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Sample records for adverse self-medication behaviors

  1. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

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    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  2. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

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    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  3. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P well as social isolation from the family and community.

  4. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

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    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  5. The impact of being involved in a medical adverse event on GP's (General Physicians) professional behavior in an ambulatory healthcare fund

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    Manor, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Assurance behavior: performing unnecessary tests so as to deter patients from filing complaints or medical malpractice suits Avoidance behavior: choosing to behave in a way that prevents recurrence of an unpleasant stimulus This thesis examines the impact of involvement in a medical adverse event on

  6. Behavioral Studies Peptic Ulcer Patients Self-Medication by Visiting Pharmacy in Pontianak

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    Eka K. Untari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did self-medication on peptic ulcer or its related symptom. This study was conducted in 2010. The result of showed that 67.3% of gastric ulcer self-medication practice was appropriate; 66.3% subject used antacida class to treat the symptom; 6.1% participant however, still used antibiotic; and only 27% subject satisfied with the information given during self-medication process. Although self-medication practice for gastric ulcer was often done, some practice might be harmful. Thus, there is a need to educate the community to ensure its safe practices.

  7. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem.

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    Kabiru, Caroline W; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12-19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may

  8. Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

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    Hemmingsson, Erik

    2018-06-01

    To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  9. Self reported outcomes and adverse events after medical abortion through online telemedicine: population based study in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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    Aiken, Abigail R A; Digol, Irena; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2017-05-16

    Objectives  To assess self reported outcomes and adverse events after self sourced medical abortion through online telemedicine. Design  Population based study. Setting  Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, where abortion is unavailable through the formal healthcare system except in a few restricted circumstances. Population  1000 women who underwent self sourced medical abortion through Women on Web (WoW), an online telemedicine service, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Main outcome measures  Successful medical abortion: the proportion of women who reported ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Rates of adverse events: the proportion who reported treatment for adverse events, including receipt of antibiotics and blood transfusion, and deaths reported by family members, friends, or the authorities. Care seeking for symptoms of potential complications: the frequency with which women reported experiencing symptoms of a potentially serious complication and the proportion who reported seeking medical attention as advised. Results  In 2010-12, abortion medications (mifepristone and misoprostol) were sent to 1636 women and follow-up information was obtained for 1158 (71%). Among these, 1023 women confirmed use of the medications, and follow-up information was available for 1000. At the time women requested help from WoW, 781 (78%) were <7 weeks pregnant and 219 (22%) were 7-9 weeks pregnant. Overall, 94.7% (95% confidence interval 93.1% to 96.0%) reported successfully ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Seven women (0.7%, 0.3% to 1.5%) reported receiving a blood transfusion, and 26 (2.6%, 1.7% to 3.8%) reported receiving antibiotics (route of administration (IV or oral) could not be determined). No deaths resulting from the intervention were reported by family, friends, the authorities, or the media. Ninety three women (9.3%, 7.6% to 11.3%) reported experiencing any symptom for which they were advised to seek

  10. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

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    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN KERALA

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    Messaline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & RATIONALE Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognised illness or symptoms. Practice of self-medication, especially by medical students can cause wastage of resources, bacterial resistance, drug addiction and serious adverse drug reactions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of selfmedication among medical college students in Kerala. METHODS AND MATERIAL MBBS students of a private medical college were included in the study. The students filled a structured pretested questionnaire and descriptive statistics was applied to the data with SPSS version 20. RESULTS Out of 300, 264 (88% students had taken self-medication over the past 1 year. Past exposure with the same drug was the significant source of information for the drugs (49.2% and the drugs frequently self-medicated were analgesics 34.4% (91 and antipyretics 30.3% (80. More than half of the students, 66% (198 students had expressed positive and 34% (102 students had expressed negative attitude towards self-medication. Around 66% students declared that they were not aware of the dose, frequency and adverse effects of the drugs. CONCLUSION The pattern of self-medication practice from our study was similar to other studies done in various parts of India. Similar studies in future will provide adequate information to regulatory authorities to implement these results on strict drug dispensing and drug advertising policies. KEYWORDS Self-medication, Medical College Students, Kerala.

  12. Patterns of Self-Medication Behavior for Oral Health Problems Among Adults Living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Arwa Aldeeri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57% and acetaminophen (47.43%, a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%. Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%. Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55% with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city.

  13. Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory.

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    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow; Lam, Lai Wah

    2015-05-01

    To test a hypothesized model that examines the relationship between selected basic conditioning factors, self-care agency, and self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea using Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as a framework. This was a predictive correlational study conducted with a total of 531 secondary school girls. Self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and 11 variables that have been theoretically or empirically justified in previous studies as relevant to basic conditioning factors were selected and collected by means of structured questionnaires. Path analyses were performed to test the hypothesized linkages among variables. Path analysis revealed that age and received menstrual education had both direct and indirect effects through self-care agency on self-care behaviors. Mother's and father's educational level, pain intensity, and self-medication used when experiencing dysmenorrhea only affected the self-care behaviors directly. This is the first study that provided information about the relationship between basic conditioning factors, self-care agency, and self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. Knowledge of the factors influencing self-care behaviors in these adolescent girls will assist healthcare professionals in developing effective interventions to promote self-care and ameliorate the adverse impact of this condition. Interventional strategies that aim at promoting self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea should strengthen girls' self-care agency and should target those with a younger age, higher pain intensity, mother with a higher educational level, father with a lower educational level, and those who do not take self-medication for dysmenorrhea. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2007-01-01

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married

  15. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  16. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency: Plausible mechanisms linking early family adversity to health problems in college women.

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    Coleman, Sulamunn R M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Heron, Kristin E; Vartanian, Lenny R; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed self-report measures of early family adversity, self-focused (self-esteem, personal growth initiative) and other-focused (perceived social support, gratitude) resiliency, stress, subjective health, and health behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, self-focused resiliency associated with less stress, better subjective health, more sleep, less smoking, and less weekend alcohol consumption. Other-focused resiliency associated with more exercise, greater stress, and more weekend alcohol consumption. Early family adversity was indirectly related to all health outcomes, except smoking, via self-focused and other-focused resiliency. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency represent plausible mechanisms through which early family adversity relates to stress and health in college women. This highlights areas for future research in disease prevention and management.

  17. Health behaviors, care needs and attitudes towards self-prescription: a cross-sectional survey among Dutch medical students.

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    Tjeerd Van der Veer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is a growing awareness of the potent ways in which the wellbeing of physicians impacts the health of their patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health behaviors, care needs and attitudes towards self-prescription of Dutch medical students, and any differences between junior preclinical and senior clinically active students. METHODS: All students (n = 2695 of a major Dutch medical school were invited for an online survey. Physical activity, eating habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, Body Mass Index, substance use and amount of sleep per night were inquired, as well as their need for different forms of care and their attitude towards self-prescription. RESULTS: Data of 902 students were used. Physical activity levels (90% sufficient and smoking prevalence (94% non-smokers were satisfying. Healthy eating habits (51% insufficient and alcohol consumption (46% excessive were worrying. Body Mass Indexes were acceptable (20% unhealthy. We found no significant differences in health behaviors between preclinical and clinically active students. Care needs were significantly lower among clinically active students. (p<0.05 Student acceptance of self-prescription was significantly higher among clinically active students. (p<0.001 CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy behaviors are prevalent among medical students, but are no more prevalent during the clinical study phase. The need for specific forms of care appears lower with study progression. This could be worrying as the acceptance of self-care and self-prescription is higher among senior clinical students. Medical faculties need to address students' unhealthy behaviors and meet their care needs for the benefit of both the future physicians as well as their patients.

  18. Determinants of self-medication with NSAIDs in a Portuguese community pharmacy

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    Nunes AP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a widely used therapeutic group in the world, and particularly in the Portuguese population. Objective: To compare NSAID’s use by prescription and self-medication acquisition and to determine the pattern of indication of NSAIDs, their usage profile and possible implications for patients’ safety. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used where individuals presenting at a community pharmacy requesting NSAIDs during the study period (one month were invited to answer a face-to-face interview where socio-demographic characteristics, the indication pattern and previous experience of side effects were assessed. A follow-up interview was performed one week later to assess the incidence of adverse effects. The study was ethically approved. Results: A sample of 130 NSAIDs users was recruited, comprising mostly women (n=87; 66.9%, actively employed (n=77; 59.2% and presenting a mean age of 49.5 years old (SD=20.49. An equal proportion of individuals acquired NSAIDs by self-medication and with medical prescription (n=65; 50%. Over 4/5 of patients (n=57; 87.7% acquiring NSAIDs without a prescription were self-medicated by their own initiative, and only 10.8% (n=7 had been advised by the pharmacist. The most commonly acquired active substances were ibuprofen and diclofenac. Self-medicated users more frequently resorted to topical NSAIDs following short term treatments. The major underlying condition motivating NSAIDs sought were musculoskeletal disorders (45.0%, regardless of the regimen. An important proportion of prevalent users of NSAIDs reported previous experience of adverse effects (11.3%. One week after initiating NSAID therapy, a small proportion of patients reported incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Self-medication with NSAIDs is sought for numerous medical conditions. Reported adverse effects (prevalent and incident confirm the need for a more rational use of NSAIDs and ongoing

  19. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

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    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  20. Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars.

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    Michael S Singer

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we frame self-medication in the broader realm of adaptive plasticity, which provides several testable predictions for verifying self-medication and advancing its conceptual significance. First, self-medication behavior should improve the fitness of animals infected by parasites or pathogens. Second, self-medication behavior in the absence of infection should decrease fitness. Third, infection should induce self-medication behavior. The few rigorous studies of self-medication in non-human animals have not used this theoretical framework and thus have not tested fitness costs of self-medication in the absence of disease or parasitism. Here we use manipulative experiments to test these predictions with the foraging behavior of woolly bear caterpillars (Grammia incorrupta; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in response to their lethal endoparasites (tachinid flies. Our experiments show that the ingestion of plant toxins called pyrrolizidine alkaloids improves the survival of parasitized caterpillars by conferring resistance against tachinid flies. Consistent with theoretical prediction, excessive ingestion of these toxins reduces the survival of unparasitized caterpillars. Parasitized caterpillars are more likely than unparasitized caterpillars to specifically ingest large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This case challenges the conventional view that self-medication behavior is restricted to animals with advanced cognitive abilities, such as primates, and empowers the science of self-medication by placing it in the domain of adaptive plasticity theory.

  1. Antibiotic Self-Medication among Non-Medical University Students in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Ali Hassan Gillani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat. Scarce knowledge about safe and appropriate antibiotic use is coupled with frequent self-administration, e.g., in China. This repeated self-medication poses potential risk in terms of antibiotic resistance. Low-resource countries are facing an elevated burden of antibiotic self-medication as compared to developed ones. Thus, this study focused on evaluating the pervasiveness of antibiotic self-medication in 3 universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey in three government sector universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out with self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Seven hundred twenty-seven students out of 750 (response rate 97% with a mean age ± SD of 23.0 ± 3.4 years agreed to participate in the study. The proportion of females was slightly greater (52% compared with males (48%, and almost one-third of the respondents (36% were in their 2nd year of university. Out of the total, 58.3% practiced self-medication in the preceding six months, and 326 (45% confirmed the use of antibiotics. Metronidazole was the most frequently self-medicated antibiotic (48%. Out of the total, 72% demonstrated awareness regarding the side effects of antibiotics. Diarrhea was the well-known adverse effect (38%. Forty-three percent affirmed having antibiotic resistance knowledge, and 30% knew that the irregular use of antibiotics would lead to increased antibiotic resistance. Conclusion: Despite having ample awareness of the adverse antibiotic reactions, self-medication among the university students was high and antibiotic resistance was a fairly unknown term.

  2. Antibiotic Self-Medication among Non-Medical University Students in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Gillani, Ali Hassan; Ji, Wenjing; Hussain, Waqar; Imran, Ali; Chang, Jie; Yang, Caijun; Fang, Yu

    2017-09-29

    Background : Antibiotic resistance is a global threat. Scarce knowledge about safe and appropriate antibiotic use is coupled with frequent self-administration, e.g., in China. This repeated self-medication poses potential risk in terms of antibiotic resistance. Low-resource countries are facing an elevated burden of antibiotic self-medication as compared to developed ones. Thus, this study focused on evaluating the pervasiveness of antibiotic self-medication in 3 universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods : We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey in three government sector universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study was carried out with self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). Results : Seven hundred twenty-seven students out of 750 (response rate 97%) with a mean age ± SD of 23.0 ± 3.4 years agreed to participate in the study. The proportion of females was slightly greater (52%) compared with males (48%), and almost one-third of the respondents (36%) were in their 2nd year of university. Out of the total, 58.3% practiced self-medication in the preceding six months, and 326 (45%) confirmed the use of antibiotics. Metronidazole was the most frequently self-medicated antibiotic (48%). Out of the total, 72% demonstrated awareness regarding the side effects of antibiotics. Diarrhea was the well-known adverse effect (38%). Forty-three percent affirmed having antibiotic resistance knowledge, and 30% knew that the irregular use of antibiotics would lead to increased antibiotic resistance. Conclusion : Despite having ample awareness of the adverse antibiotic reactions, self-medication among the university students was high and antibiotic resistance was a fairly unknown term.

  3. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  4. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  5. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin An

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study is to analyze the effects of medical students’ social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. Methods We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. Results First, we noted statistically significant gender and admission type difference in social support, career barriers and career exploration behaviors. Second, social support and career barriers were found to influence career exploration behavior as a mediating variable for career decision-making self-efficacy. Conclusion Social support and career barriers as perceived by medical students influenced their career exploration behavior, with their decision-making self-efficacy serving as a full mediator. Therefore, this study has educational implications for career program development and educational training for career decision-making self-efficacy.

  6. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyejin; Lee, Seung-Hee

    2017-09-01

    This study is to analyze the effects of medical students' social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. First, we noted statistically significant gender and admission type difference in social support, career barriers and career exploration behaviors. Second, social support and career barriers were found to influence career exploration behavior as a mediating variable for career decision-making self-efficacy. Social support and career barriers as perceived by medical students influenced their career exploration behavior, with their decision-making self-efficacy serving as a full mediator. Therefore, this study has educational implications for career program development and educational training for career decision-making self-efficacy.

