性与广告的商业性融合,其背后隐含的是新媒体与广告的全新关系。%Ifeng Net took the lead in introducing native adverting in 2013,creating an operation mode taking content marketing as the core. There are five types of native advertising,including native brand news report,native video,native column and native channel. The creativity of Ifeng Netˊs native advertising comes from two aspects:operating advertising with news - orientation on the basis of advertisersˊ needs;establishing brand with new media as the terrace to build rela-tionship with consumers. In short,the essence of native advertising is achieving the integration of mediaˊs news orientation and advertisingˊs commercial orientation through content production and dissemination of new media,and a new relation between new media and advertising is implied.

  4. Clindamycin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  5. Tretinoin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotions, astringents, and perfumes); they can sting your skin, especially when you first use tretinoin.Do not use any other topical medications, especially benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid (wart remover), and dandruff shampoos containing sulfur or ...

  6. Advertising Model of Residential Real Estate Object in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mazaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the year 2000, during the period of economic growth, the real estate market has been rapidly expanding. During this period advertising of real estate objects was implemented using one set of similar channels (press advertising, Internet advertising, leaflets with contact information of real estate agents and others, however the start of the economic recession has intensified the competition in the market and forced companies to search for new advertising means or to diversify the advertising package. The article presents real estate property, as a product, one of the marketing components – including advertising, conclusions and suggestions based on conducted surveys and a model for advertising the residential real estate objects.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles U.

    As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

  8. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct....... The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct......-orientation differs from object-orientation by a marked tone pattern. Topic choice largely reflects information structure by indicating topic continuity. The topic also plays a crucial role in relative clauses and in clauses with contrastive constituent focus, in that objects and adjuncts can only be relativized...

  9. Valuable Internet Advertising and Customer Satisfaction Cycle(VIACSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days it is very important for the business persons to attract their target customers towards their products through valuable mode of promotion and communication. Increasing use of World Wide Web has completely changed the scenario of business sector. Customized products and services, customers preferences, @ and dot com craze have elevated the importance of internet advertising. This research paper investigates valuable internet advertising which will help to enhance the value of internet advertising. In this research we have compared internet advertising with television advertising and found advertising will survive and grow if it focuses on being valuable. This research paper concentrates that the business objectives can be achieved if it has strong attractive, informative and valuable internet advertising. The basic purpose of VIACSC is to identify the latent need of the customer through advertisement and inform him/her about a product which will help to retain business image, customer satisfaction and then loyalty. We have introduced certain steps in valuable internet advertising, and then customer satisfaction cycle through valuable internet advertising and finally 5As which enhance further customers attraction towards the internet advertising.

  10. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel as a topical ocular anesthetic for use in ophthalmic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Page

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Page, Frederick W FraunfelderDepartment of Ophthalmology (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USAPurpose: To review the current literature on safety, efficacy, and measures of surgeon and patient satisfaction with lidocaine hydrochloride gel as a tool for ocular anesthesia.Methods: Pubmed search using keywords “lidocaine gel,” “ophthalmic,” and “surgery” and compiling cross-references. Twenty-six total references were reviewed, including 15 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs, total N = 933, average N = 62, 6 nonrandomized prospective studies (total N = 234, average N = 39, 2 animal studies, 1 microbiologic study, and 2 letters to the editor.Results: The RCTs and nonrandomized prospective studies evaluated a number of measures including timing of onset of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative pain, need for additional anesthetic applications, intracameral lidocaine levels, and adverse effects. Control groups received topical drops, subconjunctival anesthetic, retrobulbar anesthetic, or sham gel. Lidocaine gel was shown to be at least as effective for pain control as alternative therapies in all studies, with longer duration of action than topical drops. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high, and adverse effects were rare and comparable to those for anesthetic drop formulations. Surgical settings included cataract, pterygium, trabeculectomy, strabismus, intravitreal injection, vitrectomy, and penetrating keratoplasty.Conclusions: Lidocaine gel is a safe, effective, and potentially underutilized tool for ophthalmic surgery.Keywords: lidocaine, gel, topical, ophthalmic, ocular, anesthetic

  11. ESSENTIALS OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Anisoara; Dredetianu, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Advertising communication achieves its persuasion purposes according to medium, product, urge, idiosyncrasies which students in economics and future businessmen should be aware about, whenever they intend to launch a new product on either the domestic or international market. Moreover, intercultural elements and gender issues need careful consideration if blunders are to be avoided in international advertising.

  12. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  13. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  14. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  15. Morphing banner advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Urban (Glen); G. Liberali (Guilherme); E. MacDonald (Erin); R. Bordley (Robert); J. Hauser (J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResearchers and practitioners devote substantial effort to targeting banner advertisements to consumers, but they focus less effort on how to communicate with consumers once targeted. Morphing enables a website to learn, automatically and near optimally, which banner advertisements to se

  16. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  17. Facts versus feelings? The effectiveness of hard versus soft sell appeals in online advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Veirman, Marijke; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the advertising effects of hard versus soft sell appeals are investigated. Both studies show that in online advertising (banner ads and viral video ads), soft sell appeals in advertisements on high involvement products generate a more positive attitude towards the ad than hard sell appeals. In print advertising however, hard sell appeals lead to a more positive Aad, due to the fact that the advertisement is perceived as less irritating and more credible. Additiona...

  18. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cyril de Run

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

  19. Oak leaf extract as topical antioxidant: free radical scavenging and iron chelating activities and in vivo skin irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    The topical application of antioxidants may be beneficial for the protection of the skin against UV damage. An extract of Quercus robur leaves was prepared and evaluated considering its putative application as topical antioxidant. The solvent and extractive method selection was monitored by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron chelating activity and the phenolic composition (HPLC/DAD) were assessed on the extract obtained under optimized conditions. Skin irritation potential was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 19 volunteers. The extraction solvent which resulted in the highest activity was ethanol:water (4:6) and thus it was selected for further preparation of this extract. The IC50s for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 153.8 +/- 26.3 microg x mL-1 and 7.53 +/- 0.71 microg x mL-1 (mean +/- SD), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 346.3 +/- 6.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract (mean +/- SD). Three phenolic compounds were identified in the extract namely: ellagic acid, rutin and hyperoside. The major identified component was ellagic acid. The patch test carried out showed that the extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  20. Advertising in This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    If you would like additional information about the products of the advertisers in this issue, the quickest and easiest way is via JCE Online's new service: Ad Index This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. · 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 · phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  1. Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising li

  2. As funções dos tipos textuais no interior do gênero discurso de propaganda The functions of the textual types in the gender advertising speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldivia Maria de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe refletir acerca do ensino de leitura e escrita pela abordagem de gêneros, com foco nas funções que os tipos textuais desempenham no interior do gênero discurso de propaganda. Reflete-se sobre problemas que envolvem a conceitualização de gênero textual / gênero de discurso, tipos textuais / formas textuais, com ênfase na definição de gênero mais adequada ao ensino. O corpus desses estudos constitui-se de uma peça publicitária veiculada no jornal Folha de S. Paulo. E as reflexões se ancoram no Funcionalismo (HALLIDAY, 1985, na Semântica Pragmática (VAN DIJK, 1978 e na Análise do Discurso (MAINGUENEAU, 2002.This article proposes a reflection about the teaching of reading and writing on the genre approach, focusing on the function that textual types play within the genre advertising discourse. It reflects on issues surrounding the conceptualization of textual genre / discourse genre, textual types / textual forms, observing the most appropriate definition of genre to teach mother language. The studied corpus is constituted by an advertising piece published in Folha de S. Paulo. And the reflections rest on the Functionalism (HALLIDAY, 1985, on the Semantic Pragmatic (VAN DIJK, 1979, on the Discourse Analysis (MAINGUENEAU, 2002.

  3. A Summary of Information on the Behavior of the Yakima Fold Belt as a Structural Entity -- Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) that may bear on the question of whether or not the YFB behaves as a single seismotectonic province in which activity along one fold structure is representative of behavior along all other fold structures. This topic has met with a fairly high level of contention in the expert community and has the potential to result in significant impacts on an evaluation of seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. This report defines the relevant alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, it suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  4. Advertising Bans and the Substitutability of Online and Offline Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising b...

  5. Advertising cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malefyt, Timothy de Waal; Moeran, Brian

    The growth, success and secrets of advertizing are legendary. Advertizing agencies ceaselessly churn out evermore sophisticated campaigns that, when successful, manage to capture the every essence of consumer desire. The secrets of advertizing are perhaps best understood by turning......, but exposes, through in-depth accounts based on personal experience, the inner workings of the advertizing industry. How do adverts manage to capture "real" life? What issues do agencies have to consider when using an advert in a range of different countries? What specific methods are used to persuade us...... to the relationship between advertizing and anthropology. The link between them may come as a surprise to those who consider advertizing to be firmly rooted in commerce and anthropology in culture. Through the lens of anthropologists, this book not only shows how anthropology and advertizing are connected...

  6. Introduction to media and advertising creative relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on the relationship of media and advertising creative for the report, Through the analysis of the nature and characteristics of various advertising media, from video, print, advertising, outdoor this four aspects explain the relationship between media and advertising creative. Fully understand the media for advertising creative, make the best combination of media and advertising, make advertising creative into real productivity.

  7. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  8. Innovative Railway Advertising Marketing Mix Strategy%创新铁路广告营销组合策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永强

    2015-01-01

    随着铁路发展的突飞猛进,市场和广告主都对铁路广告提出了全新要求,本文分析了铁路广告在竞争日趋激烈的市场新形势下,创新铁路广告营销组合策略的途径与方法。本文对这一课题的分析研究是初步、肤浅的,但求抛砖引玉使这一重要课题能够引起专家学者和相关领导的重视,从而对创新铁路广告营销的实践起到一定的推动作用。%With the rapid development of railway, both the market and advertiser have put forward new requirements for advertisement. This article analyzes the ways and methods of railway advertising marketing mix strategy in the fierce market competition of railway advertising. This is only a preliminary and shallow research of this topic and the author hopes that it can attract the attention of experts and leaders related so as to promote the innovation of railway advertising marketing practice.

  9. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Inter)cultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that co...

  10. A review of the literature about the usage of music in the advertisements as the factor which affects the attitude of the target market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Batı

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the realm of marketing communication, particularly in advertising, music has been a prevailing feature. Past research have examined the effects of music in advertising in relation to attention, memory, attitudes and purchase intention. This article examines the works that analyze related music structure and how music helps creating meaning in advertising. Literature is reviewed and analyzed by means of consumer attitude through the brand and advertising, brand recall, pleasure and arousal, and purchase intention variables which are then demonstrated in tables. The paper has shown that music is used with a proportion of from 40% up to 90% in the advertisements. It is thought that this proportion shows the importance of music usage in ads by the advertisers. Concisely, this study attempts to fill a gap in Turkish literature by providing a summary of the results of the existing research on the effects of music in advertising and provides a foundation for future research on the interaction of music and advertising.

  11. Content Analysis of Advertisements in Different Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, advertising examples are being analyzed and used as yet another form of communication, on account of their ubiquity (e.g. billboards, Internet, television, magazines. Designed to compel us to purchase products, advertisements have the potential to greatly impact our lives. They show current trends in social preferences, they reveal cultural values and norms of the target audience and, finally, they can be the mirror of the times people live in. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the findings in previously carried–out research relating to cross–cultural content analysis of advertisements. The reports have addressed both linguistic and extra–linguistic features and trends in advertising and emphasized language– and culture–specific elements. This paper also gives ideas for future studies, since nowadays, due to international marketing and increasing globalization there are more cultural transfers to be explored, as cultures are coming in contact far more frequently.

