WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse self-medication behaviors

  1. A pilot program at the worksite to reduce adverse self-medication behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Neafsey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Gregory Lutkus2, Jessica Newcomb2, Elizabeth Anderson1,21Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG that captures self-reported medication behaviors and delivers a tailored educational intervention on a touchscreen interface was piloted with 11 adults with hypertension, aged 45–60 years, in a worksite setting. A time series design with multiple institution of treatment (four visits over three months was employed. Blood pressure (BP, self-medication behaviors, self-efficacy, and knowledge for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors were assessed at each of four visits. Satisfaction was assessed once at visit 4. Measures pre-PEP (visit 1 to visit 4 were compared with paired t-tests. The adverse self-medication behavior risk score decreased significantly from visit 1 to visit 4 (p < 0.05 with a medium effect size. Both knowledge and self-efficacy for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors increased significantly (p < 0.05 with large effect sizes. All six participants not at BP goal (<140/90 mmHg on visit 1 were at goal by visit 4. User satisfaction was high as assessed by both quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. These positive results suggest the PEP could play a central role in worksite wellness programs aimed at workers with hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, worksite, information technology, tailored intervention

  2. A pilot program at the worksite to reduce adverse self-medication behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia J Neafsey; Gregory Lutkus; Jessica Newcomb; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Gregory Lutkus2, Jessica Newcomb2, Elizabeth Anderson1,21Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP); 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG) that captures self-reported medication behaviors and delivers a tailored educational intervention on a touchscreen interface was piloted with 11 adults with hypertension, aged 45–60 years, in a worksite setting. A time series d...

  3. Adverse drug reactions in self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    Smuseva O.N.; Solovkina Yu.V.

    2012-01-01

    The research goal is to study the actual problem of self-medication. The Association of the European Self-Medication Industry (AESGP) considers the term «responsible self-medication». The key characteristic is that the patients are responsible for their health. The article presents cases of self-medication thoroughly analyzed in Volgograd Regional Centre of Drug Safety Monitoring. Some of them may be considered as unfavourable and even lethal. Therefore it should be mentioned that there is on...

  4. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi; Marzieh Asadi; Hamid Allahverdipour

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized usin...

  5. Adverse drug reactions to self-medication: a study in a pharmacovigilance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreni, Aurélia; Montastruc, François; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Vanessa; Abadie, Delphine; Durrieu, Geneviève; Chebane, Leila; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Although self-medication is widely developed, there are few detailed data about its adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study investigated the main characteristics of ADRs with self-medication recorded in the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance between 2008 and 2014. Self-medication included first OTC drugs and second formerly prescribed drugs later used without medical advice (reuse of previously prescribed drugs). Among the 12 365 notifications recorded, 160 (1.3%) were related to SM with 186 drugs. Around three-forth of the ADRs were 'serious'. Mean age was 48.8 years with 56.3% females. The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric and main drug classes involved NSAIDs, analgesics, and benzodiazepines. Phytotherapy-homeopathy accounted for 9.1% of drugs. PMID:26215671

  6. Neželeni učinki in zastrupitve zaradi samozdravljenja: Adverse effects and poisoning due to self-medication:

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Miran

    2011-01-01

    Self-medication is use of medicines and other products and methods to treat oralleviate health problems without doctor supervision. The manuscript presents adverse effects and poisoning due to self-medication that were managed by the Poison Control Centre in the Division of Internal Medicine of the University Medical Centre in Ljubljana. Self-medication with prescription drugs and non-prescription drugs may cause adverse drug effects particularly due to drug-drug interaction. Self-medication ...

  7. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

    OpenAIRE

    Eka K. Untari; Siti N. Nurbaeti; Esy Nansy

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did se...

  8. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka K. Untari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did self-medication on peptic ulcer or its related symptom. This study was conducted in 2010. The result of showed that 67.3% of gastric ulcer self-medication practice was appropriate; 66.3% subject used antacida class to treat the symptom; 6.1% participant however, still used antibiotic; and only 27% subject satisfied with the information given during self-medication process. Although self-medication practice for gastric ulcer was often done, some practice might be harmful. Thus, there is a need to educate the community to ensure its safe practices.

  9. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration indicated use of alcohol for purposes of self-medication and 73% indicated that their alcohol use was associated with agg...

  10. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  11. Self-Medicative Behavior of Sheep Experiencing Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections and the Postingestive Effects of Tannis

    OpenAIRE

    Lisonbee, Larry D

    2008-01-01

    Diet selection and self-medication are fundamental to the survival of all species. The abilities to choose healthy foods in response to past consequences are basic elements of evolution. This study explores self-medication regarding tannins both as a medication and as a dietary challenge. In the first study, sheep with natural parasite infections were offered a low quality supplement containing a dose of tannins considered to be therapeutic (medicine), while the control infected lambs receive...

  12. Measuring Health Belief Model Constructs in Preventive Behavior about Self-Medication in Pregnant Women in Arak City

    OpenAIRE

    Kasmaie P; Araban M; Gholamnia Z; Karimi M; Shamsi M

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nowadays, the use of educational models to determine the causes of rejection of health-related behaviors has been on theincrease. Health belief model is one of the models during the past years has been considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure health belief model constructs in preventive behavior about self-medication in pregnant women in the city of Arak.Methods: Thisanalytical, cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 pregnant women having re...

  13. Self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city of Haryana State in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire designed to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior and interview technique was used to elicit the requisite information. One hundred housewives of the middle income group were interviewed in Rohtak. Results: Most of the housewives were in the habit of keeping the medicines though only 73% of them were in the habit of using it without any prescription. Also it was seen that those housewives who were taking self-medication were better educated than those not indulged in self-medication. All of them were using allopathic drugs on a regular basis while other modes of medications were less used. The self-medication was most commonly based on the previous prescriptions issued by the doctors followed by the suggestions from friends, advertisement on the television, and newspapers. For most of them the reasons for self-medication were financial restraints and lack of time to go to the medical practitioner. Conclusions: The study delineates the difference in the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives in a city of Northern India. The results emphasize the need for comprehensive measures for intervention strategies to promote rational drug therapy by improving prescribing patterns and influencing self-medication.

  14. Assessment of the knowledge, behavior and practice of self-medication amongst female students in a pakistani university

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Rehman, Nisar-ur; Khan, Shujaat A.; Noor, Tahira; Karim, Sabiha; Bashir, Deeba; Bibi, Shumaila; Kaleem, Saman

    2012-01-01

    This study set sights at the issue of predominance of the attitude and behavior of self medication, medication storage and self treatment among female students of a Pakistani university. Random sampling and cross sectional surveys were conducted after collecting the data with the help of a questionnaire that was circulated amongst students. Of the 450 participants, 78.74 % of students admitted that they store medicines with them while other 50.95 % of students replied that they stop tak...

  15. 南充市居民自主用药行为调查%Survey on the behavior of self medication using among the residents of Nanchong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 王雪梅; 罗青; 张艳萍; 严宗逊

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解南充市居民自主用药行为现状,为在南充市居民中开展合理自主用药相关知识普及提供参考资料.方法 采用自编式结构问卷,对959名南充市居民进行问卷调查.结果 南充市居民自主用药行为率较高,达到79.7%.自主用药行为与年龄、学历、收入、是否参加医保等因素相关.自主用药人群的不良用药行为率达到63.0%,与从不自主用药人群的不良用药行为率相比差异无统计学意义.讨论 针对南充市居民的高自主用药行为率和不良用药行为率,有必要通过多种途径对南充市居民进行合理的自主用药相关知识的宣传.%OBJECTIVE To undersand the behavior of self medication using of Nanchong City residents,so as to provide reference for the proper self medication using knowledge.METHODS 959 Nanchong City residents were surveyed by self-designed questionnaires.RESULTS The rate of behavior of self medication using of Nanchong City residents was high and reached 79.7%.The rate of behavior of self medication using was related to age,education level,income and medical insurance.The rate of unhealthy behavior of self medication using in self medication using people was 63.0% and had no statistical difference compared with people who never conduct self medication using.CONCLUSION According to the high rates of behavior of self medication using and wrong behavior of self medication using in Nanchong City residents,it is necessary to advertise the rational self medication using knowledge for the Nanchong City residents by variety ways.

  16. ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY (ANIMAL SELF MEDICATION): A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava Rounak; Khare Apoorva; Agrawal Shweta

    2011-01-01

    Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. The term “zoopharmacognosy” is relatively new to the pharmacy field. This term is introduced in 1987. And it means animal self medication. It is the self medication process by an animal for any disease or wound by any pla...

  17. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche; Radha Yegnanarayan; Shraddha Bhoyar; Rashi Agrawal; Roshani Chavan; Priyanka Mahendrakar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33), antibiotics (10.32), vitamins (14.08) and GIT ailment drugs (13.61) are most comm...

  18. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Keche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33, antibiotics (10.32, vitamins (14.08 and GIT ailment drugs (13.61 are most commonly used as self medication in rural areas. Other drugs that self medicated are: drugs for upper respiratory tract infection, antibiotics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants and diuretics. Information about the self medication was predominantly obtained from previous prescription of doctors (64.32% and from chemists (23%. Antibiotics like macrolides, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, antihelminthics, and furazolidine were taken as self medication in rural areas. 50% of antibiotics used as self medication was associated with development of ADRs. The adverse effects reported with antibiotics self medication were: vomiting, hyperacidity, gastrointestinal discomfort. 21.13% of persons reported adverse effects with NSAIDs self medication. Adverse effects reported with analgesic use in this study were: hyperacidity, skin rashes, nausea. Conclusions: NSAIDs, antibiotics, vitamins and GIT ailment drugs are commonly self medicated in rural areas of Pune. The self medication of antibiotics is disturbing, as these are liable for drug resistance and severe ADRs and hence should be taken under supervision only. Pharmacists, key person in rural areas, can provide information about adverse effects of self medicated drugs and also can guide about proper precautions to be taken for self medication.

  19. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadele Eticha; Kalkidan Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertake...

  20. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken ...

  1. The Effects of Model-Based Educational Intervention on Self-medication Behavior in Mothers with Children less than 2- year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Heydartabar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication by people is one of the major issues in the world that can be lead to numerous medical and economic problems, this especially issue in children under 2 years who are at the age of growth and development have great importance. The aim of this study was investigate the effects of model-based educational interventions on self-medication behavior in mothers with children under 2 years of age who referred to the health centers of Firoozkooh city (Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was quasi - experimental interventional study. The study population consisted of mothers with children under 2 years old referring to health centers of the Firoozkooh city, Iran. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire which its validity and reliability was assessed than was used. The required information was collected before and after the educational intervention. Then 4 months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Significant difference was not found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy with performance (self-medication before the educational intervention (P>0.05. But after the educational intervention, statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy with performance (P

  2. SELF-MEDICATION IN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Jain; Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is consumption of medicinal products for treating diseases without a prescription resulting in wastage of resources, increased drug resistance and causes health hazards. Selfmedication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. The main problem with self medication with antimicrobials is ...

  3. Self-Medication as Adaptive Plasticity: Increased Ingestion of Plant Toxins by Parasitized Caterpillars

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Michael S.; Mace, Kevi C.; Bernays, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we frame self-medication in the broader realm of adaptive plasticity, which provides several testable predictions for verifying self-medication and advancing its conceptual significance. First, self-medicat...

  4. 保定地区农村妇女自我药疗行为现状分析%Surveys and analysis of self-medication behaviors of rural women in Baoding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪梅; 卢福珍; 杨志峰; 何琳; 唐美莲; 陈晓炜

    2012-01-01

      Objective To understand the status of self-medication behaviors of rural women in Baoding area and to provide a reference for the implementation of health decision making and education intervention. Methods A cluster random sampling survey and a self-administered questionnaire were used to investigate the status of self-medication behaviors of 2 950 rural women extracted from city area, mountain and plain area of Baoding. Results Self-medication behaviors correlated with different educational levels and whether joining New Rural Cooperative Medical Service or not. Self-medication ratio of women who had joined the NRCMS was low, compared with the ratio of those who hadn’t joined the NRCMS. The ratio of self-medication became higher and higher, along with the rise of education level. Self-medication rate of rural women was 41%;people were mostly concerned about the indications of the drugs and followeded the guidance of doctors before purchasing medicines. The rate of reading the package insert before medication every time was 50.8%, only 19.3%of them could read the package insert complelety. Additionally, 62.7%of them could identify the signs of prescription drugs and the non-prescription drugs. conclusion Self-medication is an important way of self-care for rural women, it can reduce national medical and health resources and personal economic burden, it should be instructed and educated increasingly by combining with the women`own behavioral characreristics and relevant national policies, so as to raise the level of rural women` self-care skills and then avoid the occurrence of adverse consequences.%  目的了解保定地区农村妇女自我药疗行为现状,为实施农村妇女保健决策和教育干预提供参考依据.方法采用整群随机抽样、自填式问卷调查的方法,对保定市区、山区及平原地区抽取的2950名农村妇女自我药疗行为现况进行问卷调查.结果自我药疗行为与是否参加新型农村

  5. Economics of self-medication: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fwu-Ranq Chang; Trivedi, Pravin K.

    2003-01-01

    A pervasive phenomenon in developing countries is that self-prescribed medications are purchased from drug vendors without professional supervision. In this article we develop a model of self-medicating behavior of a utility-maximizing consumer who balances the benefits and risks of self-medication. The empirical investigation focuses on the role of income and health insurance on the use of self-medication. Our data are from the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey of Vietnam, 199...

  6. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  7. 中学生自我用药行为及影响因素分析%A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF SELF-MEDICATION BEHAVIOR AND RISK FACTORS AMONG MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧水招; 张冠荣; 李春会

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the condition and risk factors of self - medication behavior among middle school students, including with and without illness.Methods:A cross - sectional stratified cluster sampling questionnaire survey was carried out for students of 7 - 8th grade in junior section and 10 -11th grade in senior section at a key middle school in Guangdong province.Results:The rate of self -medication behavior with illness among subjects were 70.6% , in which 37.1% reported having antibiotics self-taking histories.Students who were female, 8th and 11th grade, living in families of poor relationship, buying cough mixture and taking bad measures with serious ill, had higher self - medication rates.The percentage of medication behavior without illness was 22.4% .Having friends quitting school, histories of buying cough mixture and taking bad measures with serious ill were its independent risk factors.Conclusion:The prevalence of self - medication behaviors with and without illness were high among middle school students, and associated with factors of personal behavior, peers and family relationships.%目的:了解中学生自我用药(包括生病与非生病)行为情况及影响因素.方法:采用现况研究设计,分层整群抽取广东某一省级重点中学初中和高中一、二年级的中学生进行问卷调查.结果:中学生在生病时自我用药行为者达70.6%,其中自用过抗生素比例为37.1%,女生、初中和高中二年级、家庭关系不良、买过止咳药水及生病厉害时有不良处理措施的学生,生病时自我用药率较高.在非生病时有自我用药行为者达22.4%,社会上不上学的朋友、买过止咳药水和生病厉害时有不良处理措施是重要的影响因素.结论:中学生在生病与非生病时的自我用药行为现患率高,与个人行为、同伴和家庭关系等因素有关.

  8. SELF-MEDICATION AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS: A GROWING CONCERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Aditya

    2013-04-01

    about risks and adverse consequences of self-medication in order to ensure rational and safe use of drugs.

  9. Self medication: need for increased awareness among general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a recently published study Sugumar R et al evaluated self medication prevalence in primary dysmenorrhea in India. The results of the study prompted me to write regarding drug induced issues with self medication in primary dysmenorrhea and other diseases in general. The results of this study give some insights on the self medication pattern in primary dysmenorrhea among urban Indian women. The authors have highlighted the high prevalence (42% along with inappropriate self-medication practices in a large number of participants. Inappropriate self-medication practices inadvertently pose the patient to both the risk of lack of efficacy in case of sub-therapeutic dose as well as adverse events in case of excess than recommended dose. Mefenamic acid, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID or its combination i.e. mefenamic acid + dicyclomine was used by close to one third (35% of study population consumed mefenamic acid containing product for treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. NSAIDs can cause adverse events; it is important to point out some of the reported findings related respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal safety of mefenamic acid. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 659-660

  10. Do behavioral biases adversely affect the macro-economy?

    OpenAIRE

    George M. Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether the adverse effects of investors' behavioral biases extend beyond the domain of financial markets to the broad macro-economy. We focus on the risk sharing (or income smoothing) role of financial markets and demonstrate that risk sharing levels are higher in U.S. states in which investors have higher cognitive abilities and exhibit weaker behavioral biases. Further, states with better risk sharing opportunities achieve higher levels of risk sharing if investors ...

  11. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalba Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences, and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being.

  12. Self-Medication among School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar

    2015-01-01

    Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…

  13. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  14. Reducing adverse self-medication behaviors in older adults with the Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG): Design and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia J Neafsey; Elizabeth Anderson; Craig Coleman; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Elizabeth Anderson1,2, Craig Coleman3, Carolyn A Lin2,4, Cyr E M’lan5, Stephen Walsh61School of Nursing, 2Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP), 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Communication Sciences, 5Department of Statistics, 6Center for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A randomized controlled efficacy trial targeting older adults with hypertension is providing a tailored education in...

  15. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  16. Acute liver failure and self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    de OLIVEIRA, André Vitorio Câmara; ROCHA, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; ABREU, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. Aim To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Method Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute live...

  17. Evaluation of Self Medication Amongst Nursing Students of Bastar Region: A Questionnaire Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sajid Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  Self-medication provides low cost alternative for expensive medical management but inappropriate use can cause problems. For Nursing undergraduates such practice has special significance since they have medical knowledge but very superficial and also its application is limited.  Hence the present study was planned to evaluate the status of students studying in different years of B.Sc. Nursing.To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication amongst the students of Government Nursing College, Jagdalpur(ChhatisgarhThis questionnaire based study was performed on 142 Nursing students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year aged between17-24 years. Mean age was found to be 20.5 years (±2.5years. A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed amongst the participants after explaining the purpose of the study and taking informed consent. The results obtained from this study showed that out of 142 students 120 (84.50 % students used self medicationCommonest source of information for self medication were seniors and colleagues 40(33.33%, and the most common indication for self medication was common cold 41(34.16 %.D’cold Total 49(40.83% was the most common medication used as self medication .Only 16 (13.33% students were having the knowledge about content, dose, duration of therapy and adverse drug reaction of the medication that they used. The most common source to obtain medicines for self medication was pharmaceutical store 80 (66.67 %.The findings from this study highlights the striking prevalence of self medication among nursing students, the lack of knowledge and the risks associated with them. We recommend that a global approach must be taken to prevent this problem from escalating which would involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self medication, strategies to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription by pharmacies and strict rules regarding pharmaceutical advertising.

  18. Association between Perceived Value and Self-Medication with Antibiotics: An Observational Study Based on Health Belief Model Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Annisa N. Insany; Dika P. Destiani; Anwar Sani; Lilik Sabdaningtyas; Ivan S. Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of self medication with antibiotics can increase the probability of irrational use of antibiotics which may lead antibiotics resistance. Thus, shifting of behavior is required to minimize the irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to determine the association between public perceived value and self-medication with antibiotics which can be used to develop an intervention model in order to reduce the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. An observational stu...

  19. Study on the Irrational Drug Use Behavior of the Elderly in Self-medication Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior%基于计划行为理论探讨老年人自我药疗中不合理用药行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阿罗; 陈永法

    2013-01-01

    Under the situation that the irrational drug use behavior of elderly people becomes more and more fre-quent in their self-medication , this study was carried out through literature research to establish a theoretical model based on the theory of planned behavior. The influence factors of irrational drug use behavior of the elderly in self-medication were set up in the theoretical model in the respects of attitude , subjective norms and the control of perceptional behavior , so as to provide a theoretical reference for the proposal of related measures .%在老年人自我药疗中不合理用药行为日渐频繁的情况下,通过文献研究,以计划行为理论为基础,从态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制三方面构建老年人在自我药疗中的不合理用药行为影响因素的理论模型,从而为相关措施的提出提供理论参考。

  20. Study on self-medication among 2nd year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    K. Jagadeesh; K. N. Chidananda; Sreenivas P. Revankar; Nagaraja S. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized symptoms and illness. Self-medication is a common type of self-care behavior in the general public, but medical students differ in such practice, as they have knowledge about drugs and diseases. Methods: The present study involved 100 2nd year final term medical students in and ldquo;Shivamogga Institute of Medical Sciences, and rdquo; Shivamogga, Karnataka. Study was questionnaire based, and the resul...

  1. Pharmacies, self-medication and pharmaceutical marketing in Bombay, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V R; Nichter, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies of pharmaceutical practice have called attention to the role played by pharmacists and pharmacy attendants in fostering self-medication and medicine experimentation among the public. Left undocumented is the extent to which clients passively follow the advice of pharmacy personnel or question their motive or expertise. While research has focused on pharmacists and pharmacy attendants as agents encouraging self-medication and medicine experimentation, adequate attention has not been paid to pharmacist-client interactions that are sensitive to the social, cultural, and economic context in which medicine sales and advice occur. This paper highlights the context in which pharmacy attendants engage in "prescribing medicines" to the public in Bombay, India. An ethnographic description of pharmacies and pharmaceutical-related behavior in Bombay is provided to demonstrate how reciprocal relationships between pharmacy owners, medicine wholesalers and pharmaceutical sales representatives (medreps) influence the actions of pharmacy staff. Attention is focused on the role of the medicine marketing and distribution system in fostering prescription practice, pharmacy "counter-pushing" and self-medication. In documenting the profit motives of different players located on the drug sales continuum, it is argued that the economic rationale and the symbiotic relations that exist between doctors, medreps, medicine wholesalers and retailers, need to be more closely scrutinized by those advocating "rational drug use". PMID:9690824

  2. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among university students and evaluate factors associated with the practice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during May, 2012 using a pre-validated questionnaire distributed to 250 students of the 4 years of study at the college of business administration. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc and results are expressed as counts and percentages. Chi-square test was used to evaluate significant association among the study variables and P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The response rate was 80% and all respondents were Arabs with 114 (57% females and 86 (43% males. Self-medication was practiced by 118 (59% students and most (88.1% of them obtained medications from pharmacies. About 21 (11% respondents self-medicated with antibiotics. Only 34 (17% and 16 (8% of respondents were aware of bacterial resistance and rational drug use respectively. The most common reasons for self-medication were seeking quick relief (134, 67%, physician′s advice of self-management (100, 50%, illness is minor (91, 45.5%. Common reasons against self-medication include risk of misdiagnosis of illness (160, 80%, risk of using the wrong medication (154, 77%, risk of adverse effects (140, 70%. Self-medication was practiced for headache or mild pain, eye and ear symptoms, gastric problems, cold, fever and allergy. Conclusion: Self-medication among non-healthcare students is common with high prevalence. Knowledge of students of reasons for and against self-medication was adequate, but awareness of respondents of rational drug use and risk of bacterial resistance in response to misuse was poor. Orientation courses/workshops directed to university students would be beneficial.

  3. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PATTERN AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS AT KANNUR, NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Self medication is mainly symptomatic based and may lead to the masking of signs and symptoms of underlying disease. Medical students being exposed to the subjects in medicine are more prone for self medic ation. This raises the concerns of incorrect self - diagnosis, drug interaction, and use of drugs other than for the original indication. AIMS: To study the pattern of self medication among medical students and to determine the factors affecting it. METHODS AND MATERIAL: STUDY DESIGN & SETTING: A cross - sectional descriptive study done in a medical college. Study Duration: March 15 th to April 20 th 2013. Participants: Out of 400 students, 302 students who were willing to participate and available during study p eriod were enrolled in the study. R epresentation from all phases/batches of MBBS course was ensured, accounting to 77, 84, 63 and 78 students from first, second, third and final phase of MBBS. Data collection: By self administered pre - tested & validated qu estionnaire . Statistical analysis was done by applying proportions/percentages. RESULTS: Out of 302 participants, 25.8% were males & 74.2% were females. Practice of self medication was reported by 64.9% students. It was 16.9% in first phase students which shoot to 100% in final phase. Practice of self medication was higher in males while the frequency of self medication was higher in females. Seniors (89.8% and previous prescriptions (87.2% were the most common sources for reference. Fever (70.4%, commo n cold (67.8% and headache/bodyache (64.7% were the common reasons for self medication. Analgesics (79.6%, antipyretics (79.6% and anti - histaminic (72.4% were the most common drugs used for self medication. 30.1% of them took antibiotics and 9.7% seda tives without prescription. 80.1% (157 of those who took self medication said that they prescribed drugs for others also (friends/relatives. None of them suffered any adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The

  4. The Prevalence and Affecting Factors on Self-Medication Among Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Science in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Sayed Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Khirollah; Abdi, Alireza; Vahid, Mansour Pashaie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication is an increasingly growing health problem, which has many adverse effects on human and the cost used in the production of medications. Aim The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among student of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Materials and Methods In a descriptive-cross-sectional study, 364 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were recruited through stratified random sampling method. Data collection was done by researcher-made questionnaire, entered to SPSS22 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Of the 364 students, prevalence of self-medication was 123 (33.7%) the mean age was 21.63±1.92, among them 64.2% took the medication from the pharmacy and 34.95% have faced complications of self-medication. The main cause of self-medication among students were the history of a disease of taking medication (44.71%), deemed no importance of the disease (34.95%), and easy accessibility of the medication (20.32%). Conclusion With regard to the high prevalence of self-medication among the students, it is suggested to provide educational programs on the adverse effects of self-medication, and appropriate measures to control and prevent easy access to the medications. PMID:27437242

  5. SELF MEDICATION PATTERN AMONG DENTISTS WITH ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self medication with antibiotics has become a common practice among people, and more so among those with medical background. Dentists are one group who have kno wledge and accessibility to antibiotics. Hence this study was aimed at knowing the prevalence of self medication with antibiotics among dentists reasons for not visiting the physician. RESULT: Prevalence rate of self medication among dentist was 78.18%. Mo st common cause for self medication were common cold, tooth ache and sore throat. Most common antibiotic used was azithromycin next to ampicillin. Most common reason for not visiting doctor was that participants were themselves a doctor. CONCLUSION: Though dentists have knowledge about antibiotics, knowledge on appropriate usage of antibiotics is poor. This may have a bad impact on practice. Hence they have to overcome the ego and take proper advice from physician which may help the community in curbing ant ibiotic resistance The only limitation of the study was small sample size as dentists from only two colleges were considered. There is a need for study in large number of population.

  6. Patterns and practice of self-medication among children presenting with acute respiratory tract infection or diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kant Dhir

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The problem of self-medication of prescription only drugs is quite prevalent in this part of the country. As self-medication has its complications and adversities proper orientation and awareness of the population about self-medication is of utmost importance for proper utilization of resources and manpower. Further the government agencies should ensure proper implementation and supervision of laws related to sale of and lsquo;Prescription only drugs'. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 33-37

  7. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  8. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joels, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  9. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Kurubaran Ganasegeran; Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi Al-Shagga; Hematram Yadav; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  10. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Ramana Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter.

  11. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana Reddy, A M; Prashanth, L K; Sharat Kumar, G G; Chandana, G; Jadav, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary) is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter. PMID:25288841

  12. Suffering and compassion: The links among adverse life experiences, empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; DeSteno, David

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing past adversity traditionally has been linked to negative life outcomes. However, emerging evidence suggests that heterogeneity exists with respect to links between adversity and resilience, with adversity often enhancing cooperation in the face of joint suffering. Here, the authors present 2 studies designed to examine if the severity of past adversity is associated with an enduring propensity for empathy-mediated compassion, and, if so, whether the resulting compassion directly is, in turn, linked to behavior meant to relieve the suffering of others. Using both MTurk and laboratory-based paradigms, the authors find that increasing severity of past adversity predicts increased empathy, which in turn, is linked to a stable tendency to feel compassion for others in need. In addition, they demonstrate that the resulting individual differences in compassion appear to engender behavioral responses meant to assist others (i.e., charitable giving, helping a stranger). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751630

  13. Antibiotics Self-Medication among Southern Iranian University Students

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sarahroodi; A. Arzi; A.F. Sawalha; A. Ashtarinezhad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior toward antibiotic self-medication among medical and non-medical university students in Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 students randomly chosen from a medical and a non-medical university in Ahwaz, South of Iran in 2008. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires with open-ended and close-ended items. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 14 and the results were presented as the p...