  7. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  8. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adulthood Aggression and Self-Esteem-A Study on Male Forensic Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Khodabandeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The current study examined the correlation among adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, self-esteem, and aggressive behavior.Materials and Methods: The sample included 350 adult male clients, accused of physical aggression in forensic setting. All participants completed interviews, focusing on different types of maltreatment prior to age 18, using the modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questioner (ACE-IQ and self-esteem level by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.Results: The most commonly reported adverse experience was family dysfunction, mainly violence in the family that caused problems. Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ACEs and aggressive behavior. Negative correlation detected between self–esteem and all categories subjected for ACE except sexual abuse and community violence (P=0>.05.Conclusion: Much attention has been focused on adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for a spectrum of violence-related outcomes during adulthood.

  9. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    those studies were included in this review. Several studies were located that evaluated the safety of medical marijuana; however, much of the review focused on inhaled, recreational marijuana use due to the paucity of information on inhaled medical marijuana. Since marijuana is a Schedule1 product, few clinical studies have been conducted to determine the adverse event profile of the product. As a result, several articles that characterized recreational inhaled marijuana were included. Recreational inhaled marijuana use may be associated with an increase in cardiovascular (CV/ cerebrovascular effects (CVA; however, conflicting information exists in the literature. Recreational marijuana use may also increase risky behaviors that increase the transmission of infectious diseases and respiratory diseases. Many of the studies were retrospective in nature; therefore, it was difficult to determine a cause and effect relationship between inhaled marijuana use and the development of adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions. Conclusions: There is a paucity of information related to the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Recreational marijuana use is associated with several adverse events including CV/CVA, respiratory, and transmission of infectious diseases. Theoretical literature indicates that medical marijuana may be associated with significant drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Legalization of medical marijuana may be associated with an increase in abuse/dependence and accidental exposures in children. Pharmacists need to be educated regarding the appropriate use of medical marijuana to avoid adverse reactions and potential drug-drug interactions between medical marijuana and other products.   Type: Original Research

  10. Understanding older adults' medication decision making and behavior: A study on over-the-counter (OTC) anticholinergic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Srinivas, Preethi; Campbell, Noll L; Clark, Daniel O; Bodke, Kunal S; Hong, Youngbok; Boustani, Malaz A; Ferguson, Denisha; Callahan, Christopher M

    2018-03-06

    Older adults purchase and use over-the-counter (OTC) medications with potentially significant adverse effects. Some OTC medications, such as those with anticholinergic effects, are relatively contraindicated for use by older adults due to evidence of impaired cognition and other adverse effects. To inform the design of future OTC medication safety interventions for older adults, this study investigated consumers' decision making and behavior related to OTC medication purchasing and use, with a focus on OTC anticholinergic medications. The study had a cross-sectional design with multiple methods. A total of 84 adults participated in qualitative research interviews (n = 24), in-store shopper observations (n = 39), and laboratory-based simulated OTC shopping tasks (n = 21). Simulated shopping participants also rank-ordered eight factors on their importance for OTC decision making. Findings revealed that many participants had concerns about medication adverse effects, generally, but were not aware of age-related risk associated with the use of anticholinergic medications. Analyses produced a map of the workflow of OTC-related behavior and decision making as well as related barriers such as difficulty locating medications or comparing them to an alternative. Participants reported effectiveness, adverse effects or health risks, and price as most important to their OTC medication purchase and use decisions. A persona analysis identified two types of consumers: the habit follower, who frequently purchased OTC medications and considered them safe; and the deliberator, who was more likely to weigh their options and consider alternatives to OTC medications. A conceptual model of OTC medication purchase and use is presented. Drawing on study findings and behavioral theories, the model depicts dual processes for OTC medication decision making - habit-based and deliberation-based - as well as the antecedents and consequences of decision making. This model suggests

  11. Attitudes and self-reported behavior of patients, doctors, and pharmacists in New Zealand and Belgium toward direct-to-consumer advertising of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dens, Nathalie; Eagle, Lynne C; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Patients', doctors', and pharmacists' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for medication and their perceptions of its impact on patient self-reported behavior in terms of request for, and consumption of, advertised medication were investigated. Data were obtained in New Zealand, 1 of only 2 countries that allow mass-media DTCA for prescription medication, and in Belgium, which does not. Attitudes were relatively negative in both countries, but significantly more positive in New Zealand than in Belgium. The impact of DTCA (both in a positive and a negative sense) on self-reported patient behavior and patient interaction with doctors and pharmacists was limited in both countries. Although -- as already established in previous work -- the informativeness and reliability of DTCA can be much improved, and the attitude of medical professionals toward DTCA is negative in both countries, from the point of view of medical professionals and patients, DTCA does not harm the self-reported relationship between doctors, pharmacists, and patients.

  12. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication.The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%, cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%, analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%, and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%. Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%, using excessive dosages (21.6%, and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy (30.3%. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication.Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.

  13. Self-Medication Practice and Associated Factors among Residents in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to examine the prevalence and predictors associated with self-medication, and related consequences in Wuhan, China. Methods: Two-hundred-sixty residents were interviewed from randomly selected four districts of Wuhan, China. A modified version of Anderson’s health behavioral model was used in the survey to collect information of self-medication behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to measure correlates of the prevalence of self-medication. Results: Nearly half of the respondents would select self-medication, and 39.1% would see a doctor if they felt sick. The most common self-medicated illnesses were cold and cough, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease. The main reasons for self-medication were that the illness was not severe (enough to see the doctor (45%; the patient did not think that the trouble of seeing a doctor was worth the effort (23%; the patient had no time to see the doctor (12%, and the patient did not want to pay high medical costs (15%. Logistic regression results suggested that respondents tended to select self-medication if the illness was minor or short-term (less than seven days. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that more strict regulation on over-the-counter medicines may be required to reduce health risks related to self-medication. Targeted health education on the risks of self-medication should be considered.

  14. Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and an approach to their management: Adverse drug reactions are as important in psychiatric practice as they are in any other branch of medicine.

  15. Self-medication practices and predictors for self-medication with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Self-medication with antimalarials and antibiotics is highly practiced worldwide particularly in developing countries including Tanzania. This study was carried out to determine self-medication practices with antimalarials and antibiotics, and as well as predictors for self-medication among urban communities of ...

  16. Automatically Recognizing Medication and Adverse Event Information From Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Belknap, Steven M; Li, Zuofeng; Frid, Nadya; West, Dennis P; Yu, Hong

    2014-06-27

    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a repository of spontaneously-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) for FDA-approved prescription drugs. FAERS reports include both structured reports and unstructured narratives. The narratives often include essential information for evaluation of the severity, causality, and description of ADEs that are not present in the structured data. The timely identification of unknown toxicities of prescription drugs is an important, unsolved problem. The objective of this study was to develop an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and biomedical named entity tagger to automatically identify ADE related information in the FAERS narratives. We developed an annotation guideline and annotate medication information and adverse event related entities on 122 FAERS narratives comprising approximately 23,000 word tokens. A named entity tagger using supervised machine learning approaches was built for detecting medication information and adverse event entities using various categories of features. The annotated corpus had an agreement of over .9 Cohen's kappa for medication and adverse event entities. The best performing tagger achieves an overall performance of 0.73 F1 score for detection of medication, adverse event and other named entities. In this study, we developed an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and machine learning based models for automatically extracting medication and adverse event information from the FAERS narratives. Our study is an important step towards enriching the FAERS data for postmarketing pharmacovigilance.

  17. Determinants of self medication practices among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Omarusehe, Louis-Domeih

    2011-10-01

    To assess the frequency and evaluate the factors underlining self-medication with orthodox and herbal medicines among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Setting Antenatal clinics at the major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study with a pre-tested 15-item structured questionnaire over a 12 week period among 1,650 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics at a major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Data analysis was done with Chi-square, multivariate logistic regression and summary statistics. Frequency and major factors associated with self-medication in pregnancy. The response and completion rate was 96.6% (1,594) [mean age ± SD 27 ± 5.3 years]. The majority of the respondents were literate (92.6%), self-employed (61.5%) and in the third trimester (49.5%). A significant majority (63.8%) used self-medication (orthodox and herbal medicines) as their first response to perceived ill-health (P patent medicine stores (55%). Mothers-in-law and relatives (41.3%) were the most frequently cited sources of advice during self-medication. Miscarriage/bleeding (44.3%) was the most frequently cited potential adverse effect that could occur with the use of certain medicines during pregnancy. Only 32% of respondents could identify medicines that are potentially harmful in pregnancy. Poorly guided self-medication with prescription, over-the-counter and herbal medicines is pervasive and significantly associated with gestational age and occupational pattern among pregnant women in Ibadan, south-western. A majority lacked the knowledge of potential adverse outcomes associated with the use of certain medicines, and the potentially harmful medicines to avoid during pregnancy.

  18. Self‐medication patterns among medical students in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitasha Bhat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.

  19. Self-medication practices with antibiotics among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Pan, H; Yang, Z; Cui, B; Zhang, D; Ba-Thein, W

    2016-01-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a serious global health problem. We sought to investigate SMA behaviors and risk factors among Chinese university students, and further explore the association between SMA practices and adverse drug events (ADEs). Cross-sectional study. An online survey was conducted at Jiangsu University (JSU) in eastern China in July 2011 using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 2608 website visitors, 1086 participated in the survey (response rate: 41.6%), 426 respondents were excluded for not being a JSU student or repeat participation, 660 (2.2% of JSU students) were included in analysis, and 316 students (47.9%) had a lifetime history of SMA. Among self-treated students, 43.5% believed that antibiotic was suitable for viral infections, 65.9% had more than one SMA episode in the previous year, 73.5% self-medicated with at least two different antibiotics, 57.1% and 64.4% changed antibiotic dosage and antibiotics during the course, respectively. Female gender, older age, and prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA) were identified as independent risk factors of SMA. There was no difference between students with and without PKA regarding SMA frequency, use of polyantibiotics, and switching antibiotic dosage or antibiotics. ADEs happened to 13.3% of self-medicated students. Frequent change of dosage and simultaneous use of the same antibiotic with different names were independent risk practices associated with an ADE. Our findings substantiate high SMA prevalence among Chinese university students. Older age and PKA are independent SMA risk factors common to Chinese university students and female gender is exclusive SMA risk factor for JSU students. Poor SMA practices are associated with ADEs. Strict regulations on antibiotic sales and public education reinforced by further health care reform are recommended. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [Medication adverse events: Impact of pharmaceutical consultations during the hospitalization of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, R; Levêque, D; Herbrecht, R; Fischbach, M; Gérout, A C; Untereiner, C; Bouayad-Agha, K; Couturier, F

    2014-11-01

    The medication iatrogenic events are responsible for nearly one iatrogenic event in five. The main purpose of this prospective multicenter study is to determine the effect of pharmaceutical consultations on the occurrence of medication adverse events during hospitalization (MAE). The other objectives are to study the impact of age, of the number of medications and pharmaceutical consultations on the risk of MAE. The pharmaceutical consultation is associated to a complete reassessment done by both a physician and a pharmacist for the home medication, the hospital treatment (3days after admission), the treatment during chemotherapy, and/or, the treatment when the patient goes back home. All MAE are subject to an advice for the patient, additional clinical-biological monitoring and/or prescription changes. Among the 318 patients, 217 (68%) had 1 or more clinically important MAE (89% drug-drug interaction, 8% dosing error, 2% indication error, 1% risk behavior). The patients have had 1121 pharmaceutical consultations (3.2±1.4/patient). Thus, the pharmaceutical consultations divided by 2.34 the risk of MAE (unadjusted incidence ratio, P≤0.05). Each consultation decreased by 24% the risk of MAE. Moreover, adding one medication increases from 14 to 30% as a risk of MAE on the population. Pharmaceutical consultations during the hospital stay could reduce significantly the number of medication adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Teherani, Arianne; Banach, Mary A; Knettler, Timothy R; Rattner, Susan L; Stern, David T; Veloski, J Jon; Hodgson, Carol S

    2005-12-22

    Evidence supporting professionalism as a critical measure of competence in medical education is limited. In this case-control study, we investigated the association of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school. We also examined the specific types of behavior that are most predictive of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with unprofessional behavior in medical school. The study included 235 graduates of three medical schools who were disciplined by one of 40 state medical boards between 1990 and 2003 (case physicians). The 469 control physicians were matched with the case physicians according to medical school and graduation year. Predictor variables from medical school included the presence or absence of narratives describing unprofessional behavior, grades, standardized-test scores, and demographic characteristics. Narratives were assigned an overall rating for unprofessional behavior. Those that met the threshold for unprofessional behavior were further classified among eight types of behavior and assigned a severity rating (moderate to severe). Disciplinary action by a medical board was strongly associated with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school (odds ratio, 3.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.8), for a population attributable risk of disciplinary action of 26 percent. The types of unprofessional behavior most strongly linked with disciplinary action were severe irresponsibility (odds ratio, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 40.1) and severely diminished capacity for self-improvement (odds ratio, 3.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.2). Disciplinary action by a medical board was also associated with low scores on the Medical College Admission Test and poor grades in the first two years of medical school (1 percent and 7 percent population attributable risk, respectively), but the association with these variables was less strong than that with

  2. Early-life adversity facilitates acquisition of cocaine self-administration and induces persistent anhedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bolton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN. Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown. Here we examined the effects of LBN on cocaine intake and seeking, using a battery of behavioral tests measuring distinct aspects of cocaine reward, and for comparison, chocolate intake. We also examined activation of neurons within the pleasure/reward and stress circuits following cocaine in LBN and control rats. Early-life adversity reduced spontaneous intake of palatable chocolate, extending prior reports of sucrose and social-play anhedonia. In a within-session cocaine behavioral economic test, LBN rats self-administered lower dosages of cocaine under low-effort conditions, consistent with a reduced hedonic set-point for cocaine, and potentially anhedonia. In contrast, cocaine demand elasticity was not consistently affected, indicating no major changes in motivation to maintain preferred cocaine blood levels. These changes were selective, as LBN did not cause an overt anxiety-like phenotype, nor did it affect sensitivity to self-administered cocaine dose, responding for cocaine under extinction conditions, cocaine- or cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, or locomotor response to acute cocaine. However, high Fos expression was seen after cocaine in both reward- and stress-related brain regions of LBN rats, including nucleus accumbens core, central amygdala, and lateral habenula. In contrast, hypothalamic orexin neuron activation after cocaine was significantly attenuated in LBN rats. Together, these findings demonstrate

  3. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters, and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and children, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Lastly, those youth who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared to those youth whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the lifespan. PMID:27481911

  4. Self-Medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-19

    Sep 19, 2012 ... Key words: Self-medication, hazards, pregnant women, Nigeria ... these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing ... is common among pregnant women in our environment. .... Although earlier studies have association self-medication with factors such as self-employment, ...