  12. Words Used in English Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超慧; 郭星余

    2008-01-01

    With the support of some pieces of English advertisement,express the general principles used in the written language of English advertisement,based on the characteristic of advertisement.In the passage,adjective,verb,pronoun,compound word,coinage and connotative word are analyzed to find the basic rules of words used in English advertisement,which can be used to guise the choice of language in advertisements.

  13. Cigarette Advertising and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In 1998 the advertising ban of the EC directive was challenged by the Federal Republic of Germany. One reason for Germany's fierce opposition to the EC directive is the conviction that a ban of tabacco advertising is an ineffective way to curb smoking. In this article I look for empirical studies for the relationship between advertising and smoking. If one distinguishes the effect of advertising on adults from the effects on children and adolescents one can make a point for the advertising ba...

  14. Advertisers and Advertising Agencies: A National Survey of Current Attitudes toward Advertising Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Charles M.

    To measure attitudes toward advertising program graduates versus non-advertising graduates, a study was conducted of advertising managers nationwide and advertising agency middle managers in New York, California, Illinois and Texas. Two hundred and eighty-three self-administered questionnaires were completed. Results included the following…

  15. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  16. The role of advertising through social networks to promote brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are online gathering places for people who would like to share their interests and activities. In this context, advertising through social networks is one of the most important topics in the field of marketing and brand that has been considered only in few studies. This study examines the impact of advertising on brand equity through social networks in the beverage industry (PepsiCo. This research study was to survey and collect data from the a standard questionnaire. PepsiCo brand, which is a well known beverage industry worldwide is selected for the proposed study of this paper. Thus, all customers of Pepsi products in city of Tehran are considered as statistical research community and a sample size of 385 people is selected for the proposed study. In order to analyze the data, we use structural equations method and certified factor analysis. The results of our survey indicate that advertisement on social networks has a positive impact in this industry. Based on the results of our survey, we realize that there are some positive relationship between social network advertisement and quality perception, brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand association when the level of significance is one percent.

  17. Ways of art appropriation by the advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fernandes Esteves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the different ways of appropriation of the artistic visualrepresentations by the advertising communication, proposed by Lucia Santaella (2005 – imitation of the ways of composing and incorporation of the artistic image – this article presents, as of the examination of advertisements broadcast in different countries, seven new categories outlined on the basis of partial or total use of the appropriated image and the interference performed in them.

  18. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  19. Consumer–brand assemblages in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the use of tattoos in advertising renders diverse brand–consumer assemblages visible. In considering advertising practitioners as professionals of entanglement, the paper emphasizes the embeddedness of practitioners’ use of tattoo symbolism in institutionalized marketing...... systems and in the cultural history of tattooing. In accordance with recent emphasis on the importance of material devices for understanding contemporary sociality, this paper presents a semiotic analysis of a convenience sample of advertisements depicting tattoos. Tattoos are productive for the study...... potency. This analysis demonstrates how the emergence of brand tattoos in advertising challenges the dominant consumer centrism in consumer research and suggests a networked, emerging understanding of the subject in which agency is distributed in socio-technical assemblages....

  20. Linguistic Characteristics of Commercial and Social Advertising Slogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skorupa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the analysis of linguistic characteristics of commercial and social advertising slogans. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature, therefore, an attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication was made. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in a way desired by the advertisers. As language, either spoken or written, has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour, the article analysis the language of advertising from the linguistic point of view and focuses on the phonological and semantic characteristics of slogans for commercial and social advertising campaigns. The analysis of 110 English slogans (55 commercial and 55 social advertising campaigns showed the frequent use of both sound techniques and figurative language in commercial advertising slogans, which make the slogans more memorable, attractive and highlighting the advertised brand in a positive way. In contrast, the sound techniques and figurative language are scarce in slogans for social advertising campaigns.

  1. The Features and Translation Strategies of English Advertising Slogan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赬

    2014-01-01

    It is all shared by us that advertising has its cultural and social specialty as well as its own linguistic features. By means of advertising, society and the people can indeed obtain some useful information. To some degree, it is without doubt that language in advertising has a profound impact on the public and people as well as their behaviors. By using special means of expressions, sentences and structures technique, advertising can be given more persuasive and attractive influence. The most effective way that we can write some English advertising slogan in order to meet and satisfy foreigners ’tastes and draw their attention to the particu⁃lar Chinese products is to research the major features of English advertisements and seize the principles and strategies for their translation.

  2. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún;

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described...

  3. The Effect of Product Placement Marketing on Effectiveness of Internet Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiu-Li; Liu, Su-Houn; Pi, Shih-Ming; Chen, Hui-Ju

    Compared to the traditional way of doing advertising, such as ad Banners, internet product placement is now emerging as a promising strategy for advertisers to do their job effectively in this Web 2.0 era. Therefore, this study focuses on the effectiveness of product placement advertising on the Internet. The results show that product prominence (Subtle or Prominent) and presentation of the advertising (Video or Images) significantly impacts the effectiveness of product placement advertising on the Internet, including brand impression, advertising attitude, and intention to click. Product prominence and presentation of the advertisement have an interactive impact. Our findings indicated that presenting the product through videos will enhance higher levels of advertising attitude, brand impression, and intention to click than presenting it through still images. Subtle placements will increase the level of advertising attitude and intention to click more so than prominent placements. But prominent placements increase the brand impression more than the subtle placements.

  4. The Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建红

    2007-01-01

    The English language has evolved to have many different kinds of functionality,each of which corresponds to different situations and styles of use. The advertising English differs when they in various fields.

  5. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  7. Trends in Advertising Typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst

    1982-01-01

    Reviews advertising typography in general interest, special interest, and trade magazines and concludes that special interest magazine ads are making the most effort to be fashionable, but also have the greatest chance of having functional problems. (FL)

  8. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  9. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2015-01-01

    and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity......The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... constraints’ to help establish common terminological ground. Since the presence of constraints change over time, we suggest the term ‘constrainedness’ to articulate this total constraint intensity at a given time. This allows us to introduce our main contribution, the concept ‘the sweet spot’, to address...

  10. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2016-01-01

    and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity......The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... constraints’ to help establish common terminological ground. Since the presence of constraints change over time, we suggest the term ‘constrainedness’ to articulate this total constraint intensity at a given time. This allows us to introduce our main contribution, the concept ‘the sweet spot’, to address...

  11. Advances in studies of phospholipids as carriers in skin topical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:This article provides an overview of characteristics of phospholipids,the characteristics and influential factors of liposome and microemulsion as carriers for skin delivery of drugs,and the latest advances of the phospholipids carriers in transdermal delivery systems.The perspective is that phospholipids carriers may be capable of a wide range of applications in the transdermal defivery system.

  12. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mo...

  13. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  14. Eight worst advertising mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer."

  15. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    stores space availability is a barrier to displaying antitobacco information. Materials should be designed that have some utility for the store, such as posters that list store hours or directional information (that is, in and out signs).Antitobacco messages could also be displayed on check out dividers, check out mats, shopping carts,shopping bags, and milk cartons. In chain stores,decisions regarding the display of antitobacco information are likely to be made at the corporate level. Standards encouraging retailers to adopt more responsible policies related to advertising and sale of tobacco products should be established.

  16. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Treldal, Charlotte; Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Jacobsen, Jette; Kreilgaard, Mads; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single dose to 10 healthy individuals, and a lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to five patients with HNC. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the patients with HNC, respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described by a two-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All the observed plasma concentrations were well below the bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was two times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2 and three times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 3-4 than in the healthy individuals. Simulations showed that the plasma concentrations would be below the toxic limit after repeated dosing every second hour with 25 mg bupivacaine for five days. The 25-mg bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit.

  17. Time as a Key Topic in Health Professionals’ Perceptions of Clinical Handovers

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette M. Watson; Liz Jones; Julia Cretchley

    2014-01-01

    Clinical handovers are an essential part of the daily care and treatment of hospital patients. We invoked a language and social psychology lens to investigate how different health professional groups discussed the communication problems and strengths they experienced in handovers. We conducted in-depth interviews with three different health professional groups within a large metropolitan hospital. We used Leximancer text analytics software as a tool to analyze the data. Results showed that ti...

  18. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  19. HII mesophase as a drug delivery system for topical application of methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Sheng-Mei; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Gui, Shuang-Ying

    2017-03-30

    The main objective of this study was to develop reversed hexagonal (HII) mesophase for transdermal delivery of methyl salicylate. The formulation was prepared, characterized and evaluated for its skin penetration in vitro and skin retention in vivo. Preliminary pharmacodynamics and skin irritation were also investigated. The formulation was identified as hexagonal structure. In vitro study exhibited that HII mesophase enhanced the skin permeation by delivering 2.61 times more methyl salicylate than the commercially available cream. Meanwhile, HII mesophase presented higher bioavailability as AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) were 32.894μg·mL(-1) and 32.935μg·mL(-1) respectively, while the cream were 12.791μg·mL(-1) and 12.970μg·mL(-1). Preliminary pharmacodynamics studies demonstrated that HII mesophase possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects for inhibiting paw edema, granuloma and pain. MeSa HII mesophase showed no skin irritation on the normal rat skin. Thus, HII mesophase was considered as an effective delivery system for MeSa.

  20. Cooperative Advertising in a Supply Chain with Horizontal Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yi He; Qinglong Gou; Chunxu Wu; Xiaohang Yue

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative advertising programs are usually provided by manufacturers to stimulate retailers investing more in local advertising to increase the sales of their products or services. While previous literature on cooperative advertising mainly focuses on a “single-manufacturer single-retailer” framework, the decision-making framework with “multiple-manufacturer single-retailer” becomes more realistic because of the increasing power of retailers as well as the increased competition among the ma...

  1. Spanish Advertisers and the New Communication Context: A Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Fernández Blanco, Ph. D.; Nuria Villagra García, Ph. D.; David Alameda García, Ph. D.; Juan Benavides Delgado, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the current way advertising is run by Spanish advertisers, as well as the tendencies and new working outlooks for the next few years. The current changes taking place in advertising communication are the starting point for this research project of an applied nature, whose results are presented here. This context of change is characterised by technological advances, the hegemony of the consumer, and changes in the media, professional routines and the relationships and str...

  2. When Are Users Comfortable Sharing Locations with Advertisers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    suggest that users’ strong privacy concerns may hinder this potentially invasive form of advertising , as early efforts reach the market . We also find that...When Are Users Comfortable Sharing Locations with Advertisers ? Patrick Gage Kelley, Michael Benisch, Lorrie Faith Cranor, Norman Sadeh October 2010...15213-3890 As smartphones and other mobile computing devices have increased in ubiquity, advertisers have begun to realize a more effective way of

  3. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers.