  14. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  15. Movement Behaviors in Children and Indicators of Adverse Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    intervention periods to promote a healthy lifestyle. Thirdly, short sleep duration and a high variability in sleep duration, as well as sleep problems, were associated with an obesity-promoting diet. Short sleep duration was also associated with a higher fat mass index and increased cardio-metabolic risk....... Furthermore, a decline in physical activity was associated with increased fat mass index and cardio-metabolic risk over a 200-day follow-up period. Results indicated that low physical activity and high sedentary time was the result of fatness rather than its cause. Finally, combined negative levels of...... physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep were synergistically associated with higher fat mass index and cardio-metabolic risk. In summary, these results suggest that multiple movement behaviors should be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood and that this is possibly...

  16. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. METHOD: 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. RESULTS: Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  17. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication in elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Zankhana Parmar; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Varsha J Patel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medication that is taking medicines without prescription by the doctor is highly prevalence in the community. Elderly population is more likely to self-medicate due to multiple morbidities. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among elderly individuals. Methods: Study was carried out at tertiary care hospital. The questionnaire which was used in our earlier studies regarding self-medication was utilized. After obtaining...

  18. On the economics of rational self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    Akpalu, Wisdom

    2008-01-01

    It has been established in the medical literature that self-medicating with imperfect information about either the use of a genuine or counterfeit drug or based on wrong self-diagnosis of ailment, which is predominant especially in developing countries, is a risky investment in health capital. This paper models the decision to self-medicate and the demand for self-medicated drugs. We suppose that investment in self-medication depends on the perception of its effectiveness. The results obtaine...

  19. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  20. Automedicación en individuos de la Región de la Araucanía con problemas musculoesqueléticos Self medication among patients with musculoskeletal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    J Pablo Riedemann G; Mónica Illesca P; Jacqueline Droghetti R

    2001-01-01

    Background Self-medication is a common behavior in the general population, specially among those suffering from chronic pain. Aim: To study the prevalence and characteristics of self medication. Subjects and Methods: Aiming to know the prevalence and features of self medication, a structured interview was applied to 272 out of 419 individuals from the general population, that reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Results: Sixty five percent of those interviewed recognised self medication. No gen...

  1. SELF MEDICATION PATTERN, INCIDENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH IT, AMONG FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE JAMMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self - medication is quite common practice in general and particularly among medical students. Self - medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming medication without the advice of a clinician for treatment of an ailment. There can be many reasons for increased likelihood of self - medication among the medical students like easy access and senior medical student’s advice, easy access to physician’s samples, because of the white coat, from pharmacist / chemist shops. 1 However self - medication can be quite harmful and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It could lead to various complications and side effects like - habituation and addiction, poisoning, hyper vitaminosis, antibiotic resistance and incorrect and delayed diagnosis, over diagnosis or under diagnosis, at times really serious and fatal consequences can occur. It results in wastage of resources, increase resistance of pathogens and can causes serious hazards like adverse drug reaction, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was performed to assess and evaluate the incidence and awareness of self - medications among the medical students of first professional MBBS in medical college Ja mmu. A study on one hundred medical students of Jammu medical college was conducted to assess and evaluates the pattern of self - medication among these students. This study was done to know the frequencies and reasons and the pattern of self - medication among young medical students of Jammu region. A detail questionnaire was prepared and each student was asked to fill up the Performa and then the data was analyzed. It was found that self - medication is very common (90 % and is comparable to studies from other parts of the world. For most of them the reason for self - medication was common cold . The result emphasizes the amount of problem in the society about self - medication and lack of awareness about side effects. Hence more strict regulations are

  2. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  4. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior. PMID:27289554

  6. Evaluation of Self Medication Practices in Rural Area of Town Sahaswan at Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, I; Mohanta, GP; Balkrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self-medication. It is a common type of self-care behavior among the populace of various countries. World Health Organization promotes the practice of self-medication for effective and quick relief of symptoms without medical consultations to reduce the burden on health-care services, which are often understaffed and inaccessible in rural and remote areas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the extent and p...

  7. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Ana M. B. Menezes; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of...

  8. A STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PATTERNS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu; Mushtaq Pasha; Isaac; Afsar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Self‐medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self‐medication and the patt...

  9. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  10. Determinants of increasing trends of self-medication: physicians, perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafeezullah; Maheen, Safirah; Bashir, Sajid; Abbas, Ghulam; Sher, Muhammad; Ashraf, Zaman; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Mohammad K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of study was to take and evaluate opinions of the physicians about various aspects of self-medication. A self-fabricated questionnaire of 38 questions was distributed among 292 physicians. Prominent involvement of females in self-medication was suggested by 176 (60 %) physicians. The self-medication trend is more common in financially lower class as reported by 146 (50 %) physicians and in uneducated community as suggested by 165 (57 %) physicians. Family habits and easy to reme...

  11. Self-medication with Antimicrobial Drugs in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryan, L.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Burgerhof, JGM; Mechtler, R; Deschepper, R.; Tambic-Andrasevic, A; Andrajati, R; Monnet, DL; Cunney, R; Di Matteo, A.; Edelstein, H; Valinteliene, R.; Alkerwi, A; Scicluna, EA; Grzesiowski, P

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the populations of 19 European countries to compare the prevalence of antimicrobial drug self-medication in the previous 12 months and intended self-medication and storage and to identify the associated demographic characteristics. By using a multistage sampling design, 1,000-3,000 adults in each country were randomly selected. The prevalence of actual self-medication varied from 1 to 210 per 1,000 and intended self-medication from 73 to 449 per 1,000; both rates were high in east...

  12. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  13. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  14. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  15. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  16. Childhood adversity and behavioral health outcomes for youth: An investigation using state administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. PMID:26234784

  17. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima Sumiko; Kisa Kengo; Terashita Takayoshi; Kawabata Hidenobu; Maezawa Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured foc...

  18. Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Burgerhof, JGM; Mechtler, R; Deschepper, R; Tambic-Andrasevic, A; Andrajati, R; Monnet, DL; Cunney, R; Di Matteo, A; Edelstein, H; Valinteliene, R; Alkerwi, A; Scicluna, EA; Grzesiowski, P; Bara, AC; Tesar, T; Cizman, M; Campos, J; Lundborg, CS; Birkin, J

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the populations of 19 European countries to compare the prevalence of antimicrobial drug self-medication in the previous 12 months and intended self-medication and storage and to identify the associated demographic characteristics. By using a multistage sampling design, 1,000-3,000 adult

  19. Self-medication with antibiotics in Europe and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    A postal survey was conducted to determine and compare the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in 19 European countries. Face to face interviews were conducted with the respondents of the postal survey to study the determinants of self-medication.

  20. Increased Resin Collection after Parasite Challenge: A Case of Self-Medication in Honey Bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael D.; Spivak, Marla

    2012-01-01

    The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed “social immunity.” One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB). Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication by increasing

  1. Self medication practice among undergraduate pharmacy students in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirajan Bhattarai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Self medication is practice by a pharmacist or lay person to treat minor health problem or symptoms without prescription. The study was conducted to evaluate the medication pattern, behaviour, practice and attitude among undergraduate pharmacy students on self medication. Methods Descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among 175 pharmacy undergraduates in different institutions within Kathmandu valley, Nepal using prevalidated, five sectional and structured questionnaires. Results Non steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs (n=235, 38.29% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever (n=94, 55.29% and headaches (n=89, 52.35%, mainly paracetamol (n=144, 23.8%.Community pharmacies (n=136, 80.00% and pharmacist recommendation (n=76, 44.70% were main sources of obtaining and selecting particular medicine and its dose (n=108, 63.54% while friends and family (n=75, 44.11% remained main source of information. 128(75.29%always checked up the information on package label or insert, mainly date of manufacturing (n=96, 56.47% . 70(41.17% respondents fully and 71(41.76% of them partly understood the information. 161(94.30%respondent always checked the expiry date before medicating. Significant proportion perceived it as unacceptable practice with main reasons of being unsafe (n=64, 37.64% and potential adverse reaction (n=21, 12.35%.52(30.58% of them faced adverse reactions or side effects. Allopathic system (n=114, 67.05% was preferable medication system for self medication. Conclusion Most common drugs were NSAIDs, primly paracetamol, cough and cold reliever and GI infection ailments. Students and their profession interrelationship were predominant shaping their attitude and behaviour on self medication.

  2. A STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PATTERNS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Self‐medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self‐medication and the pattern of self‐medication among medical students. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to final year. METHODS: This cross‐sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, during the period of Dec 10th 2013 to Jan 10th 2014. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre‐tested semi‐structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 150 students, 93 (62% male and 57 (38% female were included in the study of the medical students surveyed; self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self‐medication found it to be timesaving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self‐medication were used were: the common cold (73%, fever (68% and headache (62%. The students consulted their textbooks (45% and seniors or classmates (39% for the medications. Antipyretics (78%, analgesics (72%, antihistamines (42% and antibiotics (38% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 29% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication. CONCLUSION: Self‐medication is becoming an increasingly important area within healthcare. The prevalence of self‐medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors, due to high level of education and professional

  3. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey.Patients and methods:One hundred and fifty patients, of any age and either sex, presenting at outpatient dermatologyclinics (Madina Teaching Hospital and Faisal Hospital, Faisalabad, from June to September2009, for the treatment of acne vulgaris were included. An in-person interview using aquestionnaire was conducted. They were asked about the use of self medication for theirdisease. Details of type of medication, its effects on disease and the source of advice were alsonoted. Objective assessment of acne grade was done by trained dermatology personnel.Data was analyzed using micro software SPSS version 17.Results:Show that 115(77% patients had used self medication. Potent topical steroids were used by72(48% patients. Majority of the patients received the advice about self medication from theirfriends (31% or relatives (27%. Temporary improvement was noticed by 47% of those whoused self medication.Conclusion:A significantly high percentage of patients (77% in our population use self medication for acnevulgaris.

  4. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osarobo Ehigiator

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the pattern of self-medication among dental, midwifery and nursing students and to evaluate the factors associated with self-medication. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional of dental, nursing and midwifery students undergoing clinical training in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. The elicited data include demography, use of drug without doctor′s prescription, type of drug used (pain relievers, antibiotics, anti-malarial, cough medication and nutritional supplement, reasons for self-medication, factors that influenced the choice of drug and source of drug. Results: A total of 76.8% of the respondents indulged in self-medication practices. Of which, 33.0% used the medication inappropriately. The type of self-medication use was, pain relievers (60.5%, antibiotics (43.2%, anti-malarial (40.5%, cough medication (16.7% and nutritional supplement (16.0%. Previous experience with the illness and perceived minor nature of the illness were the predominant reasons for the self-medication practices among the respondents. The major factors that influenced their choice of medication were previous experience with similar symptoms (39.7%, advice of non-doctor health professional (33.5%. Pharmacy shop was the main source of the self-medicated drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication was a common practice among this studied group of health workers. The level of inappropriate drug use denotes self-medication as an unhealthy option, and it therefore, should be discouraged.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid and nutrient deficits in adverse neurodevelopment and childhood behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel V; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-07-01

    Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients show sizable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and young adult prisoners. Studies of HUFAs in youth, however, remain lacking. As the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatment develops, dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations based on general health considerations. PMID:24975625

  6. Promoting rational self-medication of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a commonly used class of drugs. They are used for self-medication worldwide including Nepal to treat self-limiting conditions, and mild to moderate symptoms associated with disease. Similar degree of care like prescription-only drugs is needed for these drugs as these are also linked with many adverse effects. However, nephrotoxicity remains a major concern with these drugs; other systems such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, hematologic, respiratory, and hepatic are also affected. The renal effects of analgesics are pronounced among patients with comorbid conditions, hypovolemic state of body and those with concomitant use of nephrotoxic or other drugs. A number of studies on self-medication all over the world have revealed that NSAIDs are the most commonly used drugs as self-medication. Easy access to these drugs either in pharmacy or in nonpharmacy outlets has become a reason for proper monitoring of over-the-counter use of these drugs. Responsibility remains with all healthcare professionals, either at individual or institutional level, to establish the balance between the benefits and risks associated with these drugs. The consumer who uses the drugs and the policy-framing bodies are others who could intervene in promoting the rational use of NSAIDs.

  7. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeela Khalid; Tariq Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey...

  8. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Osarobo Ehigiator; Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O.; Ezeja, Ejike B; Laura Ehigiator; Ikechukwu U Madukwe

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of self-medication among dental, midwifery and nursing students and to evaluate the factors associated with self-medication. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional of dental, nursing and midwifery students undergoing clinical training in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. The elicited data include demography, use of drug without doctor′s prescription, type of drug used (pain relievers, antibiotics, an...

  9. SELF-MEDICATION AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS: A GROWING CONCERN

    OpenAIRE

    Suruchi Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is an important component of self-care. Though it is widely practiced globally, very few studies have evaluated its pattern and prevalence in dental students.Aim: The study was conducted to compare pattern of self-medication practices between junior and senior dental undergraduate students.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous, descriptive study with a six month illness recall that evaluated two groups of dental students- Group I: second year BDS students...

  10. SELF MEDICATION AMONGST GENERAL OUTPATIENTS IN A NIGERIAN COMMUNITY HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Omolase, C.O.; Adeleke, O.E.; Afolabi, A. O.; Afolabi, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to determine the proportion of general out patients who practice self medication, the drugs employed and the reasons for resorting to self medication. Methodology: This study was conducted between June and December, 2007 at the General Outpatient Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred consenting respondents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed with the aid of semi structured questionnaire by the authors with ...

  11. Patients, society, and the increase in self medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Blenkinsopp, A; C. Bradley

    1996-01-01

    Self medication with over the counter medicines has long been a feature of the lay health system. With the reclassification of certain drugs, the public can buy preparations that were previously available only prescription. Sales of over the counter medicines are now equivalent to a third of the NHS drugs bill; governments throughout the world see self medication as a way of shifting some of the cost of health care onto consumers. The trend towards increased self care and with it the increasi...

  12. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lott...

  13. Self Medication with Antibiotics, Is it a Problem among Iranian College Students in Tehran?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sarahroodi; A. Arzi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and behavior toward antibiotic self-medication among college students in the capital of Iran (Tehran). A close and open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 160 students, randomly chosen from Shariaty Technical Faculty, Tehran, Iran. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires with open-ended and close-ended items. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 14 and the results were presented ...

  14. Self-Medication Practices and Risk Factors for Self-Medication among Medical Students in Belgrade, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukovic, Jasminka Adzic; Miletic, Vladimir; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Trajkovic, Goran; Ratkovic, Nevena; Aleksic, Danijela; Grgurevic, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication among future health care professionals can represent a serious threat to professionalism in medicine and it has potential to put at risk public trust into this profession. The aim of this research was to investigate prevalence and risk factors for self-medication among population of medical students, because it was previously shown that their attitudes towards pharmacotherapy could affect the way they could prescribe medication in the future. Material and Methods ...

  15. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  16. 药品广告对不同特征公众自我药疗行为影响的比较研究%Comparative study in impact of drug advertisement on self-medication behavior of different characteristics public

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫中; 王华; 白玉萍; 郭翔宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较药品广告对不同特征公众自我药疗行为的影响.方法 采用当面访谈的形式对中国对1个直辖市和4个省会城市559名公众进行问卷调查.结果 公众根据药品广告内容购药的比例达54.1% (288/532),分不清药品与非药品的公众的比例高达63.9%( 278/435).另外,保险模式为新型农业合作组织和自费的公众更易根据广告来购药,比例分别为61.7% (37/60)和57.6%(152/264).结论 根据药品广告内容购药进行自我药疗的行为在公众中较为常见,这种潜在的用药风险应引起政府部门以及公众的重视.%Objective To compare the impact of drug advertisement on self-medication behavior of different characteristics public.Methods a questionnaire was conducted among 540 people chosen from five cities in china.Result The rate of people who purchased and used drugs based on drug advertisement was 54.1%,especially in the people who did not distinguish drugs or non-drugs.Additionally,the people covered by new-type rural cooperative medical insurance and uninsuranced tended to purchase and use drugs based on drug advertisement,and the rates were 61.7% and 57.6%,respectively.Conclusions A substantial proportion of Chinese people purchase and use drugs based on drug advertisement.Government and people should urgently pay attention to the potential risk of self-medication behavior.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:24974249

  18. Automedicación en gestantes que acuden al Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Perú 2011 Self-medication behavior among pregnant women user of the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Peru 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Miní

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes y sus características, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se entrevistó a 400 gestantes que acudían a control prenatal en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Lima. El 10,5% (42 pacientes se automedicó durante la gestación, el 64,6% opinó que la automedicación puede producir malformaciones congénitas a sus bebes. Los medicamentos consumidos por las gestantes estuvieron en categoría A y B de la clasificación de la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de EUA (FDA; principalmente, consumieron paracetamol (47,6% y amoxicilina (16,7%. Todas las mujeres que se automedicaron durante la gestación lo habían hecho antes de estar embarazadas. De acuerdo con estos resultados concluimos que la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes del estudio es baja, comparado con la literatura internacional.We aim to determine the prevalence of self prescribing behaviour during pregnancy and its characteristics. For this purpose, we designed a cross sectional study and interviewed 400 pregnant women who had their prenatal care at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima. We found that 10.5% of the patients (42 patients had a self prescribing behavior during pregnancy, 64.5% think that self prescribing behavior can produce congenital malformations. The medications used were classified as type A and B according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Paracetamol was used more frequently (47.6% followed by amoxicillin (16.7%. All the women who self-prescribed have had this behavior before pregnancy. According to these results, we conclude there is a low prevalence of self-prescribing behavior during pregnancy compared to the international literature.

  19. Medicine vendors: Self-medication practices and medicine knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicine vendors fill the gap created by inadequate skilled professionals required for medicine procurement, storage, and distribution in developing countries. Aim : To evaluate self-medication practice and medicine knowledge among medicine vendors and to determine if a relationship exists between both. Materials and Methods : A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted, using a pretested questionnaire on 236 medicine vendors in Jos, Nigeria, sampled through a two-stage stratified design. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16, and the chi-square test was used to determine the association between variables. Results : Self-medication was common (75.4% among respondents and was not associated (P>0.05 with any of the demographic characteristics studied. The classes of medicines commonly used by respondents for self-medication were analgesics (31.4%, anti-malarials (22.6%, multivitamins (17.7%, and antibiotics (11.25%. A knowledge assessment test revealed that only 34.3% of the respondents had adequate knowledge. There was no significant (P>0.05 relationship between self-medication practice and medicine knowledge, among the respondents. However, the medicine knowledge scores were significantly (P<0.05 associated with holding a certificate in health sciences, years of experience, and the place of practice of the medicine vendors. Conclusion : The present study demonstrated that self-medication practice was high and inadequate medicine knowledge existed among respondents.

  20. Pattern self-medication use of analgesics in Pune, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Jaiswal; Yogendra N. Keche; Radha Yegnanarayan; Giriraj Gajendra; Kshitija Chandanwale; Vinaya Lanke; Surabhi Jain; Aditi Dakua; Gourav Das; Aishwarya Bhat; Sailee Belvi; Anandita Desai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Objective of current study was to find out self-medication pattern and to study awareness of ADRs to analgesics self-medication. Methods: II MBBS students collected the information of names of analgesics self-medication, dose, frequency of administration, health related problem for use of self-medication, source of information for the use of self-medication and information about ADRs. Students also educated the population about ADRs to analgesics with the help of ADR checklist....

  1. Self medication practices among medical students of a private institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti A Kasulkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate various aspects of self-medication in medical students. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among 488 medical students selected by simple random sampling from January 2013 to June 2013. Data was collected and analyzed for counts and percentage. Students reported self-medication in the preceding one year was 71.7 % and the prevalence was more in final year students. Fever and headache were the most frequently reported illnesses, commonly used drugs were antipyretics and analgesics, obtained information through reading material, and reasons quoted were minor ailments and quick relief. Majority students agreed that medical knowledge is necessary for administration of medicine by self. Self-medication is highly prevalent in medical students, which is quite alarming.

  2. Self-medication for infants with colic in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya Kazeem A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a self-limiting condition that is distributed worldwide. It is often misdiagnosed as an organic disease for which an infant is admitted to the hospital. Many studies have described the aetiopathogenesis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of colic but none has evaluated self-medication for infants with colic. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the knowledge of Nigerian mothers about colic, their home-based management, extent of self-medication for the infants with colic and the types of medicines involved. Methods It is a prospective study conducted at the vaccination clinics of 20 primary health care centres, each from different Local Government Areas in Lagos, Nigeria. Eight hundred mothers that brought their infants for vaccination between April and September, 2006 were interviewed with open-and close-ended questionnaire. Results Six hundred and eighty three (85.4% mothers claimed they had a good knowledge of colic. Incessant and excessive cry was the main clinical feature of colic identified by 430(62.9% mothers. Three hundred and seventy eight (67.7% infants were treated by self-medication, 157 (28.1% sought medical intervention and 17 (3.1% were treated at a traditional birth attendant home. Herbal medicines constituted 51.8% of the self-medicated medicines, of which 48 (26.2% were "Ororo Ogiri". Nospamin® (49.5% and Gripe water® (43.0% were the two frequently prescribed and self-medicated medicines for infants with colic. Conclusion Nigerian mothers are deficient in their knowledge of colic. Self-medication was the most frequently used home-based intervention. Health education would appear necessary to improve parental management of this self-limiting condition.

  3. Self-medication in health students from two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delprina de G. Rocha de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self medication is a component of self care and it is considered as primary public health resource in health care system. It can be defined as use of non-prescription medicines by people on their own initiative. Dentists, together with doctors and veterinarians, comprise the professional classes that may and must prescribe medications for their patients. On the other hand, the nursing professionals are the ones who more administer drugs to patients in the ambulatory and hospital. Objective: This study was aimed to find out the frequency of self medication in selected university students, to find out the difference in the proportions of self medication between dentistry and nursing students, as well to evaluate the students’ knowledge of harmful effects of self medication and common problems of students that use the self medication. Material and methods: We were applied 209 questionnaires among dentistry students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Paulista University/Goiânia and 542 among nursing students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Estacio de Sa University of Goiás. Results and conclusion: In the present study was observed a high rate of self-medication among undergraduate students in the health area,particularly among the dentistry and nurse students. The result was alarming because the professional him/herself who should educate patients and dissuade them from this practice is a habitual user; it makes it more difficult to aspire to the future inhibition and reduction of this practice that is so harmful to health.

  4. THE CHALLENGE TO PREVENTION OF SELF-MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Mendes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is the practice of ingesting medicines on our own account and risk. This research aimed to identify the profile of the population treated in the public health network from a municipality in the northern state of Mato Grosso who had Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as well as their behavior in response to these diseases and the practice of self-medication. The samples were composed of 72 volunteers from the Family Health Strategy (FHS and 99 individuals of the Specialized Service of Sexual Transmitted Disease DST/AIDS. The results showed a high prevalence of self-medication among the population. The DST carriers have shown reluctance to seek health care due to embarrassment of exposing their sexuality, thus contributing to the acquisition of family medicine through sharing or surrounding or the use of leftover drugs and reusing old prescriptions. And Brazil takes the fifth position in the world ranking of drug consumption, ranking first in consumption in Latin America and the ninth in the world market in financial volume

  5. Self-Medication Practices among Parents in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Garofalo; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Italo F Angelillo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to document the prevalence, the determinants, and the reasons of oral medication use without the prescription of a physician among a random sample of 672 parents of students attending randomly selected public schools in Italy. A total of 69.2% practiced self-medication at least once. The odds of having performed a self-medication were higher in females, in younger population, and in those who have had a health problem in the preceding year and were...

  6. Self-Medication and Memory in an Elderly Canadian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Heather M.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated predictive value of three aspects of memory potentially related to success or failure in self-medication program. Results showed that combination of memory measures successfully discriminated between those subjects who advanced in program and those who did not. Results provide information that will aid in improving selection process…

  7. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    2004-01-01

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for interve

  8. Frequent Mental Distress, Chronic Conditions, and Adverse Health Behaviors in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Al-Nsour, MD, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidence indicates that chronic diseases and mental illness are associated. In the Middle Eastern country of Jordan, chronic diseases and frequent mental distress (FMD are increasing; however, the capacity for mental health care is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the association between FMD, chronic conditions, and adverse health behaviors in Jordan. Methods The third cycle of the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (2007 served as the data source for this study. The sample consisted of 3,612 noninstitutionalized Jordanian adults aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios for the association between chronic conditions, health behaviors, and FMD adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Results In the adjusted models, people with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.7, high cholesterol (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.2, diabetes (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4, and asthma (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.1 and smokers (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0 were more likely to have FMD than people without each of these conditions. Adults who reported vigorous physical activity were less likely to have FMD (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9 than their less active counterparts. Conclusions In Jordan, FMD was associated with several chronic conditions. As a result, we suggest additional research to examine the complex relationship between FMD and chronic conditions. More doctors in the primary health care system should be trained in mental health.

  9. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.

  10. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990155

  11. A Community Intervention to Decrease Antibiotics Used for Self-Medication Among Latino Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Carnemolla, Mark

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent evidence in Latino communities indicates substantial self-medication with antibiotics obtained without a prescription (WORx). We implemented and evaluated a culturally sensitive educational intervention to decrease antibiotic self-medication.

  12. Acknowledging the potential role of animal self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Cindy Reece

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Much research on animal health and welfare assumes that animals passively endure the pathogens, diet, and environmental conditions that come their way. Natural selection however has honed behavioural strategies for optimising health. Some of these involve the selection of ‘medicines’ to modulate health. Although it is not yet known to what extent domestic species retain the ability to self-medicate, it is vital that researc...

  13. Self-medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Naznin; Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional survey examined the pattern of self-medication and factors associated with this practice among medical and pharmacy students in context to Bangladesh. Methods The study used a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 500; 250 medical and 250 pharmacy, students participated in the study. As it is a comparative analysis between the medical and pharmacy students, we used independent t test and Chi square test. Results The findings indicated that the impact of s...

  14. Medicines in Pharmacy Students’ Residence and Self-medication Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, A; Banwat, SB; Sariem, CN; Shalkur, D; Nasara, B; Atuluku, MO

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the types of medicines in pharmacy students’ residence and to determine if a relationship exists between keeping medicines in students’ accommodation and self-medication practices. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 240 undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, was carried out. Participating students were given a self-administered questionnaire, and only 188 students returned their filled questionnaire. The data col...

  15. Self-medication in health students from two Brazilian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Delprina de G. Rocha de Carvalho; Felipe Eduardo Ferreira Valoz; Danilo Santos Carneiro; Patricia Freire Gasparetto; Vírginia Farias Alves; Cláudio Maranhão Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Self medication is a component of self care and it is considered as primary public health resource in health care system. It can be defined as use of non-prescription medicines by people on their own initiative. Dentists, together with doctors and veterinarians, comprise the professional classes that may and must prescribe medications for their patients. On the other hand, the nursing professionals are the ones who more administer drugs to patients in the ambulatory and hospital...

  16. A Comparative Study on the Reasons for Use and Non-Use of Self-Medication among Students of a Medical College in Western Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam B Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Self-medication is selection and use of non-prescription medicines by individuals' own initiatives to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The objective of study was to assess the reason for use and non-use of self-medication among first and second year undergraduate students of a Medical College in western Uttar Pradesh. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate students of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences (SRMS-IMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. First and second year medical students were included in the study after explaining to them the nature and purpose of study. Results: The study included 97 students in first year and 69 students in second year. Awareness of knowledge of treatment was the most common reason given for self-medication among both first year (45.0% and second year (46.9% students. The most common reason for not taking self-medication was risk of adverse effects among both first (45.4% and second year (33.4% students. Conclusion: The study emphasises that there is a need to create awareness by educational material designed to bring about correct decision making in relation to the practice of self-medication. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(1.000: 25-28

  17. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  18. Perceptions and Practices of Self-Medication among Medical Students in Coastal South India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Nithin; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; T Rekha; Mithra, Prasanna; Kulkarni, Vaman; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Holla, Ramesh; Uppal, Surabhi

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2%) than males (75.3%). The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too t...