  5. Association between adverse life events and addictive behaviors among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Preventing Medication Error Based on Knowledge Management Against Adverse Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...

  7. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral approach or inhibition, mediates the relationship between stress and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with poor self-control. Individual differences in impulsivity and other behavioral tendencies may influence the relationship of stress with self-control, although this possibility has not been examined to date. The present research investigated whether cumulative stress is associated with poor self-control, and whether this relationship is mediated by impulsivity, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition in men and women. A community sample of 566 adults (319 women and 247 men) was assessed on the Cumulative Adversity Interview, Brief Self-control Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System Scale (BIS/BAS). Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques. In the total sample, the effects of cumulative stress on self-control were mediated by impulsivity. Neither behavioral inhibition nor behavioral approach mediated the association between cumulative stress and self-control in the total sample. Results were similar when men and women were considered separately, with impulsivity, but not behavioral inhibition or approach, mediating the association between cumulative stress and self-control. Impulsive individuals might benefit preferentially from interventions focusing on stress management and strategies for improving self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the medication environment on the unsafe medication behavior of nurses: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Li, Ce; Gao, Xueqin; Liu, Furong; Lin, Ping

    2018-04-20

    To explore the relationship between the medication environment and the unsafe medication behavior of nurses and to analyze its influence path. Unsafe medication behavior is the direct cause of medication error. The organizational environment is the foundation of and plays a guiding role in work behavior. Whether the medication environment correlates with the unsafe medication behavior of nurses remains unclear. This study used a correlative design with self-administered questionnaires, and the SHEL model, an acronym of its elements of software, hardware, environment, and liveware, was used as the framework for the medication environment. A survey was conducted among 1012 clinical nurses from five tertiary hospitals in China using the nurse unsafe medication behavior scale (NUMBS) and the nurses' perceptions of the medication environment scale (NPMES). Data were collected from January to February 2017. Path analyses were used to examine the hypothesized model. The medication environment correlated negatively with unsafe medication behavior (r=-0.48, pbehavior. Software, hardware and the environment indirectly influenced unsafe medication behavior, and nurses' personal factors played a mediating role in the relationships of unsafe medication behavior with software, hardware, and the environment. The unsafe medication behavior of nurses should be further improved. The medication environment was a predictor of unsafe medication behavior. Care managers should actively improve the medication environment to reduce the incidence of unsafe medication behaviors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Self Medication In Patients With Diabetes Using Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a behavior in which one tries to solve his/her health condition or problem without professional help. With regard to mortality and severe complications of diabetes, inappropriate self- medication can have severe consequences but proper planning can control this behavior to improve the patient′s health. In this study, the effect of each factor on self-medication in patients with diabetes is determined using path analysis technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kermanshah diabetes center. The number of patients with diabetes interviewed were 500. Each patient′s score of self-medication were determined according to a questionnaire, with a higher score showing greater self-medication. Demographic information and scores of trust to doctors, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and busy work environment as predictor variables were measured and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Based on the questionnaire scores, two patients (0.4% largely, 191 (38.7% moderately and 300 (60.9% slightly were on self-medication. The variable; mistrust of doctors only directly, variables; age, the duration of diabetes and family history of heart disease only indirectly and variables; busy work environment, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and family history of hypertension directly and indirectly were related to self-medication. The results of this study showed that more than 60% of patients with diabetes had low self-medication, which represents the success of education principles and methods. Extracting causal relationships among the complexity of factors influencing a disease requires powerful statistical tools such as path analysis.

  10. [Qualitative research of self-management behavior in patients with advanced schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-ping; Wang, Xing-ju; Bao, Hui-hong; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Zheng-rong

    2013-10-01

    To explore the self-management behavior of patients with advanced schistosomiasis, so as to provide the evidence for improving clinical nursing. A total of 18 patients with advanced schistosomiasis were interviewed in depth by using a semi structured interview method. The results were analyzed with Miles and Huberman content analysis method. Most of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis had self-management control behavior and were cooperated with medical assistance because of their seriously illness. Based on data analysis, the symptom management, follow-up management, a healthy lifestyle, medication awareness, and emotional management were obtained. The patients with advanced schistosomiasis have self management control behavior. Health care workers should promote the patients, their families and social people to participate in the self-management behavior of advanced schistosomiasis patients.

  11. Adverse Drug Events and Medication Errors in African Hospitals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B; Alhawassi, Tariq M; McLachlan, Andrew J; Brien, Jo-Anne E

    2018-03-01

    Medication errors and adverse drug events are universal problems contributing to patient harm but the magnitude of these problems in Africa remains unclear. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the literature on the extent of medication errors and adverse drug events, and the factors contributing to medication errors in African hospitals. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Global Health databases from inception to 31 August, 2017 and hand searched the reference lists of included studies. Original research studies of any design published in English that investigated adverse drug events and/or medication errors in any patient population in the hospital setting in Africa were included. Descriptive statistics including median and interquartile range were presented. Fifty-one studies were included; of these, 33 focused on medication errors, 15 on adverse drug events, and three studies focused on medication errors and adverse drug events. These studies were conducted in nine (of the 54) African countries. In any patient population, the median (interquartile range) percentage of patients reported to have experienced any suspected adverse drug event at hospital admission was 8.4% (4.5-20.1%), while adverse drug events causing admission were reported in 2.8% (0.7-6.4%) of patients but it was reported that a median of 43.5% (20.0-47.0%) of the adverse drug events were deemed preventable. Similarly, the median mortality rate attributed to adverse drug events was reported to be 0.1% (interquartile range 0.0-0.3%). The most commonly reported types of medication errors were prescribing errors, occurring in a median of 57.4% (interquartile range 22.8-72.8%) of all prescriptions and a median of 15.5% (interquartile range 7.5-50.6%) of the prescriptions evaluated had dosing problems. Major contributing factors for medication errors reported in these studies were individual practitioner factors (e.g. fatigue and inadequate knowledge

  12. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Achievement goal structures and self-regulated learning: relationships and changes in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; Durning, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Practicing physicians have a societal obligation to maintain their competence. Unfortunately, the self-regulated learning skills likely required for lifelong learning are not explicitly addressed in most medical schools. The authors examined how medical students' perceptions of the learning environment relate to their self-regulated learning behaviors. They also explored how students' perceptions and behaviors correlate with performance and change across medical school. The authors collected survey data from 304 students at different phases of medical school training. The survey items assessed students' perceptions of the learning environment, as well as their metacognition, procrastination, and avoidance-of-help-seeking behaviors. The authors operationalized achievement as cumulative medical school grade point average (GPA) and, for third- and fourth-year students, collected clerkship outcomes. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were associated with their metacognition, procrastination, and help-avoidance behaviors. These behaviors were also related to academic outcomes. Specifically, avoidance of help seeking was negatively correlated with cumulative medical school GPA (r=-0.23, P<.01) as well as exam (r=-0.22, P<.05) and clinical performance (r=-0.34, P<.01) in the internal medical clerkship; these help-avoidance behaviors were also positively correlated with students' presentation at a grade adjudication committee (r=0.20, P<.05). Additionally, students' perceptions of the learning environment varied as a function of their phase of training. Medical students' perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors; these perceptions seem to change across medical school.

  14. Oral Health Attitudes and Behavior among Graduating Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The high dependence on doctors for oral health information due to the shortage of oral health manpower in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is imperative therefore, that medical students as future medical doctors have proper knowledge and oral health behavior. Objective: To evaluate self reported oral ...

  15. The Effects of Model-Based Educational Intervention on Self-medication Behavior in Mothers with Children less than 2- year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Heydartabar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication by people is one of the major issues in the world that can be lead to numerous medical and economic problems, this especially issue in children under 2 years who are at the age of growth and development have great importance. The aim of this study was investigate the effects of model-based educational interventions on self-medication behavior in mothers with children under 2 years of age who referred to the health centers of Firoozkooh city (Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was quasi - experimental interventional study. The study population consisted of mothers with children under 2 years old referring to health centers of the Firoozkooh city, Iran. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire which its validity and reliability was assessed than was used. The required information was collected before and after the educational intervention. Then 4 months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Significant difference was not found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy with performance (self-medication before the educational intervention (P>0.05. But after the educational intervention, statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy with performance (P

  16. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtained from baseline and follow-up interviews and clinical variables from medical charts. Patients with four or more reactions were compared to those with less than four. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were estimated using logistic regression model for both univariate and multivariate analyses. At least one adverse reaction was reported by 92.2% of the participants while 56.2% reported four or more different reactions. Antiretroviral regimens including indinavir/ritonavir, irregular use of antiretrovirals and switch in regimens were independently associated with four or more adverse reactions (OR=7.92, 5.73 and 2.03, respectively. The initial period of ARV treatment is crucial and patients´ perception of adverse reactions should be carefully taken into account. Strategies for monitoring and management of adverse reactions including the choice of regimens and the prevention of irregular ART should be developed in AIDS/HIV referral centers in Brazil to promote better adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Thomas M; Rayburn, Keith S; Holloway, Sandra W; Sanchez-Yamamoto, Deanna S; Allen, Blaine L; Lam, Tiffany; So, Brian K; Tran, De H; Greyber, Elizabeth R; Kantor, Sophia; Roth, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Patients often combine prescription medications with herbal and dietary substances (herein referred to as herbal medicines). A variety of potential adverse herb-drug interactions exist based on the pharmacological properties of herbal and prescription medications. To determine the incidence of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions in patients using herbal medicines with prescription medications. Consecutive patients were questioned about their use of herbal medicines in 6 outpatient clinics. Patients reporting use of these products provided a list of their prescription medications, which were reviewed for any potential adverse herb-drug interactions using a comprehensive natural medicine database. Any potential adverse herb-drug interactions prompted a review of the patient's chart for evidence of an observed adverse herb-drug interaction. The rate of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions. Eight hundred four patients were surveyed, and 122 (15%) used herbal medicines. Eighty-five potential adverse herb-drug interactions were found in 49 patients (40% of herbal medicine users). Twelve possible adverse herb-drug interactions in 8 patients (7% of herbal medicine users) were observed. In all 12 cases, the severity scores were rated as mild, including 8 cases of hypoglycemia in diabetics taking nopal (prickly pear cactus). A substantial number of potential adverse herb-drug interactions were detected and a small number of adverse herb-drug interactions observed, particularly in diabetics taking nopal. Screening for herbal medicine usage in 804 patients did not uncover any serious adverse interactions with prescription medications.

  18. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide.

  19. Self-Care Behaviors among Patients with Heart Failure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recovery from heart failure and dealing with its effects is significantly influenced by patient’s self-care. In order to maximize the effects of behavioral interventions and for educational planning, it is essential to know how much experience and information do patients with heart failure have about their disease and self-care behaviors. The present study aimed to identify self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure. Methods: Eighty heart failure patients hospitalized in Shahid Madani Training Center in Tabriz, Iran, participated in this study. Data collection was done through Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI that contained 22 questions in three sections including self-care behaviors, self-care management and confidence in performing self-care behaviors. Results: The patient’s self-care behaviors in three behavioral sub categories of maintaining, managing and confidence were low. The most repeated self-care behavior in the participating patients was taking medication and visiting the doctor. Conclusion: The results of the study showed low levels of self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure, which notes the need for patient empowerment. It is necessary to develop appropriate strategies in this regard by the authorities

  20. Differences of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between medical and non-medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Yan; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wen, Xiao-Zhong; Liang, Cai-Hua; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies in the world reported inconsistent results about the relationship of medical professional education with medical students' smoking behaviors, and no similar research had been published in China. This paper aims to explore whether the differences of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors existed between medical and non-medical undergraduate students. Eight thousand one hundred thirty-eight undergraduate students sampled from a university in Guangzhou were investigated with a self-administered structured questionnaire about their smoking-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors, and other relevant factors. General linear model and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to test the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitude, and behaviors between medical and non-medical students while controlling for potential confounding variables. There was no difference in smoking-related knowledge scores between medical and non-medical freshmen, but medical sophomores and juniors had higher scores of smoking-related knowledge than their non-medical counterparts. The medical sophomores had higher mean score of attitudes towards smoking than non-medical ones. Before entering university, the difference in the prevalence of experimental and regular smoking between medical and non-medical college students was not significant. After entering university, in contrast, the overall prevalence of regular smoking was significantly higher among male non-medical college students than among male medical students. Stratified by current academic year, this difference was significant only among male sophomores. Medical students have higher smoking-related knowledge, stronger anti-smoking attitude, and lower prevalence of regular smoking than non-medical college students of similar age, which may be associated with medical professional education.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Alexithymia and Pain Self-Efficacy of Patients with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons for visit to primary medical centers. Evidences show that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the effective therapy in chronic pains. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on alexithymia and pains self-efficacy of patients with chronic pain. For this purpose, in a quasi-experimental plan and pre-test and post-test kind with control group, 45 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who visited to the therapeutic-sanitary centers in Ahwaz city were selected by using the available sampling method and they were assigned randomly in two experimental and control groups. Groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-effectiveness of pain at first. Then behavioral-cognitive training was presented in the time of 8 sessions of 90 minutes to the group and after ending the training program and three month consistency period, both groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-efficacy of pain. analyzing data by multivariate covariance method showed that the behavioral-cognitive therapy has been effective on alexithymia and pain intensity of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and these effects remain on patients in the high amount in the consistency stage, too. According to the results, behavioral-cognitive therapy causes to increasing the self-efficacy of pain and reducing the alexithymia and harmful effects of pain to the least level by changing nonefficiency behaviors, correction of adverse cognitions and destructive emotions related to pain.

  2. Comorbidity and medication in REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Ju, Yo-El S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire...