  4. Formalin (0.25% as topical anti-microbial agent in burns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair R

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective controlled trial, 0.25% formalin spray was compared with 2% silver sulfadiazine cream as the local treatment of burns. Formation and separation of eschar, infection and death rates were recorded. In the group receiving formalin, rates of formation and separation of eschar were significantly more (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 resp. compared to other group. Infection rate and fatality due to infection were also reduced. Other advantages of formalin are ease of application and the low east.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  6. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  7. Rubus rosaefolius extract as a natural preservative candidate in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Elissa Arantes; Marcondes, Elda Maria Cecilio; Nishikawa, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Varca, Gustavo Henrique Costa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli; Consiglieri, T Vladi Olga; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2011-06-01

    Even though the synthetic preservatives may offer a high antimicrobial efficacy, they are commonly related to adverse reactions and regarded as having potentially harmful effects caused by chronic consumption. The development of natural preservatives provides a way of reducing the amount of synthetic preservatives normally used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In addition, these agents have less toxic effects and represent a possible natural and safer alternative of the preservatives. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the Rubus rosaefolius Smith extract efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. Of the extract, 0.2% (w/w) was assayed for its effectiveness of antimicrobial protection in two different base formulations (emulsion and gel). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standard procedures proposed by The United States Pharmacopoeia 33nd, European Pharmacopoeia 6th, Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th, and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association using standardized microorganisms. The results demonstrated that R. rosaefolius extract at the studied concentration reduced the bacterial inocula, satisfying the criterion in all formulations, even though it was not able to present an effective preservative behavior against fungi. Thus, the investigation of new natural substances with preservative properties that could be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products is relevant due to the possibility of substituting or decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives, providing a way for the development of safer formulas for the use of consumers.

  8. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kovur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order corn starch gel with propylene glycol was greater than corn starch gel without propylene glycol. The microbial studies were carried out in soya bean casein digest medium with Candida albicans as test organisms and were found to be 22.86 ± 0.58 and 20.22 ± 0.65 mm for TCSG (IV and TCS (III, respectively. All the gels exhibited shear thinning. The rheogram indicated that the gel systems are pseudoplastic and exhibited thixotropy. The added propylene glycol has not appreciably altered the apparent viscosity values.

  9. Time as a Key Topic in Health Professionals’ Perceptions of Clinical Handovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Watson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical handovers are an essential part of the daily care and treatment of hospital patients. We invoked a language and social psychology lens to investigate how different health professional groups discussed the communication problems and strengths they experienced in handovers. We conducted in-depth interviews with three different health professional groups within a large metropolitan hospital. We used Leximancer text analytics software as a tool to analyze the data. Results showed that time was of concern to all groups in both similar and diverse ways. All professionals discussed time management, time pressures, and the difficulties of coordinating different handovers. Each professional group had its own unique perceptions and priorities about handovers. Our findings indicated that health professionals understood what was required for handover improvement but did not have the extra capacity to alter their current environment. Hospital management, with clinicians, need to implement handover schedule processes that prioritize interprofessional representation.

  10. Not All Adware Is Badware: Towards Privacy-Aware Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Hamed; Guha, Saikat; Francis, Paul

    Online advertising is a major economic force in the Internet today. A basic goal of any advertising system is to accurately target the ad to the recipient audience. While Internet technology brings the promise of extremely well-targeted ad placement, there have always been serious privacy concerns surrounding personalization. Today there is a constant battle between privacy advocates and advertisers, where advertisers try to push new personalization technologies, and privacy advocates try to stop them. As long as privacy advocates, however, are unable to propose an alternative personalization system that is private, this is a battle they are destined to lose. This paper presents the framework for such an alternative system, the Private Verifiable Advertising (Privad). We describe the privacy issues associated with today’s advertising systems, describe Privad, and discuss its pros and cons and the challenges that remain.

  11. Theoretical models in the development of advertising for food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Many advertising people believe that theoretical models hamper creativity and efficiency in the development of advertising messages. This need not be the case, if the theoretical models are sufficiently flexible and intelligible. On the contrary, a workable model that describes how...... the advertisement influences the target may serve as creative inspiration and as a common frame of reference for those involved in the development of advertisements. The means-end-chain model says that an advertisement is effective by connecting the product's attributes (means) and the target's personal values...... (ends). MAPP's experience with the model indicates that it is both flexible and intuitively accessible to practicians. In order to study this MAPP and the Danish Fruit Growers' Association asked an advertising agency to produce two campaign proposals with the purpose of getting young people to eat more...

  12. Propylene glycol liposomes as a topical delivery system for miconazole nitrate: comparison with conventional liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, Riham M; Abdallah, Ossama Y; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2012-06-01

    Propylene glycol (PG)-phospholipid vesicles have been advocated as flexible lipid vesicles for enhanced skin delivery of drugs. To further characterize the performance of these vesicles and to address some relevant pharmaceutical issues, miconazole nitrate(MN)-loaded PG nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and vesicle stability. An issue of pharmaceutical importance is the time-dependent, dilution-driven diffusion of propylene glycol out of the vesicles. This was addressed by assessing propylene glycol using gas chromatography in the separated vesicles and monitoring its buildup in the medium after repeated dispersion of separated vesicles in fresh medium. Further, the antifungal activity of liposomal formulations under study was assessed using Candida albicans, and their in vitro skin permeation and retention were studied using human skin. At all instances, blank and drug-loaded conventional liposomes were included for comparison. The results provided evidence of controlled MN delivery, constant percent PG uptake in the vesicles (≈45.5%) in the PG concentration range 2.5 to 10%, improved vesicle stability, and enhanced skin deposition of MN with minimum skin permeation. These are key issues for different formulation and performance aspects of propylene glycol-phospholipid vesicles.

  13. Ethosomes and liposomes as topical vehicles for azelaic acid: a preformulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Menegatti, Enea; Cortesi, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties and the in vitro release rate kinetics of azelaic acid (AA), alternatively vehiculated in different phospholipid-based vesicles such as ethosomes or liposomes, were investigated. Ethosomes were produced by a simple method based on addition of an aqueous phase to an ethanol solution (comprised between 20\\% and 45%, v/v) of soy phosphatidyl choline (5%, w/w) and AA (0.2%, w/w) under mechanical stirring. Liposomes were obtained by the same composition in the absence of ethanol with the reverse-phase evaporation method. Vesicle size was measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), evidencing smaller mean diameters and narrower dimensional distributions in the case of ethosomes with respect to liposomes. In order to obtain homogeneously sized vesicles, both ethosomal and liposomal dispersions were extruded through polycarbonate membranes with pores of calibrated diameter (400 nm and 200 nm). Vesicle morphology was characterized by freeze-fracture scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the presence of unilamellar vesicles both in liposome- and in ethosome-based dispersions. Free energy measurements of the vesicle bilayers were conducted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). AA diffusion from ethosomal or liposomal dispersions and from ethosomes and liposomes incorporated in a viscous gel was investigated by a Franz cell assembled with synthetic membranes. The release rate was more rapid from ethosomal systems than from liposomal systems. In particular, ethosomes produced by the highest ethanol concentration released AA more rapidly, and the same trend was found using viscous forms.

  14. The Shortcomings of the Interwar Romanian Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth that characterized the interwar period meant the development of Romanian advertising. But it‘s alleged against many sins. For example, the press was accused of endangering the health of readers by hosting the pages of newspaper advertisements made for all sorts of dubious products. Some authors claim that ―abuse pattern‖ was a trigger for suicide. Also in some texts show that behind the advertising contracts were blackmail. Aesthetic aspect which the applicant made in an unprofessional manne r gave him large cities is another point from the ―sins‖ of interwar Romanian advertising. In the years between the two world wars, publications, central or local, host their pages many articles in different authorities debated how the Romanian disclosure was made. Our study aimed at precisely these texts, which were supposed to be some ―manual‖, it is true that small for all those interested in advertising. The documentation sources used for their drafting have been as testified by some authors, schools taught courses at commercial and advertising conferences that were broadcast on radio stations abroad

  15. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.

  16. Topics in quantum foundations: Ontological models, and distinguishability as a resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ryan

    This thesis covers research in two disjoint research areas: The ontological model program (formerly hidden-variables program) for quantum theory has a long and noble tradition in the quantum foundations literature. By postulating a physical reality beyond the quantum state, we gain intuition on quantum phenomena and also come to understand constraints on realist interpretations of quantum theory. Bell's theorem tells us that such an underlying reality must be non-local, while the Kochen-Specker contextuality theorem abuses the classical notion that measurement should simply reveal pre-existing properties of reality. Recent research programs suggest that it is beneficial to view the quantum state as representing purely information. We show that the only current model which does this in a satisfactory manner is unable to reproduce all the statistics of quantum measurements. A recent generalization of the notion of contextuality has allowed for proofs of contextuality which differ from the original Kochen-Specker notion. We add a new result which shows that measurements in a model where the quantum state represents information must be contextual. Additionally, we refine the generalized notion of contextuality into strong and weak forms in order to parse the relationship between new and old results. Entanglement resource theory is a highly successful investigation of the usefulness of entanglement for information processing tasks. In this thesis we apply the ideas from entanglement resource theory to another resource: state distinguishability. We show analogies between distinguishability resource theory and entanglement resource theory. In particular, the analogy includes: measures which are monotonic under a class of transformations; units of a resource; and bounds on measures in terms of the amount of the unit resource needed to form states and the amount of unit resource that can be extracted from states. We show that the pairs of states which can be reversibly

  17. Effects of gay identity, gender and explicitness of advertising imagery on gay responses to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakenfull, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.

  18. TXA497 as a topical antibacterial agent: comparative antistaphylococcal, skin deposition, and skin permeation studies with mupirocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrani, Mania; Kaul, Malvika; Parhi, Ajit; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2014-12-10

    TXA497 is representative of a new class of guanidinomethyl biaryl compounds that exhibit potent bactericidal behavior against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we compared the anti-staphylococcal, skin deposition, and skin permeation properties of TXA497 and the topical anti-MRSA antibiotic mupirocin. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays revealed that TXA497 retains potent activity against MRSA that is highly resistant to mupirocin. Using Franz diffusion cells, compound deposition into human cadaver skin was evaluated, and the results showed the skin deposition of TXA497 to be significantly greater than that of mupirocin. Moreover, unlike mupirocin, TXA497 does not pass through the entire skin layer, suggesting a minimal potential for the systemic absorption of the compound upon topical administration. Additionally, antibacterial concentrations of TXA497 showed no significant toxicity to primary human keratinocytes. Given the rising levels of mupirocin resistance among MRSA populations, our results are significant in that they highlight TXA497 as a potentially useful alternative therapy for treating MRSA skin infections that are resistant to mupirocin.

  19. Cutaneous penetration of the topically applied photosensitizer Pc 4 as detected by intravital 2-photon laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex Y; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah; Howell, Scott J; Oleinick, Nancy L; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D; Lam, Minh

    2012-09-01

    The fundamental mechanism of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced cell death has been characterized, but early critical PDT events in vivo remain incompletely defined. With the recent development in advanced fluorescence imaging modalities, such as intravital 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM), researchers are now able to investigate and visualize biological processes with high resolution in real time. This powerful imaging technology allows deep tissue visualization with single-cell resolution, thus providing dynamic information on the 3-dimensional architectural makeup of the tissue. The main goal of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a topically applied photosensitizer, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, into the skin of live animals and to assess the effective absorption of Pc 4 through the skin barrier. Our 2P-LSM images indicate that Pc 4 penetrates to the epidermal/dermal junction of mouse skin. The data also indicate that the degree of Pc 4 absorption is dose dependent. These findings represent initial steps that may help in improving the clinical utilization of topical Pc 4-PDT.

  20. Exploring the Abyss. The Financial Crisis of 2008 ff. as a Central Topic of Problem-Centered Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Hippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 ff. and financial crises in general should be a central topic of social science education because these crises are a recurrent and therefore structural feature of modern capitalism which has severe consequences for citizens’ quality of life. Hence, the citizenry should know how to prevent such developments which endanger its well-being in a massive way. Therefore, learners should understand the relationship between the quality of people’s everyday lives and those economic institutions and political decisions which have led to the current mess. They should be enabled to critically evaluate the current misregulation of the financial sector and the economy in order to identify possible policy measures to prevent or at least to mitigate future crises. By educating (young citizens in this way, the (future general public can – as a necessary counterweight to the lobbyism of the finance industry – exert more prudent political pressure which gives politicians a greater incentive to regulate the financial sector and the economy in a manner which is beneficial for the vast majority of the people instead of for a small elite. Two core concepts of the social sciences can be used to make the roots of the seemingly complex topic more understandable for learners: liability and inequality.