  19. A STUDY OF SELF MEDICATION AMONG THE PEOPLE OF BHOPAL REGION MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvi Reetesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to gather information on extent of self medication practice. The outcome of the study will provide data regarding reasons, public awareness and safety aspects of self medication in Bhopal city. It was a questionnaire based survey which was conducted on adult male and female population in Bhopal region. On a personal interview session questions were asked to the participants and responses were noted. Questionnaire include the variables like conditions, reason, system of medicine used, type of medicine consumed and source of information etc of self medication. Self medication is practiced mostly by males (58.6% favoring the age group of 20-30 years. Out of 116 participants 56.8% said that they got information on self medication from chemist, 25% people got information by advertisements. Maximum participants (58.6% considered that they use self medication for quick relief, 23.2% said that they have lack of time to go to doctors due to their busy schedule. Very common medicine used for self medication is paracetamol which was preferred by 34.4% of the participants and 18.9% like to have Disprin. Self medication for headache (25.8%, fever (36.2 % and body pain (32.7% are most common. Self medication is very common among the young male with high prevalence rate. Literacy and the economy are the major factors of self medication in the peoples. Although generally people have knowledge, but more awareness on self medication is needed.

  20. Child Development in the Context of Adversity: Experiential Canalization of Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of poverty-related adversity on child development, drawing upon psychobiological principles of experiential canalization and the biological embedding of experience. They integrate findings from research on stress physiology, neurocognitive function, and self-regulation to consider adaptive processes in response to…

  1. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of ...

  2. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention: Role of Adverse Life Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Jefferis, Eric; Kavadas, Angela; Alemagno, Sonia A; Shaffer-King, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family) on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. Materials and Methods The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting an...

  3. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrancesAChampagne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (B6 and Balb/c and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to maternal separation. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of maternal separation in early adolescent offspring on measures on open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally-separated B6 females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/c offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated B6 males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later life

  4. Prevalence of self-medication practices and its associated factors in Urban Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Self medication is an important concern for health authorities at global level. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self medication for allopathic drugs and associated factors among households of urban community. This study was also aimed at assessing the attitude of respondents who had experienced self-medication. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in field practice area attached to a medical institution in urban Puducherry. A total of 352 subjects from 124 households were selected by random sampling. With pretested interview schedule, information regarding self-medication use in the past three months and associated sociodemographic factors, purpose, source of drug procurement, attitude toward self-medication use were collected. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was found to be 11.9%. Males, age >40 years and involving in moderate level activity of occupation, were found to be significantly associated with higher self-medication usage (P < 0.05. Fever (31%, headache (19%, and abdominal pain (16.7% are most common illnesses where self-medication is being used. Telling the symptoms to pharmacist (38.1% was the commonest method adopted to procure drugs by the users. Majority of the self-medication users expressed that self-medication is harmless (66.6% and they are going to use (90% and advice others also (73.8% to use self-medication drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication is an important health issue in this area. Health education of the public and regulation of pharmacies may help in limiting the self-medication practices.

  5. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB. PMID:26980120

  7. Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and complementary medications in South Australia's elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterman Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of surveys have examined use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM in Australia. However, there are limited Australian data on use of CAM and over-the-counter (OTC medicines in the elderly population. The main aims of this study were to examine self-medication practices with CAM and OTC medicines among older Australians and variables associated with their use. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA is an ongoing multidisciplinary prospective study of the older population which commenced in 1992 in South Australia. Data collected in 4 waves of ALSA between 1992 and 2004 were used in this study with a baseline sample of 2087 adults aged 65 years and over, living in the community or residential aged care. OTC medicines were classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification. CAM were classified according a modified version of the classification adopted by the Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA in Australia. Results The prevalence of CAM or OTC use ranged from 17.7% in 2000-2001 to 35.5% in 2003-2004. The top classes of CAM and OTC medicines used remained relatively constant over the study period. The most frequent classes of CAM used were vitamins and minerals, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements while the most commonly used OTC were analgesics, laxatives and low dose aspirin. Females and those of younger age were more likely to be CAM users but no variable was associated with OTC use. Conclusion Participants seemed to self-medicate in accordance with approved indications, suggesting they were informed consumers, actively looking after their own health. However, use of analgesics and aspirin are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events in the elderly. Future work should examine how self-medication contributes to polypharmacy and increases the risk of adverse drug reactions.

  8. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  9. Prevalence of Self-Medication Among the Elderly in Kermanshah-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Faranak; Khatony, Alireza; Rahmani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Self-medication is consumption of one or several medications without the physician’s prescription. Given the risks of self-medication, this study was carried out to assess the prevalence of self-medication and its related factors among the elderly in Kermanshah-Iran Method: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 272 elderly visiting the private offices in Kermanshah were selected through convenience sampling method. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made se...

  10. Self medication: a potentially avoidable cause of antibiotic misuse and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Anant D Patil

    2013-01-01

    I read the article by Chawla S et al on buying patterns of drugs from pharmacies in Northern India with interest. Overall self medication was reported by close to one third (35.7%) study population. The results prompted me to write about burden of antibiotic self medication and measures to tackle this serious issue. Self medication with antibiotics is concern not only in India; several studies from different parts of world have shown antibiotics being misused and commonly consumed without pre...

  11. Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...

  12. Self-medication in university students from the city of Rio Grande, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa da Silva Marília; Soares Maria Cristina; Muccillo-Baisch Ana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication is the use of medication without prescription, orientation, or supervision of a physician or dentist. Self-medication might become a serious health problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication among first and last-year students enrolled in healthcare and non-healthcare programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), state of Rio Grande do S...

  13. Prevalence of self-medication practices and its associated factors in Urban Puducherry, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj; Ganesh Kumar S; Archana Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Self medication is an important concern for health authorities at global level. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self medication for allopathic drugs and associated factors among households of urban community. This study was also aimed at assessing the attitude of respondents who had experienced self-medication. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in field practice area attached to a medical institution in urban Puducherry. A tot...

  14. Prevalence and Pattern of Self-medication Practices in Urban area of Southern Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general po...

  15. Prevalence of self-medication for skin diseases: a systematic review *

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa-Fissmer, Mariane; Mendonça, Mariana Gaspar; Martins, Anesio Henrique; Galato, Dayani

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is the selection and use of drugs without medical prescription, to treat diseases or for symptomatic relief. This article is a systematic review on self-medication in skin diseases. A search was conducted on Virtual Health Library and PubMed databases using predetermined descriptors. Two researchers performed the article selection process independently, with the degree of inter-observer agreement measured by the kappa index. The prevalence of self-medication ranged from 6.0 to...

  16. Prevalence of Self-Medication Among the Elderly in Kermanshah-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faranak Jafari; Alireza Khatony; Elham Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-medication is consumption of one or several medications without the physician’s prescription. Given the risks of self-medication, this study was carried out to assess the prevalence of self-medication and its related factors among the elderly in Kermanshah-Iran METHOD: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 272 elderly visiting the private offices in Kermanshah were selected through convenience sampling method. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made se...

  17. Self-medication among students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Health Belief Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of self-medication is high all over the world, especially in Iran. But there is a paucity of studies to explore self-medication activities among the university students. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the self-medication among student in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences ...

  18. Evaluation of Self-medication among Urban Population of Paldi area, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shah, Vaibhav Ramanuj, D V Bala

    2015-01-01

    Results: Out of the 156 respondents, 52 (33.4% were males and 104 (66.6% were females; the mean age of respondents was 35.8 years. Ninety five percent of respondents reported practicing self-medication. About one third of respondents had good knowledge about medication but did not posses high self-care orientation. Most of self medication was involved with headache and fever, cough/ cold and gastrointestinal infection. Conclusion: This study shows that the majority of respondents had some knowledge about appropriate self-medication; the practice of self-medication was common, but often inappropriate."

  19. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  20. Evaluation of ethyl acetate on three dimensions: investigation of behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbeck, Stefan; Juran, Stephanie A; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Brüning, Thomas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-11-10

    A variety of national occupational exposure limits for ethyl acetate exist based on different studies, mostly relying on subjective evaluations of ethyl acetate as an irritant. Only one study also used physiological methods with inconsistent results in subjective and objective data. The present study was designed to investigate ethyl acetate on three different dimensions: behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects were investigated during acute exposures to different concentrations of ethyl acetate. Twenty-four subjects were challenged with ethyl acetate in three exposure patterns (2 ppm, 400 ppm, 400 ppm including peaks of 800 ppm). While the odor intensity is rated "strong", trigeminal perceptions were rated less than "moderate". The absence of substantial trigeminal ratings was supported by physiological data. There was neither an effect of concentration on blinking frequency nor on nasal resistance which both are indicators of irritation. Furthermore, there are no effects of ethyl acetate concentration on behavioral measures indicating no olfactory or trigeminally mediated disturbance of cognitive processing. In conclusion, the results of this multilevel approach revealed no adverse chemosensory effects at ethyl acetate concentrations as recommended by the German MAK-value. PMID:18812215

  1. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike eAugsburger; Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis; Manassé eBambonye; Thomas eElbert; Anselm eCrombach

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  2. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  3. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. PMID:27262606

  4. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  5. Self-medication with oral contraceptives in the Urban District of Antananarivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio El-C Rakotonirina

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the evidence of a high prevalence of self-medication in the UDA. Self-medication can be harmful: the fight against its risks should get reinforced. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 26-30

  6. Prevalence and Pattern of Self-medication Practices in Urban area of Southern Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general population in urban field practice area of Department of community medicine, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan from May 2015 to August 2015. Individuals aged 18 years and above were included as study participants using Simple random method of sampling. Results: Out of total 440 study participants, 324 (73.6% had used self-medication within last three months recall period. The practice of self-medication was more common among younger age groups, male gender and higher levels of education. Paracetamol (73.77% and other analgesics (41.98% were most commonly used drugs. Most common symptoms warranting self-medication were fever (75.31% and headache (62.04%. Conclusion: Rising prevalence of self-medication is a matter of serious concern. IEC activities should be strengthened among general population to minimize the practice of self-medication.

  7. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    2005-01-01

    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with antibioti

  8. Is self-medication with antibiotics in Europe driven by prescribed use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Monnet, Dominique L.; Di Matteo, Antonella; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Bara, Ana-Claudia; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Birkin, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of inappropriate use and the selection of resistant bacteria. One of the triggers for using self-medication may be past experience with antibiotics prescribed by health professionals. We examined the association between prescribed us

  9. Associations between self-medication, health literacy, and self-perceived health status: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication.

  10. Pattern self-medication use of analgesics in Pune, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jaiswal

    2014-06-01

    Methods: II MBBS students collected the information of names of analgesics self-medication, dose, frequency of administration, health related problem for use of self-medication, source of information for the use of self-medication and information about ADRs. Students also educated the population about ADRs to analgesics with the help of ADR checklist. Results: Paracetamol was most commonly taken as self-medication and 39% persons reported ADRs with paracetamol. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol and aspirin were taken less than WHO DDD for joint pain. 79% study population was ignorant about ADRs to analgesics. Headache (37% was common health related problem for self-medication of analgesics. Conclusion: Information about problems with repeated use of analgesics like liver damage, analgesic nephropathy, gastric ulceration/bleeding should be provided by pharmacists either orally or with the help of leaflets or display board. Headache is common health related problem for the use of analgesics as self-medication. Pharmacists should take help of assistance tool to diagnosis headache like screener for migraine and guidelines for chronic headache for timely visit of self-medicating person to physician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1092-1096

  11. Prevalence and Cause of Self-Medication in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Article

    OpenAIRE

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Mohseni, Mohammad; Etemadi, Manal; ROYANI, Sanaz; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; Majid NAKHAEE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays self-medication is one of the most common public health issues in many countries, as well as in Iran. According to need to epidemiological information about self-medication, the aim of this study was to systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and cause of self-medication in community setting of Iran.Methods: Required data were collected searching following key words: medication, self-medication, over-the-counter, non-prescription, prevalence, epidemiology, etiol...

  12. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Kamran; Gholamreza Sharifirad; Yousef Shafaeei; Siamak Mohebi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in...

  13. Impact of media: self-medication and the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali M. Mahajan

    2014-10-01

    Self-medication involves the use of medicinal products by the patient to treat self-recognized disorders, symptoms, recurrent diseases, or minor health problems. Medicines for self-medication are often called over the counter (OTC drugs, which are available without a doctor's prescription through pharmacies, mostly in the developing countries. Self-medication particularly with antibiotics has been widely reported, leading the World Health Organization to call attention to its dangers as a cause of antimicrobial resistance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 921-922

  14. 21 CFR 250.12 - Stramonium preparations labeled with directions for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. 250.12 Section 250.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... for use in self-medication regarded as misbranded. (a) Stramonium products for inhalation have been... ingredients, will be regarded as misbranded if they are labeled with directions for use in self-medication....

  15. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  16. An online exploratory study of self medication among pharmacy graduates in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pahuja Ritu; Singh Himmat; Rohit Manisha; Gupta Gaurav; Bhasin Priya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this online exploratory study was to describe and evaluate the self medication practices, reasons behind self medication, use of antibiotics without prescription among pharmacy graduates in India using internet as a tool for data collection. The emails were sent with study questionnaire to about 342 pharmacy graduates. The results were based on feedbacks which were provided by respondents who mailed back the completed study questionnaire. 85% of the responders were pharmacy postgra...

  17. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  18. Self-Medication Practice among Amateur Runners: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Médéa Locquet, Charlotte Beaudart, Robert Larbuisson, Fanny Buckinx, Jean-François Kaux, Jean-Yves Reginster, Olivier Bruyère

    2016-01-01

    The term “self-medication” involves consumption, without any physician’s advice, of over-the-counter drugs but also of formerly prescribed drugs. Amateur athletes could resort frequently to self-medication for different reasons. Indeed, they may use self-medication products because they are regularly exposed to pain, tiredness, injuries and difficulties with recovery. Sometimes, they can also deliberately use medications in order to enhance their physical performance (Conrad et al., 2004). In...

  19. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, I.; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the ...

  20. Impact of media: self-medication and the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Manali M Mahajan; Sujata Dudhgaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents (AMAs) are one of the most commonly used as well as misused drugs. Antimicrobial resistance is an important growing global health issue which needs urgent addressal. Self-medication involves the use of medicinal products by the patient to treat self-recognized disorders, symptoms, recurrent diseases, or minor health problems. Medicines for self-medication are often called over the counter (OTC) drugs, which are available without a doctor's prescription through pharmaci...

  1. Self-Medication Practices among a Sample of Latino Migrant Workers in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although the literature on self-medication among Latino migrant workers (LMWs) is sparse, a few existing studies indicate that this practice is common in this community. The purpose of this paper is to estimate health status, access to health care, and patterns of self-medication practices of a cohort of LMWs in South Florida. Methods: A stratified network-based sample was utilized to recruit 278 LMWs in the Homestead area. After screening for eligibility, participants were a...

  2. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; George T. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly...

  3. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Dipan Uppal; Monika Agarwal; Vandana Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is widely practiced both in developed and developing countries. Self-medication has certain advantages as it is convenient, economical, and medical resources are not wasted for minor illnesses. However, there are disadvantages as the disease recognized may not be correct, there is delay in meeting a health care worker, the side-effects of the medication are not known, inappropriate usage of antibiotics leading to drug resistance, taking the same drug with different...

  4. Drug Utilization in Self Medication Practice among Students of University of Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Azizah; Lubis FRW; Rosidah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-medication practice to release symptoms and treat illness sometimes can be misused because lack of knowledge about drugs. Objectives: This study aimed was to characterize the drug utilization and analyze the level of self medication error among students from 14 faculties in University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Indonesia. Methods: This study applied survey techniques by distributing a predetermined and validated questionnaire to the students (n = 384). Data obtained were desc...

  5. A STUDY OF SELF MEDICATION AMONG THE PEOPLE OF BHOPAL REGION MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malvi Reetesh; Bigoniya Papiya; Jain Sonam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to gather information on extent of self medication practice. The outcome of the study will provide data regarding reasons, public awareness and safety aspects of self medication in Bhopal city. It was a questionnaire based survey which was conducted on adult male and female population in Bhopal region. On a personal interview session questions were asked to the participants and responses were noted. Questionnaire include the variables like conditions, reason, system of med...

  6. Practice of Self Medication Among Urban Households –A Community Based Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harini Singara Chari, Deepti M Kadeangadi, M D Mallapur

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Medication today is rapidly becoming an everyday need for many individuals. Self- medication has contributed to the increase in proportion of individuals taking different drugs during the last decades. Reckless use of medicines poses a threat for both individual health and society. In India, prevalence was estimated to be 31% but there is a wide variation within the country. The aim of this study was to know the practice of self-medication among households of an urban area...

  7. Self-Medication Practices among College Students: A Cross Sectional Study in Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Mansi M Patel; Udayshankar Singh; Chinmaye Sapre; Kesha Salvi; Anuj Shah; Bhavik Vasoya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-medication is defined as the use of medication for self-treatment without advice of physician either for diagnosis, prescription or surveillance of treatment. Self medication increases the chances of illicit use of drug and drug dependency and most of all masking the sign and symptoms of underlying disease hence are complicating the problem, creating drug resistance and delaying diagnosis. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done among total 100 3rd semester en...

  8. Knowledge, expectations and self medication in the adult population in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena; Pavleski, Aleksandar; Atanasova, Marija; Kostik, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Self-medication i.e using of medications without doctor's prescription becomes a problem, most of all because the patients are not informed for the possible consequences from the willfully taking of medications, as interactions medicine – medicine and increased risk from the appearance of harmful effects from the medicines taken in doses bigger than usual wherein appears potential abuse of the medicines. Self-medication allows quick access to the medicines because of their permanent and wide ...

  9. A Qualitative Study about Self-Medication in the Community among Market Venders in Fuzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yi; Lieber, Eli; Wan, Dai; Hong, Yuanhao

    2011-01-01

    Despite government efforts to increase health care insurance and access in China, many individuals, regardless of insurance status, continue to engage in high levels of self-medication. To understand the factors influencing common self-medication behaviour in a community of food market venders in Fuzhou China, a total of 30 market venders were randomly recruited from six food markets in 2007. In-depth interviews were conducted with each participant at their market stalls by trained interviewe...

  10. Self-medication practices among a sample of Latino migrant workers in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus eSanchez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although the literature on self-medication among Latino migrant workers (LMWs) is sparse, a few existing studies indicate that this practice is common in this community. The purpose of this paper is to estimate health status, access to health care, and patterns of self-medication practices of a cohort of LMWs in South Florida.Methods: A stratified network-based sample was utilized to recruit 278 LMWs in the Homestead area. After screening for eligibility, participants were ad...

  11. Self medication practice among undergraduate pharmacy students in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nirajan Bhattarai; Deepak Basyal; Nirjala Bhattarai

    2014-01-01

    Background Self medication is practice by a pharmacist or lay person to treat minor health problem or symptoms without prescription. The study was conducted to evaluate the medication pattern, behaviour, practice and attitude among undergraduate pharmacy students on self medication. Methods Descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among 175 pharmacy undergraduates in different institutions within Kathmandu valley, Nepal using prevalidated, five sectional and structu...

  12. The self-medication in elderly people and the role of health professionals and nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Nogueira Valença, Raimunda Medeiros Germano, Rejane Maria Paiva de Menezes

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the complex theme of self-medication in the elderly people and the role of health professionals and nursing. Methodology: this is a theoretical essay based on a literature review of the narrative type. It was selected articles indexed in databases Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Database of Nursing (BDENF), from 2003 to 2009, using as descriptors: self-medication, nursing and elderly people. It was also used books and manuals of the ministry of heal...

  13. Study of Causes of Self-Medication among Hamadan Province Pharmacies Visitors

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zinat Motlagh; Moghimbeigi, A; A. Vahidinia; S.M.M. Hazavehei; F Jalilian; M. Mirzaei Alavijeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: In the last decade, indiscriminate self medication has increased in our country that can lead to many complications. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of self-medication among Hamadan province pharmacies visitors. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 Hamadanprovince pharmacies visitors in the spring and summer of 2012. Sampling was conducted by classifi-cation with proportional assignment between pharmacies in differ...

  14. Parents' knowledge and attitude to self-medication of children with antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif; Bara'ah E. M. Masalmeh; Hoda M. A. Awad; Ala Osama; Yousra A. A. Abdulmqasood; Laila M. T. Bugaighis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in children. Materials and Methods: This study was based on a prevalidated questionnaire distributed to 205 families in the United Arab Emirates, during the period of January-October 2014, on self-medication of their children with antibiotics. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel® and expressed in terms of both counts and percentages. Results: The response rate was 92.7...

  15. Prevalence of Self Medication in an Urban Slum Area in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha Susan Vargese; Durgawale PM; Philip Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self medication is defined asmedication taken on the patients own initiativeor on the advice of pharmacist or any other layperson. It is one of the leading causes for theever threatening drug resistance for variousantimicrobials. Objective: To assess the preva-lence of self medication in an urban slum inwestern Maharashtra. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all thefamilies registered under the urban health train-ing centre. Data was collected from the headof...

  16. Self-medication in academics of a public university in the south of Minas Gerais.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Martiniano MONTANARI; Walneia Aparecida de SOUZA; Daniela Oliveira VILELA; Fernando Sousa ARAÚJO; Márcia Helena Miranda Cardoso PODESTÁ; Eric Batista FERREIRA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Self-medication is a common practice anywhere in the world and the study of drug use is recognized as an important indicator in identifying the major pathologies in specific populations, estimating the prevalence and enabling better understanding on how populations use therapeutic resources. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of self-medication among students of a public university in southern Minas Gerais and verify if the healthcare academics be...

  17. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shadi Sarahroodi; Ali Maleki-Jamshid; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Peyman Mikaili; Leila Safaeian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The t...

  18. Evaluation of Self Medication Amongst Nursing Students of Bastar Region: A Questionnaire Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Sajid Ali; Sanat Sharma; Ahmed Tabish; Raj Sharma; Mahendra Jaiswal; Ravindra Chaurasia

    2015-01-01

     Self-medication provides low cost alternative for expensive medical management but inappropriate use can cause problems. For Nursing undergraduates such practice has special significance since they have medical knowledge but very superficial and also its application is limited.  Hence the present study was planned to evaluate the status of students studying in different years of B.Sc. Nursing.To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication amongst the students of Gover...

  19. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  20. Prior Knowledge, Older Age, and Higher Allowance Are Risk Factors for Self-Medication with Antibiotics among University Students in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hui; Cui, Binglin; Zhang, Dangui; Farrar, Jeremy; Law, Frieda; Ba-Thein, William

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) has been reported among university students in many countries, but little research has been done on this issue in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and behaviors of university students and risk factors concerning SMA. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a novel questionnaire-based data collection instrument, an anonymous online survey was conducted with the students of Shantou University (STU), a university comprisi...

  1. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information

  2. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Al Flaiti; Khaloud Al Badi; Wefaq Othman Hakami; Shah Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the practices of university students towards self-medication to treat minor ailments inMuscat andSohar region ofSultanate ofOman.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted inOctober2013-January2014.A total of450 university students were randomly selected and their verbal consent was obtained.The data were collected through the self-administered, close ended, pretested questionnaire and was analyzed statistically bySPSS version19.0.Results:Overall204 males(45.3%) and246 females(56.7%) participated in the study.The mean age of respondents was22.3 years.Ninety-four percent of respondents reported practicing self-medication and165(36.7%) participants admitted of having purchased drugs without prescription more than four times over the last six months.Headache, fever, cough and cold were the most common ailments which prompted respondents to seek self-medication. Analgesics, cough preparations and antibiotics were the most common classes of drugs used in self-medication.The majority of respondents practiced self-medication either because their illness was not serious or they had prior experience with the drug.The majority of respondents had good medicationknowledge which they reported to acquire from reading drug leaflet or from pharmacists’ advice.Conclusion:The prevalence of self-medication among university students was very high.There is a need for intensive education and comprehensive awareness campaign to advocate for reduction in the prevalence of self-medication practices among students.

  3. Prevalence, pattern and perceptions of self-medication in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushi N. Pandya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of self-medication is highly prevalent in the community more so amongst the medical students. Self-medication can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medication among medical students from first year to internship. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among under graduate medical students including interns of Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad during the period of March 2010 to May 2010. Results: Out of 747 students and interns enrolled, 685 responded (91.7%. Out of 685 respondents 564 (82.3% reported self-medication within one year of recall period. Most common conditions/symptoms for self-medication in students were fever (72.7%, headache (69.1%, upper respiratory tract infections (64.1% followed by others like body-ache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea etc. Over the counter drugs (84.2% was the most common category of drugs used by all the students except first year students who used prescription only drugs more frequently (48.5%. Herbal and Ayurvedic drugs were also used as self-medication (17.8%; most frequently by the first year students (22.7%. Conclusion: The pattern of self-medication practice changes with time and advancement of knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 275-280

  4. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 354 male students with an average age of 21.95 (SD ± 3.43 participated in this study. Our study showed that self-medication among male students was high (86.6% compared to results shown in other studies in the same region. Headache (59.9%, cough/cold (41% and fever (24.6% were the most common symptoms associated with self-medication. Congruent with the medical conditions reported, the most widely used medications without prescriptions were paracetamol (34.7%, followed by antibiotics (31.4% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28.7%. Our study shows that antibiotics were sometimes irrationally used for self-treatment of cough and fever. Self-medication was highly frequent among the students. Influence of TV advertisements, high accessibility of pharmacies and convenience stores, as well as good buying power were found to be leading factors for self-medication among male university students.

  5. Self-medication among medical student in King Abdul-Aziz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooataz Mohammed Aashi

    2016-03-01

    Results: Paracetamol were the most frequently 117 (23.1% drug uses by medical students, followed by antihistaminic 48 (9.5%, antibiotic 33 (6.5%, NSAIDS 22 (4.3%, anti- anxiety 7 (1.4% and opioid 4 (0.8%. Most of them were self-medication (74%. Relief fever was the most common cause for seeking self-medication reported by medical student 103 (20.4%, most frequent side effects was nausea and vomiting 47 (9.3% Conclusions: There is an increase of self-medication in medical students of KAU especially paracetamol and NSAIDs use. We suggest increasing studies on the local irrational use of medications and increasing awareness on the importance of prescribed medications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 942-946

  6. Self-medication with analgesics among medical students and interns in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Alamoudi, Banan Mohammad; Baamer, Wejdan Omar; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication with analgesics among senior medical students and interns in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 504 participants in 2013. A multistage stratified random sampling was used. A confidential, anonymous & self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal & socio-demographic data. Data about self-medication and self-medication with analgesics ...

  7. Self-medication among undergraduate medical students in Kuwait with reference to the role of the pharmacist

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hussaini, Maryam; Mustafa, Seham; Ali, Seham

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The practice of self-medication is growing world-wide. It is associated with problems that may lead to potentially life-threatening complications represent a priority to be investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate medical students and to evaluate the possible role of the pharmacist in self-medication in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, using the questionnaire on a sample of 900 male ...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial self medication usage: a cross sectional study among medical and nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Bala; Harminder Singh; Kamlpreet Kaur; Girish P.; Kamlesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial drug resistance is a fast mounting universal crisis. Many factors like self medication, inappropriate use and unregulated sale of medicines and self medication have been attributed to this problem. The objective was to determine extend and causes of antimicrobial self medication and to compare the knowledge attitude of senior and junior medical/nursing students. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on randomly selected 410 students from Baba Farid University...