  3. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  4. Self Medication: Predictors and Practices among Rural Population of Nellikuppam Village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate self medication is one of the leading causes of growing antibiotic resistance in developing nations which poses a major public health threat worldwide and assessment of self medication practices is essential for better understanding of the problem. Aim and Objectives: To find out the predictors of self medication use among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. To assess the self medication practices among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 335 adult households with six months recall period in Nellikuppam village of Tamil Nadu during May to October, 2014 using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of self medication among adult rural population was 53.43% and only half of the study population opined that it was harmful. Pharmacists (72.06% were the major source of drug information on self medication. Paracetomol (84.91% was the commonest drug used for self medication. Major predictors were perception of illness as minor ailment and unavailability of doctors in their locality. Nearly half of the current self medication users (47.49% were in the idea of practicing self medication in the future. Conclusion: This study results implies the need for proper enforcement of legal measures towards the restriction of over the counter medicine and creating awareness among general population on adverse reaction of self medication.

  5. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; Sheeran, Paschal; Kok, Gerjo; Hiemstra, Anneke; Prins, Jan M; Hospers, Harm J; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive exercise behavior (Study 2). In Study 1, questionnaire and electronically monitored adherence data were collected at baseline and 3 months later from patients in the control arm of an HIV-adherence intervention study. In Study 2, questionnaire data was collected at 3 time points 6-weeks apart in a cohort study of physical activity. Complete data at all time points were obtained from 51 HIV-infected patients and 499 intensive exercise participants. Intentions were good predictors of behavior and explained 25 to 30% of the variance. Self-regulatory processes explained an additional 11% (Study 1) and 6% (Study 2) of variance in behavior on top of intentions. Regression and bootstrap analyses revealed at least partial, and possibly full, mediation of the intention-behavior relation by self-regulatory processes. The present studies indicate that self-regulatory processes may explain how intentions drive behavior. Future tests, using different health behaviors and experimental designs, could firmly establish whether self-regulatory processes complement current health behavior theories and should become routine targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Positive and Negative Associations between Adolescents’ Religiousness and Health Behaviors via Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-regulation may be the explanatory mechanism for the relation between religiousness and positive health behaviors. However, different religious motivations have differential effects on a variety of health related outcomes, which may explain the adverse effects of religiousness found in some studies. The current study hypothesized that higher identification as religious motivation would be linked to higher health-promoting behavior and lower health-risk behavior through higher self-regulation, whereas higher introjection would be linked to lower health-promoting behavior and higher health-risk behavior through lower self-regulation. The sample included 220 adolescents (mean age = 15 years, 55% male) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling results supported the hypotheses and indicated that adolescent self-regulation mediated the relations between their religious motivation and health behavior. The findings suggest that different types of religious motivation may be promotive or hindering for adolescents’ health. PMID:27595048

  7. Positive and Negative Associations between Adolescents' Religiousness and Health Behaviors via Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    It has been proposed that self-regulation may be the explanatory mechanism for the relation between religiousness and positive health behaviors. However, different religious motivations have differential effects on a variety of health related outcomes, which may explain the adverse effects of religiousness found in some studies. The current study hypothesized that higher identification as religious motivation would be linked to higher health-promoting behavior and lower health-risk behavior through higher self-regulation, whereas higher introjection would be linked to lower health-promoting behavior and higher health-risk behavior through lower self-regulation. The sample included 220 adolescents (mean age = 15 years, 55% male) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling results supported the hypotheses and indicated that adolescent self-regulation mediated the relations between their religious motivation and health behavior. The findings suggest that different types of religious motivation may be promotive or hindering for adolescents' health.

  8. Adverse Drug Events caused by Serious Medication Administration Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, Abhivyakti; Keohane, Carol A.; Maviglia, Saverio; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine how often serious or life-threatening medication administration errors with the potential to cause patient harm (or potential adverse drug events) result in actual patient harm (or adverse drug events (ADEs)) in the hospital setting. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of clinical events that transpired following observed medication administration errors. BACKGROUND Medication errors are common at the medication administration stage for hospitalized patients. While many of these errors are considered capable of causing patient harm, it is not clear how often patients are actually harmed by these errors. METHODS In a previous study where 14,041 medication administrations in an acute-care hospital were directly observed, investigators discovered 1271 medication administration errors, of which 133 had the potential to cause serious or life-threatening harm to patients and were considered serious or life-threatening potential ADEs. In the current study, clinical reviewers conducted detailed chart reviews of cases where a serious or life-threatening potential ADE occurred to determine if an actual ADE developed following the potential ADE. Reviewers further assessed the severity of the ADE and attribution to the administration error. RESULTS Ten (7.5% [95% C.I. 6.98, 8.01]) actual adverse drug events or ADEs resulted from the 133 serious and life-threatening potential ADEs, of which 6 resulted in significant, three in serious, and one life threatening injury. Therefore 4 (3% [95% C.I. 2.12, 3.6]) serious and life threatening potential ADEs led to serious or life threatening ADEs. Half of the ten actual ADEs were caused by dosage or monitoring errors for anti-hypertensives. The life threatening ADE was caused by an error that was both a transcription and a timing error. CONCLUSION Potential ADEs at the medication administration stage can cause serious patient harm. Given previous estimates of serious or life-threatening potential ADE of 1.33 per 100

  9. Bullying, adverse childhood experiences and use of texting to promote behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattishall, Amy E; Ellen, Stacy B; Spector, Nancy D

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses three areas in which new research demonstrates the potential to impact the health of children and adolescents: bullying, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and texting to promote behavior change. Recent research on bullying emphasizes its impact on children with chronic medical conditions, and highlights cyber bullying as a rising issue. ACEs are now recognized as risk factors for many health issues, particularly mental health problems. Text messaging is a promising new method to communicate with parents and adolescent patients. Pediatric healthcare providers can help patients with chronic medical problems by addressing bullying at well child visits. Screening for ACEs may identify children at risk for mental health issues. Incorporating text messaging into clinical practice can improve disease management and patient education.

  10. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  11. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana Reddy, A M; Prashanth, L K; Sharat Kumar, G G; Chandana, G; Jadav, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary) is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter.

  12. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Hyejin An; Seung-Hee Lee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study is to analyze the effects of medical students? social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. Methods We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. Results First, we no...

  13. Evaluation of Self Medication Amongst Nursing Students of Bastar Region: A Questionnaire Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sajid Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  Self-medication provides low cost alternative for expensive medical management but inappropriate use can cause problems. For Nursing undergraduates such practice has special significance since they have medical knowledge but very superficial and also its application is limited.  Hence the present study was planned to evaluate the status of students studying in different years of B.Sc. Nursing.To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication amongst the students of Government Nursing College, Jagdalpur(ChhatisgarhThis questionnaire based study was performed on 142 Nursing students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year aged between17-24 years. Mean age was found to be 20.5 years (±2.5years. A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed amongst the participants after explaining the purpose of the study and taking informed consent. The results obtained from this study showed that out of 142 students 120 (84.50 % students used self medicationCommonest source of information for self medication were seniors and colleagues 40(33.33%, and the most common indication for self medication was common cold 41(34.16 %.D’cold Total 49(40.83% was the most common medication used as self medication .Only 16 (13.33% students were having the knowledge about content, dose, duration of therapy and adverse drug reaction of the medication that they used. The most common source to obtain medicines for self medication was pharmaceutical store 80 (66.67 %.The findings from this study highlights the striking prevalence of self medication among nursing students, the lack of knowledge and the risks associated with them. We recommend that a global approach must be taken to prevent this problem from escalating which would involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self medication, strategies to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription by pharmacies and strict rules regarding pharmaceutical advertising.

  14. Health Value and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Wellness Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-25

    tes for example, may be more related to environmental influences than to low self - esteem . Moreover, the findings that these respondents’ percent...ii iI.-’ HhUU-"Y ,I. HEALTH VALUE AND SELF - ESTEEM - AS PREDICTORS OF WELLNESS BEHAVIORS CDi DTIC cF.- I- ECTE JUL 1 2) 1990 tib D. A. ABOOD T. L...COMND% NAVAL MEDICAL RESSARCHf AN~D DEVELOP491NT COMMANDt " BETHElDA, MARYLANO, Health Value and Self - Esteem as Predictors of Wellness Behaviors

  15. Assessing the Perceptions and Practice of Self-Medication among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Omar Reza Seam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016 among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73 while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94 dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%. A significant (p < 0.05 portion of the students (51% male and 43% female perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.

  16. PENGARUH PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES, ADVERSITY QUOTIENT DENGAN MEDIASI SELF EEFFICACY TERHADAP MINAT BERWIRAUSAHA

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    Wiwin Astri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to figure out the influence of personal attributes (personality. Adversity quotient and self efficacy towards the students’ entrepreneurial interest of economics faculty of semarang state university. This study was undertaken on 277 students of economics faculty of semarang state university as the samples using propotional random sampling. In addition, the data collection technique used was a questionnaire, then the data were analyzed by path analysis. The results of the study showed that there were 21.7% of the effectof personality towards the entrepreneurial interest, 18% of the effect of adversity quotient toward the student’s entrepreneurial interest, 57% of the effect of self efficacy towards the student’s entrepreneurial interest, 49% of the effect of personality towards the self efficacy, 20.2% of the effect of adversity quotient towards the self efficacy, 27.9% of the effect of personality through self efficacy towards the students’ entrepreneurial interest, and 11.5% of the effect of the effect of adversity quotient through the self efficacy towards the entrepreneurial interest.It can be concluded that there are significant effects of personal attributes (personality and adversity quotient towards the entrepreneurial interest either directly or indirectly. The researcher suggests that the university students should improve their entrepreneurial spirit by attending training and seminar about entrepreneurship, and the next researcher to examine different objects as well as adding an external variable in accordance with the research.

  17. Psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence among PLWH in China: role of self-efficacy.

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    Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-12-01

    Globally, optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is insufficient despite it is critical for maximum clinical benefits and treatment success among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many factors have been evidenced to influence medication adherence, including perceived barriers and self-efficacy. However, limited data are available regarding to psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence in China. Moreover, few studies have examined the mechanism of these two factors underlying HIV medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediating role of adherence self-efficacy between perceived barriers and ART adherence among PLWH. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2095 PLWH in Guangxi China who provided data on ART adherence. Participants reported their medication adherence, self-efficacy, barriers to ART adherence, as well as background characteristics. Results indicated a significant indirect effect from perceived barriers to medication adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence were related to lower adherence self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower ART adherence. Self-efficacy could buffer the negative effects of perceived barriers on ART adherence. Future interventions to promote HIV medication adherence are recommended to focus on eliminating psychological and behavioral barriers, as well as increasing adherence self-efficacy.

  18. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

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    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder.

  19. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in juvenile detention: role of adverse life experiences.

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    Madhav P Bhatta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

  20. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

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    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  1. Home Medication Cabinets and Medication Taking Behavior of the Staffs in a University in China

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    Xue, Chengbin; Ye, Juan; Dong, Yuzhen; Xu, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    Background: A growing sum of medicines is stored in home medication cabinets in China, with the behavior of self-medication increasing. Although responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat ailments that do not need professional consultation, it bears the risk of misuse of medicines issued on prescription due to inadequate prescription medicine administration. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the condition and safety of medication storage and intended self-medication in a University in China. Method: The study was conducted over 10 month period (May 2015-March 2016) and involved a random sample of households. The questionnaire survey and personal insight into household medicine supplies was performed by a team of trained pharmacy staffs. Interviewees (N = 398, aged 16-88 y) were visited door to door and the home medication cabinets were catalogued after the participants were interviewed. Results: The majority (89.71%) households have home medicine cabinets. The total number of medicine items in the 398 households was 5600, with a median of 14 per household. The most frequently encountered categories of registered medicines were cough and cold medcines (47.8%), antibacterials for systemic use (30.0%), topical products for joint and muscular pain(26.1%), vitamins (23.2%), medication for functional gastrointestinal disorders (23.2%), oral and external forms have not kept separately(55.1%). The most treatment related problems recorded were curative effect not ideal (57.9%). 68% of the sample population would choose doctors as medication consultation object about medicines purchased. Conclusion: Large sum of medicines were found per household, with a high prevalence of cough and cold medcines. Public services in China, mainly government and health organizations, need put more effort on educating people on how to store medicines, as well as finding a way to raise awareness of the public in promoting behavioral change about medication

  2. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among university students and evaluate factors associated with the practice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during May, 2012 using a pre-validated questionnaire distributed to 250 students of the 4 years of study at the college of business administration. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc and results are expressed as counts and percentages. Chi-square test was used to evaluate significant association among the study variables and P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The response rate was 80% and all respondents were Arabs with 114 (57% females and 86 (43% males. Self-medication was practiced by 118 (59% students and most (88.1% of them obtained medications from pharmacies. About 21 (11% respondents self-medicated with antibiotics. Only 34 (17% and 16 (8% of respondents were aware of bacterial resistance and rational drug use respectively. The most common reasons for self-medication were seeking quick relief (134, 67%, physician′s advice of self-management (100, 50%, illness is minor (91, 45.5%. Common reasons against self-medication include risk of misdiagnosis of illness (160, 80%, risk of using the wrong medication (154, 77%, risk of adverse effects (140, 70%. Self-medication was practiced for headache or mild pain, eye and ear symptoms, gastric problems, cold, fever and allergy. Conclusion: Self-medication among non-healthcare students is common with high prevalence. Knowledge of students of reasons for and against self-medication was adequate, but awareness of respondents of rational drug use and risk of bacterial resistance in response to misuse was poor. Orientation courses/workshops directed to university students would be beneficial.

  3. Medical students and stigma of depression. Part 2. Self-stigma.

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    Suwalska, Julia; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Szczygieł, Marta; Łojko, Dorota

    2017-06-18

    Up to 30% of medical students suffer from depression. They have better access to healthcare, but still receive appropriate treatment less frequently than people with depression in the general population. Most of them do not seek medical help as depression is perceived as a stigmatizing disorder, which leads to self-stigma and hampers early diagnosis and treatment. Thus, self-stigma means less effective therapy, unfavorable prognosis and relapses. According to the literature, self-stigma results in lowered self-esteem and is a major obstacle in the performance of social roles at work and in personal life. Stigmatization and self-stigma of depression among medical students are also associated with effects in their later professional life: they can lead to long-term consequences in the process of treating their patients in the future. Currently there are no unequivocal research results indicating the most effective ways of reducing stigmatization and self-stigma. It is necessary to educate about the symptoms and treatment of depression and to implement diverse intervention techniques to change behaviors and attitudes as early as possible.