  1. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical ocular drug delivery system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Jhan, Yong-Yu; Chiu, Allen Wen-hsiang; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-lin

    2016-06-25

    Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Frequent and long-term application of latanoprost often causes undesirable local side effects, which are a major cause of therapeutic failure due to loss of persistence in using this glaucoma medical therapy. In the present study, we developed a thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical eye drop formulation for the sustained release of latanoprost to control ocular hypertension. The developed formulation without preservatives may improve compliance and possibly even efficacy. The results of this study support its biocompatibility and sustained-release profile both in vitro and in vivo. After topical application of latanoprost-loaded hydrogel, triamcinolone acetonide-induced elevated intraocular pressure was significantly decreased within 7 days and remained at a normal level for the following 21 days in rabbit eyes. This newly developed chitosan-based hydrogel may provide a non-invasive alternative to traditional anti-glaucoma eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  2. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  3. 76 FR 76096 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products; Extension of... advertising, promotion, and marketing of such products; and the advertising of tobacco products via the... advertising, promotion, and marketing of tobacco products. FDA took this action as part of its...

  4. Linguistic Features of English Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志荣

    2008-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of global economy,numerous colorful and fantastic English advertisements appear in Current markets.Through careful analysis we can find that English advertisements have formed their own linguistic features.The designers usually employ the special lexis,syntax and rhetorical devices to make their advertisement a concise,lively and appealing one.This paper analyzes the linguistic features of English advertisement.from which it gets some inspirations for C-E advertisement translation(translation of Chinese advertisement into English).

  5. Understanding the timing and magnitude of advertising spending patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsenberg, Maarten; van Heerde, Harald J.; Dekimpe, Marnik; Jan-Benedict E M Steenkamp; Nijs, Vincent R.

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that advertising is one of the most used marketing tools, little is known about what is driving (i) the timing and (ii) the magnitude of advertising actions. Building on normative theory, the authors develop a parsimonious model that captures this dual investment process. They explain advertising spending patterns as observed in the market, and investigate the impact of company, competitive, and category-related factors on these decisions, thereby introducing the nove...

  6. Money Talks: Perceived Advertising Expense and Expected Product Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirmani, Amna; Wright, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Does the perceived expense of a new product's advertising campaign influence expectations about the product's quality? This article conceptualizes the process by which perceived advertising expense acts as a cue to quality. Results from six experiments indicate that under some conditions, knowledge of cost-related campaign elements can evoke advertising expense inferences the influence quality predictions, and these inferences may be spontaneous. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.

  7. Factors influencing users' attitude towards display advertising on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Halalau, Ruxandra; Kornias, Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    Background: Researchers have investigated display advertising in the past several years from different perspectives but only in connection to traditional Web sites and not specifically for social networking sites. Facebook is the most prominent social networking site in terms of number of users and its main source of revenue is its online advertising business. Having display advertising in their virtual space is the reason why social networks are able to offer free service and as such the nee...

  8. Application of Regulatory Focus Theory to Search Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.; Updegraff, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Design/methodology/approach Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Findings Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. Research limitations/implications The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals’ state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals’ traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. Practical implications The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. Originality/value This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising. PMID:26430293

  9. Different Cultures Reflected in Chinese and American Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪思思

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, advertising has become an important part in human life. Advertising is not only a carrier of information, but also an important part of culture. As a kind of cultural phenomenon, advertising has permeated throughout people ’s social life. In its course of spread, it transmits cultural information and embodies different values. Thus it influences people ’s thoughts and values unconsciously, leads and changes their behaviors and patterns of consumption.In this essay, I will demonstrate the la-tent relationship between advertising and culture through analyzing different cultures reflected in Chinese and American advertise-ments. And this essay offers many solid theories and abundant examples acquired from books and periodicals of various ages.

  10. Visual advertisements: a tool for English language teaching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babocká Mária

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising as one of the phenomena of modern times is often an inseparable, though undesirable part of our everyday lives. Current trends indicate that there are still more and more anglicisms, internationalisms, and particles of different cultures penetrating billboard advertisements in many towns and cities around the world, and Slovakia is no exception. The crucial question of this article is: How is it possible to use advertisements in English language teaching and learning? To answer this question, the examination is focused on: (1 defining the role and characteristic traits of advertisements; (2 searching for the linkage between the psychological principles of advertising and psychology of learning foreign languages; (3 the frequency of anglicisms and internationalisms in billboard advertisements in particular areas of selected Slovak cities; (4 concrete suggestions for teaching practice based on the previous findings.

  11. Superficial keratectomy and topical mitomycin C as therapy for a corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, K; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A

    2008-04-01

    A 10-year-old female West Highland white terrier was presented with refractory hyperplastic keratitis of the left cornea of one month's duration. At this time, a vascularised and rough lesion 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left cornea. No other abnormality was recognised on the affected eye. The corneal neoplasm was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. For two months after the surgery, 0.04 percent mitomycin C (MMC) eye drops were applied as adjuvant chemotherapy. Primary corneal squamous cell carcinoma with no history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca is rare in dogs. In the present report, surgical removal of the neoplasm was combined with the topical administration of the anticancer drug mitomycin C and a good prognosis was obtained. The result indicates that the combination treatment used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for corneal squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  12. Spanish Advertisers and the New Communication Context: A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernández Blanco, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the current way advertising is run by Spanish advertisers, as well as the tendencies and new working outlooks for the next few years. The current changes taking place in advertising communication are the starting point for this research project of an applied nature, whose results are presented here. This context of change is characterised by technological advances, the hegemony of the consumer, and changes in the media, professional routines and the relationships and structure of the corporate advertiser. The main objectives of the research were to understand the role of advertising within the general structure of the company, analyse the relationship of the advertiser with the agents involved in the communications industry and identify the main problems which are causing the present system of advertising to move towards new working methods. Using qualitative methodology –in-depth interviews of major Spanish advertisers– as a basis, we proceeded to the analysis of the main subject areas in the way advertising is run by the advertisers and the discourses which articulate the advertisers’ understanding of the practice of communication.

  13. REMARKS ABOUT ONLINE ADVERTISING - A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AMONG ROMANIAN PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acatrinei Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the online environment, the users have more control regarding what they want to see and this affects the advertising they are exposed to (due to the profiles created by the websites they have visited. Organizations can personalize the advertising campaigns designed at a higher level, to better meet the needs of the consumers. This paper offers an in-depth view about online advertising from 12 Romanian experts, who represent companies or digital advertising agencies and who employ this tool in order to promote themselves or to develop campaigns for their clients. The empirical research undertaken has a qualitative nature, semi-structured detailed interviews with the professionals have taken place in February-March 2015, in Bucharest. Online advertising was mostly defined by the specialists as being dynamic; and some of the attributes that characterizes this domain are measurability and personalization. Clear objectives settled, correct targeting of users, a well-established strategy and planning are the key elements that would lead to a successful online advertising campaign. The Romanian agencies offer integrated online advertising services, from research and market analysis to implementation and results’ assessment of the campaigns. The formats they have been using are: search, display, video, social media advertising, affiliated marketing and sponsorship. Most of the representatives interviewed suggest that their companies’ offers might / will change due to the dynamics of the medium. Online advertising helps the other online marketing tools perform better and develop the online presence of the companies. All the respondents have confirmed that following the introduction and great use of smartphones, their companies have adjusted the online advertising campaigns to better target the potential customers that use mobile devices. Most of the companies that invest in online advertising campaigns come from sectors such as: retail, telecom

  14. Indirect Marketing through Influencers on Social Media : Comparing Faceebok paid advertisement services to advertisement by influencers on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Social media platforms are an increasingly popular advertising medium, because ofthe opportunities for targeted advertising they provide, but there are also opportunitiesto pay prominent content generators, known as influencers, to publicize brands.This thesis focuses on a case study with Truecaller, a Swedish mobile applicationcompany, advertising in Egypt through a sarcasm page on Facebook. Sarcasm isa very common trait in the everyday life in Egypt and Truecaller is an establishedbrand in ...

  15. An Analysis of Commercial Advertisement--From Conceptual Metaphor Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段慧敏

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor as a rhetorical device is widely used in advertisements,many scholars has studied metaphors in advertisements from rhetoric and semantic perspectives.However with the development of cognitive linguistics,it provides a new aspect for metaphor study.Metaphor is not only a rhetorical device but also a method of thinking.More efficient and positive information in advertisements can be conveyed to consumers by using cognitive metaphor.This paper explores the effect and influence of conceptual metaphor in commercial advertisement.

  16. Community stakeholder responses to advocacy advertising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.; Sinclair, J. [Elon University, Elon, NC (United States). School Community

    2009-07-01

    Focus group research was used to examine how community stakeholders, a group with local industry experience, responded to coal industry advocacy messages. The stakeholders expressed beliefs about both the advertiser and the coal industry, and while their knowledge led to critical consideration of the industry campaign, they also expressed a desire to identify with positive messages about their community. Applying a postpositivist research perspective, a new model is introduced to integrate these beliefs in terms of advertiser trust and industry accountability under the existing theoretical framework of persuasion knowledge. Agent and topic knowledge are combined in this model based on responses to the industry advocacy campaign. In doing so, this study integrates a priori theory within a new context, extending the current theoretical framework to include an understanding of how community stakeholders - a common target for marketplace advocacy - interpret industry messages.

  17. Predicting user click behaviour in search engine advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaie Zanjani, Mohammad; Khadivi, Shahram

    2015-10-01

    According to the specific requirements and interests of users, search engines select and display advertisements that match user needs and have higher probability of attracting users' attention based on their previous search history. New objects such as user, advertisement or query cause a deterioration of precision in targeted advertising due to their lack of history. This article surveys this challenge. In the case of new objects, we first extract similar observed objects to the new object and then we use their history as the history of new object. Similarity between objects is measured based on correlation, which is a relation between user and advertisement when the advertisement is displayed to the user. This method is used for all objects, so it has helped us to accurately select relevant advertisements for users' queries. In our proposed model, we assume that similar users behave in a similar manner. We find that users with few queries are similar to new users. We will show that correlation between users and advertisements' keywords is high. Thus, users who pay attention to advertisements' keywords, click similar advertisements. In addition, users who pay attention to specific brand names might have similar behaviours too.

  18. INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: A MARKET INFORMATION PROVIDER OR A SEED OF MARKET POWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika G. GERASYMENKO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of informative advertising in creation and augment of market power as well as the ability of an advertiser to maximize the value of its economic rent. Informative advertising is considered to be a merit good unlike a persuasive one that is mostly associated with a bad. But analysis of the advertisement breakdown in Ukraine shows that the share of price advertisements, which are the most beneficial for the public, is negligible today. Further still those advertisements are mostly situated in the sectors, where price competition is the least strong. Another kind of informative advertising – differentiating advertising – turns from an instrument of informing consumers into the vehicle of manipulation of consumer choice. Using the blind tests the author has compared the quality and the prices of the range of advertised goods and has found out a low level of correlation between the variables. That means that informative advertising serves a function of informing consumers inefficiently. At the same time phantom differentiation and misleading advertising proliferation as well as informative advertising concentration on experience and credible goods instead search ones testify to effective serving a function of maximizing advertiser welfare.