  9. Prevalence and Cause of Self-Medication in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber AZAMI-AGHDASH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays self-medication is one of the most common public health issues in many countries, as well as in Iran. According to need to epidemiological information about self-medication, the aim of this study was to systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and cause of self-medication in community setting of Iran.Methods: Required data were collected searching following key words: medication, self-medication, over-the-counter, non-prescription, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, occurrence and Iran in Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Magiran, SID and IranMedex (from 2000 to 2015. To estimate the overall self-medication prevalence, computer software CMA: 2 applied. In order to report the results, forest plot was employed.Results: Out of 1256 articles, 25 articles entered to study. The overall prevalence of self-medication based on the random effect model was estimated to be 53% (95% CI, lowest= 42%, highest=67%. The prevalence of self-medication in students was 67% (95% CI, lowest=55%, highest=81%, in the household 36% (95% CI, lowest=17%, highest= 77% and in the elderly people 68% (95% CI, lowest=54%, highest=84%.The most important cause of self-medication was mild symptoms of disease. The most important group of disease in which patients self-medicated was respiratory diseases and the most important group of medication was analgesics.Conclusion: The results show a relatively higher prevalence of self-medication among the Iranian community setting as compared to other countries. Raising public awareness, culture building and control of physicians and pharmacies’ performance can have beneficial effects in reduce of prevalence of self-medication. Keywords: Self-medication, Prevalence, Cause, Community setting, Iran

  10. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  11. A Cross Sectional Study of Sex Differences in Self-Medication Practices among University Students in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Hladnik, Žiga; Kersnik, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Self-medication patterns in adults depend on sex. Self-medication among students is very common, but little is known about the influence of sex. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of self-medication college students and to determine the effect of sex on self-medication patterns. A web based incidence study conducted on a sample of Slovenian university students. The main outcome measures were percentages of male and female students reporting the use of self-medicat...

  12. Self-medication of a cannabinoid CB2 agonist in an animal model of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Tannia; Crystal, Jonathon D.; Zvonok, Alexander M.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    Drug self-administration methods were used to test the hypothesis that rats would self-medicate with a cannabinoid CB2 agonist to attenuate a neuropathic pain state. Self-medication of the CB2 agonist (R,S)-AM1241, but not vehicle, attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity produced by spared nerve injury. Switching rats from (R,S)-AM1241 to vehicle self-administration also decreased lever responding in an extinction paradigm. (R,S)-AM1241 self-administration did not alter paw withdrawal threshol...

  13. Self medicated antibiotics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in the Rajshahi City

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mohitosh; Roy, Manobendro Nath; Manik, Md Imran Nur; Hossain, Md Shahid; Tapu, SM Tafsirul Alam; Moniruzzaman, Md; Sultana, Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic self medication is highly prevalent in the developing countries due to easy availability and poor regulatory controls for selling these drugs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of various diseases by the peoples of Rajshahi city in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to the patient’s (n = 1300) at eight locations of Rajshahi city in Bangladesh from March to April, 2014. Th...

  14. Parent induced self-medication among under five children: an observational cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Nazir; Kanu Goel; Anshu Mittal; Jagjeet Singh; Goel RKD; Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication is a common problem seen in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of parents and #8217; use of drugs among children under 5 years of age, and to understand factors influencing self-medication. METHODS: This was an observational cross sectional study conducted in the field practice area of a rural medical college in India over a period of four months from June 2012 to October 2012 and involved 717 respondents. The study population in...

  15. Self-medication for the control of dental pain: what are our patients taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preshaw, P M; Meechan, J G; Dodd, M D

    1994-09-01

    As all dental practitioners are aware, patients suffering from dental pain often self-medicate with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics in order to alleviate their symptoms: indeed, some patients seem to view the use of these drugs as a means of avoiding the need for dental attendance altogether. The use (and abuse) of such medication is entirely under the control of the patient. The study reported in this article shows which commonly available analgesics are chosen by patients and how effective they are considered to be. The authors also assess the overall pattern of analgesic self-medication, and discuss the problem of over-consumption. PMID:7875365

  16. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  17. Parent induced self-medication among under five children: an observational cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nazir

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study identifies the problem of self-medication in the under-five children and highlights the need for urgent educational measures for general public and drug dispensers in particular, to improve their knowledge and practices related to self-treatment of minor ailments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 81-86

  18. The self-medication in elderly people and the role of health professionals and nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Nogueira Valença, Raimunda Medeiros Germano, Rejane Maria Paiva de Menezes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the complex theme of self-medication in the elderly people and the role of health professionals and nursing. Methodology: this is a theoretical essay based on a literature review of the narrative type. It was selected articles indexed in databases Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and the Database of Nursing (BDENF, from 2003 to 2009, using as descriptors: self-medication, nursing and elderly people. It was also used books and manuals of the ministry of health. From the reading and qualitative synthesis of abstracts, were set up two axes of analysis and reflection: Aging and self: views on the issue and Medication in the elderly people: the role of health professionals and nursing. Results: the elderly people are the age group that uses more drugs. Self-medication is a practice that can generate serious health risks such as intoxication. The qualified professional should guide the public about the medicine to lessen the risk and effectively as possible. Conclusion: it was conclude that the use of knowledge of health professionals and nurses to help to reduce the risks associated with self-medication and problems related to use of medicines, contributing to the improvement of quality of life of older people.

  19. Self-medication in academics of a public university in the south of Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martiniano MONTANARI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is a common practice anywhere in the world and the study of drug use is recognized as an important indicator in identifying the major pathologies in specific populations, estimating the prevalence and enabling better understanding on how populations use therapeutic resources. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of self-medication among students of a public university in southern Minas Gerais and verify if the healthcare academics behave differently from the ones of humanities area. To this end, we performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 200 students, with 100 in the area of ​​Health Science (group 1 and 100 of the area of Humanities (group 2. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 96.9 % among students in group 1 and 82.6 % in group 2 (p = 0.002. The most commonly used classes of drugs were analgesics/antipyretics. The main responsible for the indication of the drug in group 1 was the pharmacist; and in group 2 relatives and friends (p = 0.002 Conclusion: The self-medication proved to be a frequent practice among academics, demonstrating the need to devise strategies to sensitize the academic community regarding this practice.

  20. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  1. The Association between Observed Parental Emotion Socialization and Adolescent Self-Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence of observed parental emotion socialization (PES) on self-medication in adolescents. Strengths of the study include the use of a newly developed observational coding system further extending the study of PES to adolescence, the use of an experience sampling method to assess the daily covariation…

  2. The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantzian, E J

    1997-01-01

    The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders derives primarily from clinical observations of patients with substance use disorders. Individuals discover that the specific actions or effects of each class of drugs relieve or change a range of painful affect states. Self-medication factors occur in a context of self-regulation vulnerabilities--primarily difficulties in regulating affects, self-esteem, relationships, and self-care. Persons with substance use disorders suffer in the extreme with their feelings, either being overwhelmed with painful affects or seeming not to feel their emotions at all. Substances of abuse help such individuals to relieve painful affects or to experience or control emotions when they are absent or confusing. Diagnostic studies provide evidence that variously supports and fails to support a self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders. The cause-consequence controversy involving psychopathology and substance use/abuse is reviewed and critiqued. In contrast, clinical observations and empirical studies that focus on painful affects and subjective states of distress more consistently suggest that such states of suffering are important psychological determinants in using, becoming dependent upon, and relapsing to addictive substances. Subjective states of distress and suffering involved in motives to self-medicate with substances of abuse are considered with respect to nicotine dependence and to schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with a substance use disorder. PMID:9385000

  3. Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in Europe : the impact of beliefs, country wealth and the healthcare system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-medication with antibiotics occurs among the population in Europe, particularly in southern and eastern countries. We studied the impact of predisposing factors (e.g. attitudes and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication) and enabling factors (country wealth and heal

  4. Awareness of adverse drug reactions in third M.B.B.S students practicing self-medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas R. Burute

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Considering the wide range of drugs consumed, the numbers of ADRs mentioned were few and their spectrum limited indicating scope for improvement. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 196-201

  5. A cross sectional study on the prescribing pattern, self medication and adverse reactions associated with topical corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venepalli N. Teja

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In this study we observed the rationale and safe prescribing pattern. However, the corticosteroids prescribed by brand names (75.93% were more than generic names (24.07%, information about the strength of the steroid not mentioned and usage of emollients was less. This indicates the need for continuous medical education for the clinicians. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 429-433

  6. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Buades-Rotger M; Gallardo-Pujol D

    2014-01-01

    Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some...

  7. Further evidence of self-medication: personality factors influencing drug choice in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lindsey Colman; Nash, Michael R; Gottdiener, William H; Anderson, Scott E; Lambert, Warren E; Carr, Erika R

    2015-06-01

    According to Khantzian's (2003) self-medication hypothesis (SMH), substance dependence is a compensatory means to modulate affects and self-soothe in response to distressing psychological states. Khantzian asserts: (1) Drugs become addicting because they have the power to alleviate, remove, or change human psychological suffering, and (2) There is a considerable degree of specificity in a person's choice of drugs because of unique psychological and physiological effects. The SMH has received criticism for its variable empirical support, particularly in terms of the drug-specificity aspect of Khantzian's hypothesis. We posit that previous empirical examinations of the SMH have been compromised by methodological limitations. Also, more recent findings supporting the SMH have yet to be replicated. Addressing previous limitations to the research, this project tested this theory in a treatment sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (N = 304), using more heterogeneous, personality-driven measures that are theory-congruent. Using an algorithm based on medical records, individuals were reliably classified as being addicted to a depressant, stimulant, or opiate by two independent raters. Theory-based a priori predictions were that the three groups would exhibit differences in personality characteristics and emotional-regulation strategies. Specifically, our hypotheses entailed that when compared against each other: (1) Individuals with a central nervous system (CNS) depressant as drug of choice (DOC) will exhibit defenses of repression, over-controlling anger, and emotional inhibition to avoid acknowledging their depression; (2) Individuals with an opiate as DOC will exhibit higher levels of aggression, hostility, depression, and trauma, greater deficits in ego functioning, and externalizing/antisocial behavior connected to their use; and (3) Individuals with a stimulant as DOC will experience anhedonia, paranoia, have a propensity to mania, and

  8. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  9. Self-medication of a cannabinoid CB2 agonist in an animal model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Tannia; Crystal, Jonathon D; Zvonok, Alexander M; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2011-09-01

    Drug self-administration methods were used to test the hypothesis that rats would self-medicate with a cannabinoid CB(2) agonist to attenuate a neuropathic pain state. Self-medication of the CB(2) agonist (R,S)-AM1241, but not vehicle, attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity produced by spared nerve injury. Switching rats from (R,S)-AM1241 to vehicle self-administration also decreased lever responding in an extinction paradigm. (R,S)-AM1241 self-administration did not alter paw withdrawal thresholds in sham-operated or naive animals. The percentage of active lever responding was similar in naive groups self-administering vehicle or (R,S)-AM1241. The CB(2) antagonist SR144528 blocked both antiallodynic effects of (R,S)-AM1241 self-medication and the percentage of active lever responding in neuropathic (but not naive) rats. Neuropathic and sham groups exhibited similar percentages of active lever responding for (R,S)-AM1241 on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule. However, neuropathic animals worked harder than shams to obtain (R,S)-AM1241 when the schedule of reinforcement was increased (to FR6). (R,S)-AM1241 self-medication on FR1, FR3, or FR6 schedules attenuated nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia. (R,S)-AM1241 (900μg intravenously) failed to produce motor ataxia observed after administration of the mixed CB(1)/CB(2) agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5mg/kg intravenously). Our results suggest that cannabinoid CB(2) agonists may be exploited to treat neuropathic pain with limited drug abuse liability and central nervous system side effects. These studies validate the use of drug self-administration methods for identifying nonpsychotropic analgesics possessing limited abuse potential. These methods offer potential to elucidate novel analgesics that suppress spontaneous neuropathic pain that is not measured by traditional assessments of evoked pain. PMID:21550725

  10. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  11. Evaluation of Self-medication among Urban Population of Paldi area, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Shah, Vaibhav Ramanuj, D V Bala

    2015-01-01

    "Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the extent of self-medication practice among general community of Paldi area. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous, questionnaire-based survey that included 156 community members. A pre-validated questionnaire with several open-ended and closed-ended questions was administered. Data were coded, entered, and analyzed and the results expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Out of the 156 respondents, 52 (33.4%) were...

  12. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dedy Almasdy; Azmi Sharrif

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM) library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonpresc...

  13. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa S Saeed; Ali S Alkhoshaiban; Yaser Mohammed Ali Al-Worafi; Chiau Ming Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS ...

  14. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif; Rubian Suleiman Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among university students and evaluate factors associated with the practice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during May, 2012 using a pre-validated questionnaire distributed to 250 students of the 4 years of study at the college of business administration. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc and results are expressed as counts and ...

  15. Practice of self-medication of mifepristone-misoprostol drug combination for medical abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Godara

    2014-06-01

    However, the use of mifepristone and ndash; misoprostol combination for medical abortion used as self-medication, is rising due to changing socio-cultural practices and increased awareness among women for the termination of early pregnancy up to 63 days. It is observed that many women indulge in the practice of self-medication for termination of pregnancy. They take medicines either from local pharmacists, nurses, on advice of relatives, friends, husband, neighbors, newspaper articles, radio, television, magazines or any other such unauthorized sources for termination of pregnancy which mostly leads to incomplete abortion or many complications. It is observed that only few number of women have complete abortion with self-medication from an unauthorized source and moreover they suffer from pain and heavy bleeding when compared to normal menstrual flow. It is noticed that now-a-days, these drugs are used irrationally and nonjudiciously. Women are thus advised to take proper regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol under the guidance of an authorized practitioner and if they still fail to abort, then they have to undergo surgical evacuation that is, vaccum aspiration for termination of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 572-573

  16. Self-medication among secondary school pupils in Hong Kong: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, M H; Chung, J T; Munro, J G

    1989-12-01

    A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey self-medication among secondary school pupils in Hong Kong. Data were collected from 4793 pupils aged 10 to 23 years (55.9% female and 44.1% male). Nearly three quarters (72.1%) had taken self-medication without consulting a medical practitioner and 51.8% of the sample had done so without the knowledge of older family members. The prevalence of self-medication increased with age. More than half the pupils (50.4%) indicated that trivial illness did not warrant a consultation with a doctor. Information relating to the sources of self-administered drugs, types of drugs used and sources of information about these drugs was collected. Medicine cabinets at home and pharmacy shops were the two most common places from which the pupils obtained their drugs. Though the prevalence of taking tranquillizers and sleeping tablets was found to be low, the probability of young people, especially boys, obtaining dangerous drugs from these places should not be overlooked. The medical, nursing and teaching professions should take a more active role in health education, as the sources from which the pupils obtained their drug knowledge, in descending order of frequency, were: family members, previous illness experience, pharmacy shops, doctor or nurse, television or radio, newspapers or magazines, friends and teachers. PMID:2632309

  17. Factors associated with self-medication among expatriate high school students: a cross-sectional survey in United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ilyas Shehnaz; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Nelofer Khan; Khaled Jamal Issa; Mohamed Arifulla

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess factors associated with self-medication (SM) among expatriate high school students of United Arab Emirates using a validated questionnaire. Most common reasons for self-medication in 324 participating students were: presence of mild illness and previous experiences. High risk practices like altering the dose, discontinuation of medication and self-medication without adult guidance were observed. The likelihood of SM was 4.9 times (95%C.I.: 2.0-12.2) in students not u...

  18. Intrathecal inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in diabetic neuropathy adversely affects pain-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Boric, Matija; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Banozic, Adriana; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2013-10-25

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is considered an important enzyme contributing to the pathogenesis of persistent pain. The aim of this study was to test whether intrathecal injection of CaMKII inhibitors may reduce pain-related behavior in diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of 55mg/kg streptozotocin. Two weeks after diabetes induction, CaMKII inhibitor myristoil-AIP or KN-93 was injected intrathecally. Behavioral testing with mechanical and thermal stimuli was performed before induction of diabetes, the day preceding the injection, as well as 2h and 24h after the intrathecal injection. The expression of total CaMKII and its alpha isoform in dorsal horn was quantified using immunohistochemistry. Intrathecal injection of mAIP and KN-93 resulted in significant decrease in expression of total CaMKII and CaMKII alpha isoform activity. Also, mAIP and KN93 injection significantly increased sensitivity to a mechanical stimulus 24h after i.t. injection. Intrathecal inhibition of CaMKII reduced the expression of total CaMKII and its CaMKII alpha isoform activity in diabetic dorsal horn, which was accompanied with an increase in pain-related behavior. Further studies about the intrathecal inhibition of CaMKII should elucidate its role in nociceptive processes of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24035897

  19. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K Simon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of self-medication was 30% with demographic influence. Hence, this study highlights the policy implications for drug control by government agencies and stresses on the need for dental health education to discourage irrational drug use.

  20. Patient Attitudes and Patterns of Self-Medication with Antibiotics – A Cross-Sectional Study in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rositsa Dimova; Donka Dimitrova; Maria Semerdjieva; Ilian Doikov

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication with antibiotics is a major concern worldwide because of the high risks of antimicrobial resistance which may result in complicated courses of treatment, increased risk of death and excess costs to the healthcare systems. AIM: The aim was to study the attitudes and self-medication patterns as related to the use of antibiotics among the general Bulgarian population and their determinants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was performed amon...

  1. To study the pattern, efficacy and tolerability of analgesic self medication among undergraduate medical students: a questionnaire based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Tanwar; Shobhana Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is widely prevalent among medical students. Sufficient data is still lacking in India. The present study was aimed to determine the pattern, efficacy and, tolerability of analgesic self-medication among undergraduate medical students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A structured questionnaire was given to medical students aged 18-24 years. Results were expressed in numbers and percentage. Results: In the present study, 130 stude...

  2. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    You, Joyce H.; Wong, Fiona Y; Chan, Frank W.; Wong, Eliza L; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2011-01-01

    Background The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding self-medication, self-care and the role of pharmacists in self-care. Methods A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted, inviting people aged 18 or older to complete a 37-item questionnaire that was developed based on the Thematic Household surveys in Hong Kong, fin...

  3. To study the pattern, efficacy and tolerability of analgesic self medication among undergraduate medical students: a questionnaire based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Tanwar

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence (77.8% of analgesic self medication among medical students. Paracetamol was the most common drug consumed, followed by other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A high incidence of side effects observed. It is necessary to create more awareness regarding possible harmful effects of self-medication and ways to minimize them. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 446-448

  4. Self-medication, substance abuse and alcohol consumption in students attending to La Plata National university, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Gustavo Horacio; Cañás, Martín; Carlson, Soledad; Silvestrini, M. P.; Corva, S. G.; Mestorino, Olga Nora; Errecalde & Gis, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization raises self-care as a strategy for health promotion. Although self-medication is included in self-care strategy, often it is associate to an irrational medicine's usage. This factor associated with illicit drugs and alcohol consumption becomes in a public health problem. In order to establish frequency of self-medication and the prevalence of illicit drugs and alcohol consumption among university students of La Plata, Argentina, was started the presen...

  5. Self-Medication Practice Among Allied and Non-Allied Health Students of the University of Santo Tomas

    OpenAIRE

    JAY P. JAZUL; XANDRO ALEXI A. NIETO

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is presumed to be widely practiced around the world. This can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. High level of education and professional status has also been mentioned as predictive factors for self-medication. Students from the allied and nonallied health institutions of the University of Santo Tomas were assessed fo...

  6. Self-medication with antibiotics among non-medical university students of Karachi: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Jawad; Ahmad, Hamna; Rehan, Rija Binte; Najeeb, Sidra; Mumtaz, Mirrah; Jilani, Muhammad Hashim; Rabbani, Muhammad Sharoz; Alam, Muhammad Zakariya; Farooq, Saba; Kadir, M. Masood

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of self -medication with antibiotics is quite high in developing countries as opposed to developed countries. Antibiotics are often taken erroneously for certain ailments, without having the appropriate knowledge of their use. This carries potential risks for the individual as well as the community, in form of several side effects such as antibiotic resistance. Therefore the prevalence of self-medicated antibiotics in developing countries needs to be studied. Methods...

  7. Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Otivhia Elizabeth; Ojo Modupe T; Sopeju Priscilla O; Sweet Shauna J; Atkinson Nancy L; Rosenberg Goldstein Rachel E; Coker Morenike E; Sapkota Amy R; Ayepola Olayemi O; Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso O; Shireman Laura; Pottinger Paul S; Ojo Kayode K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706) at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities w...

  8. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) using the multiplate integration assay (MIA). Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml), the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 =...

  9. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Rossing; Hanne Herborg; Nina Griese; Tina Bolvig; Bente Frøkjær

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine) identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interv...

  10. Self-Medication Practice Among Allied and Non-Allied Health Students of the University of Santo Tomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAY P. JAZUL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available – Self-medication is presumed to be widely practiced around the world. This can be defined as the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, or the intermittent or continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. High level of education and professional status has also been mentioned as predictive factors for self-medication. Students from the allied and nonallied health institutions of the University of Santo Tomas were assessed for the factors of self-medication practices.A total of 66 graduating students were asked to accomplish the questionnaire. To ensure valid responses, the researchers supervised the respondents on accomplishing the questionnaires. Mean and range summarized the age while counts and percentages summarized the gender, school, practice of selfmedication, therapeutic classes, health conditions, reasons and sources of self-medication. A total of 55 reported that they practice self-medication. On the total 66 respondents practicing self-medication is antibiotics, anti-allergic and antihistamine, and decongestants. The 55 respondents documented headache to be the most self-treated health condition followed by cough and cold, toothache, muscle pain pimples, back/chest pain, dizziness, and diarrhea/constipation. Significantly greater percentage of females (p=0.038 use antibiotics. Respondents with high self-care orientation are self-medicating on antibiotics (p=0.027, anti-allergic (p<0.001, and herbal medicine (p=0.001 than respondents with low self-care orientation.

  11. The self-medication hypothesis: Evidence from terrorism and cigarette accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Baum, Christopher F

    2016-09-01

    We use single equation and system instrumental variable models to explore if individuals smoke during times of stress (the motivation effect) and if they are successful in self-medicating short-term stress (the self-medication effect). Short-term stress is a powerful motivator of smoking, and the decision to smoke could trigger biological feedback that immediately reduces short-term stress. We use data on self-reported smoking and stress from 240,388 current and former smokers. We instrument short-term stress with temporal distance from September 11, 2001 (using date of interview). We instrument smoking with cigarette accessibility measures of cigarette price changes and distance to state borders. In the absence of accounting for endogeneity, we find that smoking is associated with increases in short-term stress. However, when we account for endogeneity we find no evidence of smoking affecting short-term stress. We do find a consistent positive effect of short-term stress on smoking. PMID:27037500

  12. The Model Analysis of the Influencing Factors on Chinese Residents’ Self-medication%我国居民自我医疗影响因素的模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岳峰; 孟群

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析我国居民自我医疗增加的原因,为自我医疗的合理定位及发展提供依据。方法:利用1993、1998、2003和2008年四次国家卫生服务调查数据,进行了自我医疗影响因素的logistic多元回归分析。结果:我国居民在时间和空间两个维度上存在自我医疗选择的差异性;患病居民的人口学特征、医疗保障制度和专业医疗服务空间可及性、家庭经济条件、健康生活行为、日常健康状况、两周患病的认知和两周患病结局等均对医疗决策行为有一定的影响。结论:自我医疗的替代功能决定了其发展的合理空间,我国居民自我医疗增长受多种因素的影响。%Objective: To anal yze the reasons for the increasing Chinese residents’ self-medication, and provide references for reasonable positioning and development of self-medication. Methods:Using the National Health Service Survey data (1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008), and use multivariate logistic regression analysis to study the influencing factors of self-medication. Results: Chinese residents’ self-medication have differences in the both time and space dimensions. The influencing factors of medical decision include the demographic characteristics of the diseased residents, medical insurance system, the available of specialized medical services space, family economic conditions, healthy living behaviors, daily health situation, two-week morbidity cognition and two-week morbidity outcomes etc. Conclusion: The alternative function of self-medication determines its reasonable development space. The increasing rate of Chinese residents’ self-medication has many influencing factors.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial self medication usage: a cross sectional study among medical and nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Bala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial drug resistance is a fast mounting universal crisis. Many factors like self medication, inappropriate use and unregulated sale of medicines and self medication have been attributed to this problem. The objective was to determine extend and causes of antimicrobial self medication and to compare the knowledge attitude of senior and junior medical/nursing students. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on randomly selected 410 students from Baba Farid University of Health Sciences Faridkot, Punjab. A total sample of 220 medical students were enrolled from GGS Medical College, Faridkot (1st year students 50 and 170 above 1st year senior medical students and 190 nursing students were enrolled from University College of Nursing, Faridkot. Results: prevalence of antimicrobial self medication came out to be around 74%. The most common cause for seeking antimicrobial (self therapy was upper respiratory tract infection. A statistical significant knowledge/attitude gap was found between senior and fresher medical/nursing students. Conclusions: High prevalence of antimicrobial self medication among medical/nursing students is a matter of concern and it should be discouraged at appropriate level to safeguard students from preventable adversary exposure. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 428-432

  14. Early-Life Adversity and Physical and Emotional Health Across the Lifespan: A Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Children who experience chronic stressors are vulnerable to emotional and physical health problems across the lifespan. This phenomenon raises questions for scientists and clinicians alike. How does adversity get under the skin of the developing child? Through what mechanisms does it confer vulnerability to a heterogeneous set of mental and physical illnesses? And how does it instantiate risk across different life stages, engendering vulnerability to conditions that develop shortly after stressor exposure-like depression-and conditions that manifest decades later, like heart disease? Although answers to these questions have started to emerge, research has typically focused on single diseases or organ systems. To understand the plethora of health problems associated with childhood adversity, we argue that the field needs a second generation of research that recognizes multidirectional transactions among biological systems. To help facilitate this process, we propose a neuroimmune network hypothesis as a heuristic framework for organizing knowledge from disparate literatures and as a springboard for generating integrative research. Drawing on existing data, we argue that early-life adversity amplifies crosstalk between peripheral inflammation and neural circuitries subserving threat-related, reward-related, and executive control-related processes. This crosstalk results in chronic low-grade inflammation, thereby contributing to adiposity, insulin resistance, and other predisease states. In the brain, inflammatory mediators act on cortico-amygdala threat and cortico-basal ganglia reward, circuitries in a manner that predisposes individuals to self-medicating behaviors like smoking, drug use, and consumption of high-fat diets. Acting in concert with inflammation, these behaviors accelerate the pathogenesis of emotional and physical health problems. PMID:26166230

  15. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rossing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended

  16. Self-medication with anti-malarials is a common practice in rural communities of Kilosa district in Tanzania despite the reported decline of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Joseph P Mugasa; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication has been widely practiced worldwide particularly in developing countries including Tanzania. In sub-Saharan Africa high incidences of malaria have contributed to self-medication with anti-malarial drugs. In recent years, there has been a gain in malaria control, which has led to decreased malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. Therefore, understanding the patterns of self-medication during this period when most instances of fever are presumed to be due to no...

  17. A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among medical and para medical students in a medical college, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Mapala

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Self-medication is a common form of health care with potential benefits and hazards. Hence, it is very important to increase the awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of self-medication in medical college students to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices of self-medication and eventually to increase the awareness in the society. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 865-868

  18. Evaluation of Antibiotic Self-Medication Pattern Amongst Undergraduate Students of Ahmadu Bello University (Main Campus), Zaria

    OpenAIRE

    O.J. Olayemi

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate students at theMain Campus of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria was evaluated using structured self-medication administeredquestionnaire. A total of 430 questionnaires were randomly distributed based on hostel of residence with arespondent rate of 65.80%. Majority of respondents, 65.50% were aged between 16-28years, while188(66.40%) were males and 95(33.60%) were females. D istribution of respondents by Faculties ...