  4. Knowledge and Practice of Self-medication among Undergraduate Medical Students

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    Anishma Karmacharya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is an important aspect of self-care. It is a common practice in society and medical students are no exception. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of self-medication among students of a medical school in Western Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among basic science and clinical students after obtaining prior consent from those willing to participate. Respondents’ degree of agreement with a set of 25 statements was noted using Likert scale to assess their knowledge. The practice of self-medication was studied by asking about the use of selected groups of medicines during the past one-year period and noting the pattern of use. Results: Three hundred and thirty of the 356 students (92.6% participated in the study. Mean knowledge score was 93.2 (SD = 8.1. Self-medication was practiced by 83.3% (n = 275 of respondents. Knowledge about self-medication differed among respondents according to gender (p = 0.03 and nationality (p = 0.04 but not other variables. Practice of self-medication was associated with father’s profession (p = 0.03 and nationality of the respondents (p = 0.04. Conclusions: Students’ knowledge about self-medication was good and they commonly practiced self-medication. Pain-killers were the most commonly used drug.

  5. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

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    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  6. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development.

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    Hanson, Jamie L; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J; Rudolph, Karen D; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-07-01

    Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent's behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral development. © 2017 Association for Child and

  7. Association between Perceived Value and Self-Medication with Antibiotics: An Observational Study Based on Health Belief Model Theory

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    Annisa N. Insany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of self medication with antibiotics can increase the probability of irrational use of antibiotics which may lead antibiotics resistance. Thus, shifting of behavior is required to minimize the irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to determine the association between public perceived value and self-medication with antibiotics which can be used to develop an intervention model in order to reduce the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. An observational study was conducted during the period of November–December 2014.The subjects were patients who visit primary health care facilities in Bandung. A structured-interview that has been validated was used to investigate the association between perceived value and self-medication behavior based on the Health Belief Model theory (perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action. Approximately 506 respondents were drawn randomly from 43 community healthcare centers and 8 pharmacies. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (CI 95%, α = 5%. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were shown with a correlation coefficient of >0.3 and a cronbach-alpha value of 0.719, respectively. We found that 29.45% of respondents practiced self-medication with antibiotics over the last six months. Additionally, there was no significant association between the perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action with self-medication behavior (p>0.05. Easiness to access antibiotics without prescription was presumed as a factor that contribute to self-medication with antibiotics, therefore strict regulation in antibiotics use is very needed as a basic intervention to decrease self-medication with antibiotic.

  8. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

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    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  9. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

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    Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...

  10. Regulatory focus and adherence to self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

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    Avraham, Rinat; Van Dijk, Dina; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to test the association between regulatory focus of adults with type 2 diabetes and their adherence to two types of self-care behaviors - lifestyle change (e.g. physical activity and diet) and medical care regimens (blood-glucose monitoring, foot care and medication usage). Second, to explore whether a fit between the message framing and patients' regulatory focus would improve their intentions to adhere specifically when the type of behavior fits the patients' regulatory focus as well. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 130 adults with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized in an academic medical center. The patients completed a set of questionnaires that included their diabetes self-care activities, regulatory focus, self-esteem and demographic, socioeconomic and clinical data. In addition, participants were exposed to either a gain-framed or a loss-framed message, and were then asked to indicate their intention to improve adherence to self-care behaviors. A multivariable linear regression model revealed that promoters reported higher adherence to lifestyle change behaviors than preventers did (B = .60, p = .028). However, no effect of regulatory focus on adherence to medical care regimens was found (B = .46, p = .114). In addition, preventers reported higher intentions to adhere to medical care behaviors when the message framing was congruent with prevention focus (B = 1.16, p = .023). However, promoters did not report higher intentions to adhere to lifestyle behaviors when the message framing was congruent with promotion focus (B = -.16, p = .765). These findings justify the need to develop tailor-made interventions that are adjusted to both patients' regulatory focus and type of health behavior.

  11. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

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    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  12. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

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    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  13. The Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale can be applied to patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Marcus G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Green, Jamie A; Beach, Lauren B; Umeukeje, Ebele; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Ikizler, T Alp; Steed, Julia; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2017-10-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major burden on patients and the health care system. Treatment of CKD requires dedicated involvement from both caretakers and patients. Self-efficacy, also known as perceived competence, contributes to successful maintenance of patient's CKD self-management behaviors such as medication adherence and dietary regulations. Despite a clear association between self-efficacy and improved CKD outcomes, there remains a lack of validated self-report measures of CKD self-efficacy. To address this gap, the Perceived Kidney/Dialysis Self-Management Scale (PKDSMS) was adapted from the previously validated Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale. We then sought to validate this using data from two separate cohorts: a cross-sectional investigation of 146 patients with end-stage renal disease receiving maintenance hemodialysis and a longitudinal study of 237 patients with CKD not receiving dialysis. The PKDSMS was found to be positively and significantly correlated with self-management behaviors and medication adherence in both patient cohorts. The PKDSMS had acceptable reliability, was internally consistent, and exhibited predictive validity between baseline PKDSMS scores and self-management behaviors across multiple time points. Thus, the PKDSMS is a valid and reliable measure of CKD patient self-efficacy and supports the development of interventions enhancing perceived competence to improve CKD self-management. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  15. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

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    Jarurin Pitanupong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.

  16. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  17. Prosocial self-schemas, self-awareness, and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froming, W J; Nasby, W; McManus, J

    1998-09-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that a child's prosocial self-schema predicts prosocial behavior. In Study 1, only self-aware boys showed a self-schema-behavior relation. Study 2 altered both salience of donating opportunity and relationship of recipient to donor. The hypothesized Self-Awareness x Self-Schema interaction was significant, and there were no gender differences. Study 3 systematically manipulated the salience of the donating opportunity. All participants were self-aware. For boys in high and low salience conditions, prosocial self-schema predicted donating behavior. For girls, prosocial self-schema predicted behavior only in the high salience condition. The findings demonstrate that self-schemas can regulate behavior when participants are self-aware. Girls, however, may require higher salience of the donating opportunity for the self-schema to affect their behavior.

  18. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Hojat; Amini, Mitra; Momen Nasab, Ameneh; Malek Pour, Abdolrasoul; Jafari, Mohammad Morad

    2014-07-01

    Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual's performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7(th) year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students' learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  19. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOJAT RAEE

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  20. How to Manage (Treat) Immediate-type Adverse Reactions to GBCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    Acute nonrenal adverse reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents are infrequent and occur often unexpectedly. Most reactions are self-limiting and do not require treatment. The remaining adverse reactions are either moderate or severe and they require medical treatment. Prompt and effective...

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Therapist self-disclosure in cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I

    2014-01-01

    Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing

  3. The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshawi NF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noha F Minshawi,1 Sarah Hurwitz,2 Jill C Fodstad,1 Sara Biebl,3 Danielle H Morriss,4 Christopher J McDougle51Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 5Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs. These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available.Keywords: self-injury, autism spectrum disorders, applied behavior analysis

  4. Perception of the risk of adverse reactions to analgesics: differences between medical students and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Castillo-Guzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medications are not exempt from adverse drug reactions (ADR and how the physician perceives the risk of prescription drugs could influence their availability to report ADR and their prescription behavior. Methods. We assess the perception of risk and the perception of ADR associated with COX2-Inbitors, paracetamol, NSAIDs, and morphine in medical students and residents of northeast of Mexico. Results. The analgesic with the highest risk perception in both group of students was morphine, while the drug with the least risk perceived was paracetamol. Addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding were the ADR with the highest score for morphine and NSAIDs respectively. Discussion. Our findings show that medical students give higher risk scores than residents toward risk due to analgesics. Continuing training and informing physicians about ADRs is necessary since the lack of training is known to induce inadequate use of drugs.

  5. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  7. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  8. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  9. Self-medication: frequent practice in adolescence? Study on a sample of high school students in Sorocaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo

    2013-06-01

    bjectives: self-medication is a practice that has been widely discussed around the world, becoming the target of several studies, including Brazil. Self-medication can cause harm. Children and adolescents are the group most inclined to irrational use of medications. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of high school students about self-medication. Methods: a cross-sectional sample of 79 high school teenagers, aged 14 - 18 years old of both genders. The questionnaire included the following variables: age, gender, grade, frequency of use of medications, who guided the consumption and self-medication, which were evaluated using dichotomous questions, specifying the(s drug(s used and their purpose. Results: the self-medication occurred in 96.2% of the sample, with no difference between genders (p = 0.19 or age (p = 0.61. Among those who self-medicated on their own, 55.88% based on old prescriptions. The most consumed pharmacological groups were analgesics, followed by medicines for colds or flu. Almost half (48.1% participants reported using nonprescription medicines. There was association between adolescents' self-medication and maternal self-medication (p = 0.02. Conclusion: it is extremely worrying the large percentage of adolescents who engage in self-medication, in view of the potential health risks. The consumption of drugs without medical advice by mothers proved to be an influencing factor in adolescents' self-medication.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence for self-management behaviors in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A; Koelmeyer, Louise; Mackie, Helen; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and affective psychosocial factors have been found to underlie adherence to preventive behaviors in women at risk of developing lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if these factors are associated with adherence to self-management behaviors for women diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Women with BCRL were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organization and three Australian lymphedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing demographics, medical history, adherence to self-management behaviors, psychosocial variables (personal control, treatment control, consequences, distress, and self-regulation of affect), and knowledge about lymphedema self-management. A total of 166 women participated in the study. Participants reported adhering to a mean of five out of seven behaviors, with 19.5% of participants adhering to all seven behaviors. Adherence to individual behaviors ranged from 65% (self-lymphatic drainage) to 98.2% (skin care). Greater knowledge about lymphedema was significantly correlated with higher adherence. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only medical history factors (time since diagnosis and having undergone hormone replacement therapy) predicted a significant amount of the variance in adherence. These findings highlight the importance of patient knowledge for optimal adherence to a self-management regimen. In addition, medical history factors may identify if a patient is at risk of nonadherence. The lack of association of adherence with other psychosocial factors considered in this study indicates that factors underlying adherence in affected women differ considerably from those factors prompting preventive behavior adherence in the at-risk population.

  11. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom ... Results: Self-medication practice was highly prevalent among the medical students, with 87 % ... as part of self-care to improve the health care ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  12. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  13. Perceptions and practices of self-medication among medical students in coastal South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a common practice worldwide and the irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern. This study assessed the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students in South India. The data was analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A total of 440 students were included in the study. The prevalence of self-medication was 78.6%. A larger number of females were self-medicating (81.2% than males (75.3%. The majority of the students self-medicated because of the illness being too trivial for consultation (70.5%. Antipyretics were most commonly self-medicated by the participants (74.8%. Only 47% of the participants opined that self-medication was a part of self-care and it needs to be encouraged. 39.3% of the participants perceived that the supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication. Easy availability and accessibility to health care facilities remains the cornerstone for reducing the practice of self-medication.

  14. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  15. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  16. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Simone-Finstrom

    Full Text Available The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB. Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication

  17. Adverse events associated with pediatric exposures to dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Reynolds, Kate M; Kauffman, Ralph E; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Palmer, Robert B; Burnham, Randy I; Green, Jody L

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014. An expert panel determined the relationship between exposure and adverse events, estimated dose ingested, intent of exposure, and identified contributing factors to exposure. 1716 cases contained ≥1 adverse event deemed at least potentially related to dextromethorphan; 1417 were single product exposures. 773/1417 (55%) involved only one single-ingredient dextromethorphan product (dextromethorphan-only). Among dextromethorphan-only cases, 3% followed ingestion of a therapeutic dose; 78% followed an overdose. 69% involved unsupervised self-administration and 60% occurred in children dextromethorphan-only ingestion. Adverse events were predominantly associated with overdose, most commonly affecting the central nervous and autonomic systems.

  18. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  19. Self-management of chronic illness: the role of 'habit' versus reflective factors in exercise and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Cohen, Joshua; Burns, Edith; Abrams, Jessica; Renninger, Steffi

    2016-12-01

    Non-adherence to health behaviors required for chronic illness self-management is pervasive. Advancing health-behavior theory to include behavioral initiation and maintenance factors, including reflective (e.g., belief- and feedback-based) and automatic (e.g., habit-based) mechanisms of adherence to different treatment-related behaviors could improve non-adherence prediction and intervention efforts. To test behavioral initiation and maintenance factors from an extended common sense self-regulation theoretical framework for predicting medication adherence and physical activity among patients with Type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 133) in an in-person (n = 80) or online (n = 53) version of the study reported treatment-related (1) barriers, (2) beliefs and experiential feedback (reflective mechanisms of treatment-initiation and short-term repetition), and (3) habit strength (automatic mechanism of treatment-maintenance) for taking medication and engaging in regular physical activity at baseline. Behaviors were assessed via self-reports (n = 133) and objectively (electronic monitoring pill bottles, accelerometers; n = 80) in the subsequent month. Treatment-specific barriers and habit strength predicted self-reported and objective adherence for both behaviors. Beliefs were inconsistently related to behavior, even when habits were "weak". Experiential feedback from behavior was not related to adherence. Among patients with Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, medication and physical activity adherence were better predicted by their degree of automatic behavioral repetition than their beliefs/experiences with the treatment-actions. Habit strength should be an intervention target for chronic illness self-management; assessing it in practice settings may effectively detect non-adherence to existing treatment-regimens. However, future research and further refining of CS-SRM theory regarding the processes required for such habit development are needed.

  20. Role of Procrastination and Motivational Self-Regulation in Predicting Students\\' Behavioral Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As an important intervening factor to enhance educational and motivational performance of the students, understating the effective factors on behavioral enthusiasm plays a very important role. The aim of this study was to explain the role of motivational self-regulation and procrastination in predicting the students’ behavioral enthusiasm.  Instrument & Methods: In the correlational descriptive cross-sectional study, 311 students of Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected via Available Sampling using Cochran’s Formula in 2014-15 academic year. Data was collected, using Students’ Educational Procrastination Scale, Motivational Self-regulating Scale, and Behavioral Enthusiasm Scale. Data was analyzed in SPSS 19 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Regression Analysis. Findings: The highest and the lowest correlations were between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm and between environmental control and behavioral enthusiasm, respectively (p<0.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between self-regulation and behavioral enthusiasm. In addition, there was a negative and significant correlation between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm (p<0.001. Totally, procrastination (β=-0.233 and motivational self-regulation (β=0.238 explained 10% of the students’ behavioral enthusiasm variance (p<0.001; R²=0.102. Conclusion: Any reduction in procrastination and any enhancement in motivational self-regulation can enhance the students’ behavioral enthusiasm. 