  19. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  20. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  1. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  2. On Features of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任芳; 赵丹丹

    2011-01-01

    @@ Definition of Advertising English Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identi- fied sponsors though various media (丁静, 2005:138 ).

  3. STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ADVERTISING TEXTS OF INFORMATIVE AND COMPARATIVE TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubskaya, O.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this article is related to the fact that nowadays advertising has a very strong impact both on the consumer market, political and cultural life of society, and on the language and its development as a system. Advertising has given rise to the development of a special set of stylistic features of a text, formed under the influence of reviving advertising traditions in the Russian language and under the active impact of energetic and pushy European advertising. The purpose of this study is to explore stylistic features of informative and comparative advertising texts. The object of research is Russian-language advertising in printed media and on television. In the end of the article we made conclusions about groups of language means used for different stylistic devices in informative and comparative advertising texts. Analysis of stylistic features of modern informative and comparative advertising texts can be of great interest to specialists in the field of theoretical studies of modern advertising.

  4. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed.

  5. Peculiarities of gender and demographically targeted advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlightes the individual components in the total advertising by gender. Examples of typical advertising products for men, women, youth, children, the elderly are given. The classification of objects advertising by gender is made. It is analyzed the specific drafting advertising copy, including headlines and slogans. The basic provisions for advertising of products segmented by demographic principle. The results of the analysis. The analysis of consumer advertising texts revealed some gender peculiarities. It is confirmed that advertising for female audience is informative headlines, because it usually knows what the needed product is at the moment. It shows that an important psychological feature for women is the attention to detail that is normally ignored by men; text ads feature women is the use of a large number of emotionally charged, interrogative and incentive offers. Grounded in advertising to appeal to men innovations more often than other types of uses is provocative headlines. Semantic orientation lexicon in advertising for men focuses on external data and character traits a man on his professionalism. A small number of adjectives emphasizes restraint and courage recipient. Relative adjectives in texts predominate in advertising addressed to men and more qualitative adjectives containing the emotional evaluation of the advertised product – for women. It is proposed to take into account the physiological differences between male (analytical and female (figurative thinking: men do not like when they are run, so do not use verbs in the imperative mood, and women often act as wingmen, they need advice, call to action, so the imperative verb form is more appropriate. It is confirmed that promotional texts baby goods semantics vocabulary related to the development, nutrition, child health and feelings to it, because advertising is designed for parents and other adults. It is better to use verbs in the

  6. SMS advertisements\\\\\\' adoption among Tehran mobile users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Haghighinasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile marketing and SMS (short message services advertising in particular, have been recently used. Even though SMS-based advertising is inexpensive, interactive, and able to yield a high response rate, middle or big size companies do not use it in Iran. For as much as its adoption was unclear, this study was organized to find it out. Since the most populated city in our country, Tehran, is a good multicultural instance to study in many fields, this research has aimed at its citizens' intention to use SMS advertisement. The statistical populations included are mobile users, who came to Mobile Customer Service located in north, south, west, east and centre of Tehran. From which 384 were considered as samples. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was used for making hypothesizes. Survey's data was collected by questionnaire with cluster and random sampling. Collected data was analyzed regarding to the method: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in order to do which, the technique Partial List Squares (PLS were used. The results revealed that: despite the lack of adoption for the SMS advertising among mobile users in Tehran, there could be chances to improve it by better perceived usefulness as well as its ease of use. Innovativeness of the people and their trust has indirect impact on their intention to use. Moreover, getting prior permission, making a profile, and individualizing the context with richness of information and entertainers are recommended. Using the new generation 3G and shortcuts will be able to improve SMS advertisement's adoption as well.

  7. Metaphor in advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2015-01-01

    So rapid is the development of society that more and more advertisements are raising,there is no doubt that the advertisements have became one part of our daily life.What is worth noticing is that the ads not only convey amount of information,but also enrich the connotation of language,which always catches more attention,it because that it reflect the whole language system and the thinking way of human beings.This paper is divided into four parts.First part mainly introduce the connotation and characteristic of advertising and role,and simply introduce the meaning of metaphor theory,including its classification and function.The second part classify and analysis the ads which I have collected.The third part is mainly discussing about features of metaphor in ads.The fourth part mainly analysis the function of metaphor in ads.

  8. Metaphor in advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2015-01-01

    So rapid is the development of society that more and more advertisements are raising, there is no doubt that the advertisements have became one part of our daily life. What is worth noticing is that the ads not only convey amount of information, but also enrich the connotation of language, which always catches more attention, it because that it reflect the whole language system and the thinking way of human beings. This paper is divided into four parts. First part mainly introduce the connotation and characteristic of advertising and role, and simply introduce the meaning of metaphor theory, including its classification and function. The second part classify and analysis the ads which I have collected. The third part is mainly discussing about features of metaphor in ads.The fourth part mainly analysis the function of metaphor in ads.

  9. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  10. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  11. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  12. Why More Wonderful is Advertisement?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞

    2009-01-01

    Why is advertisement more wonderful? What has attracts you in advertisement? It is easy to see -- a wonderful tableau. Simplely speacking, tableau is figure. It is showing its proper optesthesia charm with whose distinctive presentation force, in layout formation The artwork can arouse people's attention and reading interest, being able to control the the effect of advertisement subconscously.

  13. Information Content of Newspaper Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadeos, Yorgo; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that nearly all of the newspaper advertisements examined contained at least one information cue and that one-third contained four or more cues, with an average of 2.8 per ad. Suggests that newspaper advertisements are more "informative" than television and magazine advertisements. (JD)

  14. Some Aspects Regarding Internet Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţu I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.

  15. MARKETING RESEARCH IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Vranceanu Diana; Popescu Ioana Cecilia;

    2008-01-01

    21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and al...

  16. Openness in advertising: Occurrence and effects of open advertisements in magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the volume of ads has increased dramatically. This 'ad overload' threatens consumers' involvement with advertising, and ad makers have to devise new strategies to positively affect consumers. Media analysts have speculated about a trend towards ads that provide less guidance in the direction of a specific interpretation. Based on the semiotic notions of Eco (1979), Paul Ketelaar and Marnix Van Gisbergen describe this decrease in guidance as openness in advertising, ...

  17. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the mediat

  18. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  19. Narration et argumentation en publicite (Narration and Argumentation in Advertising).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninou, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the language and rhetoric of persuasive discourse as employed in advertising. Uses a selection of bank advertisements as a corpus, identifying and discussing four basic models of discourse. The discussion focuses on the rhetorical devices that characterize each type of text. (MES)

  20. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    OpenAIRE

    Sterry, Wolfram; Ackermann, Hanns; Hoffmann, Gerd; Schanzer, Sabine; Meyer, Lars; Grone, Diego; Otberg, Nina; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised contr...

  1. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1 six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2 six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs that were for HFSS foods. RESULTS: 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57. Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12. There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  2. Language Features of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑笑怡

    2007-01-01

    1 .Advertising English We live in a world of advertisements. Everyday hundreds of thousands advertisement make an impact on our lives. They imply information of products and services through various media, on the other hand, they play a fundamental and unparalleled role in affecting people's customs, habits, cultural and esthetical values. It's magical power lies between lines. Advertising is a special literary form, it has become an important means of communicating ideas, demonstrating a variety of linguistic features of its own. So, advertising language, playing a role of communication

  3. Drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals: Are they ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaykaran Charan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : It is observed in studies done for western medical journals that insufficient information related to drug is usually provided in the drug advertisements published in them. Aims : As data for advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals were lacking, this study was designed with the aim of evaluating drug advertisements published in Indian Medical Journals for adequacy of information on drug and references given to support the claim made in the advertisements. Settings and Design : Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Materials : All medical journals related to clinical practice subscribed by the Central Library of Government Medical College, Surat, (Indian Journal of Pediatrics [IJP], Indian Pediatrics [IP], Journal of the Association of Physicians of India [JAPI], Journal of Indian Medical Association [JIMA], Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine [IJCCM], Indian Journal of Medical and Pediatric Oncology [IJMPO], Indian Journal of Gastroenterology [IJG], Indian Journal of Ophthalmology [IJO], and Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India [JOGI] were evaluated for adequacy of reporting of various parameters in drug advertisements published in these journals on the basis of "World Heath Organization (WHO" criteria. References mentioned to support claims were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used : Descriptive statistics was used to describe data as frequencies, percentages, and 95% confidence interval around the percentage. Results : Generic name was mentioned in 90% advertisements. Indications were mentioned in 84% advertisements. Dose, precautions, and contraindications were mentioned in 24%, 17%, and 16% advertisements, respectively. Adverse effects and postal address of pharmaceutical company was mentioned in 19% and 74% advertisements, respectively. Price was mentioned in only 5% advertisements. Only 28% claims were supported by references. Most common references were Journal articles (75%. Conclusion : Drug

  4. Advertising and obesity: a behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Concern over the levels of obesity observed in Western countries has grown as researchers forecast a rapid growth in the medical care that a progressively more obese population will require. As health workers deal with increased incidences of diabetes and other obesity-related disorders, policymakers have examined the factors contributing to this problem. In particular, advertising that promotes high fat and high sugar products to children has come under increasing scrutiny. Advertisers have rejected claims that advertising contributes to obesity by arguing that it cannot coerce people into purchasing a product, and does not affect primary demand. This reasoning overlooks the role advertising plays in reinforcing and normalising behavior, however, and it assumes that only direct causal links merit regulatory attention. Ehrenberg's "weak" theory suggests advertising will support unhealthy eating behaviors, while the wide range of sales promotions employed will prompt trial and reward continued consumption. This article presents an alternative analysis of how marketing contributes to obesity and uses behavior modification theory to analyse the "fast-food" industry's promotions. We also review the New Zealand government's response to obesity and suggest policy interventions that would foster healthier eating behaviors.

  5. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterry, Wolfram

    2008-07-01

    increased penetration depth compared to the non-irradiated skin (mode A: The ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum showed medians and interquartile ranges for mode A of 0.017 (0.007/0.050, for mode B of 0.084 (0.021/0.106, for mode C of 0.104 (0.069/0.192 (difference between modes: p=0.0112, significant; comparison mode A with mode C: p<0.01, significant. In contrast to fluorescein, the lipophilic curcumin showed no differences in the penetration kinetics, in reference to whether the skin was irradiated with wIRA or not. These effects were confirmed by laser scanning microscopy. Water-filtered infrared-A irradiation increased the hydration of the stratum corneum: transepidermal water loss rose from approximately 8.8 g m-2 h-1 before wIRA irradiation to 14.2 g m-2 h-1 after wIRA irradiation and skin hydration rose from 67 to 87 relative units. Skin surface temperature increased from 32.8°C before wIRA to 36.4°C after wIRA irradiation. Discussion: The better penetration of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein after or during skin irradiation (modes B and C can be explained by increased hydration of the stratum corneum by irradiation with wIRA. Conclusions: As most topically applied substances for the treatment of patients are mainly hydrophilic, wIRA can be used to improve the penetration of substances before or after application of substances – in the first case even of thermolabile substances – with a broad clinical relevance as a contact free alternative to an occlusive dressing.