  19. [Self medication during orodental diseases in urban Ivory Coast. Results of a study in the region of Abidjan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souaga, K; Adou, A; Amantchi, D; Kouame, P; Angoh, Y

    2000-06-01

    During six months, a study enclosing 418 patients from 15 to 60 years old, has been realised in nine dental offices of the Abidjan area. Self-medication has been found among 37.32 per cent of the patients. The most concerned medicines are no steroid inflammatories, analgesics and antibiotics. According to this study, the main reasons of the self-medication are the pain, the lack of money, the practice and the fear of the dental surgeon. The medicines are obtained at the chemist's or bought at the market or in the street. The results of the study are compared to others did in different specialities. PMID:11372161

  20. A automedicação e os acadêmicos da área de saúde Self-medication and health academic staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que a automedicação é um problema de saúde pública mundial, este artigo teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento dos futuros profissionais de saúde com relação à utilização de medicamentos, particularmente, à prática da automedicação. A amostra foi composta por 223 estudantes da área de saúde de uma universidade pública no município do Recife, selecionados por partilha proporcional a cada curso. Foram feitos questionamentos sobre o uso de medicamentos, nos últimos quinze dias que antecederam à coleta de dados. 65,5% dos entrevistados confirmaram ter feito uso de medicamentos nos últimos quinze dias, 42,3% por meio de uma prescrição médica e 57,7% através da automedicação. Os medicamentos mais utilizados foram os analgésicos (24,0% e as vitaminas (18,9% e o motivo mais apontado foi a dor (30,5%. O consumo de medicamentos entre os estudantes universitários no município do Recife é elevado, mas encontra-se dentro dos parâmetros observados por outros estudos. Todavia, por se tratar de profissionais da área de saúde, esperava-se que o consumo fosse menor e mais racionalizado.As self-medication is a worldwide problem of public health, this article had as objective to evaluate the behavior of the future health professionals with regard to the drug utilization, particularly, to the self-medication practice. 223 academic students from a public university in Recife City were interviewed, selected by proportional share in each course. A questionnaire on the drug utilization was applied, 15 days before the interview. From the 223 students, 65.5% reported drug use in the last 15 days. 42.3% used drugs through the physician's prescription and 57.7% through the self-medication. The most used drugs were the analgesics (24.0% and vitamins (18.9% and the main reason was pain (30.5%. The drug utilization among academic students in Recife City is high but it is inside the parameter according to others analysis

  1. Comparison of the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs in primary dysmenorrhea: A questionnaire based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Sugumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs and to assess the adequacy of their dose in primary dysmenorrhea (PD. Materials and Methods: A survey using a self-developed, validated, objective, and structured questionnaire as a tool was conducted among subjects with PD. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test and ANOVA with post-hoc Tuckey′s test. Results: Out of 641 respondents, 42% were self-medicated. The pattern of drugs used was: Dicyclomine, an unknown drug, mefenamic acid, mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, and metamizole by 35%, 29%, 26%, 9%, and 1% of respondents, respectively. Mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, the combination was the most efficacious in comparison to other drugs in moderate to severe dysmenorrhea. There was better tolerability with mefenamic acid + dicyclomine group compared to other drugs. Sub-therapeutic doses were used by 86% of self-medicating respondents. Conclusions: The prevailing self-medication practices were inappropriate in a substantial proportion of women with inadequate knowledge regarding appropriate drug choice, therapeutic doses, and their associated side effects.

  2. Household storage of medicines and self-medication practices in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, B; Foroutan, R

    2014-09-01

    Self-medication and inappropriate storage of medicines at home are potential health risks. This crosssectional study in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010 aimed to determine where householders kept their medicines and to assess the frequency and determinants of self-medication. Householders from different parts of Birjand city (n = 500) were visited and completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Analgesics were the most common medicines stored at home, followed by adult cold remedies and antibiotics. The refrigerator was the most common place for storing medicines (50.6%). Most householders did not consult the package inserts. Many householders (53.6%) reported that they practised self-medication, and the frequency of reuse of physicianprescribed antibiotics was high. There was a significant association between self-medication and educational level but not with age, sex, martial status, occupation and type of insurance. Better public knowledge and information about storage and risks of reuse of prescription medications is needed. PMID:25343467

  3. Non-doctor consultations and self-medication practices in patients seen at a tertiary dental center in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Adeyinka Adedapo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Self-medication practices were quite high in this study, and these practices were also prevalent among the educated people. Drug control enforcement needs to be intensified and dental public health education needs to be given greater priority in the overall public health campaigns.

  4. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  5. A descriptive study of prevalence, pattern and attitude of self-medication among second professional medical students in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Sawhney

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that self-medication is widely practiced among students, easy availability of medicine probably being the cause. Educating the students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication is necessary to create awareness. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 542-546

  6. Assessment of antimicrobial self-medication in undergraduate medical students in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Gurappanavar

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study shows that antimicrobial self-medication is widely practiced among under-graduate medical students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of antimicrobial self-medication. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1353-1357

  7. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F Ghaieth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%. Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Results: Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42% out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48% took antibiotics based on doctor′s prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27% who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29% of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor′s prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Conclusion: Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners.

  8. Perfil da automedicação no Brasil Aspects of self-medication in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio D. Arrais

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os dados apresentados fazem parte de um estudo multicêntrico sobre automedicação na América Latina realizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Objetivou-se traçar um perfil da automedicação através da análise da procura de medicamentos em farmácias sem prescrição médica ou aconselhamento do farmacêutico/balconista. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As especialidades farmacêuticas foram classificadas pelo código "Anatomical Therapeutical Classification" e analisadas sob quatro aspectos qualitativos: valor intrínseco, essencialidade (lista da OMS e Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME, combinação em dose fixa e necessidade de prescrição médica. RESULTADOS: Foram solicitadas 5.332 especialidades farmacêuticas (785 diferentes princípios ativos, sendo 49,5% combinações em dose fixas, 53,0% de valor intrínseco não elevado, 44,1% sujeitos a prescrição médica, 71,0% não essenciais e 40,0% baseados em prescrições médicas anteriores. Os medicamentos mais solicitados foram analgésicos (17,3%, descongestionantes nasais (7,0%, antiinflamatório/antireumático e antiinfecciosos de uso sistêmico, ambos com 5,6%. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados sugerem que a automedicação no Brasil reflete as carências e hábitos da população, é consideravelmente influenciada pela prescrição médica e tem a sua qualidade prejudicada pela baixa seletividade do mercado farmacêutico.INTRODUCTION: The data presented are part of a World Health Organization (WHO multicenter study of self-medication in Latin America. Brazilian sites included: Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, the city of S. Paulo and outlying locations. The objective was to characterize self-medication practices by analyzing drugs sought by consumers in pharmacies without a physician's prescription. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Drugs were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification codes, and analyzed with respect to 1 intrinsic value; 2 recognition as

  9. Self Medication of Abortion Pill: Women’s Health in Jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Thaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI recommends close monitoring of distribution of drugs that are used for medical abortion and that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industry should exercise due diligence in the promotion and usage of drugs that are used for medical abortion. Despite this, it has been perceived by the society that, medical abortions are extremely safe option even in hands of untrained personnel, leading to its over the counter dispensing and possibly increase in unsupervised terminations and life threatening complications. Objective: To study consequences of self medication of Abortion pill on women’s health Study Design: Retrospective Observational Study Duration of Study: One Year: August 2012 to July 2013 Material and Methods: After due permission from authority, data was collected from patients who had come for follow-up and treatment after self medication (purchased over the counter by self/family member without medical guidance/supervision for Medical method of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP. Results: Data was collected in 37 patients, who had history of self medication of abortion pill. More than half, 20 (54% women were in age group of 20-29 years and married women were 35 (94.5%. Uneducated women were 12 (32.4%. Majority 33(89.1% of women had complaint of bleeding per vaginum. On Ultrasonography (USG, 26(70.2% women had incomplete abortion, 4 (10.8% women had intrauterine gestational sac with cardiac activity, 2(5.4% women had complete abortion and 1(2.7% woman had missed abortion. Surgical curettage was performed in 28(75.6% women. In 2(5.4% women, there was complete abortion after oxytocin and misoprostol. One woman (2.7% wanted to continue the pregnancy. Laparotomy was performed in 2 (5.4% women having ectopic pregnancy and in 1(2.7% woman who had perforation of uterus while undergoing surgical curettage at private hospital. Moderate and severe anaemia

  10. Self-regulation and self-medication factors in alcoholism and the addictions. Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantzian, E J

    1990-01-01

    Addicts and alcoholics suffer vulnerabilities and deficits in self-regulation. A principal manifestation of their self-regulation disturbances is evident in the way they attempt to self-medicate painful affect states and related psychiatric problems. Individuals select a particular drug based on its ability to relieve or augment emotions unique to an individual which they cannot achieve or maintain on their own. Addicts and alcoholics usually experiment with all classes of drugs, but discover that a particular drug suits them best. Usually, painful affect states interact with other problems in self-regulation involving self-esteem, relationships, self-care, and related characterological defenses, making it more likely that addicts will experiment with and find the action of a particular drug appealing or compelling. Stimulants have their appeal because their energizing properties relieve distress associated with depression, hypomania, and hyperactivity; opiates are compelling because they mute and contain disorganizing affects of rage and aggression; and sedative hypnotics, including alcohol, permit the experience of affection, aggression, and closeness in individuals who are otherwise cut off from their feelings and relationships. PMID:2185521

  11. Assessment of Self-Medication Practices Among Medical, Pharmacy, and Health Science Students in Gondar University, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Abay; Amelo, W

    2010-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the magnitude and factors of self-medication among medical, pharmacy, and health science students of GCMHS (Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences). A cross-sectional study with two-month illness recall was conducted. A Questionnaire consisting of demographic questions and questions on illnesses in the last two months prior to the interview and treatment strategies was prepared and administered to the 414 students, selected as the sample population, fr...

  12. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F Ghaieth; Sara R. M. Elhag; Mamoun E Hussien; Konozy, Emad H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (res...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE,ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG SECOND YEAR B.Sc NURSING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Presenjit Raut; D Vamsi; Rao, B. V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction- This study was undertaken to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among second-year nursing students of the NRIIMS, Visakhapatnam. Materials & methods: This was an anonymous, questionnaire-based, descriptive study. A prevalidated questionnaire, containing open-ended and close-ended questions, was administered to the subjects. Data were analyzed using MS-Excel and the results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Out of the 35 responde...

  14. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Wilbur; Samah El Salam; Ebrahim Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Kerry Wilbur1, Samah El Salam1, Ebrahim Mohammadi21Qatar University College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar; 2Qatar Petroleum Medical Services, Doha, QatarBackground: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use.Objective: The purpose of this study was t...

  15. Development of a novel self-medicating applicator for control of internal and external parasites of wild and domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Burridge, M J; L.A. Simmons; Ahrens, E H; S.A.J. Naude; F. S. Malan

    2004-01-01

    Four trials, three in the United States and one in South Africa, were conducted to evaluate the potential value of a novel self-medicating applicator in the passive control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle and deer, and of flies and ticks on cattle using oil-based treatments. The results of the trials demonstrated that this applicator is an effective and practical device for the passive treatment of both deer and cattle for trichostrongyle infections using the endectocide, moxide...

  16. Pattern, awareness and perceptions of health hazards associated with self medication among adult residents of kano metropolis, northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kano State is the most populous state, and one of those states pronounced with the highest prevalence of drug abuse in Nigeria. However, there is lack of documented data to back the assertion. Objective: We determined the pattern, awareness and perceptions of the adult residents of Kano metropolis about self medication. Materials and Methods: We used a descriptive cross-sectional design to study a random sample of 380 adult in Kano metropolis. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires that were pretested outside the study area. Data analysis was with Epi Info® 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 35.43 ± 15.10 years, majority were males (66.32%, singles (47.11% and had at least secondary education (67.63%. About three-quarter (78.95% admitted using drug (s in the past without prescription. Drugs commonly consumed were antimalarials (42.10%, analgesics (40.56%, antibiotics (29.41%, and cough mixtures (13.31%. Common sources of drugs were patent medicine stores (62.54% and the market (19.81%. Common reasons for self medication were long queues in the hospitals (38.39%, and in-accessibility to doctors (25.08%. About two-thirds (65.00% correctly perceived that self medication could be hazardous; and half (51.58% were aware of at least one hazard of self medication. Conclusion/Recommendations: Irrational drug use is a growing challenge to public health in Kano, Nigeria. Thus, drug regulatory agencies in Nigeria should work together to ensure that all drug retail outlets and drug sellers are registered, controlled drugs are dispensed only on prescription of the physicians; and the laws safeguarding drug use are duly enforced. Health authorities should also strengthen efforts towards health educating the public.

  17. Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otivhia Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication with antibiotics is an important factor contributing to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms among university women in Southwest Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to female undergraduate and graduate students (n = 706 at four universities in Southwest Nigeria in 2008. The universities were selected by convenience and the study samples within each university were randomly selected cluster samples. The survey was self-administered and included questions pertaining to menstrual symptoms, analgesic and antibiotic use patterns, and demographics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results The response rate was 95.4%. Eighty-six percent (95% CI: 83-88% of participants experienced menstrual symptoms, and 39% (95% CI: 36-43% reported using analgesics to treat them. Overall, 24% (95% CI: 21-27% of participants reported self-medicated use of antibiotics to treat the following menstrual symptoms: cramps, bloating, heavy bleeding, headaches, pimples/acne, moodiness, tender breasts, backache, joint and muscle pain. Factors associated with this usage were: lower levels of education (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1, p-value: 0.03; non-science major (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50, p-value: 0.04; usage of analgesics (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.07-4.86, p-value: p-value: 0.05 and pimples/acne (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54, p-value: 0.06. Ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used to treat the most symptoms. Doctors or nurses (6%, 95% CI: 4-7%, friends (6%, 95% CI: 4-7% and family members (7%, 95% CI: 5-8% were most likely to recommend the use of antibiotics for menstrual symptoms, while these drugs were most often obtained from local chemists or pharmacists (10.2%, 95% CI: 8-12%. Conclusions This is

  18. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  19. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  20. Low subjective health literacy is associated with adverse health behaviors and worse health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors: results from the profiles registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Fransen, M.P.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of health literacy (HL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and the relation between HL and health behaviors and to explore whether or not HL and health behaviors are independently associated with health-related quality of li

  1. A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among medical and para medical students in a medical college, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Mapala; Rajendra Holla; Swathi Acharya; Tittu Zachariah; Puneeth Aipanjiguly

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is defined as use of medicines without a doctor's prescription and is frequently practiced among students in professional colleges. The purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among second year medical and paramedical students in K. S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. Methods: A prospective, observational, questionnaire based study conducted where two groups of students, Medical and Paramedic...

  2. Self-medication and Contributing Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Ethiopia: The Case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Abdi; Dhekama, Nezif Hussein; MOHAMMED, Mohammed Adem

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication is the selection and use of non-prescription medicines by individuals own initiatives to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. It is practiced significantly worldwide even though its type, extent and reasons for its practice may vary. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of self-medication and contributing factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at JUSH, Jimma town, south west Ethiopia. A prospective hospital based cross-sectional study with ...

  3. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEWIVES IN RURAL AREAS OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesley Elsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.

  4. Development, implementation, and analysis of adverse drug reaction monitoring system in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in Narketpally, Telangana

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Shareef; C. D. M. Naidu; Shrinivas R. Raikar; Y. Venkata Rao; U. Devika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are the fourth leading cause of mortality and a great concern in therapeutics. Pharmacovigilance is more important in India as the health care system is inadequate with poor doctor-patient ratio, high incidence of self-medication, and presence of counterfeit drugs. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the pattern of ADR occurring in a rural tertiary care hospital with a newly established pharmacovigilance center and to identify the...

  5. The Risks of Self - Medication: Case Report of Familial Misuse of AM3 (Immunoferon®)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Neves, R.; Abranches, M

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades extended medical knowledge has been an important health care benefit in terms of disease prevention and management. However, probably with no exception, most pharmaceutical products are not devoid of adverse consequences. Immunomodulators are commonly considered a “benign” drug whose advantages bypass consequences. The immunomodulator AM3 (Immunoferon®) is a clinically used, orally administered compound whose active principle is stabilised in an inorganic mat...

  6. Model Building for the Behavior of Reporting Nursing Adverse Events Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and Its Empirical Research%基于计划行为理论的护理人员不良事件报告行为模型构建及实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志辉; 陈丽丽; 张金燕; 郑贺英; 陈桂芝

    2015-01-01

    目的:构建以计划行为理论为指导的护理人员不良事件报告行为模型,并进行实证研究。方法2014年4月,对河北省某医院的436名在职护理人员进行问卷调查,问卷包括:护理人员的基本情况、护士护理不良事件报告行为量表和护理不良事件报告意向量表、护士对护理不良事件报告行为的态度问卷、护理不良事件报告行为规范问卷、护理不良事件报告知觉行为控制问卷。采用Spearman秩相关和多元线性回归等统计学方法对理论模型进行验证。结果态度、描述性规范、知觉行为控制对护理不良事件报告意向的偏回归系数分别为0.278、0.193和0.315,报告意向对报告行为的偏回归系数为0.496,且均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。报告意向是态度、描述性规范、知觉行为控制影响报告行为的中介变量。结论以计划行为理论为基础的护士护理不良事件报告行为模型对护理不良事件报告行为具有较好的解释和预测作用,应从态度、指令性规范、描述性规范、知觉行为控制入手,提出有效干预策略。%Objective To build a model for the behavior of reporting nursing adverse events based on the theory of planned behavior and to conduct empirical research. Methods In April of 2014,We conducted questionnaire survey on 436 in-service nurses in a hospital of Hebei Province. The questionnaire survey included a survey on basic information of nurses,a scale of the behavior of reporting nursing adverse events, a scale of the intention of reporting nursing adverse events, a questionnaire on nurses'attitude toWards the behavior of reporting nursing adverse events,a questionnaire on the behavior norm of reporting nursing adverse events and a questionnaire on the perceived control of reporting nursing adverse events. The theoretical model Was verified using spearman rank correlation method and multiple linear regression method

  7. [PHARMAGRIPS: structured pharmaceutical counseling in the self-medication of the common cold. A randomised controlled study (RCT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, Anna; Schäfer, Julia; Läer, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    Many minor ailments are treated in Germany by self-medication. Most drugs dispensed by pharmacy staff are those for the common cold, general pain and gastrointestinal disorders. Whilst pharmacists express their need for further training in counseling on side effects, interactions and contraindications, they tend to receive feedback from patients to the effect that the drugs used have not worked. From July to October 2013 we carried out a prospective, single-blind, quasi-randomised controlled study on the effect of training on structured pharmaceutical advice in self-medication of the common cold (PHARMAGRIPS Study). Using a controlled, interventional study design we investigated whether it is possible to improve the pharmaceutical counseling in self-medication within a short time, by using an appropriate teaching method. The counseling should be made in a systematic way and refer to evidence-based content in order to avoid incorrect advice. We enrolled 86 pharmacists and assigned them randomly into the study protocol. Of those, 56 completed the study as planned and were analysed. In this study, we reviewed the structure of the average pharmaceutical consultation and added evidence-based content from the Cochrane Reviews on common cold. We then integrated this structured consultation in a methodical modem training program consisting of e-learning and live classes which we evaluated scientifically. For this purpose, we conducted telephone interviews with the participating pharmacists by using standardized case report forms. The case report forms contained the questions that the participants were supposed to ask. For every question asked, the participant received a certain amount of points, 18 in total. The training was stated to be successful at the primary endpoint when an improvement of at least 3.5 out of 18 points was achieved on average. The secondary endpoints were related to various aspects of the interview process (medical history, limits of self-medication

  8. Automedicação em nutrizes e sua influência sobre a duração do aleitamento materno Self-medication in nursing mothers and its influence on the duration of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Chaves

    2009-04-01

    newborns was performed for the first 12 months postpartum or until weaning. The effect of the practice of self-medication on the duration of breastfeeding was evaluated by multivariate analysis using Cox's regression model with time-dependent variables. RESULTS: Self-medication was practiced by 52.4% of the nursing mothers. The most used pharmacological classes were: analgesics/antipyretics (54.5%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (15%, spasmolytics (6.2%, laxatives (3.5%, benzodiazepines (3%, nasal decongestants (1.4%, and antibiotics (0.9%. The most used drugs were dipyrone (31.5% and paracetamol (17.9%. The practice of self-medication was associated with a higher probability of the use of drugs posing the risk of adverse effects for the infant or for lactation (p = 0.000. However, the practice of self-medication was not associated with weaning (p = 0.135. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of self-medication among nursing mothers and the use of drugs posing risks of undesirable effects for the infant and for lactation reveal the need for better education on the risks of self-medication by nursing mothers. However, self-medication was not proven to be a risk factor for weaning.

  9. Perfil da automedicação nos pacientes otorrinolaringológicos Self-medication profile of ENT patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa Servidoni

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os hábitos de automedicação praticados pelos pacientes portadores de afecções otorrinolaringológicas, visando caracterizar aspectos problemáticos passíveis de intervenção. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo descritivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Utilizamos como instrumento para a obtenção dos dados deste trabalho um questionário em formato de testes de múltipla escolha, contendo 17 questões sobre os hábitos de automedicação, distribuído a pacientes atendidos na clínica de otorrinolaringologia do Instituto Penido Burnier, durante o mês de julho de 2003. RESULTADO: Aproximadamente 83% dos pacientes relataram já ter usado ou comprado medicação sem apresentação da receita médica. Porém, desse total, 73% responderam que tal medicação não requeria "apresentação obrigatória" da receita para a sua compra. Os mais utilizados foram: analgésicos/antitérmicos (90%, seguidos pelos antigripais (78% e pelos AINEs (69%. Os antibióticos apareceram em 8 (11%. Com relação aos motivos ou doenças que os pacientes acreditavam possuir, as cefaléias (76%, que justificassem a automedicação, observamos: em 1 seguidas por resfriados/gripes (74% e por quadros febris (56%. Já as otites apareceram em último lugar (12%. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstra a necessidade de contínuas campanhas informativas e conscientizadoras da população em geral quanto aos riscos de uma automedicação desnecessária ou equivocada, além da devida regulamentação e fiscalização do mercado farmacêutico pelas autoridades competentes.AIM: To describe self-medication habits of patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders to characterize problematic aspects in order to manage and correct them. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to obtain the data, consisting of 17 questions about self-medication habits. It was distributed to the patients assisted in our ENT clinic, in July/2003. RESULTS

  10. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs had a more than two-fold increased risk of being mentally unhealthy (RRTotal Effect = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.19–3.10), an 89% increased risk of being unhealthy (RRTotal Effect = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–1.99), and a 42% increased

  11. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  12. Cannabis: a self-medication drug for weight management? The never ending story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Santacroce, Rita; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2016-02-01

    In a society highly focused on physical appearance, people are increasingly using the so-called performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) or life-style drugs as an easy way to control weight. Preliminary data from online sources (e.g. websites, drug forums, e-newsletters) suggest an increased use of cannabis amongst the general population as a PIED due to its putative weight-loss properties. The use of cannabis and/or cannabis-related products to lose weight may represent a new substance-use trend that should be carefully monitored and adequately investigated, especially in light of the well-known adverse psychiatric and somatic effects of cannabis, its possible interaction with other medications/drugs and the unknown and potentially dangerous composition of synthetic cannabimimetics preparations. PMID:26456495

  13. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  14. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Kaur S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly ...

  15. Development of a novel self-medicating applicator for control of internal and external parasites of wild and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Burridge

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Four trials, three in the United States and one in South Africa, were conducted to evaluate the potential value of a novel self-medicating applicator in the passive control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle and deer, and of flies and ticks on cattle using oil-based treatments. The results of the trials demonstrated that this applicator is an effective and practical device for the passive treatment of both deer and cattle for trichostrongyle infections using the endectocide, moxidectin (Cydectin (R , Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA, of cattle for horn fly (Haemotobia irritans infestations using the insecticide, cyfluthrin (CyLence (R , Bayer AG, Germany and of cattle for tick infestations (in particular Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus using the acaricides deltamethrin and amitraz (Delete All (R , Intervet, South Africa.

  16. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilbur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur1, Samah El Salam1, Ebrahim Mohammadi21Qatar University College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar; 2Qatar Petroleum Medical Services, Doha, QatarBackground: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use.Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient perceptions of pharmacists and use of nonprescription therapy in an ambulatory care population in Qatar. Methods: Patients having prescriptions filled at one organization’s private medical clinics during two distinct two-week periods were invited to participate in a short verbal questionnaire. Awareness of pharmacist roles in guiding OTC drug selection was assessed, as were patient preferences for OTC indications. Attitudes towards pharmacist and nurse drug knowledge and comfort with direct dispensing were also evaluated.Results: Five hundred seventy patients participated representing 29 countries. Most respondents were men (92.1% with mean age of 38.3 years. Almost 1 in 7 did not know medical complaints could be assessed by a pharmacist (15.3% and 1 in 5 (21.9% were unaware pharmacists could directly supply OTC therapy. The majority (85.3% would be interested in this service. In general, respondents were more comfortable with medication and related advice supplied by pharmacists as opposed to nursing professionals.Conclusion: Patients were familiar with the roles of pharmacists as they pertain to selfmedication with OTC therapy and described the desire to use such a service within this Qatar ambulatory health care setting.Keywords: patient, self-medication, over-the-counter, pharmacist, Qatar

  17. Adversidade familiar e problemas comportamentais entre adolescentes infratores e não-infratores Adversidad familiar y problemas de comportamiento entre adolescentes infractores y no-infractores Family adversity and behavior problems among adolescent offenders and non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Delfina Farias Dias Tavares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    infractores y sus padres.Young offenders and non-offenders are compared on two aspects: Family Adversity Index and Agreement Index between parents' perception and adolescents' self-perception on the behavior problem. Participants comprised 40 adolescents, or rather, 23 were being attended to at Attendance and Support Center for Young People (UNIFESP and 17 adolescent offenders at the Court for the Welfare of Children and Young People in Santos SP Brazil. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Youth Self Report (YSR and Rutter's Family Adversity Index were employed. The family adversity index was significantly higher for young offenders. Results show that percentage of disagreement scores between the perceptions of behavior problems was higher, albeit not significant, between adolescent offenders and their parents.

  18. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  19. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  20. Thesis on Adverse Possession

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Adverse possession has been described as a “debilitating” experience and acts as a “blunt instrument” of necessary legislation in modern society. It is a device that ends litigation. Legislation for abolition would lead to greater societal difficulties. Statistically land theft is rare and given that ownership of property carries a duty an owner should be vigilant. One sentence on the property folio could alert an owner of the danger of inadequate fencing. Although aspects of notification ...

  1. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Gudex

    1990-01-01

    The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly’ and tolerance to the drug effects. Although th...

  2. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilò, M B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Rodrigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G J; Rueff, F

    2016-07-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. The aim was to report the scientific evidence on self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings, to inform healthcare staff about appropriate patient self-management of sting reactions, to propose indications for the prescription of an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), and to discuss other forms of medication. First-line treatment for Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Prescription of AAIs is mandatory in the case of venom-allergic patients who suffer from mast cell diseases or with an elevated baseline serum tryptase level and in untreated patients with a history of a systemic reaction involving at least two different organ systems. AAI prescription should also be considered in other specific situations before, during, and after stopping venom immunotherapy. PMID:27060567

  3. Prevalência da automedicação na população urbana portuguesa Self-medication prevalence in a Portuguese Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Mendes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal teve como objetivo principal determinar a prevalência da automedicação em meio urbano. Decorreu nas cidades de Lisboa e Porto, respectivamente em 11 e 15 farmácias, no período de Novembro de 1995 a Setembro de 1996. A recolha de informação dividiu-se em 6 fases de 10 dias cada. A prevalência da automedicação encontrada foi de 26,2%. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas no que respeita às prevalências da automedicação por sexo, idade, nível educacional e atividade profissional. Em 50% dos casos, os voluntários que adquiriram medicamentos em automedicação fizeram-no sob aconselhamento do farmacêutico. Os grupos terapêuticos mais utilizados em automedicação foram as preparações nasais e sistêmicas para a constipação e tosse (23,0% e os analgésicos (13,6%. Analisando cada um dos grupos terapêuticos individualmente foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas relativamente ao perfil do utilizador por sexo e grupo etário, de acordo com a variável automedicação.To determine the prevalence of self-medication in a Portuguese urban population, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Lisbon (11 pharmacies and Oporto (15 pharmacies. Data collection took place between November 1995 and September 1996, during 6 periods of 10 days each. The overall prevalence of self-medication found was 26,2%. Statistical significant differences were found between self-medication prevalence according to sex, age, educational level and professional status. Fifty percent of the individuals who have used drugs in self-medication did so with the pharmacist advice. The most frequent therapeutic groups used in self-medication were cough and cold preparations (23% and analgesics (13,6%. Analysing each group separately, statistical significant differences for sex and age were found according to the variable self-medication.