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning self-medication with antibiotics among university students in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Dingkun; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Minghuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Guilan; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of university students on the use of antibiotics. A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students of Xi'an Jiaotong University, comprising 18 schools/colleges in Shaanxi Province, western China. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify risk factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics. Of the 731 respondents (response rate = 73.1%), 294 (40.2%) had self-medicated with antibiotics in the past 6 months. Most of the antibiotics (59.2%) for self-medication were purchased without prescription in retail pharmacies. The median score of students' knowledge about antibiotics was 4 (IQR: 3-6) of a maximum possible score of 10. Students had moderately accurate beliefs towards antibiotics. More than half of the students (56.5%) were storing antibiotics frequently. During self-medication, 16.7% of students claimed to have experienced adverse reactions, and 30.6% had used antibiotics to prevent common colds. The majority preferred to use broad-spectrum antibiotics, and nearly half preferred intravenous antibiotics. Over 44% of students had changed antibiotic dosage, and 36.5% had switched to another antibiotic during the treatment course. Logistic regression analysis identified college and home town as independent risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics (P students had inadequate knowledge, moderately accurate beliefs and inappropriate practices concerning antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

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    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  3. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  4. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Biset Ayalew Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded.Results: The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends

  5. Behavioral self-concept as predictor of teen drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period for self-concept (role identity). Cross-sectional studies link self-concept's behavioral conduct domain (whether teens perceive themselves as delinquent) with adolescent substance use. If self-concept actually drives substance use, then it may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we used longitudinal data from 1 school year to examine whether behavioral self-concept predicts teen drinking behaviors or vice versa. A total of 291 students from a large, predominantly Latino public high school completed a confidential computerized survey in the fall and spring of their 9th grade year. Survey measures included the frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking and at-school alcohol use in the previous 30 days; and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents behavioral conduct subscale. Multiple regressions were performed to test whether fall self-concept predicted the frequency and type of spring drinking behavior, and whether the frequency and type of fall drinking predicted spring self-concept. Fall behavioral self-concept predicted both the frequency and type of spring drinking. Students with low versus high fall self-concept had a predicted probability of 31% versus 20% for any drinking, 20% versus 8% for binge drinking and 14% versus 4% for at-school drinking in the spring. However, neither the frequency nor the type of fall drinking significantly predicted spring self-concept. Low behavioral self-concept may precede or perhaps even drive adolescent drinking. If these results are confirmed, then prevention efforts might be enhanced by targeting high-risk teens for interventions that help develop a healthy behavioral self-concept. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

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    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  7. An antenatal prediction model for adverse birth outcomes in an urban population: The contribution of medical and non-medical risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, A G; Birnie, E; van Veen, M J; Steegers, E A P; Bonsel, G J

    2016-07-01

    in the Netherlands the perinatal mortality rate is high compared to other European countries. Around eighty percent of perinatal mortality cases is preceded by being small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth and/or having a low Apgar-score at 5 minutes after birth. Current risk detection in pregnancy focusses primarily on medical risks. However, non-medical risk factors may be relevant too. Both non-medical and medical risk factors are incorporated in the Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction (R4U) scorecard. We investigated the associations between R4U risk factors and preterm birth, SGA and a low Apgar score. a prospective cohort study under routine practice conditions. six midwifery practices and two hospitals in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 836 pregnant women. the R4U scorecard was filled out at the booking visit. after birth, the follow-up data on pregnancy outcomes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to fit models for the prediction of any adverse outcome (preterm birth, SGA and/or a low Apgar score), stratified for ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). factors predicting any adverse outcome for Western women were smoking during the first trimester and over-the-counter medication. For non-Western women risk factors were teenage pregnancy, advanced maternal age and an obstetric history of SGA. Risk factors for high SES women were low family income, no daily intake of vegetables and a history of preterm birth. For low SES women risk factors appeared to be low family income, non-Western ethnicity, smoking during the first trimester and a history of SGA. the presence of both medical and non-medical risk factors early in pregnancy predict the occurrence of adverse outcomes at birth. Furthermore the risk profiles for adverse outcomes differed according to SES and ethnicity. to optimise effective risk selection, both medical and non-medical risk factors should be taken into account in midwifery and obstetric care at the booking visit

  8. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  9. Diabetes: Christian Worldview, Medical Distrust & Self-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  10. Spontaneously Reported Adverse Reactions for Herbal Medicinal Products and Natural Remedies in Sweden 2007-15: Report from the Medical Products Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedlund, Erika; Larsson, Maria; Hägerkvist, Robert

    2017-06-01

    In relation to the extensive use of herbal medicinal products in self-care, the safety information is limited and there is a need for improvement. This study describes spontaneously reported adverse reactions related to herbal medicinal products and natural remedies in Sweden. To evaluate the characteristics and frequency of adverse events recorded by the Swedish Medical Products Agency, where herbal medicinal products and natural remedies were suspected as causative agents. Adverse drug reactions reported to the Swedish Medical Product Agency during 2007-15 related to approved herbal medicinal products or natural remedies were included and analysed in the retrospective study. Reports had been assessed for causality when they were lodged and only reports that had been assessed as at least possible were included in the study. In total, 116 reports (concerning 259 adverse reactions) related to herbal medicinal products or natural remedies were found in the Swedish national pharmacovigilance database. The active ingredients most frequently suspected during the study period were black cohosh rhizome (15 reports), purple coneflower herb (14 reports) and a combination of extracts of pollen (13 reports). Adverse reactions related to skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most commonly reported reactions. No previously unknown safety problems have been discovered in the present study. This finding could be explained by a thorough pre-approval assessment of medicinal products and the fact that most herbal preparations in medicinal products have been in clinical use for many years (for traditional herbal medicinal products, the requirements are ≥30 years), i.e. adverse reactions are acknowledged and assessed before approval.

  11. Predicting Self-Management Behaviors in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using an Integrated Theoretical Model: the Impact of Beliefs About Illnesses and Beliefs About Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hingley, Catherine; Strickland, Ella; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-06-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are at markedly increased risk of coronary artery disease. Regular participation in three self-management behaviors, physical activity, healthy eating, and adherence to medication, can significantly reduce this risk in FH patients. We aimed to predict intentions to engage in these self-management behaviors in FH patients using a multi-theory, integrated model that makes the distinction between beliefs about illness and beliefs about self-management behaviors. Using a cross-sectional, correlational design, patients (N = 110) diagnosed with FH from a clinic in Perth, Western Australia, self-completed a questionnaire that measured constructs from three health behavior theories: the common sense model of illness representations (serious consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, emotional representations); theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control); and social cognitive theory (self-efficacy). Structural equation models for each self-management behavior revealed consistent and statistically significant effects of attitudes on intentions across the three behaviors. Subjective norms predicted intentions for health eating only and self-efficacy predicted intentions for physical activity only. There were no effects for the perceived behavioral control and common sense model constructs in any model. Attitudes feature prominently in determining intentions to engage in self-management behaviors in FH patients. The prominence of these attitudinal beliefs about self-management behaviors, as opposed to illness beliefs, suggest that addressing these beliefs may be a priority in the management of FH.

  12. Health locus of control and self-care behaviors in diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abredari, Hamid; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Rassouli, Maryam; Nasiri, Navideh; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot affects more than 25% of diabetic patients and finally up to 20% of cases result in amputation. The most important factor resulting in severe complications or even death is lack of self-care. Health locus of control has been introduced as one of health factors and predicting factors of self-care. This research was performed for analyzing the correlation between self-care behaviors and health locus of control in diabetic foot patients. In this descriptive study, 120 patients with diabetic foot were chosen using convenience sampling from endocrine clinic and wards of endocrine and vascular surgery of Teleqani Hospital of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The data were gathered by demographic, self-care behavior, and health locus of control questionnaires. The t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spearman coefficient were used to analyze the data. RESULTS of this research showed that there is a direct and significant relation between selfcare behaviors and internal health locus of control (plocus of control (plocus of control improve and strengthen patients' self-care behaviors and their involvement in treatment.

  13. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  14. SelfMED: Self-Administration of Medication in Hospital: A Prevalence Study in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesemael, Toke; Van Rompaey, Bart; Petrovic, Mirko; Boussery, Koen; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-05-01

    Self-management is a key element in regaining and maintaining health. However, during hospitalization it becomes less obvious. Patient self-administration of medication during hospitalization is suggested to be beneficial to patient satisfaction, adherence to pharmacotherapy, and self-care competence. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-administration of medication during hospitalization, and possible contributing factors. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 12 Belgian hospitals from February 2015 until June 2015. Data were collected on all hospitalized patients at 57 wards, based in 12 hospitals. A structured questionnaire at ward level and patient level on medication management, self-administration of medication, and rationale for prohibiting or allowing patients to self-administer their medication was conducted in consultation with the head nurse. Of the 1,269 patients participating in this study, 22% self-administered at least one medicine during hospitalization and 13.8% self-administered at least 50% of their total amount of medication. In the opinion of the head nurse, 40.9% of the hospitalized patients would have been able to self-administer their medication during hospitalization. Only a few wards had an available procedure and screening tool to assess the competence of the patients to self-administer their medication. This did not affect the prevalence of self-administration. Self-administration occurred significantly more at surgical short-stay wards, compared to other wards. The self-administering patients were on average younger and female and had a lower number of different medications per day before and during hospitalization. These patients had a good health status and were independent to mildly dependent on nurses on the ward. Related factors were used to provide a multivariate logistic regression model. Sometimes self-administration of medication was allowed. According to the surveyed nurses, however, more

  15. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  16. Self-injurious behavior in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P

    2000-08-01

    Recent reports have postulated the existence of two different types of self-injurious behavior: impulsive and compulsive. The aim of the present study is to analyze the dimensionality of self-injurious behavior and to study the link between self-injurious behavior and clinical features in anorexia nervosa. The study involved 236 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-reported questionnaires, such as the Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A principal component analysis was used to study the dimensionality of different types of self-injurious behavior, including purging. Our findings confirm the distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. The dimensions appear to be represented as a continuum in both the anorexia nervosa diagnostic subgroups. A third distinct dimension emerged that included self-induced vomiting and laxative/diuretics abuse. Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety significantly predict the presence of impulsive self-injury, whereas obsessionality and age predict compulsive self-injury. The coexistence of a positive score on both dimensions of self-injurious behavior was the strongest predictor of treatment dropout. The present study highlights the importance of self-injurious behavior; it should be given due consideration in future outcome studies on anorexia nervosa

  17. High prevalence of self-medication practices among medical and pharmacy students: a study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Alefan, Qais; Alqudah, Mohammad A Y

    2016-05-01

    To assess self-medication practices and to evaluate the impact of obtaining medical knowledge on self-medication among medical and pharmacy students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. This was a cross-sectional study. A well-validated questionnaire that included 3 sections about self-medication was administered to the subjects after introducing the term "self-medication" verbally. 1,317 students had participated in the study and were subgrouped according to their academic level into seniors and juniors. Compared to the general population rate of 42.5%, self-medication practice was reported by (1,034, 78.5%) of the students and most common amongst pharmacy students (n = 369, 82.9%) compared to Pharm.D. (n = 357, 77.9%) and medical students (n = 308, 74.4%) (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between juniors and seniors (557, 79.1% vs. 477, 77.8%, p = 0.59, respectively). Headache (71.2%) and common cold (56.5%) were frequent ailments that provoked self-medication. Analgesics (79.9%) and antibiotics (59.8%) were frequently used to self-treat these aliments. Reasons for self-medication included previous disease experience (55.7%); minor aliments (55.3%); and having enough medical knowledge (32.1%). Medicines were used according to instructions obtained mainly from the leaflet (28.8%); pharmacist (20.7%); and university courses (19.7%). Senior students were more aware of the risk of self-medication than junior students. The majority of students frequently advise other people about self-medication (83.6%). Self-medication was common among students irrespective to their level of medical knowledge. Obtaining medical knowledge increased the students' awareness of the risk of self-medication which may result in practicing responsible self-medication. However, medical teaching institutions need to educate students about the proper use of medicines as a therapeutic tool.

  18. Validation of an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of diabetes self-care (IMB-DSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Egede, Leonard E

    2010-04-01

    Comprehensive behavior change frameworks are needed to provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of diabetes self-care programs in diverse populations. We applied the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, a well-validated, comprehensive health behavior change framework, to diabetes self-care. Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. Information gathered pertained to demographics, diabetes knowledge (information); diabetes fatalism (personal motivation); social support (social motivation); and diabetes self-care (behavior). Hemoglobin A1C values were extracted from the patient medical record. Structural equation models tested the IMB framework. More diabetes knowledge (r=0.22 pbehavior; and through behavior, were related to glycemic control (r=-0.20, pmotivation (less fatalistic attitudes), and social motivation (more social support) was associated with behavior; and behavior was the sole predictor of glycemic control. The IMB model is an appropriate, comprehensive health behavior change framework for diabetes self-care. The findings indicate that in addition to knowledge, diabetes education programs should target personal and social motivation to effect behavior change. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. METHOD: 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. RESULTS: Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  20. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  1. Childhood Adversity, Recent Life Stressors and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. Method 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Results Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Conclusions Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population. PMID:24681891

  2. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information

  3. Disruption of model-based behavior and learning by cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wied, Heather M; Jones, Joshua L; Cooch, Nisha K; Berg, Benjamin A; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by maladaptive decision-making, in which individuals seem unable to use adverse outcomes to modify their behavior. Adverse outcomes are often infrequent, delayed, and even rare events, especially when compared to the reliable rewarding drug-associated outcomes. As a result, recognizing and using information about their occurrence put a premium on the operation of so-called model-based systems of behavioral control, which allow one to mentally simulate outcomes of different courses of action based on knowledge of the underlying associative structure of the environment. This suggests that addiction may reflect, in part, drug-induced dysfunction in these systems. Here, we tested this hypothesis. This study aimed to test whether cocaine causes deficits in model-based behavior and learning independent of requirements for response inhibition or perception of costs or punishment. We trained rats to self-administer sucrose or cocaine for 2 weeks. Four weeks later, the rats began training on a sensory preconditioning and inferred value blocking task. Like devaluation, normal performance on this task requires representations of the underlying task structure; however, unlike devaluation, it does not require either response inhibition or adapting behavior to reflect aversive outcomes. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine failed to show conditioned responding or blocking to the preconditioned cue. These deficits were not observed in sucrose-trained rats nor did they reflect any changes in responding to cues paired directly with reward. These results imply that cocaine disrupts the operation of neural circuits that mediate model-based behavioral control.