  6. A case of topical opioid-induced delirium mistaken as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in demented state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Go; Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2013-06-01

    In Japan, indications for opioid analgesics, once exclusively used as pain killers for patients suffering from malignant cancer, have been expanded for a wide range of pain. Herein we report a patient with opioid-induced delirium associated with the administration of buprenorphine patches that was well below the indicated therapeutic range limit. An 82-year-old woman was referred to us from an orthopaedic practitioner for uncontrollable behavioural problems apparently caused by the beginning of dementia; the patient had gradually developed disorientation, visual hallucinations, and delusions. Laboratory and imaging findings excluded common causes of delirium including Alzheimer's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease. Detailed questioning revealed that the patient's confused state appeared following a buprenorphine patch dose increase and subsequently disappeared after administration was stopped. Delirium has not been reported as a side-effect in clinical trials of buprenorphine patches. However, our findings in this case show that even topical opioids can precipitate the development of a delirious state in elderly patients.

  7. Preoperative subconjunctival injection of mitomycin C versus intraoperative topical application as an adjunctive treatment for surgical removal of primary pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M Ghoneim

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Seventy eyes of 70 patients with primary pterygia were randomly allocated to two groups. The first group (Group A, 35 eyes received 0.1 ml of 0.15 mg/ml of subconjunctival MMC injected into the head of the pterygium 24 h before surgical excision with the bare sclera technique. The second group (Group B 35 eyes underwent surgical removal with the bare sclera technique with intraoperative application of MMC (0.15 mg/ml over bare sclera for 3 min. The study was performed between March 2007 and December 2008, and follow up was performed for 1 year postoperatively. Differences between frequencies in both groups were compared by the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Differences between means in both groups were compared by Student′s t-test. P 0.05. Postoperatively, scleral thinning occurred in one eye in each group that resolved by 5 months postoperatively. No serious postoperative complications occurred in either group. Conclusion : Preoperative local injection of 0.15 mg/ml MMC is as effective as intraoperative topical application of 0.15 mg/ml MMC for preventing pterygium recurrence after surgical removal.

  8. Media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; DeLorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study conducted to determine consumer perceptions of the media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTC advertising) and to examine how those perceptions are influenced by consumer predispositions and demographic characteristics, especially consumer age. This study specifically surveyed older consumers, who are the most significant market segment for prescription drugs and particularly susceptible and vulnerable to commercial persuasion. Older consumers' perceptions of DTC advertising were found to be neutral but their evaluation of informativeness was found to be more positive. Attitude toward DTC advertising and DTC advertising familiarity predicted perceived credibility across various media and attitude toward DTC advertising was the most prominent predictor of perceived informativeness. Age and usage of different media were also found to predict credibility and informativeness of DTC advertising in certain types of media. This study's findings provide insight into how older consumers evaluate various DTC advertising media as an information source.

  9. Teaching Burke Using Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles U.

    Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…

  10. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  11. Advertising in the global age: Transnational campaigns and pan-European television channels

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaby, J.

    2008-01-01

    The first pan-regional satellite TV stations in Europe ran into financial difficulties because too few companies had the interest and ability to run international advertising campaigns. Their financial shape improved with the upturn of the pan-European advertising market in the 1990s. The pool of international advertisers expanded as multinationals adjusted their marketing strategy to the challenges and opportunities of globalization. The advertising industry restructured, creating media buyi...

  12. Content analysis of agricultural training advertisements in Nigerian newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oloruntoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that the use of newspapers is one of the ways through which literate farmers could access agriculture-related information and are acquainted with innovations in agriculture. This study investigated the content of agricultural training advertisements in three Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, Nigerian Tribune and Daily Times. Using multistage sampling techniques, 240 editions of these newspapers containing 609 advertisements for five years (2001–2005 were selected. In terms of agricultural subsectoral coverage, 30.3% were on veterinary services while forestry services recorded the least advertisement (4.0 %. The Nigerian Tribune newspaper has the highest coverage of agricultural training advertisements 40.7% compared to the 34.7% and 12.2% for Daily Times and Guardian newspapers, respectively. The result also showed that majority of agricultural training advertisements (81.10% were placed on the non-prominent pages of the selected newspapers. Chi-Square analysis of association between the categories of agricultural training advertisements in the focal newspapers showed that there is significant relationship in the rate at which the sampled newspapers advertise different category of agricultural training advertisements in the newspapers (p<0.05. Chi square analysis also indicated that there is significant association between the placements of agricultural training advertisements and type of newspapers (p<0.05. This implies that advertisement placement on prominent pages of newspapers is determined by the policy of print media organization which also varies with cost of advertisement. It is therefore recommended that agricultural news items should be given more prominence as a panacea for increased information source to new entrants, especially the literate farmers to encourage farming.

  13. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion...

  14. Ad intrusiveness of location-based advertising: A virtual reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huhn, A.E.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Khan, V.J.; Lucero, A.; Bouwknegt, H.

    2012-01-01

    An important problem for advertisers is the general tendency to avoid advertising (Li et al., 2002; McCoy et al., 2008; Zanot, 1984). Ads typically get the 'blame' that they do not meet the goals and desires of consumers, thus the commercial message is perceived as disturbing and therefore avoided (

  15. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the

  16. Design and implementation of location-based wireless targeted advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benjamin; Xu, Deyin

    2001-10-01

    As advertisements are time and location sensitive, a challenge for wireless marketing is to have advertisements delivered when and where they are most convenient. In this paper we introduce a two-stage auction model for location-based wireless targeted advertising. This system extends the notion of location-based service by using location information to target advertising, and does so specifically by enabling advertisers to specify their preferences and bid for advertisement delivery, where those preferences are then used in a subsequent automated auction of actual deliveries to wireless data users. The automated auction in the second stage is especially effective because it can use information about the individual user profile data, including customer relationship management system contents as well as location from the wireless system's location management service, including potentially location history such as current trajectory from recent history and longer-term historical trip records for that user. Through two-stage auction, real-time bidding by advertisers and matching ads contents to mobile users help advertising information reach maximal value.

  17. Unleashing Creativity in Linguistic Discourses through Advertising Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Creative fluency is positively correlated with the quantity and quality of talk as well. The fluency gives an indication of the learner's ability to cope with real-time communication. This paper makes a correlative study on nurturing narrative tasks through advertising skills. English advertising exploits from the high adaptability of the English…

  18. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  19. Dissociating explicit and implicit effects of cross-media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Vandeberg; J.M.J. Murre; H.A.M. Voorveld; E.G. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-media advertising effects is mainly based on explicit psychological measures, such as self-reports. To fully understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of cross-media advertising, it is important to also use implicit measures. We used both types of measures to assess wh

  20. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available to..., serves as certification of the employee's coverage under the FEGLI Program. Any...

  1. WIRELESS ADVERTISING: A STUDY OF MOBILE PHONE USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Topic: Using a qualitative methodology, this study attempts to provide a general framework of the functions of mobile communication, and to identify the specific preferences of mobile phone users regarding the commercial messages received on their personal devices. Research objectives: (1 To identify the specific characteristics of mobile communication as perceived by mobile users; (2 to define and analyze the functions of wireless communication as perceived by mobile phone users; and (3 to investigate users preference regarding the content of commercial wireless communication. Previous research: Bauer et al. (2002 identified time, location, information and personalization as relevant acceptance factors for mobile advertising. Barwise and Strong (2002 developed a conceptual model, arguing that social norms, user's motives, mode, time, location and personal characteristics will affect the processing of mobile information by consumers. Tsang et al. (2004 evidenced the influence of entertainment, informativeness and irritation, while Bauer et al. (2005 argued that consumer attitudes are influenced by perceived information, entertainment, and social utility. In a similar study, Xu and Gutierrez (2006 tested the effect of entertainment, irritation, informativeness, credibility and personalization on the attitudes of Chinese consumers. Research methodology: First, a series of academic and practical articles and reports have been accessed in order to assess the existing knowledge on this topic. Second, five focus groups have been organized with six mobile phone users, aged between 20 and 40 years old. Each focus group comprised an equal number of male and female participants. The focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and addressed three main issues: the specific characteristics of the mobile phones as a commercial communication media, the functions of mobile phone communication, and the specific preferences of mobile phones users regarding the

  2. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  3. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  4. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurling Geoffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements, but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few

  5. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  6. Myths and Mirrors: A Qualitative Analysis of Images of Violence against Women in Mainstream Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Juliet

    In light of increasing concern over media portrayals of women as willing victims of violence, a study examined images of violence against women in advertising, with the goal of determining to what extent advertisers were aware of the implied violence against women in the ads they sponsor, and, if advertisers were aware of the underlying…

  7. The Implication from Advertisement Discourse for Writing Skills of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张点

    2015-01-01

    Advertising is regarded as a mirror of society because it is a business involving people.Therefore,an analysis of advertising discourse is essential for the explanation of their social functions.The purposes to find out the writing patterns of English advertising discourse,and discover the way for English discourse writing.

  8. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creditable brand advertising. 932.60 Section 932.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising. (a) Each handler shall... shall file such reports of creditable brand advertising as recommended by the committee and approved...

  9. 21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling and advertising. 201.200 Section 201.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Efficacy Study § 201.200 Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising. (a)(1...), promotional labeling, and advertisements shall include, as part of the information for practitioners...

  10. Modeling the dynamic optimal advertising in stochastic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong DU; Qiying HU; Zhiqing MENG

    2004-01-01

    An effort to model the dynamic optimal advertising was made with the uncertainty of sales responses in consideration. The problem of dynamic advertising was depicted as a Markov decision process with two state variables. When a firm launches an advertising campaign, it may predict the probability that the campaign will obtain the sales reponse. This probability was chosen as one state variable. Cumulative sales volume was chosen as another state variable which varies randomly with advertising. The only decision variable was advertising expenditure. With these variables, a multi-stage Markov decision process model was formulated. On the basis of some propositions the model was analyzed. Some analytical results about the optimal strategy have been derived, and their practical implications have been explained.

  11. Metrics, Media and Advertisers: Discussing Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how Brazilian advertisers are adapting to new media and its attention metrics. In-depth interviews were conducted with advertisers in 2009 and 2011. In 2009, new media and its metrics were celebrated as innovations that would increase advertising campaigns overall efficiency. In 2011, this perception has changed: New media’s profusion of metrics, once seen as an advantage, started to compromise its ease of use and adoption. Among its findings, this study argues that there is an opportunity for media groups willing to shift from a product-focused strategy towards a customer-centric one, through the creation of new, simple and integrative metrics. 

  12. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  13. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the wo......The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...

  14. CREATIVITY AND IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ELECTRONIC LED BILLBOARDS IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprayitno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The creativity and the impact of advertising electronic LED billboards in Jakarta was an approach to see, to know and to understand in a deeper way. Creativity decisions affect all advertising, art, and knowledge combined with the phrase creative strategy. Creative advertising ideas must be original, unique, different, new, unexpected and right on target. The approach used was qualitative research methods, including data collection in the form of literature review, interviews with the actors and the surrounding communities, as well as documenting the billboard directly outside the media was located. The results of this research are the analysis report the creativity and impact of LED electronic billboard advertising effectiveness, is expected to produce a more detailed picture. So that students and practitioners can use the visual communication design, process, and maximize the advertising rules in designing a design to reach the stage of design creativity and better application.

  15. On Poetic Advertisements Translating by Functional Equivalence in Skopostheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫霄

    2016-01-01

    A hot issue was once the advertisement translation as a pragmatic one. But it is surprising how little attention has been paid to a new kind of advertisement-poetic advertisement, which has caught a great significance in the world of business. In this paper it attempts to do a poetic translation study by Nida’s theories that stand for the German functional translation school. Through the research for some translation cases, it is found that the theory functional equivalence is feasible for repres-enting the poetic beauty, the readers’acceptability and the functions of advertisements. What is shown thereby is that the theory functional equivalence can work as guiding principle in the translation of English poetic advertisement.