  4. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  5. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. PMID:27235652

  6. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria. PMID:27340411

  7. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. An adverse reaction can occur following administration of a radio pharmaceutical, but fortunately reactions are uncommon. They are usually mild and do not require intensive treatment. This is probably related to the fact that only small chemical quantities of material are administered to patients and that only one or a small number of doses are administered. Since symptoms are unrelated to any known pharmacology of the agents, they can be described as Type B reactions according to the classification of Rawlings and Thompson. Types of reaction that occur and possible mechanisms will be described. The reactions most commonly observed are skin rashes and vasomotor symptoms. It is important that, as far as possible, a cause - effect relationship can be established between the administration of the radio pharmaceutical and the symptoms caused. Some classification schemes therefore exclude vasomotor reactions such as hypotension and slow pulse, since such events can arise in a variety of clinical situations unrelated to radio pharmaceutical administration. It is important for nuclear medicine departments to be aware of the nature of reactions such that they can be recognized and appropriate re-assurance and/or prompt treatment can be given to their patients. Radio pharmaceuticals most frequently mentioned in reporting schemes are di phosphonates used for bone imaging. This probably reflect the fact that these agents are the most frequently used in current practice rather than that they cause more reactions. Problems in establishing the overall frequency of adverse reactions to radio pharmaceuticals include the fact that events may not be recognized if they occur after the patient has left the Nuclear Medicine Department and that reactions are never reported. Two recent studies have attempted to obtain more definitive information by performing prospective studies in a large number of departments. A study in the USA found that there was a rate of 2.3 events per

  8. Extreme Adverse Selection, Competitive Pricing, and Market Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Mailath, George J.; Nöldeke, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Extreme adverse selection arises when private information has unbounded support, and market breakdown occurs when no trade is the only equilibrium outcome. We study extreme adverse selection via the limit behavior of a financial market as the support of private information converges to an unbounded support. A necessary and sufficient condition for market breakdown is obtained. If the condition fails, then there exists competitive market behavior that converges to positive levels of trade when...

  9. Analysis of the Current Situation and the Recommendations of Self Medication of Chinese Residents%对我国居民自我药疗的现状分析与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑来双; 马玉莲; 郭金金

    2014-01-01

    自我药疗可以使有限的卫生资源得到合理配置,在一定程度上缓解医院看病难、看病贵的问题,但随意的自我药疗也存在一定的安全隐患。本文对我国居民进行自我药疗的现状进行了分析,并对合理自我药疗提出了建议。%Self medication can make the limited health resources get reasonable configuration, ease the hospital difficult, expensive medical problems to a certain extent, but the random self medication also exist certain security risks. This article analyzes the current status of self medication of the residents in China, and puts forward some suggestions on the rational self medication.

  10. Evaluation of analgesic self-medication pattern among under-graduate medical students of Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, BG Nagar, Karnataka: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha Shivamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication with analgesics is high among the undergraduate medical students of this institute. Although it is an easy way to treat mild to moderate pain, it may be accompanied with side effects, drug interactions, and toxicities. Hence, we conclude that there is a need to create awareness, and educate the students regarding the possible harmful effects of self-medication with analgesics. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 438-441

  11. 天津市民自我药疗行为调查与研究%Investigation on Self-Medication of Tianjin Citizens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦勇; 罗明薇; 于洁

    2013-01-01

      The irrational self-medication now is very common due to the difficulty in and expensive medical treatment and lack of drug use knowledge. Analyzing first-hand survey data of self-medication for Tianjin citizens by means of SPSS, we conclude that citizens often take false self-medication, which easily delays the diseases. The government should increase publicity to encourage the citizens to go to the hospital except for common diseases and learn general medical and medication knowledge by various ways to reduce misuse of medicine;continue to strengthen the supervision of false drug advertisements and drug stores;improve the professional knowledge of pharmacy staff.%  当前,因看病难、看病贵及患者用药知识严重匮乏等原因,使市民非理性的自我药疗行为非常普遍。运用SPPSS统计软件对天津市民的自我药疗行为第一手调查数据进行相关分析得出结论:市民自我用药会经常失误,极易耽误病情。政府应加大宣传,鼓励市民除常见小病外,尽可能去医院看病;应通过多种途径宣传医药常识和用药知识,减少市民乱用药的行为;继续加强对虚假药品广告的监管。同时,加强对药店的监管,提高药店服务人员的专业知识水平。

  12. Samoleczenie wśród studentów medycyny Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie = Self-medication practice among medical students of Medical University in Lublin

    OpenAIRE

    Sowa, Magda; Kołłątaj, Witold; Kołłątaj, Barbara; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Szakuła, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Sowa Magda, Kołłątaj Witold, Kołłątaj Barbara, Karwat Irena Dorota, Szakuła Justyna. Samoleczenie wśród studentów medycyny Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie = Self-medication practice among medical students of Medical University in Lublin. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(7):439-452. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.20851 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%287%29%3A439-452 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/589949 http://dx.d...

  13. Investigation in coping methods of pediatric nurses with adverse psychology and behavior of parents with terminal children%儿科护士应对临终患儿家长不良心理反应及行为表现的方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永芳; 徐阳; 周月琼; 李尚娣; 黄薇; 蔡娜莉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the coping methods of pediatric nurses with adverse psychology and behavior of parents with terminal children. Methods 198 parents who were assessed with adverse psychology and behavior with terminal children were chosen and randomly divided into the observation group(100 cases) and the control group(98 cases). The control group was given conventional care, while in the observation group, nursing intervention of humanistic care and reinforced health education were adopted in addition. The changes of adverse psychology and behavior of the two groups were observed. Χ2 test was used. Results The adverse psychology and behavior in the observation group was reduced significantly than that of the control group after nursing intervention. Conclusions Nursing intervention can effec-tively mitigate the adverse psychology and behavior in parents with terminal children. It plays an active role beth on the terminal children and their parents.%目的 探讨儿科护士如何应对临终患儿家长的不良心理反应及行为表现.方法 选择住院确诊为重症临终患儿及经评估具有不良心理反应及行为表现的家长198人,随机分为观察组100人和对照组98人.对照组患儿家长给予一般的常规护理;观察组在常规护理基础上,采用人文关怀及加强健康教育等护理干预的方法.观察2组患儿家长不良心理反应及行为表现变化隋况.采用χ2检验.结果 观察组临终患儿家长经护理干预后其不良心理反应及行为表现较对照组明显减轻.结论 护理干预可有效减轻临终患儿家长不良心理反应及行为表现,对临终患儿及家长都起到积极的作用.

  14. Automedicação em idosos na cidade de Salgueiro-PE Self-medication in the elderly of the city of Salgueiro, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirivaldo Barros e Sá

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar os determinantes associados ao perfil da automedicação na população de idosos de 60 anos e mais, no município de Salgueiro/Pernambuco/Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal realizado na zona urbana no município de Salgueiro - PE. Entre 01/05 a 10/06/2004, foram aplicados questionários em uma amostra de 355 indivíduos da população de 60 anos e mais. Os dados foram processados e analisados no EPIINFO 6.04 após digitação em dupla entrada e validação. RESULTADOS: 44,9% dos entrevistados encontravam-se na faixa etária de 60-70 anos, 247 (69,8% eram do sexo feminino, 188 (53,1% eram analfabetos e 145 (40,7% tinham o primeiro grau incompleto, sendo 276 (77,7% aposentados. Entre os que faziam uso de medicamentos sem receita médica houve predomínio de analgésicos (30% e antipiréticos (29%. Entre os motivos mais freqüentes apresentados, e que levavam os indivíduos a tomar remédios por conta própria, a dor tem o maior índice (38,3%, seguida de febre (24,4%, diarréia (8,0%, pressão alta (8,0% e tosse (5,2%. Houve associação entre a ausência de atividade física e automedicação (x² =14,44, p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: existe grande prevalência da automedicação neste grupo, sendo os analgésicos e os antipiréticos os mais utilizados; a dor é o sintoma que mais leva à automedicação; os idosos sedentários se automedicam mais que os praticantes de atividade física.OBJECTIVES: to identify the determinants associated with the practice of self-medication in the 60-year-old or older population in the city of Salgueiro/Pernambuco/Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban zone in the city of Salgueiro - PE; questionnaires were handed out between May/01/2004 and June/06/2004 in a sample population of 355 persons aged 60 years or more. Data were processed and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 software after a double entry and validated. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 44.9% (159

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  16. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  17. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  18. Hubungan Antara Adversity Intelligence Dengan Perilaku Inovatif Pada Wirausaha Etnis Tionghoa

    OpenAIRE

    Husna, Nadrah

    2016-01-01

    This research using correlational quantitative study aimed to find out the relationship between adversity intelligence and innovative behavior in Tionghoa enterpreneur. The hypothesis in this research says that there is a positive relationship between adversity intelligence and innovative behavior in Tionghoa entrepreneur. This research involved 80 Tionghoa enterpreneur as a sample. Sampling method was done by using convenience sampling technique. The instruments of this research is adversity...

  19. Self-medication in an university population in Medellín, Colombia Estudio sobre automedicación en la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Angela Tobón Marulanda

    2002-01-01

    An exploratory, cross-section, descriptive research was carried out on self-medication in the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia, in order to better understand this public health problem. Preliminary information was obtained as basis for future work on this subject and as a way to promote an appropriate use of drugs. It was found that 97% of persons in this university self-medicate despite the fact that 88% of them know the risks of such conduct. The role of Pharmaceutical Chemists...

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  1. 提高护士监测药品不良反应能力的方法与效果%The practice and effect in improving nurse's behavior of monitoring adverse drug reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花蕾

    2007-01-01

    目的 为了充分发挥护士在药品不良反应(adverse drug reaction,ADR)监测中的作用.方法 采取加大宣传力度,建立和完善ADR监测流程,加强护士药品相关知识的培训及考核,与药师合作指导患者用药,建立激励机制,强化护士ADR监测意识等.结果 2005年较2004年住院患者对用药指导满意度、护士ADR监测报表数均有明显提高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0 05).结论 护士在ADR监测中可以发挥应有的重要作用.

  2. Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N

    2012-01-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagno...

  3. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we...... that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  4. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  5. ADVERSE SELECTION AND MANAGERIAL INCENTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Javier M. López Cuñat

    2000-01-01

    We analyze managerial contracts (i.e. incentive schemes based on a linear combination of profits and sales) under asymmetric information about costs. In the competitive setting with ex ante symmetric information, standard strategic effects appear. Under adverse selection in both, monopolistic and competitive settings, we show that, in order to decrease the manager's expected informational rents, the owner will optimally pay the manager to keep sales low or, on the contrary, keep them high. Mo...

  6. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  7. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  8. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  9. Adverse effect of sleep deprivation on hippocampus and exploratory behavior in rats%睡眠剥夺应激对大鼠海马的损伤作用及其对探究行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新兴; 梅竹松; 刘伟丽; 张志清; 武磊; 弓景波; 钱令嘉

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察睡眠剥夺应激对大鼠海马的损伤作用,并研究其对大鼠探究行为的影响.方法以改良多平台水环境(MMPM)建立睡眠剥夺模型,设大平台对照组和睡眠剥夺组.分别记录各组大鼠体质量、血浆糖皮质激素(GC)和神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)水平以及乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性的变化;常规HE染色法观察海马损伤情况;旷场实验确定大鼠自主探究能力.结果 睡眠剥夺5 d和7 d后大鼠血浆GC含量和LDH活性均显著高于对照组.睡眠剥夺3 d后血浆中NSE水平明显高于对照组,并有随时间延长而逐渐升高的趋势.病理染色和旷场实验显示,睡眠剥夺3 d后大鼠即出现海马损伤和探究行为评分降低.结论 睡眠剥夺对大鼠海马具有明显的损伤作用,可能是睡眠剥夺大鼠自主探究行为下降的重要原因.%Objective To observe the effect of sleep deprivation on hippocampus and exploratory behavior in rats. Methods The modified multiple platform method( MMPM ) was used to establish sleep deprivation model. Open-field test was applied to evaluate the behavior of the model rats. Results The sleep deprivation rats showed decreased body massin the 3rd, 5th and 7th day compared with the control groups. The glucocorticoid( GC ) content and lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) activity in the plasma of the sleep deprivation rats showed a significant reduction from 5th to 7th day compared with the control groups. The neuron specific enolase( NSE ) content in the plasma was reduced significantly in sleep deprivation rats compared with the control groups. Hematoxylin and eosin stain of tissue slice showed that sleep deprivation could induce injury to hippocampus in rats. The exploratory behavior of the sleep deprivation rats decreased significantly compared with the control groups. Conclusion Sleep deprivation can suppress the increase in body mass of rats and cause hippocampus injury. With the increase in the sleep deprivation

  10. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  11. Automedicação em estudantes universitários: a influência da área de formação Self-medication among university students: the influence of the field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayani Galato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigar a influência da área de formação de universitários na prática da automedicação. Estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários sobre o perfil dos entrevistados, a prática da automedicação e outras questões relacionadas ao manejo da saúde. Foram entrevistados 342 universitários das diferentes áreas de formação, sendo 81 da área da saúde. Destes, 37,0% referiram ter se automedicado nos últimos quinze dias. Neste período os problemas de saúde mais comuns para esta prática foram a dor em geral (90,4% adotando-se principalmente analgésicos e antitérmicos. Observou-se que ser mulher (p = 0,049 e possuir plano de saúde (p = 0,036 associaram-se significativamente a automedicação e que ser da área de saúde não está associado à prevalência desta prática (p = 0,139. Contudo, identificou-se que a influência da propaganda (p The scope of this paper was to investigate the influence of a university student's field of study upon self-medication. A cross-sectional study was conducted through the administration of questionnaires on the profile of the respondents, self-medication and other healthcare-related issues. In all, 342 students from different fields of study were interviewed, 81 of which were from the health area. Of the respondents, 37% reported self-medicating in the last fortnight. The most common health problems for self-medication in this period were general pain (90.4% and analgesics and antipyretics were the most common form of medication. It was observed that being female (p=0.049, as well as the fact of having health insurance (p=0.036, were significantly associated with self-medication and that studying in the health area was not associated with self-medication (0.139. However, it was found that the influence of advertising (p<0.001, old prescriptions (p=0.041, pharmacists or pharmacy employees (p=0.005, as well as friends, neighbors and relatives (p=0.003 were more significant among

  12. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  13. Self-medication in adult Latin American immigrants in Seville Automedicación en inmigrantes latinoamericanos adultos de Sevilla Automedicação em adultos imigrantes latinoamericanos em Sevilha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael González-López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of non-prescription pharmaceutical use in the Latin American immigrant population. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 190 immigrants. We used a questionnaire based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. RESULTS: In the past six months, 77.4% of the sample self-medicated. The prevalence of consumption of antiinflammatory and non-prescription analgesics was the highest, followed by antibiotics. A statistical difference was observed in non-prescription use of antibiotics by gender. CONCLUSION: The consumption of pharmaceuticals without a medical prescription in the Latin American immigrants in the city of Seville is high.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de consumo de fármacos sin prescripción médica en la población latinoamericana inmigrante. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra representativa de 190 inmigrantes. Se empleó un cuestionario basado en el del Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo de Riesgo de Comportamiento (BRFSS. RESULTADOS: En los últimos seis meses el 77,4% de la muestra se ha automedicado. La prevalencia de consumo de antiinflamatorios y de analgésicos sin prescripción médica fueron las más altas, siguiéndoles los antibióticos. Se observó diferencia estadística en uso sin prescripción de antibióticos por sexo. CONCLUSIÓN: El consumo de fármacos sin prescripción médica de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos de la ciudad de Sevilla es alto.OBJETIVO: Para estimar a prevalência de drogas sem receita médica na América Latina população imigrante. MÉTODO: Um estudo descritivo transversal com uma amostra representativa de 190 imigrantes. Foi utilizado um questionário com base no Sistema de Vigilância Comportamento de Risco Fatores de Risco (BRFSS. RESULTADOS: Nos últimos seis meses 77,4% da amostra foi automedicação. A prevalência de analgésicos antiinflamatórios e não sujeitos a receita

  14. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  15. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. PMID:27100471

  16. Adverse effects of antioxidative vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2012-06-01

    High doses of synthetic antioxidative vitamins: A, E, C and β-carotene are often used on long-term basis in numerous preventive and therapeutic medical applications. Instead of expected health effects, the use of those vitamins may however lead to cases of hypervitaminosis and even to intoxication. The article points out main principles of safety which are to be observed during supplementation with antioxidative vitamins. Toxic effects resulting from erroneous administration of high doses of those substances on organs and systems of the organism are also discussed. Attention is drawn to interactions of antioxidative vitamins with concomitantly used drugs, as well as intensification of adverse effects caused by various exogenous chemical factors. Moreover, the article presents the evaluation of supplementation with these vitamins, which was performed in large studies. PMID:22528540

  17. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nishat Chowdhury; Ahsanul Haque; Farjana Aysha

    2012-01-01

    Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people) under survey within 6 months prior to survey da...

  18. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as...... neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients....

  19. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  20. Metarhizium anisopliae infection alters feeding and trophallactic behavior in the ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Lu, Li-Hua; Zalucki, M P; He, Yu-Rong

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, social behavior may be changed in a way that preventing the spread of pathogens. We infected workers of the ant Solenopsis invicta with an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and then videotaped and/or measured worker feeding and trophallactic behavior. Results showed that fungal infected S. invicta enhanced their preference for bitter alkaloid chemical quinine on 3days after inoculation, which might be self-medication of S. invicta by ingesting more alkaloid substances in response to pathogenic infection. Furthermore, infected ants devoted more time to trophallactic behavior with their nestmates on 3days post inoculation, in return receiving more food. Increased interactions between exposed ants and their naive nestmates suggest the existence of social immunity in S. invicta. Overall, our study indicates that S. invicta may use behavioral defenses such as self-medication and social immunity in response to a M. anisopliae infection. PMID:27234423

  1. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  2. 心理行为干预对宫颈癌手术患者不良心理反应的影响%The effect of the psychological and behavioral intervention to the adverse psychic resctions for the patients with uterine cervix cancer operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱带妹

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate The effect of the psychological and behavioral intervention to the adverse psychic reactions for the patients with uterine cervix cancer operation.Methods 100 cases diagnosed as cervical cancer and the need for surgical treatment of the patients were randomly divided into two groups, observational group and the control group, each with 50 cases.The control group were given conventional preoperative care, preoperative use of the observational group visits, psychological counseling, health education, comprehensive interventions.Results In the adoption of a comprehensive psychological and behavioral interventions in patients with anxiety for cervical cancer surgery, depression and other negative emotions reduce significantly.Conclusions A comprehensive cervical cancer surgery in patients with the psychological and behavioral intervention, patients can significantly reduce the adverse negative emotion, increase the tolerance of surgery to make it better and improve the effectiveness of surgical treatment.%目的 探讨心理行为干预对宫颈癌手术患者不良心理反应的影响.方法 将100例确诊为宫颈癌并需手术治疗的患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组50人.对照组给予常规术前护理,观察组采用术前访枧、心理疏导、健康教育等综合干预措施.结果 通过综合的心理行为干预措施,官颈癌手术患者焦虑、抑郁等负性情绪有明显的减轻.结论 对宫颈癌手术患者进行综合的心理行为干预,能明显减轻患者不良的负性情绪,增进手术的耐受能力,使其以较好的心态接受手术治疗,提高手术治疗效果.

  3. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael J; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators...

  4. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  5. PENGARUH ADVERSITY QUOTIENT TERHADAP INTENSI BERWIRAUSAHA

    OpenAIRE

    Zahreni, Siti; Pane, Ratna Sari Dewi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to know the influence of Adversity Quotienton entrepreneurial intention og college students. This research involves 80 college students from faculty of psychology Universitas Sumatera Utara with sampling technique using convinience sampling. Data obtained processed using Simple linear regression analysis. the measuring instrument used is the scale of entrepreneurial intention and the scale of adversity quotient. Result showed that Adversity Quotient significantl...

  6. Cross-sectional descriptive study of topical self-medication in a hospital dermatology department in the state of São Paulo Estudo transversal e descritivo sobre a prática da automedicação tópica em serviço de dermatologia do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Henrique Padoveze; Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento; Flávia Regina Ferreira; Viviane Scarpa da Costa Neves

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication involves individuals or their carers administering a medical drug of their own choice for symptomatic relief and in the hope of a "cure", without seeking professional medical advice.The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Dermatology Department of the Taubaté University Hospital was to identify the occurrence of self-medication for the topical treatment of skin diseases in young people under 18, and to analyze the difficulties encountered in the clin...

  7. Assessment of attitudes towards adverse events following immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine: a pilot study among high school students of Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuani, Léon; Nzolo, Didier Bomene; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Makolo, Pavel; Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi; Ntamba, Yves Lula; Kazadi, Crispin; Nyembwe, Michel; Ekila, Mathilde Bothale; Mesia, Gauthier Kahunu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the reaction of students to adverse events following immunization in order to offer a baseline for developing a communication and risk management plan. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Kinshasa. A survey was conducted between the third and the fourth rounds of Supplementary Immunization Activity. Nine hundred and fifty questionnaires were used and addressed students who attended this university from 1 to 10 June 2011. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 848 students, with 485 females (57.2%), 343 males (40.4%), and 20 unknown (2.4%); 46.9% of students were from the faculty of medicine and 24.7% was from the third graduate degree. From those who completed the questionnaire, 136 (16.4%) reported experiencing an adverse events following immunization. Concerning the attitude of students towards adverse events following immunization, 79 students (58.5%) did nothing; 54 (40.0%) opted for self-medication; 2 (1.5%) went to the hospital. Conclusion: The main finding of our study is the low rate of people referring to health-care providers for vaccine-related problems, more specially for adverse events following immunization. A risk management plan should be focused in strategies to increase communication between population and health-care providers. PMID:25237792

  8. Joint Commission issues staff behavior standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    * Medical literature provides evidence that inappropriate behaviors can cause adverse outcomes. * The Joint Commission wants code of conduct, with consequences for bad behaviors. * Quality managers should emphasize a pattern of behavior rather than an isolated incident. PMID:18727307

  9. Learning in the Face of Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Hamid, Husein; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Reyes, Joel; Kelcey, Jo; Diaz Varela, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of how a school system can operate efficiently under adversity. The results of this work will be useful in identifying relevant policies in the Middle East and North Africa region. Palestine refugees are achieving higher-than-average learning outcomes in spite of the adverse circumstances they live under. Their education system th...

  10. Hyperglycemic adverse events following antipsychotic drug administration in spontaneous adverse event reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yamato; Umetsu, Ryogo; Abe, Junko; Ueda, Natsumi; NAKAYAMA, Yoko; Kinosada, Yasutomi; NAKAMURA, MITSUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Background Antipsychotics are potent dopamine antagonists used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between antipsychotic drugs and adverse hyperglycemic events using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. In particular, we focused on adverse hyperglycemic events associated with atypical antipsychotic use, which are major concerns. Findings We analyzed reports of adverse hyperglycemic events associated with 26 an...

  11. Etiology and self-medication of pruritus vulvae%女性外阴瘙痒病因及用药调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪连; 王高峰; 刘芳; 孔庆涛; 冯姣; 党洁明; 桑红

    2012-01-01

    目的 外阴瘙痒病因复杂,且外阴瘙痒患者普遍存在自行用药治疗的问题.文中调查分析女性外阴瘙痒患者病因及自行用药情况.方法 收集262例皮肤科及妇产科门诊女性外阴瘙痒患者,分别对她们进行阴道分泌物真菌学镜检及其他一系列实验室检查.调查分析所有患者就诊之前外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis,VVC)病史及自行应用药物特别是抗真菌药物的情况,分析比较有VVC病史与无VVC病史2组患者之间2月内抗真菌药物自行使用率及就诊时分泌物直接镜检念珠菌阳性率.结果 对262例以外阴瘙痒为主诉的患者进行研究发现VVC、其他细菌性阴道炎及细菌性阴道病(bacterial vaginosis,BV)为引起外阴瘙痒的主要原因.再次就诊时,有VVC病史与无VVC病史患者之间VVC患病率差异无统计学意义;有VVC病史的患者就诊之前抗真菌药物的使用率明显高于无VVC病史的患者.结论 许多外阴瘙痒患者根据既往临床确诊的VVC病史错误的使用抗真菌药物,仅靠VVC病史并不能可靠地诊断为VVC.%Objective The etiology of pruritus vulvae is complex, and many of the pmritic patients have the history of self-medication. The present study aims to investigate the etiology of pruritus vulvae and the proportion of pruritic women purchasing over-the-counter products for its treatment. Methods A total of 262 women complaining of pruritus vulvae underwent microscopic and laboratory examinations of the vaginal secretion, and received a questionnaire investigation on the history of vulvovaginal candidiasis ( VVC ) and the use of over-the-counter products for the its treatment of pruritic symptoms. We analyzed the proportion of the self-users of antifungal drugs in the past 2 months and the rate of VVC on direct examination in those with and those without previously diagnosed VVC. Results The main causes of pruritus vulvae in the 262 women were VVC, bacterial

  12. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  14. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  15. Midlife Determinants Associated with Sedentary Behavior in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Bosma, Hans; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Martin, Kathryn R; Brychta, Robert J; Chen, Kong Y; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erlingur; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Harris, Tamara B; Koster, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with adverse health effects. To prevent sedentary behavior and limit health risks, insights into associated determinants are essential. Sedentary behavior should be viewed as a distinct health behavior, therefore its determinants should be independently identified...

  16. Childhood adversity and asthma prevalence: evidence from 10 US states (2009–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhan, Nandita; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing evidence on stress and asthma prevalence has disproportionately focused on pregnancy and postpregnancy early life stressors, largely ignoring the role of childhood adversity as a risk factor. Childhood adversity (neglect, stressful living conditions and maltreatment) may influence asthma prevalence through mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Methods: Data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys we...

  17. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua; Cibele C. César; Palmira F. Bonolo; Francisco A. Acurcio; Mark Drew C. Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month) after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtai...

  18. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  19. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive def...

  20. Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a sta...

  1. Equilibrium in financial markets with adverse selection

    OpenAIRE

    Takalo, Tuomas; Toivanen, Otto

    2003-01-01

    We study a financial market adverse selection model where all agents are endowed with initial wealth and choose to invest as entrepreneurs or financiers, or not to invest. We show that often a lack of outside finance leads to the emergence of financial markets where availability of outside finance leads to autarky. We find that i) there exist Pareto- efficient and inefficient equilibria; ii) adverse selection has more severe consequences for poorer economies; iii) increasing initial wealth ma...

  2. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    OpenAIRE

    VM Morais; H Massaldi

    2009-01-01

    Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism ...

  3. Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Annica; Olai, Anders; Rutberg, Hans; Nilsen, Per; Tropp, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine). Methods We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 200...

  4. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  5. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  6. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  7. Seamless prevention of adverse events from tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The boom in tattooing has been paralleled by more frequent adverse events, which may be localised in the skin or systemic and manifested clinically or latent. Infections, allergic reactions from red-coloured tattoos and papulo-nodular reactions from black tattoos dominate. Mild complaints are very...... to hygienic security. Records and documentation of tattoo cases with complications and the culprit inks as well as the establishment of national or European-based surveillance systems that are properly equipped to deliver efficient clarification and handling of adverse events and hazards of tattooing and inks...