  4. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  5. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  6. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  7. Positive correlations between the health locus of control and self-management behaviors in hemodialysis patients in Xiamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Li Fan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study provided evidence that there is a strong relationship between the health locus of control and self-management behaviors in hemodialysis patients. This study provides important information for medical professionals as they design strategies to educate hemodialysis patients on their health locus of control and self-management behaviors.

  8. Living well: an intervention to improve self-management of medical illness for individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard W; Dickerson, Faith; Lucksted, Alicia; Brown, Clayton H; Weber, Elyssa; Tenhula, Wendy N; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.

  9. 77 FR 11134 - Guidance for Industry on Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... organizational unit responsible for adverse event reporting compliance when these conditions exist and when the...'s current thinking on postmarketing adverse event reporting for medical products and dietary...

  10. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pádua,Cristiane A. Menezes de; César,Cibele C.; Bonolo,Palmira F.; Acurcio,Francisco A.; Guimarães,Mark Drew C.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month) after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtai...

  11. Discrepancies between beliefs and behavior: a prospective study into immunosuppressive medication adherence after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Tielen, Mirjam; Laging, Mirjam; Timman, Reinier; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem

    2015-02-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplantation is a behavioral issue and as such it is important to understand the psychological factors that influence this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which goal cognitions, illness perceptions, and treatment beliefs were related to changes in self-reported immunosuppressive medication adherence up to 18 months after transplantation. Interviews were conducted with patients in the outpatient clinic 6 weeks (T1; n=113), 6 months (T2; n=106), and 18 months (T3; n=84) after transplantation. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale Interview. Psychological concepts were measured using the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and questions on the importance of adherence as a personal goal, conflict with other goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. Nonadherence significantly increased over time to 31% at T3. Perceived necessity of medication, perceived impact of transplant on life (consequences) and emotional response to transplantation significantly decreased over time. Participants who reported low importance of medication adherence as a personal goal were more likely to become nonadherent over time. Illness perceptions can be described as functional and supportive of adherence which is inconsistent with the pervasive and increasing nonadherence observed. There appears therefore to be a discrepancy between beliefs about adherence and actual behavior. Promoting (intrinsic) motivation for adherence goals and exploring the relative importance in comparison to other personal goals is a potential target for interventions.

  12. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  13. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  14. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to self-care communication during medical appointments in the United States for adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritholz, Marilyn D; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Brooks, Kelly M; Abrahamson, Martin J; Weinger, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes self-care is challenging and requires effective patient-provider communication to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. This study explored perceptions of barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-care communication during medical appointments. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a semistructured interview guide. Thirty-four patients with type 2 diabetes and 19 physicians who treat type 2 diabetes. Physicians described some patients as reluctant to discuss their self-care behaviors primarily because of fear of being judged, guilt, and shame. Similarly, patients described reluctant communication resulting from fear of being judged and shame, particularly shame surrounding food intake and weight. Physicians and patients recommended trust, nonjudgmental acceptance, open/honest communication, and providing patients hope for living with diabetes as important factors for improving self-care communication. Further, patients stressed the clinical benefits of physicians directly addressing poor self-care behaviors while physicians described having few strategies to address these difficulties. Physician-patient self-care communication barriers included patients' reluctance to discuss self-care behaviors and physicians' perceptions of few options to address this reluctance. Treatment recommendations stressed the importance of establishing trusting, nonjudgmental and open patient-provider communication for optimal diabetes treatment. Medical education is needed to improve physicians' strategies for addressing self-care communication during medical appointments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Cognitive complexity of the medical record is a risk factor for major adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, David; Connell, Michael; Dillis, Shay; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Gore, Rebecca; Heagerty, Elaina; Jenkins, Kathy; Ma, Lin; Maurer, Amy; Stephenson, Jessica; Schwartz, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Patients in tertiary care hospitals are more complex than in the past, but the implications of this are poorly understood as "patient complexity" has been difficult to quantify. We developed a tool, the Complexity Ruler, to quantify the amount of data (as bits) in the patient’s medical record. We designated the amount of data in the medical record as the cognitive complexity of the medical record (CCMR). We hypothesized that CCMR is a useful surrogate for true patient complexity and that higher CCMR correlates with risk of major adverse events. The Complexity Ruler was validated by comparing the measured CCMR with physician rankings of patient complexity on specific inpatient services. It was tested in a case-control model of all patients with major adverse events at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from 2005 to 2006. The main outcome measure was an externally reported major adverse event. We measured CCMR for 24 hours before the event, and we estimated lifetime CCMR. Above empirically derived cutoffs, 24-hour and lifetime CCMR were risk factors for major adverse events (odds ratios, 5.3 and 6.5, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, CCMR alone was essentially as predictive of risk as a model that started with 30-plus clinical factors. CCMR correlates with physician assessment of complexity and risk of adverse events. We hypothesize that increased CCMR increases the risk of physician cognitive overload. An automated version of the Complexity Ruler could allow identification of at-risk patients in real time.

  17. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six

  19. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal thought and self-destructive behavior among an elderly hospital population in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekramzadeh, Sahra; Javadpour, Ali; Draper, Brian; Mani, Arash; Withall, Adrienne; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in hospitalized physically ill elderly patients, a group potentially at high risk. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, and direct and indirect self-destructive behaviors among a sample of elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009; 650 inpatients aged 60 years and over were screened from various medical services in teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Suicidal ideation and behavior were measured with the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI) and the Harmful Behavior Scale (HBS). Depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), medical burden with the geriatric version of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS-G), life events with the Paykel Life Event Scale, and social support with the Perceived Social Support Scale. Of the 650 patients screened with a mean age of 70.5 years (SD ± 7.5), 570 met inclusion criteria and of these 123 (21.6%) reported suicidal ideation on the BSSI and 80 (14.4%) had at least one self-destructive behavior included in the HBS. There was a significant correlation between suicide ideation and harmful behaviors (r = 0.503, p = 0.001). In a regression analysis, depressive symptoms, increased burden of medical conditions, marital status, history of substance use, history of traumatic life events, lack of perceived social support, and poor education were associated with both suicide ideation and harmful behavior. From demographic variables, living without a spouse and unemployment were predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Hospitalized, physically ill elderly patients have high rates of suicidal ideation and self-destructive behavior and these vary according to psychosocial and clinical factors. The general hospital is therefore a potential site for the recognition of suicidal individuals and implementation of proximal suicide prevention strategies.

  20. The Transition of Medical Students Through Residency: Effects on Physical Activity and Other Lifestyle-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alba; Mitjans, Anna; Baranda, Lucía; Salamero, Manel; McKenna, James; Arteman, Antoni; Violán, Mariona

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare-seeking behaviors during the transition from medical school graduation to residency training, a period characterized by increased rates of stress and lack of free time due to demanding working conditions. All of these issues are likely to affect physical activity (PA) level. This study explored the evolution of PA and other lifestyle behaviors during this transition. A cross-sectional study and a cohort study were conducted with medical students (2010) and physicians before and after the first year of residency (2013 and 2014). A self-administered questionnaire assessed PA, health and lifestyle behaviors. From a sample of 420 medical students and 478 residents, 74% comply with current PA guidelines. PA decreased by 16% during residency. Low levels of PA were found among (i) females and in respondents who reported (ii) poor self-perceived health and (iii) unhealthy body weight (P mental health in first-year residents. The transition has a negative effect on physicians' PA level that may affect physicians' own health and patient care. Medical programs should encourage residents to engage in PA to assure physicians' personal and mental health.

  1. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  2. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  3. Pattern of medication selling and self-medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Majid; Masood, Imran; Yousaf, Mahreen; Saleem, Hammad; Ye, Dan; Fang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Access to medicines without prescription is a major contributing factor for self-medication practices. This study was designed to examine the ratio of non-prescribed medicines sales and self-medication practices in Punjab, Pakistan. This study also evaluates the reasons for self-medication within its communities. An observational study was conducted in 272 systemically selected pharmacies to analyze medicines-related sales, with or without prescription. A cross-sectional survey was performed between June 2015 and November 2016. Consumers were interviewed about their self-medication practices. Of the pharmacies surveyed, 65.3% participated in the study. A total of 4348 medicines were purchased for self-medication by 3037 consumers (15.2% of all study participants), of which 873 (28.7%) participated in an interview. Majority (81.2%) medicine purchaser, (90.9%) interview participants, and (59.4%) drug users were male. On average, each community pharmacy sold 7.9 medicines without prescription each day, to an average of 5.5 customers. Many participants (28.9%) had matriculation in their formal education. The medicines most often sold for self-medication were analgesics and antipyretics(39.4%). More than 25% of participants reported fever symptoms and 47.8% assumed their illness was too trivial to consult a doctor. Media advertisements were the most common source of information for participants (46.7%). Many types of medicines were often sold without prescription from community pharmacies. Self-medication was common practice for a wide range of illnesses. Pakistan also needs effective implementation of policies to monitor medication sales. Public education about rational medication and limits to advertising medicine are very necessary.

  4. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  5. Application of traditional indexes and adverse events in the ophthalmologic perioperative medical quality evaluation during 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Na Bian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the medical quality of ophthalmologic perioperative period during 2010-2012 in our hospital.METHODS:The relevant data of perioperative period were collected in our hospital during 2010-2012, and the medical quality of perioperative period was evaluated by using the traditional evaluation indexes and adverse events. Whereby, the traditional indicators include vision changes, improving of intraocular pressure, diagnostic accordance rate before and after operation, cure improvement rate, successful rescue rate, and incidence of surgical complications, etc. Adverse events are associated with ophthalmologic perioperative events including pressure sores, postoperative wound infection, drug adverse events, and equipment related adverse events.RESULTS:There were 1483, 1662 and 1931 ophthalmic operations in our hospital in the year 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. From traditional index analysis, the proportions of vision improvement for each year were 96.43%, 96.76% and 97.32%, respectively; the rates of intraocular pressure improvement were 87.50%, 85.72% and 90.17%, respectively (P <0.05; the diagnostic accordance rates before and after operation were 99.86%, 99.94% and 99.90%, respectively; cure improvement rates were 99.73%, 99.93% and 99.84%, respectively; the successful rescue rates were 82.98%, 81.46% and 76.66%, respectively; the complications incidence rates were 18.44%, 17.52% and 17.97%, respectively. The negative factor analysis results showed that:among all the patients of ophthalmic surgeries in our hospital during 2010 and 2012, only one case of postoperative wound infection was found in 2011, and also only one case of tumbling in 2010. The adverse drug events for each year were 1 case (0.07%, 2 cases (0.12%, and 4 cases (0.21%, respectively; the medical device adverse events for each year were 3 cases (0.20%, 5 cases (0.30%, and 6 cases (0.31%, respectively. Noticeably, only one case with postoperative infection of

  6. Self-medication and related health complaints among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Khan, Nelofer; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Issa, Khaled Jamal; Arifulla, Mohamed

    Background Self-medication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. Objective This study examines the prevalence of self-medication with both prescribed and non-prescribed (OTC) medications, related health complaints, sources of drugs, and sources of drug recommendation, and gender differences related to self-medication among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 expatriate students through a validated, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS 19 version. Means and proportions were calculated and Pearson Chi-square test of significance was used to analyze association among variables. Results Majority of the participating students, almost equally distributed by gender, was aged 16 to 17 years. The period prevalence rate of self-medication with prescribed and OTC medications were 89.2%, which did not vary with age, gender, ethnicity or parents’ educational level. The most common sources of drug and drug recommendation were community pharmacies and parents respectively. Headache and fever were the common self-medicated conditions and consequently, analgesics and antipyretics were most commonly used both in the previous two weeks and the previous year prior to the survey. A high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics (53%) and sedative/hypnotics (27%) was also observed. A female excess emerged for certain health complaints and use of medicines except for the use of anti-allergic and herbal/homeopathic drugs. Conclusions This is the first study to explore self-medication practices among high school students in UAE and provides baseline data critical in creating awareness about the risks and benefits of self-medication. Health care providers, educators and parents should be

  7. A clinical nurse specialist-led intervention to enhance medication adherence using the plan-do-check-act cycle for continuous self-improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L

    2010-01-01

    A clinical nurse specialist-led intervention to improve medication adherence in chronically ill adults using renal transplant recipients as an exemplar population is proposed. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of chronically ill and transplant patients indicate that patient-specific characteristics not only are poor and inconsistent predictors for medication nonadherence but also are not amenable to intervention. Adherence has not meaningfully improved, despite meta-analyses and systematic narrative reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dealing with medication nonadherence in acutely and chronically ill persons and RCTs dealing with transplant patients. Interventions with a superior potential to enhance medication adherence must be developed. Use of a clinical nurse specialist-led continuous self-improvement intervention with adult renal transplant recipients is proposed. Continuous self-improvement focuses on improving personal systems thinking and behavior using the plan-do-check-act process. Electronic medication monitoring reports, one of several objective measures of medication adherence, are used by the clinician to provide patient feedback during the check process on medication-taking patterns. Continuous self-improvement as an intervention holds promise in supporting patient self-management and diminishing the blame that clinicians place on patients for medication nonadherence. Using an objective measure of medication adherence such as an electronic monitoring report fosters collaborative patient-clinician discussions of daily medication-taking patterns. Through collaboration, ideas for improving medication taking can be explored. Changes can be followed and evaluated for effectiveness through the continuous self-improvement process. Future studies should include RCTs comparing educational and/or behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence.