  16. Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-You; Fang, Chia-Lang; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Su, Yu-Han

    2008-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were developed by using Precirol ATO 5 as the solid core of the particles for topical psoralen delivery. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) consisting of Precirol and squalene, a liquid lipid, were also prepared for comparison. SLN and NLC showed respective mean particle sizes of approximately 300 and 200nm, respectively. Viscosity, polarity, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed to characterize the physicochemical properties of the SLN and NLC. The viscosity of all nanoparticulate systems exhibited Newtonian behavior except the NLC with Tween 80 and soybean phospholipids as the emulsifiers (NLC-Tw). According to the DSC thermograms, the melting peak of Precirol shifted from 58 to 55 degrees C after incorporating squalene into the solid lipid cores (of NLC), which suggests defects in the crystalline lattice of the lipid cores and smaller particle sizes. Three psoralen derivatives for psoriasis treatments were loaded in SLN and NLC to examine their ability to permeate skin. The permeability of psoralens increased in the order of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP)>5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP)>4,5,8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP). Enhanced permeation and controlled release of psoralen delivery were both achieved using the NLC. The in vitro permeation results showed that NLC-Tw increased the 8-MOP flux 2.8 times over that of a conventional emulsion. Hyperproliferative or psoriasis-like skin produced by repeated strippings in the dorsal skin of nude mouse was also used as a permeation barrier. The results showed that the entrapment of 8-MOP in nanoparticulate systems could minimize the permeation differentiation between normal and hyperproliferative skin compared to the free drug in an aqueous control.

  17. Optimizing On-Line Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We want to find the optimal strategy for displaying advertisements e.g. banners, videos, in given locations at given times under some realistic dynamic constraints. Our primary goal is to maximize the expected revenue in a given period of time, i.e. the total profit produced by the impressions, which depends on profit-generating events such as the impressions themselves, the ensuing clicks and registrations. Moreover we must take into consideration the possibility that the constraints could change in time in a way that cannot always be foreseen.

  18. Linguistic Features of English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    Ad, being a manifestation of language in action, is a widely used medium of communication in modem society. After China's entry into WTO, a lot of English ads come into the domestic market, and at the same time, we should create a lot of English ads for our products marching towards the world market. With some ads appearing in English magazines as examples, this paper aims to discuss the lexical features, and the figures of speech used in advertisement. It aims at providing information on creating and appreciating English ads.

  19. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  20. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  1. Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

    Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

  2. Alcohol counter-advertising and the media. A review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2002-01-01

    Counter-advertising commonly is used to balance the effects that alcohol advertising may have on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Such measures can take the form of print or broadcast advertisements (e.g., public service announcements [PSAs]) as well as product warning labels. The effectiveness of both types of counter-advertising is reviewed using the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical framework. For print and broadcast counter-advertisements, such factors as their emotional appeal and the credibility of the source, as well as audience factors, can influence their effectiveness. Further, brewer-sponsored counter-advertisements are evaluated and received differently than are the more conventional PSA counter-advertisements. For warning labels, both the content and design of the label influence their effectiveness, as do audience factors. The effectiveness of those labels is evaluated in terms of the extent to which they impact cognitive and affective processes as well as drinking behavior.

  3. An empirical analysis of consumers' attitudes toward physicians' advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, H

    2008-01-01

    Advertising by physicians is a relatively recent phenomenon. Historically, most professions prohibited licensed members from engaging in speech activities that proposed a commercial transaction-advertising. However the history of a physician's legal right to advertise is not the main focus of this article. A brief review of the past, present, and possible future of such rights might assist readers in understanding the revolutionary constitutional and commercial speech changes that have occurred over the past three decades. A physician's legal right to advertise has developed as part of the evolutionary interpretation of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The purposes of this study were to determine (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by physicians and (b) whether city of residence, occupation, age, sex, race, marital status, number of children in household, total family household income, and education of the consumer accounted for any significant difference in attitude toward physicians who advertise. The intent was to discover information that would be useful to physicians in planning marketing strategies and improving the quality of their advertising. The study seems to confirm the belief of many marketing professionals that advertising and marketing clearly have a place in the future of health care services.

  4. 12 CFR 230.8 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required...

  5. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  6. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  7. 12 CFR 707.8 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the...

  8. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  9. 12 CFR 338.3 - Nondiscriminatory advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prominently indicate in such advertisement, in a manner appropriate to the advertising medium and format... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory advertising. 338.3 Section... POLICY FAIR HOUSING Advertising § 338.3 Nondiscriminatory advertising. (a) Any bank which directly...

  10. 32 CFR 705.13 - Commercial advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... encourages cooperation with advertisers. However, the layout, artwork and text of the proposed advertisement... exclusively for the use of an advertiser. (d) Navy cooperation in commercial advertising, publicity and other... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial advertising. 705.13 Section...

  11. The Modernization Concept as an Integrative Framework for the Methodology of Studying Topical Issues in Russian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Smirnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a number of methodological and concrete historical questions raised in the monograph by Boris Mironov, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” The monograph is based on the modernization concept. The variety of methods and techniques borrowed by the author from different scientific disciplines and schools, but which demonstrate their usefulness, provide a reason to call his approach “integrative.” Smirnov shares Mironov’s perspective on the possibility of determining the laws of Russia’s historical path, and on the positive prospects for Russia’s movement upon it. Particular attention is paid to how Mironov examines and interprets the course of Russian colonization, its influence on the internal processes in society in general, and on the fate of specific regions and the ethnic groups. In Mironov’s opinion, the inclusion of new lands in Russia has had generally beneficial effects for the country as a whole and for the people who inhabit it. Smirnov engages in a thought experiment in order to assess in how far Mironov’s conclusions are applicable to the southeast of Russia. The results prove the validity of the conclusions and their applicability to research of other colonized territories. The reviewer recognizes as valid the opinion that the economic reserves of serfdom had not been exhausted by the middle of the 19th century. The liberation of the peasants was caused by many factors, among which moral and cultural reasons were not in the last place. The imperial “Enlightened” bureaucracy became the leader of peasant and other reforms. The article expressed disagreement that the strengthening of the position of the nobility and their power over the peasants in the 18th century was determined by the decisive role of the guard in palace coups. Mironov’s book will stimulate new research and discussions on topical issues of Russian history.

  12. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil as a topical traditional remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Djaalab, Hdria; Riachi, Foulla; Serakta, Mennouba; Chettoum, Aziez; Maameri, Zineb; Boutobza, Badaoui; Hamdi-Pacha, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal toxicity study was performed on 18 NZW rabbits to evaluate possible adverse effect following application of PLFO for 28 days. Based on the results of the current study, PLFO is classified as slightly irritating to the skin and the eye of rabbits (Primary Irritation Index (P.I.I.) = 1.037; Ocular Irritation Index (O.I.I.) = 5.33 at 1 h). In the sub-acute toxicity test, PLFO produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between control group and treated rabbits. However, a reversible irritant contact dermatitis was observed in the treated areas from the end of the second week of application until the end of experiment. This local phenomenon was accompanied by a significant skin thickening (P≤0.01) since the 12(th) day (ANOVA, F = 11, 07143, P = 0, 00765) which is confirmed with an inflammatory granuloma in histological study. Haematological analysis and blood chemistry values of the 2 groups showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. In summary, PLFO is minimally irritating to the eye and skin after a single exposure, but it may cause irritant contact dermatitis and a reversible thickening of skin after prolonged use.

  13. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  14. Does Generic Advertising Help or Hurt Brand Advertising?

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Daeseok; Chung, Chanjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the generic advertising helps or hurts the brand advertising within the differentiated product environments. We develop an analytical model that includes both generic and brand advertising expenditures considering vertical product differentiation. Then the analysis is devoted to examine how marginal effects of expenditure affect each other under product differentiation. To help examine the relationship, we also include a new variable, the de...

  15. Development of water-soluble polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers as novel and highly potent topical anti-HIV-2 microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Verónica; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Diniz, Ana Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Rodes, Berta; de La Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Taveira, Nuno; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined. Analysis of combined effects of triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir was performed by using CalcuSyn software. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-2 infection through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays: attachment, internalization in PBMCs, inactivation and cell-based fusion. Vaginal irritation and histological analysis in female BALB/c mice were evaluated. Our results suggest that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 exert anti-HIV-2 activity at an early stage of viral replication inactivating the virus, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-2 transmission, and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and the HIV-2 entry. Triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir increased the anti-HIV-2 activity, consistent with synergistic interactions (CIwt: 0.33-0.66). No vaginal irritation was detected in BALB/c mice after two consecutive applications for 2 days with 3% G2-S16. Our results have clearly shown that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 have high potency against HIV-2 infection. The modes of action confirm their multifactorial and non-specific ability, suggesting that these dendrimers deserve further studies as potential candidate microbicides to prevent vaginal/rectal HIV-1/HIV-2 transmission in humans.

  16. Topical polyethylene glycol as a novel chemopreventive agent for oral cancer via targeting of epidermal growth factor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K Wali

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a major cause of morbidity and mortality underscoring the need for safe and effective chemopreventive strategies. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is attractive in that it is an early critical event in HNSCC pathogenesis. However, current agents lack efficacy or have unacceptable toxicity. Several groups have demonstrated that the over-the-counter medication, polyethylene glycol (PEG has remarkable chemopreventive efficacy against colon carcinogenesis. Importantly, we reported that this effect is mediated through EGFR internalization/degradation. In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent against HNSCC, using both the well validated animal model 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide rat model and cell culture with the human HNSCC cell line SCC-25. We demonstrated that daily topical application of 10% PEG-8000 in the oral cavity (tongue and cavity wall post 4NQO initiation resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden (both, tumor size and tumors/tumor bearing rat without any evidence of toxicity. Immunohistochemical studies depicted decreased proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells and reduced expression of EGFR and its downstream effectors cyclin D1 in the tongue mucosa of 4NQO-rats treated with PEG. We showed that EGFR was also markedly downregulated in SCC-25 cells by PEG-8000 with a concomitant induction of G1-S phase cell-cycle arrest, which was potentially mediated through upregulated p21(cip1/waf1. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG has promising efficacy and safety as a chemopreventive efficacy against oral carcinogenesis.

  17. ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN STRATEGY BASED ON THE COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVE: A CASE STUDY AT TOKOBAGUS ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS (2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oscario

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Article focused on advertising as one of the most important parts of marketing communication in one of the online shop, TokoBagus. Advertising communicated a message from a certain brand to the target audience through a particular medium. The aim of this research was making advertising with a powerful message, so it was able to become a captain of consciousness that could play an important role in economic and social systems of modern society. Because of its potential power, the creative advertising workers had a big responsibility in their hands. It was not only to explore the creativity visually or verbally to a creative worker, but also, they should understand the purpose of communication, the communication strategy, and the creative strategy. In this case, TokoBagus run this in making advertisement campaign to promote its brand. The method used in this research was the qualitative method and inductive model. Data were collected through an interview, literature, and visual data. Those collected data were analyzed using a qualitative-verificative strategy and case study method. The case study was Toko Bagus advertising campaign from the year 2011 to the year 2014 when finally its name changes into OLX. It finds that the advertisements only become beautiful works of art, but it does not solve the problem of the brand. Therefore, this research is important to document the communication strategy and the creative strategy of an advertising campaign so it can be a reference for a young designers or students.