  8. The FDA's Use of Adverse Publicity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Leon

    1998-01-01

    Of all the regulatory tools available to the FDA in fulfilling its duties, one of the most contentious and problematic is its use of adverse publicity. Whether it is because of its quasi-statutory status, the questionable legality of its often unregulated use, or its great potential for harm to those it is directed at, there are many who object to the use of adverse publicity by the FDA. However, one cannot deny its significant effectiveness as a regulatory tool and its often necessary and ju...

  9. Farmácias domiciliares e sua relação com a automedicação em crianças e adolescentes Home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S. V. Tourinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características das farmácias domiciliares e sua relação com a automedicação em crianças e adolescentes dos municípios de Limeira e Piracicaba (SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar de uma amostra aleatória simples de ambos os municípios, constituída de 705 domicílios de setores censitários selecionados por meio de amostragem por conglomerado. Critérios de inclusão: idade ≤ 18 anos; entrevista obrigatória com um dos responsáveis; inventário da farmácia domiciliar e ter consumido pelo menos um medicamento nos 15 dias prévios à data da entrevista. Segundo o uso de medicamentos, os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos de estudo: automedicação (orientação leiga e prescrição médica. Foram realizados testes de associação linear, análise descritiva das variáveis e regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 3.619 medicamentos (média = 5,1/domicílio; 79,6% especialidades farmacêuticas. Os principais cômodos de estoque foram dormitórios (47,5%, cozinha (29,9% e banheiros (14,6%; 76,5% em caixas de papelão e em locais de fácil alcance a 142 crianças com idade ≤ 6 anos. Considerando somente as especialidades farmacêuticas (n = 2.891, as mais freqüentes foram analgésicos/antipiréticos (26,8% e antibióticos sistêmicos (15,3%, sendo o estoque desses medicamentos significativamente mais elevado no grupo automedicação (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive population study based on a home survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria: age ≤ 18 years; an obligatory interview with at least one guardian; inventory of medicines kept at home

  10. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  11. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  12. Cardiac adverse effects of nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Smoking markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nicotine replacement therapy is available to assist in smoking cessation. To assess the cardiac adverse effects of nicotine replacement therapy, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. A meta-analysis of 21 randomised, placebo-controlled trials published in early 2014 included a total of 11 647 patients, including 828 patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and 187 patients with acute coronary disorders. It showed that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with an increased risk of cardiac disorders, particularly palpitations, which are a known adverse effect of smoking. Among patients at high cardiovascular risk, 1.2% experienced a serious cardiovascular event, with no statistically significant difference versus placebo. Bupropion and varenicline both have serious adverse effects and have been less extensively evaluated in patients at high cardiovascular risk. In practice, when a drug is needed to assist in smoking cessation, nicotine appears to be a reasonable choice. Nicotine replacement therapy exposes patients to a risk of palpitations but rarely to serious cardiac disorders, even in individuals with a cardiovascular history. In addition, these adverse effects are better documented than those of bupropion and varenidine in such patients. Nonetheless, the cardiac effects of nicotine call for prudent use of nicotine replacement therapy: the minimum effective dose should be sought, and the goal should be total nicotine withdrawal. PMID:26788573

  13. Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Associated With Teenage Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Choudhary, Dilip; Narayan, K.C.; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Achyut; Chauhan, Siddharth Singh; Agrawal, Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction It is debated whether teenage pregnancy is associated with an adverse reproductive outcome. This study assessed the reproductive outcomes in teenage pregnancy in Nepal, a developing setting. Methods A hospital based retrospective cohort study of 4,101 deliveries to compare the outcomes between teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. Results Pregnancy in teenagers was associated with significantly increased risk (P

  14. Orthokeratology vs. spectacles: Adverse events and discontinuations

    OpenAIRE

    Santodomingo Rubido, Jacinto; Villa Collar, César; Gilmartin, Bernard; Gutiérrez Ortega, Ángel Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the relative clinical success of orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) and distance single-vision spectacles (SV) in children in terms of incidences of adverse events and discontinuations over a 2-year period. Methods. Sixty-one subjects 6 to 12 years of age with myopia of - 0.75 to - 4.00DS and astigmatism

  15. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  16. Self-medication in an university population in Medellín, Colombia Estudio sobre automedicación en la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Angela Tobón Marulanda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory, cross-section, descriptive research was carried out on self-medication in the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia, in order to better understand this public health problem. Preliminary information was obtained as basis for future work on this subject and as a way to promote an appropriate use of drugs. It was found that 97% of persons in this university self-medicate despite the fact that 88% of them know the risks of such conduct. The role of Pharmaceutical Chemists in educating the community to avoid selfmedication is emphasized. Se presenta una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva de corte transversal sobre la automedicación en la Universidad de Antioquia. Se plantea que diversas variables asociadas a los medicamentos pueden contribuir a problemas de salud pública por el uso no óptimo de los mismos. Se pretende dar a conocer a la comunidad universitaria cuál es su situación al respecto y obtener información preliminar para futuras investigaciones como base para formular estrategias que permitan incentivar la utilización sana de los medicamentos. Según diversos estudios, la cantidad de fármacos automedicados crece continuamente en el país y en el mundo. A este fenómeno parece no escaparse la Universidad de Antioquia. Este hábito tiene importantes repercusiones en la salud y en el rol del Químico Farmacéutico (QF como integrante del sistema de salud. A pesar de que la comunidad universitaria conoce las implicaciones, riesgos y desventajas del uso inapropiado de medicamentos, se halló que el 97% de las personas se automedican, a pesar de que el 88% informan que conocen el posible riesgo de este hábito. También usan las medicinas alternativas aunque consultan con frecuencia al médico.

  17. Depictions of Insomniacs’ Behaviors and Thoughts in Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance H. Fung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Studies have found that depictions of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., illicit substance use, violence are common in popular music lyrics; however, we are unaware of any studies that have specifically analyzed the content of music lyrics for unhealthy sleep-related behaviors. We sought to determine whether behaviors known to perpetuate insomnia symptoms are commonly depicted in the lyrics of popular music. Methods. We searched three online lyrics sites for lyrics with the word “insomnia” in the title and performed content analysis of each of the lyrics. Lyrics were analyzed for the presence/absence of the following perpetuating factors: extending sleep opportunity, using counter fatigue measures, self-medicating, and engaging in rituals or anti-stimulus control behaviors. Results. We analyzed 83 music lyrics. 47% described one or more perpetuating factor. 30% described individual(s engaging in rituals or antistimulus control strategies, 24% described self-medicating, 7% described engaging in counter fatigue measures, and 2% described extending sleep opportunity (e.g., napping during daytime. Conclusion. Maladaptive strategies known to perpetuate insomnia symptoms are common in popular music. Our results suggest that listeners of these sleep-related songs are frequently exposed to lyrics that depict maladaptive coping mechanisms. Additional studies are needed to examine the direct effects of exposing individuals to music lyrics with this content.

  18. Coevolution of cooperation, response to adverse social ties and network structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Van Segbroeck; Francisco C Santos; Jorge M. Pacheco; Tom Lenaerts

    2010-01-01

    Human social networks reshape continuously, as individuals forge new contacts while abandoning existing ones. Simultaneously, individuals adapt their behavior, leading to an intricate interplay been network evolution and behavior evolution. Here, we review a framework, called Active Linking, which allows an analytical treatment of such a co-evolutionary dynamics. Using this framework we showed that an increase in the number of ways of responding to adverse interactions leads an overall increa...

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  20. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Atsma, F.; Dongen, A. van; Kort, W. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB variab

  1. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions caused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. In the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of a more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost.

  2. Revisiting cutaneous adverse reactions to pemetrexed

    OpenAIRE

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale; Reginster, Marie‑Annick; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2011-01-01

    Pemetrexed (Alimta®) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of a small number of malignancies including advanced and metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma. This review reports the recent peer-reviewed publications and original findings regarding cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to pemetrexed. Pemetrexed-related CARs are frequently reported under the unspecific t...

  3. Adverse Reactions to Radiographic Contrast Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, William H.; Mullarkey, Michael F.; Webb, D. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Major adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media will occur more often as contrast material is now also administered during computerized tomographic (CT) scanning. Differentiation of the two major contrast reactions, the vagus reaction and the anaphylactoid reaction, is essential. Bradycardia is the key finding for identifying the vagus reaction. The vagus reaction involving hypotension and bradycardia requires treatment with large doses of atropine given intravenously. The immediate ge...

  4. Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of family physicians functioning as monitors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) was examined over one month in ten practices. This was done as a preliminary trial, before attempting to use the 200 family physicians of the National Reporting System of the College of Family Physicians of Canada to monitor ADRs on a national basis. Both of these trials were designed to examine the feasibility of family physicians acting as prospective monitors of ADRs in newly marketed drugs and to ...

  5. Valuation, Adverse Selection, and Market Collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Fishman; Parker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    We study a market for funding real investment in which valuation creates information on which adverse selection can occur. Unlike in previous models, higher amounts of valuation are associated with lower market prices and so greater returns to valuation, and this strategic complementarity in the capacity to do valuation generates multiple equilibria. In this region, the equilibrium without valuation is always more efficient despite funding projects that valuation would reveal as unprofitable....

  6. Adverse selection and heterogeneity of demand responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Normann

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distortions of (health) insurers' benefit levels due to adverse selection if individuals' responsiveness to differences in contracts is heterogeneous. Within a discrete choice model with two risk types and imperfect competition the following results are shown: In the pooling equilibrium, a positive correlation of low risk and high responsiveness (e.g., younger individuals being both healthier and faster to switch insurers than older individuals) increases the distortio...

  7. Reporting vaccine-associated adverse events.

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, P.; Hockin, J; Pless, R; Lawlor, B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine family physicians' awareness of the need to monitor and report vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAE) in Canada and to identify mechanisms that could facilitate reporting. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Canadian family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 747 family physicians. Overall response rate was 32% (226 of 717 eligible physicians). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Access to education on VAAE; knowledge about VAAE monitoring systems, reporting criteria, and repor...

  8. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  9. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  10. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  11. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-10-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients. PMID:27504593

  12. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtained from baseline and follow-up interviews and clinical variables from medical charts. Patients with four or more reactions were compared to those with less than four. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were estimated using logistic regression model for both univariate and multivariate analyses. At least one adverse reaction was reported by 92.2% of the participants while 56.2% reported four or more different reactions. Antiretroviral regimens including indinavir/ritonavir, irregular use of antiretrovirals and switch in regimens were independently associated with four or more adverse reactions (OR=7.92, 5.73 and 2.03, respectively. The initial period of ARV treatment is crucial and patients´ perception of adverse reactions should be carefully taken into account. Strategies for monitoring and management of adverse reactions including the choice of regimens and the prevention of irregular ART should be developed in AIDS/HIV referral centers in Brazil to promote better adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  13. Automedicação em idosos residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-medication in the elderly population of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antunes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à automedicação em idosos e identificar os principais fármacos consumidos sem prescrição. Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra estratificada por conglomerados e em dois estágios realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2008-2009. Dos 1.515 idosos, 80,4% referiram uso de ao menos um medicamento nos três dias anteriores à pesquisa. Desses, 91,1% relataram consumo exclusivo de medicamentos prescritos e o restante (8,9%, uso simultâneo de prescritos e não prescritos. Após ajuste, idade > 80 anos, hipertensão arterial, presença de doenças crônicas, uso de serviços de saúde, realização de consultas odontológicas e filiação a plano médico de saúde estiveram associadas negativamente, e renda per capita, positivamente à automedicação. Os fármacos sem prescrição mais consumidos foram dipirona, AAS, diclofenaco, Ginkgo biloba, paracetamol e homeopáticos. Sobretudo entre idosos, a assistência farmacêutica deve ser priorizada para evitar o uso incorreto de medicamentos e garantir o acesso aos fármacos necessários ao tratamento.The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative factors associated with self-medication in the elderly and identify the main drugs consumed without prescription. A cross-sectional population-based study with stratified clustered two-stage sampling was performed in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil in 2008 and 2009. Of the 1,515 elderly studied, 80.4% reported using at least one drug duringthe three days preceding the survey. Of these, 91.1% reported the use of prescription drugs only and the remainder (8.9% reported simultaneous use of prescribed and non prescribed drugs. After adjustment, a negative association between age > 80 years, hypertension, chronic diseases, use of health services, dental consultations and adherence to a medical plan,and self-medication was found, whereas a positive association was

  14. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  15. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  16. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  17. Adverse reactions to milk in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kvenshagen, Bente; Halvorsen, Ragnhild; Jacobsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Aim To study the age when symptoms of adverse reactions to milk occur, in premature and term children, the debut of various symptoms, immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and non-IgE-mediated reactions and the frequency of tolerance at 1 year. Methods Six hundred and eight children, 193 premature and 416 term infants, were followed. Symptomatic children were invited to a clinical examination. The criteria for the diagnosis were: histories of suspected cow's milk allergy (CMA) and proven IgE-mediated react...

  18. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned. PMID:19424521

  19. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency: Plausible mechanisms linking early family adversity to health problems in college women

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, SRM; Zawadzki, MJ; Heron, KE; Vartanian, LR; Smyth, JM

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women.Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010.Participants completed self-report measures of early family adversity, self-focused (self-esteem, personal growth initiative) and other-focused (perceived social support, gratitude) resiliency, stress, subjective health, and hea...

  20. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  1. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  2. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  3. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Latest Quartely Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...

  4. The influence of thyroid disorders on adverse pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vissenberg

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the underlying pathophysiology and treatment possibilities. The association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes is investigated in a systematic review and two retrospective cohort stud

  5. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  6. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  7. Childhood adversities and subsequent risk of one or multiple abortions

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have found an association between childhood adversities and mental health disorders, few have examined whether childhood adversities are linked to having abortions. This research investigates the association between a range of childhood adversities and risk of abortion in part to identify which adversities should be considered when examining the association between abortion and subsequent mental health. Using the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we t...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  9. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports to: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). FDA may waive the... history of actions taken since the last report because of adverse experiences (for example,...

  10. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse...

  11. Enriched environment and antidepressant treatment during juvenility overcome the memory deficits and depressive-like behavior induced by early adverse stress%丰富环境和艾司西酞普兰对母婴分离大鼠成年早期抑郁样行为和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 张志珺; 惠姣洁; 奚广军; 林代华; 张向荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨丰富环境和艾司西酞普兰对母婴分离大鼠成年早期抑郁样行为和学习记忆行为的影响.方法 新生雄性SD大鼠随机分为母婴分离组(MS)和非分离组(NMS),断奶后至成年早期予以丰富环境(EE)和艾司西酞普兰(Drag)干预,利用蔗糖水消耗实验和强迫游泳实验评估大鼠抑郁样行为,水迷宫实验评估大鼠学习记忆能力.结果 (1)蔗糖水消耗实验:MS组蔗糖水消耗比例[(0.013±0.006)ml/g,n=10]显著低于以下5组[MS+EE组(0.023±0.007)%,n=8];Ms+Drug组[(0.027±0.012)%,n=9];NMS组[(0.022±0.007)%,n=11];NMS+EE组[(0.023±0.007)%,n=7];NMS+Drug组[(0.032±0.011)%,n=7],差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05),而NMS+Drug组蔗糖水消耗比例显著高于NMS组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)强迫游泳实验:经母婴分离处理的3组大鼠不动时间[MS组(140.19±37.01)s,n=8];MS+EE组[(129.41±29.50)s,n=6];MS+Drug组[(128.83±26.11)s,n=6]均显著长于未经受母婴分离组别NMS组[(96.28±35.63)s,n=7];NMS+EE组(94.17±24.87)s,n=6];NMS+Drug组[(93.00± 34.21)s,n=6],差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);(3)水迷宫实验:水迷宫空间探索阶段,MS组大鼠站台象限活动时间以及活动距离百分比均显著短于其他5组,NMS+Drug组两指标较NMS组显著延长,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 新生期母婴分离大鼠成年早期存在快感缺失、行为绝望和学习记忆能力受损,可被丰富环境和药物干预在一定程度上逆转.%Objective To explore the effect of postweaning enriched environment and citalopram treatment during juvenility on the behaviour of male rats exposed to early adverse stress. Methods The newborn pups were randomly divided into maternal separation group (MS) and non-maternal separation group (NMS). Offspring were weaned on PND22 and housed in same-rearing groups under either standard or enriched conditions or citalopram treatment until adulthood. All of them were examined by sucrose

  12. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  13. Managing Adverse Events With Immune Checkpoint Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadu, Ramona; Zobniw, Chrystia; Diab, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand antibodies) have shown impressive clinical activity in multiple cancer types. Despite achieving great clinical success, challenges and limitations of these drugs as monotherapy or various combinational strategies include the development of a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can be severe and even fatal. Therefore, identification of patients at risk, prevention, consistent communication between patients and medical team, rapid recognition, and treatment of irAEs are critical in optimizing treatment outcomes. This review focuses on the description of more common irAEs and provides a suggested approach for management of specific irAEs. PMID:27111908

  14. Periodontal treatment for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal treatment might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. The efficacy of periodontal treatment to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality was evaluated using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. METHODS: An existing systematic review was updated...... assess risk of random errors. RESULTS: Thirteen randomized clinical trials evaluating 6283 pregnant women were meta-analyzed. Four and nine trials had low and high risk of bias, respectively. Overall, periodontal treatment had no significant effect on preterm birth (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.......79 [0.57-1.10]) or low birth weight (0.69 [0.43-1.13]). Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. For populations with moderate occurrence (<20%) of preterm birth or low birth weight, periodontal treatment was not efficacious for any of the outcomes...

  15. [Adverse reactions to food in daycare children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, B I; Alfaro, A N; Jiménez, C C; González, G J

    1996-01-01

    A prospective descriptive survey was applied to 291 children of three different nurseries in Guadalajara, México. Medical history was done to the suspicious ones, from those, only 11 were positive (3.78%). The presumptive diagnosis of food allergy was based on the patient's history, food challenges and food elimination. The most frequent age of presentation was at 2 (34.7%) and at 4 (34.7%) years old. The food reactions were: lactose intolerance (1.7%), allergy to eggs (0.6%), carrots (0.3%), food additives (0.6%), sausages and ham (0.3%), gettina a prevalence of adverse reaction of 3.7% to food in this population. The ablactation began before three months of age in all the children with allergenic meals like: citrics (43.3%) and eggs (13%). The clinical manifestations found were diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distense, flatulence palpebral edema of nose, cheeks and hands. PMID:8814889

  16. Adverse reactions to injectable aesthetic microimplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, C; Izquierdo, M J; Navarro, M; Martínez, A; Vilata, J J; Botella, R; Amorrortu, J; Sabater, V; Aliaga, A; Requena, L

    2001-06-01

    New inert materials such as polymerized silicones, Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are now being used as injectable aesthetic microimplants. These substances are better than the old ones because they tend not to migrate and do not usually produce much of a host immune response. Adverse reactions after injection of these materials are rare, although there are a few reported cases as a result of bad technique or anomalous granulomatous reactions. We report on four patients with unsightly results after cosmetic microimplants, including one of Artecoll, one of Dermalive (to the best of our knowledge, the latter is the first such case reported), and two of silicone. This report describes the histopathologic features of cutaneous reactions to these injectable aesthetic materials. PMID:11391099

  17. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992

  18. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...

  19. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Mayumi eNishi; Noriko eHorii-Hayashi; Takayo eSasagawa

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not ...

  20. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, T.L.; Raineki, C.; Salstein, L.; Perry, R; Wilson, T. A. Sullivan; Sloan, A.; Lalji, B.; Hammock, E.; Wilson, D. A.; Levitt, P; Okutani, F.; Kaba, H. (Harry); R.M. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltr...

  1. Adverse reactions to new anticonvulsant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I C; Lhatoo, S D

    2000-07-01

    A lack of systematic pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to anticonvulsants makes it difficult to assess accurately the incidence of anticonvulsant-related ADRs. Most of the available information in this regard stems from clinical trial experience, case reports and postmarketing surveillance, sources that are not, by any means, structured to provide precise data on adverse event epidemiology. For various ethical, statistical and logistical reasons, the organisation of structured clinical trials that are likely to provide substantial data on ADRs is extremely difficult. This review concentrates on current literature concerning serious and life-threatening ADRs. As with the older anticonvulsants, the majority of ADRs to newer anticonvulsants are CNS-related, although there are several that are apparently unique to some of these new drugs. Gabapentin has been reported to cause aggravation of seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric disturbances. Felbamate should only be prescribed under close medical supervision because of aplastic anaemia and hepatotoxicity. Lamotrigine causes hypersensitivity reactions that range from simple morbilliform rashes to multi-organ failure. Psychiatric ADRs and deterioration of seizure control have also been reported with lamotrigine treatment. Oxcarbazepine has a safety profile similar to that of carbamazepine. Hyponatraemia associated with oxcarbazepine is also a problem; however, it is less likely to cause rash than carbamazepine. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been reported frequently with tiagabine, although there are insufficient data at present to identify risk factors for this ADR. Topiramate frequently causes cognitive ADRs and, in addition, also appears to cause word-finding difficulties, renal calculi and bodyweight loss. Vigabatrin has been reported to cause seizure aggravation, especially in myoclonic seizures. There have been rare reports of other neurological ADRs to

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior. PMID:25711615

  3. Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. In the industry, excessive exposures to airborne Cd may impair lung function and increase the risk of lung cancer. All these effects have been described in populations with relatively high exposures to Cd in the industrial or in heavily polluted environments. Recent studies, however, suggest that the chronic low environmental exposure to Cd now prevailing in industrialized countries can adversely affect the kidneys and bones of the general population. These studies show consistent associations between various renal and bone biomarkers and the urinary excretion of Cd used to assess Cd body burden. The public health impact of these findings are still unknown. Further research is needed to ascertain that these associations are truly causal and not secondary to parallel changes in Cd metabolism and in the bone or kidney function occurring because of ageing or diseases unrelated to Cd exposure. PMID:19106447

  4. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701

  5. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  6. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  7. Maternal Periodontitis, Preeclampsia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourandokht Afshari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Preeclampsia is a considerable problem of pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction and placental hypoxia are the current hypothesis of preeclampsia. Chronic inflammation, including periodontitis may provoke systemic maternal and placental pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction, which represent a significant risk factor for diseases of vascular origin. So this study was carried out to evaluate the possible relationship between periodontitis and preeclampsia. Methods: A total of 360 pregnant women were included, corresponding to 180 pregnant women with mild or sever periodotitis in one group and 180 pregnant women with periodontal health in the other group. Periodontitis was determined by the sum of all pockets with pocket probing depth (PPD ≥4mm and bleeding on probing. periodontal health was defined as the absence of PPD≥ 4mm. Then two groups evaluated to determine the presence of preeclampsia. After delivery, Child weight at birth and gestational age was also evaluated. Chi square and t test analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: There was statistically significant difference between two groups in presence of preeclampsia (p=0.003. Women who had a worse periodontal condition were at higher risk for preeclampsia. In addition, birth weight and gestational age was statistically lower in the case group than the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The results indicate that the presence and severity of peridontitis increase the risk for occurrence of preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  9. [Treatments with immunoglobulin and thrombotic adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnige, L; Lillo-Le Louët, A

    2014-01-01

    Treatments with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (Ig) are used in a broad variety of disorders. Tolerance of Ig is usually good but adverse events, including some serious ones, have been reported and may differ among different Ig preparations. Thrombotic complications occur in 0.6 to 13% of cases and can involve arterial or venous circulation, rarely both. Deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, stroke or myocardial infarction remained the most frequent thrombotic complications. Some risk factors have been identified, mainly old age, multiple cardiovascular risk factors, and past history of thrombo-embolic manifestations. Several mechanisms are suggested to explain this increased risk of thrombotic complications. Indeed, Ig treatments increase the plasma viscosity, increase and activate platelets, can trigger the coagulation cascade through the presence of activated factor XI in some Ig preparations, and release vasoactive molecules responsible for vasospasm. Patients have to be carefully monitored and risk factors to be identified as soon as possible. The role of antiplatelets or anticoagulation is not well determined but should probably be proposed to patients with high risk. PMID:24011913

  10. Self-Medication and the Only Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ronald L.; Lerner, Steven E.

    1972-01-01

    Study results reveal certain personal conflicts predisposing the use of tranquilizers, related to the family structure unique to the only child. Further research is required to substantiate these findings and related causes. (Author)

  11. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying ma...

  12. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  13. Clinical survey on adverse reaction of contrast media, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a final analysis of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media examined in 33,440 patients from 11 hospitals during the period from October 1983 through June 1986. Adverse reactions, such as nausea, exanthema and vomiting, to contrast media occurred in 2,523 patients (7.5 %), with the higher number occuring in patients aged 40 - 60, irrespective of sex. There were no significant alternations in vital signs. Patients positive for pretesting and having a history of allergy had higher incidences of adverse reactions (48 % and 52 %, respectively). A history of allergy is the most potential predictor for adverse reactions to contrast media. There was no definitive correlation between prior medication of contrast media and the occurrence of their adverse reactions. The relationship between the occurrence of adverse reactions and both kinds and dosage of contrast media was unknown. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J; Mooren, Trudy T M; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18-42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children's insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships. PMID:26982876

  15. Does Adverse Selection Matter? Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The empirical evidence of adverse selection in insurance markets is mixed. The problem in assessing the extent of adverse selection is that private information, on which agents act, is generally unobservable to the researcher, which makes it difficult to distinguish between adverse selection and moral hazard. Unique micro data, from a dental insurance natural experiment, is here used to provide a direct test of selection. All agents in a population were stratified into different risk classes,...

  16. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Exley; Alyson Norman; Michael Hyland

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electron...

  17. EDITORIAL ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: A MULTIFORM PATHOLOGY RESPONSABILITY OF MANY

    OpenAIRE

    Joan-Ramon Laporte

    2009-01-01

    Possibly still are health professionals that when hearing about adverse drug reactions only think in cutaneous rash, blood dyscrasias, anaphylactic shock and congenital malformations. The mentioned adverse effects are real, but relatively infrequent. Furthermore, are unexpected, not related with the pharmacological mechanism of action, unpredictable and dose independent. These adverse drug reactions are like a therapeutic lottery, depending on «luck».However, when the pharmacological patholog...

  18. Assessing Incentives for Adverse Selection in Health Plan Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Layton; Ellis, Randall P.; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance markets face two forms of adverse selection problems. On the demand side, adverse selection leads to plan price distortions and inefficient sorting of consumers across health plans. On the supply side, adverse selection creates incentives for plans to inefficiently distort benefits to attract profitable enrollees. These problems can be addressed by features of health plan payment systems such as reinsurance, risk adjustment, and premium categories. In this paper, we develop H...

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviours in female prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana Ferreira Cardoso; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Adversity during childhood has been the object of innumerous Psychology studies, justified by its prevalence and decisive impact in the development of human being. The most relevant results confirm that adverse childhood experiences increase the incidence of physical and psychological disturbances in adult age. We intends to characterizes adverse childhood experiences and relate them to health risk behaviour and with psychopathological symptoms, as found within a sample group of 4...

  20. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood.Objective: This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support.M...

  1. Perbedaan Adversity Quotient Pada Wirausahawan Batak Toba Dan Jawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Olyfia Karona

    2013-01-01

    Adversity quotient is a capability of anyone to survive in any difficult condition and solve the problems to achieve a success either in the work or life. This is a quantitative comparative research that aims to know the difference of adversity quotient between Batak Toba entrepreneur and Javanese entrepreneur. The hypothesis in this research says that adversity quotient of Batak Toba entrepreneur is higher than Javanese entrepreneur. This research involved 200 entrepreneurs, consisting...

  2. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Dianne Bautista Solis; Elna R. Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to tes...

  3. First-Trimester Fasting Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Younes, Grace; Damti, Amit; Auslender, Ron

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study found strong associations between higher levels of maternal glucose at 24–32 weeks, within what is currently considered normoglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between first-trimester fasting plasma glucose level and adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Charts of all patients who delivered at our hospital between June 2001 and June 2006 were reviewed. Only s...