  18. La publicidad en la era digital: el microsite como factor estratégico de las campañas publicitarias on-line Advertising in the Digital Age: the Microsite as a Strategic Factor in On-line Advertising Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fanjul Peyró

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento exponencial e irreversible de la Web Social es un fenómeno innegable que está propiciando una serie de cambios en las fórmulas comunicacionales. Esa revolución de naturaleza global propone un nuevo modelo por completo democrático, en el que un usuario, sea cual sea su procedencia, status u ocupación, puede ser emisor y receptor de información a tiempo real. En esta coyuntura, la publicidad se ve obligada a redefinirse y adaptarse, teniendo que modificar sus estrategias y formatos para adecuarse al nuevo modelo. Las fórmulas tradicionales de elaboración de los mensajes comerciales no funcionan en el ámbito de Internet y su eficacia publicitaria es escasa. Sin embargo, la inversión en este medio crece año tras año, lo que demuestra la apuesta del mercado por las posibilidades comerciales de Internet. Este trabajo supone el estudio de un nuevo modelo publicitario en la Red: el microsite. Un formato que invita al usuario a vivir una experiencia sensorial a través del ordenador y que lanza mensajes comerciales de forma interactiva, sutil, pero contundente. Mediante el análisis de contenidos técnicos y semánticos de una muestra de estos espacios, se busca definir y destacar las principales características del microsite y reflexionar sobre el rol estratégico del mismo dentro de las campañas publicitarias on-line.The exponential and irreversible growth of the social web is an undeniable phenomenon that is provoking a series of changes in communication models. This global revolution proposes a new model that is completely democratic, in which a user, regardless of origin, status or occupation, can be the issuer and receiver of information in real time. This has forced advertising to redefine and adapt itself, modifying its strategies and formats in order to align to the new model. The traditional rules of elaborating commercial messages do not apply in the Internet environment, and their advertising efficiency is

  19. Methods of marketing and advertising activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yakovlev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of the business entities’ activities is associated with the development of instruments of the economic processes efficiency determination, including marketing activities. It has determined the purpose of the article. The methodological principles in this area are developed. It is proved that the increase in sales of the profit margin is only partly dependent on the implementation of advertising measures. The methodical approaches for estimation of exhibition and advertising activity and promotion of its employees are specified. The results of work involve evaluation of the advertising effect value on the basis of share of the advertising impact on the increase of sales and revenue from the sale of products. The corresponding proportion of such impact is determined based on the consumer inquiry. The index of trade fair works, its calculation based on two components: how many times a specific company participated in such events; and how well the company was presented at relevant trade fairs. The indices of the cost on advertising and promotion of certain products manufacturer are provided. The scientific innovation of the research is as follows. It is proved that the sales increase effect should not be assigned to advertising only. The compositions that influence the consumer preferences and their share in the total value effect are determined. The new is the proposed index of influence of the trade fair work results depending on the selected factors. The practical importance of the research results involve more accurate calculation of the effect of the activities made and, consequently, increase efficiency of the business entities.

  20. Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (Pfood/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice.

  1. Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compares the importance of role taking and the logical operations stage of child development in predicting children's understanding of the purpose of television advertising. Research on children's comprehension of television commercials is briefly reviewed and the subjects of the study, as well as the study methodology, are described. (Author/JL)

  2. Killing Us Softly: Gender Roles in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne

    1993-10-01

    Recent years have brought an increasing awareness that advertising sells images of success, normalcy, sexuality, and love as well as specific products. Stereotypes of gender roles, reinforced through ideal images of physical beauty and body language, have negative effects on both men and women. The author concludes with a discussion of strategies for effecting change.

  3. Source attribution and credibility of health and appearance exercise advertisements: relationship with implicit and explicit attitudes and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Shields, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The relationship of attributed source (commercial or nonprofit) and credibility of exercise advertisements to explicit and implicit exercise-related attitudes and intentions was examined. Male and female participants (N = 227) were randomly assigned to watch health or appearance-related advertisements and then completed an implicit attitudes task and questionnaires. Health advertisements and those attributed to a nonprofit source were rated more credible. Appearance condition participants who attributed the advertisement to a nonprofit source also rated the advertisement as more credible. Participants who rated a commercial advertisement as credible reported higher implicit instrumental attitudes. Implications for exercise promotion are discussed.

  4. Critical Discourse Analysis in the Advertising to the Launching of the Citroën C3 Picasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Roberto Scharf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the type of advertising was used in launching new products in the automotive sector in Brazil. The advertising campaign ‘Citroën C3 Picasso. Life cubed’ was the study platform. A critical discourse analysis – CDA - according to the precepts of Fairclough (1995 was adopted as the method. It is a single case study. The advertisements showed that the language of advertising in launching products in the automotive sector have emotional content. The results confirmed the use of transformational advertising as the protagonist of the advertising campaign to launch particular car in Brazil. 

  5. MARKETING RESEARCH IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranceanu Diana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available 21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and also the long term affects it haves on the consumer a company should never start an advertising campaign without knowing every single last detail concerning their product and consumers. The study of the promotional message will show its capacity to gain the attention of the targeted audience, to stand out from other messages, to be associated with the product/service it promotes, to generate a positive reaction towards that specific product/service and to encourage its purchasing.

  6. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  7. Lightweight Advertising and Scalable Discovery of Services, Datasets, and Events Using Feedcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Movva, S.

    2010-12-01

    Broadcast feeds (Atom or RSS) are a mechanism for advertising the existence of new data objects on the web, with metadata and links to further information. Users then subscribe to the feed to receive updates. This concept has already been used to advertise the new granules of science data as they are produced (datacasting), with browse images and metadata, and to advertise bundles of web services (service casting). Structured metadata is introduced into the XML feed format by embedding new XML tags (in defined namespaces), using typed links, and reusing built-in Atom feed elements. This “infocasting” concept can be extended to include many other science artifacts, including data collections, workflow documents, topical geophysical events (hurricanes, forest fires, etc.), natural hazard warnings, and short articles describing a new science result. The common theme is that each infocast contains machine-readable, structured metadata describing the object and enabling further manipulation. For example, service casts contain type links pointing to the service interface description (e.g., WSDL for SOAP services), service endpoint, and human-readable documentation. Our Infocasting project has three main goals: (1) define and evangelize micro-formats (metadata standards) so that providers can easily advertise their web services, datasets, and topical geophysical events by adding structured information to broadcast feeds; (2) develop authoring tools so that anyone can easily author such service advertisements, data casts, and event descriptions; and (3) provide a one-stop, Google-like search box in the browser that allows discovery of service, data and event casts visible on the web, and services & data registered in the GEOSS repository and other NASA repositories (GCMD & ECHO). To demonstrate the event casting idea, a series of micro-articles—with accompanying event casts containing links to relevant datasets, web services, and science analysis workflows--will be

  8. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature...... is largely ignored by the critics. Thus, the article tests how topics may work in creative nonfiction. Two Danish bestsellers belonging to the genre, Frank’s Mit smukke genom ( My Beautiful Genome), about genomics, and Buk-Swienty’s Slagtebænk Dybbøl ( ‘Slaughter-bench Dybbøl’), a history book, are chosen...... as cases and analysed using a slightly modified motif model by Johansen. The result is that in both books the main topic is treated from a double perspective, but also that six out of seven secondary topics, or motifs, are treated as well. It is concluded that also in a topical sense creative nonfiction...

  9. Concept mapping as a method to teach an evidence-based educated medical topic: a comparative study in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Heidari, Kazem; Foroughi, Moein; Soltani, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare concept mapping with lecture-based method in teaching of evidence based educated topic to medical students. Methods This randomized controlled trial was carried out on medical students during sixth year of 7-year MD curriculum clerkship phase. Cluster randomization was used to divide students into intervention and control groups. Both groups, at the beginning, were taught “Diabetic Ketoacidosis” (DKA) using evidence-based tool named Critic...

  10. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  11. Metronidazole Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin) and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had a central nervous system disease, liver or blood disease, or Crohn's disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  12. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  13. A Discourse Analysis on Problem-Solution Pattern of Cosmetic Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓俐

    2015-01-01

    Based on Winter’s and Hoey’s theories on discourse analysis, the Problem-Solution Pattern in cosmetic advertising from the perspective of text patterns and lexical signaling is discussed by analyzing thirty pieces of advertisements on cosmetic products. Findings suggest text patterns of cosmetic advertisements display in various forms and the components of Problem-Solu⁃tion Pattern are signaled by lexical items as emotive vocabulary with positive or negative meanings and repetition of the brand names. Possible implications are offered for cosmetic advertising industry in writing effective advertisements both in English and Chinese.

  14. Advertising, Entry Deterrence, and Industry Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how advertising influences firms’ incentives to invest in R&D. The link between advertising and industry innovation is important, not only because advertising can spur R&D by spreading product knowledge, but also because advertising can discourage new innovative firms from entering the industry. This paper finds that a worse advertising technology can result in local improvements in industry innovation rates. Globally, however, a complete ban on advertising always reduce in...

  15. Automatic Labelling of Topics with Neural Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Shraey; Lau, Jey Han; Baldwin, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Topics generated by topic models are typically represented as list of terms. To reduce the cognitive overhead of interpreting these topics for end-users, we propose labelling a topic with a succinct phrase that summarises its theme or idea. Using Wikipedia document titles as label candidates, we compute neural embeddings for documents and words to select the most relevant labels for topics. Compared to a state-of-the-art topic labelling system, our methodology is simpler, more efficient, and ...

  16. Television food advertising in Singapore: the nature and extent of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyan; Mehta, Kaye; Wong, Mun Loke

    2012-06-01

    Television advertising is an effective medium for reaching young children and influencing their food choice. Studies have shown that messages conveyed by food advertisements are rarely consistent with healthy eating messages. With the increasing purchasing power of children, food companies are focusing on children as lucrative target audiences. Extensive marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods to children potentially contributes to the 'obesogenic' environment. This study aims to determine the degree and nature of food advertisements that Singaporean children are exposed to on television. Ninety-eight hours of children's television programmes broadcast by free-to-air stations were recorded and analysed. Advertisements with the intent of selling and sponsorships for programmes were included. Foods advertised were considered healthy if they met the criteria of the Healthier Choice Symbol in Singapore. Of the 1344 advertisements and sponsorships identified, 33% were for food. Of the food advertisements, 38% were considered healthy, while 57% were not. Candy, confectionery and fast food advertisements accounted for 46% of total food advertisements. Significantly more unhealthy food advertisements were screened on weekends compared with weekdays (p advertisements in Singapore and the results of this study provide background data on the extent of food advertising that children in Singapore are exposed to. Consistent with other countries, unhealthy food advertisements continue to dominate children's television programmes. This study suggests that Singaporean children are exposed to high levels of advertising for unhealthy foods. The study provides a baseline against which measures aimed at reducing children's exposure to television food advertising can be evaluated.

  17. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  18. Changing Trends in LIS Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sharyn; Henninger, Maureen; Kennan, Mary Anne

    2011-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of a larger program of studies designed to review and renew the curricula of Library and Information Science (LIS) and the broader Information Management (IM) courses. This paper analysed job advertisements as readily accessible indicators of the knowledge, skills, and competencies required of IPs by…

  19. Using the Internet as a Classroom Information and Image Resource for the Development of a Television Advertising Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    This report describes the use of the Internet as an image and information resource in an introductory television and radio production class (COMM 223: Principles of Radio and Television Production) at Western Illinois University. The report states that the class's two lab sections spent the first half of the semester preparing a television…

  20. The "Organization" as an Interdisciplinary Learning Zone: Using a Strategic Game to Integrate Learning about Supply Chain Management and Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Anshu Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The research study seeks to explore the relationship among strategic gaming, the learning organization model and approach, and transfer of learning as key success strategies for improved individual and organizational performance and sustainable competitive advantage. This research aims to identify and elaborate on the strategic…