  4. Reputation and Persistence of Adverse Selection in Secondary Loan Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Ali Shourideh; Ariel Zetlin-Jones

    2014-01-01

    The volume of new issuances in secondary loan markets fluctuates over time and falls when collateral values fall. We develop a model with adverse selection and reputation that is consistent with such fluctuations. Adverse selection ensures that the volume of trade falls when collateral values fall. Without reputation, the equilibrium has separation, adverse selection is quickly resolved, and trade volume is independent of collateral value. With reputation, the equilibrium has pooling and adve...

  5. Children and ADRs (Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleone Ettore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicines are prescribed to the paediatric population on an unlicensed or 'off-label' basis because they have not been adequately tested and/or formulated and authorized for use in appropriate paediatric age groups. Regulatory authorities also need to remind health professionals about the importance of their contribution towards the process of paediatric pharmacovigilance thanks to their reporting of adverse drug reactions. The lack of reliable data in the paediatric population is associated with specific problems including: limited availability of safety data due to the lack of clinical trials in the paediatric population; under- or over-dosing in some age groups due to the lack of pharmacokinetics data or dose-finding studies; maturation, growth and development of the paediatric population susceptible to drug-induced growth and development disorders as well as to delayed ADRs not findable in adults. Pre-marketing trials are able to provide information about the benefits of drugs but do not manage to establish a safety profile. Spontaneous reporting of suspected ADRs become an important means to promote reasonable warning signs. Therefore some ADRs may be known in their qualitative aspect and quantitative aspect only after successful marketing and use in the population during a "normal" use. When the drug is used in clinical practice in large unselected populations, epidemiological post-marketing studies are useful as they find their major confirmation in recalling all the events that occur during monitoring, with estimates of incidence of ADRs that can not be obtained by spontaneous reports. In these studies a significant role can be played by the Family Pediatricians with the participation to active pharmacovigilance projects.

  6. Predicting adverse side effects of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Liang-Chin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of toxicity and unintended side effects can lead to improved drug safety and efficacy. One promising form of study comes from molecular systems biology in the form of "systems pharmacology". Systems pharmacology combines data from clinical observation and molecular biology. This approach is new, however, and there are few examples of how it can practically predict adverse reactions (ADRs from an experimental drug with acceptable accuracy. Results We have developed a new and practical computational framework to accurately predict ADRs of trial drugs. We combine clinical observation data with drug target data, protein-protein interaction (PPI networks, and gene ontology (GO annotations. We use cardiotoxicity, one of the major causes for drug withdrawals, as a case study to demonstrate the power of the framework. Our results show that an in silico model built on this framework can achieve a satisfactory cardiotoxicity ADR prediction performance (median AUC = 0.771, Accuracy = 0.675, Sensitivity = 0.632, and Specificity = 0.789. Our results also demonstrate the significance of incorporating prior knowledge, including gene networks and gene annotations, to improve future ADR assessments. Conclusions Biomolecular network and gene annotation information can significantly improve the predictive accuracy of ADR of drugs under development. The use of PPI networks can increase prediction specificity and the use of GO annotations can increase prediction sensitivity. Using cardiotoxicity as an example, we are able to further identify cardiotoxicity-related proteins among drug target expanding PPI networks. The systems pharmacology approach that we developed in this study can be generally applicable to all future developmental drug ADR assessments and predictions.

  7. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students Prevalencia y caracterización de la práctica de automedicación para alivio del dolor entre estudiantes universitarios de enfermería Prevalência e caracterização da prática de automedicação para alívio da dor entre estudantes universitários de enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Layz Alves Ferreira Souza; Camila Damázio da Silva; Gisely Carvalho Ferraz; Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa; Lílian Varanda Pereira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were...

  8. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv J. Modi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media may be classified as general and organ-specific, such as contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. General adverse reactions may be sub classified into acute and delayed types. Acute general adverse reactions can range from transient minor reactions to life-threatening severe reactions. This study was done to determine clinical adverse effects of the iodinated contrast media. Methods: Data of 899 consecutive patients at C.U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar, who received sodium meglumine diatrizoate intravenous iodinated contrast media during the period of May 2011 to April 2012, were collected for any adverse drug reactions. Results: Out of 899, 189 patients developed adverse contrast reactions. The incidences of mild, moderate and severe adverse reactions were 19.47%, 1.33% and 0.28%, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions according to gender (males 21.1%; females 20.7%; p= >0.05 or age (p= >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in patients with a history of previous reactions (50% than in those with no history (21.25%; p= <0.05. Conclusions: The skin was the most commonly affected site of reactions. In reactions, mild forms were more common compared to moderate and severe. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 211-215

  9. Childhood Adversity Among Institutionalized Male Juvenile Offenders and Other High-Risk Groups Without Offense Records in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ricardo José; Fernandes, Ana Isabel; Mesquita, Cristina; Maia, Ângela Costa

    2015-01-01

    The literature has shown that delinquent adolescents report high rates of childhood adversity and family dysfunction. However, it is important to know both the degree of adversity among delinquent adolescents in comparison with other high-risk samples and the contribution of each single form of adversity to this comparison. The purpose of this study was to evaluate childhood adversity, psychopathology, and risk behaviors among 4 high-risk groups, including incarcerated delinquent youths. The participants were 120 male youths between 13 and 19 years old (M = 16.18, SD = 1.26), including 30 youths who were arrested and held in detention centers as a consequence of violent crimes; 30 youths who were identified by Child Protective Services (CPS) and remained with their families; 30 youths who were identified by CPS, removed from their homes, and placed in child and youth residential care; and 30 youths who were randomly selected from schools. The incarcerated youths reported significantly more adversity, global psychopathology, and global index of risk behaviors. When considering each risk behavior, the incarcerated youths reported higher percentages of alcohol abuse, drug use, early smoking initiation, physical assault, carrying weapons, early initiation of sexual intercourse, sexual intercourse under the influence of drugs, and sexual intercourse without condom use. The logistic regression analyses showed that only emotional neglect was significantly associated with delinquency. This study suggests that delinquent youths are exposed to a great magnitude of adversities in childhood, with emotional neglect as an independent risk factor for delinquency. In addition, these youths have higher rates of psychopathology and risk behaviors compared to other high-risk samples. PMID:26159627

  10. Early adverse rearing experiences alter sleep-wake patterns and plasma cortisol levels in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Catherine E; Noble, Pamela; Hanson, Erin; Pine, Daniel S.; Winslow, James T.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Monkeys separated from their mothers soon after birth and raised with peers display many disturbances in emotional behavior that are similar to human mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to emotional disturbances, both mood and anxiety disorders are often characterized by disruptions in normal sleep-wake cycles, a behavior that has not been well characterized in adversely-reared non-human primates. Because polysomnographic measures are difficult to obtain in unrestrained monkeys we used 24...

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  12. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  13. Parent Report of Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, and Antipsychotic Medication Use in Individuals with Williams Syndrome: Effectiveness and Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; Chowdhury, Monali; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized in part by anxiety and behavioral difficulties. We examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic medications in individuals with WS. A total of 513 parents/caregivers completed a survey of psychotropic medication usage…

  14. Self-Focused and Other-Focused Resiliency: Plausible Mechanisms Linking Early Family Adversity to Health Problems in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sulamunn R. M.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Heron, Kristin E.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Participants: Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures…

  15. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  16. Childhood Adversity and Epigenetic Modulation of the Leukocyte Glucocorticoid Receptor: Preliminary Findings in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Marsit, Carmen; Walters, Oakland C.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Background A history of early adverse experiences is an important risk factor for adult psychopathology. Changes in stress sensitivity and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie the association between stress and risk for psychiatric disorders. Preclinical work in rodents has linked low levels of maternal care to increased methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, as well as to exaggerated hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Recent studies have begun to examine whether early-life stress leads to epigenetic modifications of the GR gene in humans. Methods We examined the degree of methylation of a region of the promoter of the human GR gene (NR3C1) in leukocyte DNA from 99 healthy adults. Participants reported on their childhood experiences of parental behavior, parental death or desertion, and childhood maltreatment. On a separate day, participants completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, a standardized neuroendocrine challenge test. Results Disruption or lack of adequate nurturing, as measured by parental loss, childhood maltreatment, and parental care, was associated with increased NR3C1 promoter methylation (p<.05). In addition, NR3C1 promoter methylation was linked to attenuated cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (p<.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment or adversity may lead to epigenetic modifications of the human GR gene. Alterations in methylation of this gene could underlie the associations between childhood adversity, alterations in stress reactivity, and risk for psychopathology. PMID:22295073

  17. Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Andersen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC. While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20 alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC→nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer. Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence.

  18. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  19. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  20. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  1. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manu...

  2. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva; Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes Silva; Luciana Tavares Toscano; Klébya Hellen Dantas de Oliveira; Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda; Alexandre Sérgio Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about...

  3. Multiple adverse effects of pyridium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Charles; Dewar, James C

    2006-01-01

    Pyridium (phenazopyridine hydrochloride) is often prescribed as an analgesic in patients following trauma, surgery, or infections of the urinary tract. Pyridium toxicity has been previously reported, however, most cases result in a single adverse effect. Herein the authors describe an elderly patient who presented with simultaneous multiple adverse effects, including a previously undocumented myelosuppressive pancytopenia. PMID:16466130

  4. 13 CFR 120.892 - Certifications of no adverse change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.892 Certifications of no adverse...; (b) The Borrower (or Operating Company) must certify to the CDC that there has been no unremedied... adverse change in the Borrower's (or Operating Company's) ability to repay the 504 loan since...

  5. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  6. Challenges in coding adverse events in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation...

  7. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  8. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified. PMID:26438634

  9. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156

  10. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  11. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  12. Workplace bullying: a tale of adverse consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  13. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, L; Krille, L; Reiners, C; Schneider, R; Yamashita, S; Zeeb, H

    2012-07-01

    (131)I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima, Japan, may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmacoepidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. PMID:22021061

  14. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima (Japan)), may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmaco-epidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. All rights reserved. (authors)

  15. Promoting adverse drug reaction reporting: comparison of different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ribeiro-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe different approaches to promote adverse drug reaction reporting among health care professionals, determining their cost-effectiveness. METHODS We analyzed and compared several approaches taken by the Northern Pharmacovigilance Centre (Portugal to promote adverse drug reaction reporting. Approaches were compared regarding the number and relevance of adverse drug reaction reports obtained and costs involved. Costs by report were estimated by adding the initial costs and the running costs of each intervention. These costs were divided by the number of reports obtained with each intervention, to assess its cost-effectiveness. RESULTS All the approaches seem to have increased the number of adverse drug reaction reports. We noted the biggest increase with protocols (321 reports, costing 1.96 € each, followed by first educational approach (265 reports, 20.31 €/report and by the hyperlink approach (136 reports, 15.59 €/report. Regarding the severity of adverse drug reactions, protocols were the most efficient approach, costing 2.29 €/report, followed by hyperlinks (30.28 €/report, having no running costs. Concerning unexpected adverse drug reactions, the best result was obtained with protocols (5.12 €/report, followed by first educational approach (38.79 €/report. CONCLUSIONS We recommend implementing protocols in other pharmacovigilance centers. They seem to be the most efficient intervention, allowing receiving adverse drug reactions reports at lower costs. The increase applied not only to the total number of reports, but also to the severity, unexpectedness and high degree of causality attributed to the adverse drug reactions. Still, hyperlinks have the advantage of not involving running costs, showing the second best performance in cost per adverse drug reactions report.

  16. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  17. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  18. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed ...

  19. Condições de trabalho e automedicação em profissionais da rede básica de saúde da zona urbana de Pelotas, RS Working conditions and self-medication among primary healthcare professionals in an urban area of Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Tomasi

    2007-03-01

    . Almost half of the interviewees had another job (51% and 25% needed to miss work over the past month mainly due to personal health problems (59% and to family problems (22%. On average, workers saw nearly 30 people per day in a 40-hour working week. Health problems were reported by 40% of the interviewees, 27% concerning circulation, and 18% concerning osteomuscular difficulties. Apart from having health problems, 67% of the interviewees used medicines on a regular basis and 47% had used medicines in the past 15 days. A quarter were accustomed to self-medicating themselves, with a significantly greater proportion among doctors and other professionals of a higher level, among workers of greater socioeconomic status and among those with more than one job.

  20. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  1. Automedicação na adolescência: um desafio para a educação em saúde Self-medication in adolescence: a challenge to health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilane Magalhães Silva

    2011-01-01

    .1%, and the self-medication by 20.8% of the students. Regarding the use of medicine 70.9% of the students were not instructed on the proper use of the medicine. Of the total, 34.1% had already been influenced by media in the purchase of medicine. It's possible to conclude that teenagers' knowledge about medicine and its implications on health is very weak and devoid of any basic notion of the rational use of medicine. In addition, public school students are more oriented on the proper use of medicines by professionals in the public health system, which demonstrates the efficiency of the promoter of health of the population enrolled in public schools in Fortaleza.

  2. Data mining for signal detection of adverse event safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chia; Tsong, Yi; Chen, James J

    2013-01-01

    The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is the primary database designed to support the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) postmarketing safety surveillance program for all approved drugs and therapeutic biologic products. Most current disproportionality analysis focuses on the detection of potential adverse events (AE) involving a single drug and a single AE only. In this paper, we present a data mining biclustering technique based on the singular value decomposition to extract local regions of association for a safety study. The analysis consists of collection of biclusters, each representing an association between a set of drugs with the corresponding set of adverse events. Significance of each bicluster can be tested using disproportionality analysis. Individual drug-event combination can be further tested. A safety data set consisting of 193 drugs with 8453 adverse events is analyzed as an illustration. PMID:23331228

  3. Ouabain protects against adverse developmental programming of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Khodus, Georgiy R; Kruusmägi, Markus; Kamali-Zare, Padideh; Liu, Xiao-Li; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Zelenin, Sergey; Brismar, Hjalmar; Aperia, Anita

    2010-01-01

    The kidney is extraordinarily sensitive to adverse fetal programming. Malnutrition, the most common form of developmental challenge, retards the formation of functional units, the nephrons. The resulting low nephron endowment increases susceptibility to renal injury and disease. Using explanted rat embryonic kidneys, we found that ouabain, the Na,K-ATPase ligand, triggers a calcium-nuclear factor-κB signal, which protects kidney development from adverse effects of malnutrition. To mimic malnutrition, kidneys were serum deprived for 24 h. This resulted in severe retardation of nephron formation and a robust increase in apoptosis. In ouabain-exposed kidneys, no adverse effects of serum deprivation were observed. Proof of principle that ouabain rescues development of embryonic kidneys exposed to malnutrition was obtained from studies on pregnant rats given a low-protein diet and treated with ouabain or vehicle throughout pregnancy. Thus, we have identified a survival signal and a feasible therapeutic tool to prevent adverse programming of kidney development. PMID:20975704

  4. Management of acute adverse reactions to contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, S5 7AU, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    When anaphylactoid and other severe adverse reactions to contrast media occur, prompt recognition and immediate treatment are essential. Simple guidelines for treatment have been requested by many radiologists, and therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee has produced guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions to contrast media. The committee made an extensive review of the literature on treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The resulting report was discussed at the 10th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Uppsala. Sweden, September 2003. Guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions and a list of first-line drugs and equipment that should be available in the room where contrast medium is given are provided. (orig.)

  5. Management of acute adverse reactions to contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2004-03-01

    When anaphylactoid and other severe adverse reactions to contrast media occur, prompt recognition and immediate treatment are essential. Simple guidelines for treatment have been requested by many radiologists, and therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee has produced guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions to contrast media. The committee made an extensive review of the literature on treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The resulting report was discussed at the 10th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Uppsala. Sweden, September 2003. Guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions and a list of first-line drugs and equipment that should be available in the room where contrast medium is given are provided. PMID:14740165

  6. Developing a departmental culture for reporting adverse incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R; Blackshaw, G; Rogers, A; Grant, A; Kulkarni, R

    2003-01-01

    A simple, reproducible model for reporting adverse events was developed in order to promote cultural awareness and acceptance of risk management within the authors' department. A departmental proforma was created and prospective reporting of adverse events was encouraged. In the six months prior to commencing this study only four adverse incidents were reported. Following the introduction of the proforma 64 critical incidents and near-misses were reported in the one-year period. In conclusion a simple model for reporting critical incidents and near-misses has been established. This has fostered a cultural change within the department and all members of staff feel more comfortable with reporting such incidents. The process is seen as educational and an important part of continuing professional and departmental development. Protocols and changes in organisational practice have been developed to reduce and prevent the occurrence of adverse events and offer patients continuous improvement in care. PMID:12870255

  7. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The...

  8. The unexpected effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences during adolescence on anxiety and aggression and their modulation by genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neele eMeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior while the phase of adolescence has mainly been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with

  9. Information sharing and lending market competition under strong adverse selection

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge FERNÁNDEZ-RUIZ; García-Cestona, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In a relatively recent paper, Gehrig and Stenbacka (Eur Econ Rev 51, 77-99, 2007) show that information sharing increases banks' profits to the detriment of creditworthy entrepreneurs in a model of a banking duopoly with switching costs and poaching. They restrict their analysis to the case in which adverse selection is not too strong.We analyze the complementary case and show that, when the economy suffers from strong adverse selection, information sharing still increases banks' profits, but...

  10. Childhood adversities as a predictor of disability retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Harkonmäki, K.; Korkeila, K.; Vahtera, J; Kivimäki, M; Suominen, S; Sillanmäki, L.; Koskenvuo, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a large body of research on adulthood risk factors for retirement due to disability, but studies on the effect of adverse childhood experiences are scarce. AIM: To examine whether adverse childhood experiences predict disability retirement. METHODS: Data were derived from the Health and Social Support Study. The information was gathered from postal surveys in 1998 (baseline) and in 2003 (follow-up questionnaire). The analysed data consisted of 8817 non-retired respondents...

  11. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  12. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2011-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of th...

  13. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  14. Chemical Hair Relaxers Have Adverse Effects a Myth or Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Vinma H; Shetty, Narendra J; Nair, Dhanya Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hair plays an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a-days, chemical hair relaxers are used very commonly in the society. We document the adverse effects reported by the sample that have used any one of the professional chemical hair relaxers. Aim: To study the adverse effects reported by the sample who underwent repeated chemical hair relaxing. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on a sample taken from a medical college and ho...

  15. RADARx: Recognizing, Assessing, and Documenting Adverse Rx events.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Black, K.; Mrochek, S.; Wood, A.; Bess, T.; Cobb, J; Francis, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse events are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) are frequent, under-reported, costly, and largely preventable. Computerized tools expose effectively ADEs and can reduce their impact. METHODS: RADARx is a Veterans Administration (VA) VistA-compatible M software program that integrates computerized ADE screening, probability assessment, documentation, and reporting capabilities. Data dictionary mapping tools have enabled RADARx implementatio...

  16. A database in ACCESS for assessing vaccine serious adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas RE; Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    Roger E Thomas,1 Dave Jackson2,3 1Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Independent Research Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Database Consultant, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To provide a free flexible database for use by any researcher for assessing reports of adverse events after vaccination. Results: A database was developed in Microsoft ACCESS to assess reports of serious adverse ev...

  17. Hubungan Adversity Quotient Terhadap Kepuasan Berwirausaha Pada Wirauasaha Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Malini, Shoffa

    2015-01-01

    Everybody who interested in entrepreneurship was motivated by the potential reward. This reward is grouped in three basic category, those are income, leisure time and psychological well being. This reward later results a satisfaction for those entrepreneurs. Beside the reward, there’s also a possible challenges, therefore, adversity quotient is needed. This research was aimed to examine the correlation of adversity quotient with women entrepreneurial satisfaction. The resear...

  18. Does Competitive Pricing Cause Market Breakdown under Extreme Adverse Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Mailath, George J.; Georg Noldeke

    2007-01-01

    We study market breakdown in a finance context under extreme adverse selection with and without competitive pricing. Adverse selection is extreme if for any price there are informed agent types with whom uninformed agents prefer not to trade. Market breakdown occurs when no trade is the only equilibrium outcome. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for market breakdown. If the condition holds, then trade is not viable. If the condition fails, then trade can occur under competitive ...

  19. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Upadya Gatha; Ruxana K

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis....

  20. Adverse effects of acupuncture. Which are clinically significant?

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review potentially serious adverse events associated with acupuncture. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature primarily provide level II evidence from retrospective reviews, case reports, and prospective surveys of practitioners. MAIN MESSAGE: Both the general public and physicians are becoming more interested in the ancient Chinese medical practice of acupuncture. This paper discusses the basic philosophy of acupuncture and describes adverse events that might be...

  1. Variability in the definition and reporting of adverse events in suicide prevention trials: an examination of the issues and a proposed solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A; Feldman, Sarah; Silverman, Emily; Currier, Dianne; Brown, Gregory K; Chen, Donna; Chiapella, Page; Fischbach, Ruth; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Strauss, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Pearson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) are important outcomes of any intervention study yet are under-researched. Vague and variable definitions and substantial underreporting make comparisons of risk between studies difficult and evaluation of the safety of a particular intervention almost impossible. These realities may deter researchers from studying at-risk populations. Suicidal behavior is an adverse event in any study, and potentially a very serious one. Thus the issues of reporting and definition are particularly salient for researchers who work with populations at risk for suicidal behavior, especially when the suicidal behavior is the outcome of interest. We conducted a qualitative study with experienced suicide researchers and intervention experts to delineate the issues related to reporting serious adverse events faced by investigators conducting trials in suicide prevention. Participants from multiple sites were interviewed by phone, interviews transcribed and coded for definition and reporting issues and suggested solutions. A narrative synthesis was prepared and validated by all participants. Participants highlighted the difficulties in defining AEs and SAEs and stressed the importance and complexity of ensuring the AE was related to the study and reported properly, and were in agreement about the consequences of AEs to both institutions and individuals. Participants identified the need for the development of clear and consistent AE definitions and reporting requirements. Clear and consistently applied definitions of adverse and serious adverse events and reporting requirements would enhance the comparability of intervention studies in suicidal populations. PMID:21293998

  2. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahdavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.

  3. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  4. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Exley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.

  5. Prospective study of adverse reaction to intravenous administered contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a prospective study of the incidence of adverse reaction in those patients who accepted the intravenous urography (IVU) and enhanced computerized tomography (CT) at our hospital from September 1986 to January 1988. Of 7107 patients examined, complete records are available for 6917 (male 3760, female 3157). A record form of adverse reactions was constructed based on the symptoms reported by Ansell. Since some adverse reactions may occur with their own specific mechanism, they are sub-divided into four groups (physic, chemical toxic. Allergic and those that may involve multiple mechanisms are grouped as ''others'') according to the Felder's classification presented in the discussion. There was no record of the reactions belonging to the chemical toxic mechanism. The total incidence of the other groups are 82.4 % for physic, 4.8 % for allergic, 5.8 % for ''others'' and without any case of death. Two low-osmolality contrast media (LOCM) have significant lower incidence of adverse reaction than three high-osmolality contrast media (HOCM). Between two LOCM. Omnipaque is significant lower than Iopamiron in the incidence of either groups of mechanism (p < 0.01). Each LOCM and HOCM gives the same age distribution spectra of the incidence as reported, but the former have significant lower incidence of the adverse reaction than the latter. These results suggest that the LOCM may have a specific characteristics of the chemical property to induce the adverse reactions. (author)

  6. Medical adverse events in elderly hospitalized patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Szlejf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of medical adverse events in elderly patients admitted to an acute care geriatric unit, the predictive factors of occurrence, and the correlation between adverse events and hospital mortality rates. METHODS: This prospective study included 171 admissions of patients aged 60 years and older in the acute care geriatric unit in a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. The following variables were assessed at admission: the patient age, gender, number of prescription drugs, geriatric syndromes (e.g., immobility, postural instability, dementia, depression, delirium, and incontinence, comorbidities, functional status (evaluated with the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living, and severity of illness (evaluated with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score Il. The incidence of delirium, infection, mortality, and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (based on the Beers criteria were assessed during hospitalization. An observer who was uninvolved in patient care reported the adverse events. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 78.12 years. A total of 187 medical adverse events occurred in 94 admissions (55%. The predictors of medical adverse events were undetermined. Compared with the patients with no adverse events, the patients with medical adverse events had a significantly longer hospital stay (21.41 ± 15.08 days versus 10.91 ± 7.21 days and a higher mortality rate (39 deaths [41.5%] versus 17 deaths [22.1%]. Mortality was significantly predicted by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.07 to 1.20, the Katz score (OR=1.47, CI 95%, 1.18 to 1.83, and medical adverse events (OR = 3.59, CI 95%, 1.55 to 8.30. CONCLUSION: Medical adverse events should be monitored in every elderly hospitalized patient because there is no risk profile for susceptible patients, and the consequences of adverse events are

  7. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G; Wood, Ruth I; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  8. Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140 than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%, weakness/fatigue (48.6%, headache (40.5% and myalgia (31.5%. The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form

  9. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. Results: The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04, as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p < 0.0001 and among those who had consumed any type of supplementation for over 2 years (p = 0.005. Serum creatinine levels were higher only in the subgroup of carbohydrates when compared to the control group (p = 0.03. Diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile and hepatic function did not present differences between groups. Conclusions: The use of nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  10. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  11. The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, J F

    1993-07-01

    A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

  12. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Vogel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. METHODS: A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS: About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.

  13. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  14. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements....../botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misidentification/s’ and ‘interaction/s’ in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were...... critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18...

  15. Epidemiology and prevention of adverse drug reactions in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lexin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a correlation between increasing age and adverse drug reactions. This increased risk is related to aged-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In addition, chronic illnesses such as congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and hypertension are more prevalent in the elderly who also have an increased risk of diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Consequently elderly patients are often treated with multiple medications, which may cause drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Adequate undergraduate training in clinical pharmacology and continued professional development in evidence-based therapeutics will undoubtedly reduce inappropriate prescribing and improve the quality of medications. Good communications between physicians and patients are also critically important in avoidance or prevention of adverse drug reactions in the elderly.

  16. Adverse effects and treatment on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases are generally mild. Acute and late adverse effects are similar between 8 Gy single fraction and multi-fraction radiotherapy (e.g. 30 Gy in 10 fractions). Both external beam radiotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with strontium-89 may cause pain flare. A randomized controlled trial is currently performed to confirm the effectiveness of dexamethasone for the prevention of pain flare. Reirradiation for the same site is widely used. However, its safeness has not been confirmed enough. Radiation myelitis is an unrecoverable severe adverse effect. However, the tolerated accumulated dose for the spinal cord is not fully understood. Stereotactic body radiotherapy may be considered to deliver reirradiation for spinal metastases without exposing too much dose for the spinal cord. Another solution to prevent radiation myelitis after reirradiation may use dose fractionations of 8 Gy single or 20 Gy in 5 fractions instead of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. (author)

  17. A database in ACCESS for assessing vaccine serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas,1 Dave Jackson2,3 1Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Independent Research Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Database Consultant, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To provide a free flexible database for use by any researcher for assessing reports of adverse events after vaccination. Results: A database was developed in Microsoft ACCESS to assess reports of serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination using Brighton Collaboration criteria. The database is partly automated (if data panels contain identical data fields the data are automatically also entered into those fields. The purpose is to provide the database free for developers to add additional panels to assess other vaccines. Keywords: serious adverse events after vaccination, database, process to assess vaccine-associated events 

  18. High Performance Hierarchical Torus Network Under Adverse Traffic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hafizur Rahman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Hierarchical Torus Network (HTN is a 2D-torus network of multiple basic modules, in which the basic modules are 3D-torus networks that are hierarchically interconnected for higher level networks. The dynamic communication performance of the HTN using the dimension-order routing under common traffic patterns have been evaluated, and have been shown to be good. However, dynamic communication performance of HTN under adverse traffic patterns has not been evaluated yet. In this paper, we evaluate the dynamic communication performance of HTN using a deadlock-free dimension order routing with 3 virtual channels under adverse traffic patterns, and compare it with H3D-mesh, mesh, and torus networks. It is shown that even under adverse traffic patterns, the HTN yields high throughput and low average transfer time, which provide better dynamic communication performance than H3D-mesh, mesh, and torus networks.

  19. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  20. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics-any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters-may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics' negative effects. PMID:27222762