  8. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  9. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  10. Study Behaviors and USMLE Step 1 Performance: Implications of a Student Self-Directed Parallel Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Santen, Sally A; Purkiss, Joel

    2017-11-01

    To determine medical students' study behaviors when preparing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1, and how these behaviors are associated with Step 1 scores when controlling for likely covariates. The authors distributed a study-behaviors survey in 2014 and 2015 at their institution to two cohorts of medical students who had recently taken Step 1. Demographic and academic data were linked to responses. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Of 332 medical students, 274 (82.5%) participated. Most students (n = 211; 77.0%) began studying for Step 1 during their preclinical curriculum, increasing their intensity during a protected study period during which they averaged 11.0 hours studying per day (standard deviation [SD] 2.1) over a period of 35.3 days (SD 6.2). Students used numerous third-party resources, including reading an exam-specific 700-page review book on average 2.1 times (SD 0.8) and completing an average of 3,597 practice multiple-choice questions (SD 1,611). Initiating study prior to the designated study period, increased review book usage, and attempting more practice questions were all associated with higher Step 1 scores, even when controlling for Medical College Admission Test scores, preclinical exam performance, and self-identified score goal (adjusted R = 0.56, P < .001). Medical students at one public institution engaged in a self-directed, "parallel" Step 1 curriculum using third-party study resources. Several study behaviors were associated with improved USMLE Step 1 performance, informing both institutional- and student-directed preparation for this high-stakes exam.

  11. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior.

  13. Self medication amongst general outpatients in a nigerian community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolase, C O; Adeleke, O E; Afolabi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the proportion of general out patients who practice self medication, the drugs employed and the reasons for resorting to self medication. This study was conducted between June and December, 2007 at the General Outpatient Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred consenting respondents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed with the aid of semi structured questionnaire by the authors with three assistants. Information regarding their bio-data, history of self medication, drugs used and the reasons for resorting to self medication were obtained. Majority of the respondents (85%) admitted to self medication while the remaining proportion (15%) did not practice it. Drugs utilized could be single, usually analgesics (26.5%) and anti-malaria (15.9%) or in combinations, usually antimalaria-analgesics (22.4%), antimalariaanalgesic- antibiotic (15.3%) and antibiotic-analgesic (10.0%). The reasons cited by respondents for self medication were their perception of their complaints been minor enough to be amenable to self medication (54.7%) and financial constraint (22.4%). Majority of the respondents practiced self medication using an array of drugs like analgesics, anti-malaria and antibiotics used either singly or in combination. The main reasons identified for self medication were that the ailments were minor and financial constraint.

  14. Self-Reported Rationing Behavior Among US Physicians: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler, Robert D; Mundell, Tim; Hurst, Samia A; Goold, Susan Dorr; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Tilburt, Jon C; Danis, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Rationing is a controversial topic among US physicians. Understanding their attitudes and behaviors around rationing may be essential to a more open and sensible professional discourse on this important but controversial topic. To describe rationing behavior and associated factors among US physicians. Survey mailed to US physicians in 2012 to evaluate self-reported rationing behavior and variables related to this behavior. US physicians across a full spectrum of practice settings. A total of 2541 respondents, representing 65.6 % of the original mailing list of 3872 US addresses. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of physician attitudes and self-reported behaviors, with neutral language representations of the behaviors as well as an embedded experiment to test the influence of the word "ration" on perceived responsibility. Overall percentage of respondents reporting rationing behavior in various contexts and assessment of attitudes toward rationing. In total, 1348 respondents (53.1 %) reported having personally refrained within the past 6 months from using specific clinical services that would have provided the best patient care, because of health system cost. Prescription drugs (n = 1073 [48.3 %]) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 922 [44.5 %]) were most frequently rationed. Surgical and procedural specialists were less likely to report rationing behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95 % CI], 0.8 [0.9-0.9] and 0.5 [0.4-0.6], respectively) compared to primary care. Compared with small or solo practices, those in medical school settings reported less rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.4 [0.2-0.7]). Physicians who self-identified as very or somewhat liberal were significantly less likely to report rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.7 [0.6-0.9]) than those self-reporting being very or somewhat conservative. A more positive opinion about rationing tended to align with greater odds of rationing. More than one-half of respondents engaged in

  15. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. Materials and Methods: A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Results: Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. Conclusion: General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  16. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Khurana, Pankaj; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-01-01

    An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.

  18. Role of childhood adversity in the development of medical co-morbidities associated with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality.

  19. Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Burgerhof, JGM; Mechtler, R; Deschepper, R; Tambic-Andrasevic, A; Andrajati, R; Monnet, DL; Cunney, R; Di Matteo, A; Edelstein, H; Valinteliene, R; Alkerwi, A; Scicluna, EA; Grzesiowski, P; Bara, AC; Tesar, T; Cizman, M; Campos, J; Lundborg, CS; Birkin, J

    We surveyed the populations of 19 European countries to compare the prevalence of antimicrobial drug self-medication in the previous 12 months and intended self-medication and storage and to identify the associated demographic characteristics. By using a multistage sampling design, 1,000-3,000

  20. Using self-regulation theory to examine patient goals, barriers, and facilitators for taking medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Thomas, Sheena; Bazzi, Abraham; Virant-Young, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    : Self-regulation theory predicts that patient behavior is determined by the patient's assessment of his/her condition (illness presentation) and related health goals. Patients will adapt their behavior to achieve those goals. However, there are multiple levels of goals. In such cases, those lower-level goals (health goals) that are strongly correlated with higher-level goals (i.e. quality of life [QOL]) are more likely to drive patient behavior. Medication non-compliance is a health behavior that challenges healthcare practitioners. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between the lower-level goals for taking medication with higher-level goals. This paper also identifies patient-perceived barriers and facilitators toward achieving goals as they may relate to patients' illness representation. : To identify lower- and higher-level goals associated with medication use for chronic conditions. To determine if there is a relationship between higher-level (global) goals and lower-level (health-related) goals. To identify patient-perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving those goals. : This was a prospective, observational study using a mailed survey. The setting was a US Midwestern state-wide survey. Participants were patients living in the community with hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or arthritis, and taking prescription medication for any one of those conditions. The main outcome measures were lower- and higher-level goals related to medication use. The survey asked the participants if they had achieved their goals and to identify factors that may pose as barriers or facilitators to achieving them. Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between the lower- and higher-level goals at p goals existed (p = 0.03). Preventing future health problems was the most important lower-level goal for almost half of the respondents. Approximately 43% of the respondents said 'improving or maintaining quality of

  1. The Study Of Anxiety In Medical Students And It’s Relation With Practice of Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding to deal with various stressors, which may cause impaired judgment, reduced concentration, lack of self-steam, increased anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 medical students from 6 month period to graduation in medical college of Tehran university of Medical sciences in order to assess their anxiety and practice of health behaviors and also the relation between the two variables and some other related factors.. Results: The results of study show that of 6.6% medical students suffer from severe state and 4.9% from trait anxiety. The finding of this study shows that 83.3% of girls and 84.6% of boys have practicing risky health behaviors. No statistical relationships found between, anxiety and practicing health behaviors. The relation between anxiety and health satisfaction was Statistically significant; mental and physical (P<0.001. Conclusion: The information found in this research, can help medical education institute to capitalize an opportunities to help their students in preventing risky behaviors, and different stress management techniques should be taught at medical schools.

  2. Self-Regulatory Fatigue, Quality of Life, Health Behaviors, and Coping in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Shawna L.; Patten, Christi A.; Gastineau, Dennis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-regulatory fatigue may play an important role in a complex medical illness. Purpose Examine associations between self-regulatory fatigue, quality of life, and health behaviors in patients pre- (N=213) and 1-year post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; N=140). Associations between self-regulatory fatigue and coping strategies pre-HSCT were also examined. Method Pre- and 1-year post-HSCT data collection. Hierarchical linear regression modeling. Results Higher self-regulatory fatigue pre-HSCT associated with lower overall, physical, social, emotional, and functional quality of life pre- (p’sself-regulatory fatigue pre-HSCT relating to decreased quality of life and health behaviors, and predicting changes in these variables 1-year post-HSCT. PMID:24802991

  3. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Ikuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22. A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements. This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus

  4. A serial mediation model testing early adversity, self-concept clarity, and thin-ideal internalization as predictors of body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Froreich, Franzisca V; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the associations among early family adversity (e.g., family violence, neglect), self-concept clarity (i.e., having a clear and coherent sense of one's own personal identity), thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction. Female university students in Australia (n=323) and adult female community members in the United States (n=371) completed self-report measures of the relevant constructs. In both samples, serial mediation analysis revealed that early family adversity was negatively associated with self-concept clarity, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with thin-ideal internalization, and thin-ideal internalization was positively associated with body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that early adverse experiences might impair individuals' self-concept clarity, and that low self-concept clarity might increase the risk of internalization of the thin ideal (as a means of defining the self) and consequently body dissatisfaction. These findings also suggest possible avenues for prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  6. Can brief behavioral health interventions reduce suicidal and self-harm ideation in primary care patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueweke, Aubrey R; Rojas, Sasha M; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether brief behavioral health visits reduced suicidal and self-harm ideation among primary care patients and compared the effectiveness of interventions that targeted ideation directly (i.e., safety planning) with those that targeted ideation indirectly through management of underlying mental illness (e.g., behavioral activation). We examined first- and last-visit data from 31 primary care patients with suicidal or self-harm ideation seen by behavioral health consultants. Patients reported significantly lower frequencies of suicidal and self-harm ideation at their final visit than at their initial visit. Patients whose ideation was targeted directly showed greater improvements than patients whose ideation was targeted indirectly. Although preliminary, results suggest mild to moderate suicidal ideation could be addressed in primary care through integration of behavioral health consultants into the medical team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Impact of Incident Disclosure Behaviors on Medical Malpractice Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Priscila; Sato, Luke; Castells, Xavier

    2017-06-30

    To provide preliminary estimates of incident disclosure behaviors on medical malpractice claims. We conducted a descriptive analysis of data on medical malpractice claims obtained from the Controlled Risk Insurance Company and Risk Management Foundation of Harvard Medical Institutions (Cambridge, Massachusetts) between 2012 and 2013 (n = 434). The characteristics of disclosure and apology after medical errors were analyzed. Of 434 medical malpractice claims, 4.6% (n = 20) medical errors had been disclosed to the patient at the time of the error, and 5.9% (n = 26) had been followed by disclosure and apology. The highest number of disclosed injuries occurred in 2011 (23.9%; n = 11) and 2012 (34.8%; n = 16). There was no incremental increase during the financial years studied (2012-2013). The mean age of informed patients was 52.96 years, 58.7 % of the patients were female, and 52.2% were inpatients. Of the disclosed errors, 26.1% led to an adverse reaction, and 17.4% were fatal. The cause of disclosed medical error was improper surgical performance in 17.4% (95% confidence interval, 6.4-28.4). Disclosed medical errors were classified as medium severity in 67.4%. No apology statement was issued in 54.5% of medical errors classified as high severity. At the health-care centers studied, when a claim followed a medical error, providers infrequently disclosed medical errors or apologized to the patient or relatives. Most of the medical errors followed by disclosure and apology were classified as being of high and medium severity. No changes were detected in the volume of lawsuits over time.

  8. Study of stress, self-esteem and depression in medical students and effect of music on perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Vrushali S; Gadkari, Jayashree V

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to many stressors and if stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive can affect academic performance and health adversely. The objective of this study was to assess stress, predominant stressor and effect of music on perceived stress. 90 undergraduate students were selected randomly. A written questionnaire about personal information, stressful factors, ways to cope up stress, Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and 'Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology' self-rated 16 (QIDS-SR-16) was given.45.6% Students had mild stress, 7.7% students had moderate stress and 1.1% students had severe stress. Academic factors were the predominant cause of stress in most students, followed by physical, social and emotional. On Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) 85.6% students had high self-esteem and on QIDS-SR16 50% students had depression. Effect of music on perceived stress was statistically significant. Medical curriculum is associated with increased stress in students. Music can be used as simple, inexpensive and effective therapy for stress.

  9. Epidemiology of Adverse Events and Medical Errors in the Care of Cardiology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoshinori; Miki, Izumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Abe, Mitsuru; Sakuma, Mio; Koike, Kaoru; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2016-11-02

    There have been epidemiological studies of adverse events (AEs) among general patients but those of patients cared by cardiologist are not well scrutinized. We investigated the occurrence of AEs and medical errors (MEs) among adult patients with cardiology in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult outpatients at a Japanese teaching hospital from February through November 2006. We measured AE and ME incidents from patient report, which were verified by medical records, laboratory data, incident reports, and prescription queries. Two independent physicians reviewed the incidents to determine whether they were AEs or MEs and to assess severity and symptoms. We identified 144 AEs and 30 MEs (16.3 and 3.9 per 100 patients, respectively). Of the 144 AEs, 99 were solely adverse drug events (ADEs), 20 were solely non-ADEs, and the remaining 25 were both causes. The most frequent symptoms of ADEs were skin and allergic reactions due to medication. The most frequent symptoms of non-ADEs were bleeding due to therapeutic interventions. Among AEs, 12% was life threatening. Life-threatening AEs were 25% of non-ADEs and 5% of ADEs (P = 0.0003). Among the 30 MEs, 21MEs (70%) were associated with drugs. Adverse events were common among cardiology patients. Adverse drug events were the most frequent AEs, and non-ADEs were more critical than ADEs. Such data should be recognized among practicing physicians to improve the patients' outcomes.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  10. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  11. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  12. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  13. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

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    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  14. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ocan

    Full Text Available Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7% of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%. The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%, amoxicillin (21.7%, metronidazole (12.3%, and cotrimoxazole (11.6%. Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5% and drug shop attendants (57.6%. On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8 tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5. Over half (68.2% of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76% of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%, drug resistance (33.2%, and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%. Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite

  15. Self-Medication in University Students from the City of Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, R M; Abou-ElWafa, H S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Self-medication is a common practice in developed and developing countries. Objectives . To explore the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students, probable reasons, symptoms requiring self-medication, and sources of advice. Methods . A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura University, Egypt, and included 1st and last year students of both medical and nonmedical faculties. Results . Prevalence of self-medication was 62.9%. Younger age, female, medical, and ever-married students and those having home pharmacy tended to self-medicate more than their peers with significant difference between them. Being medical student, being from urban area, having good current health condition, being careless about health, and having drugs stored at home pharmacy were independently associated with the likelihood of self-medicating. Conclusion . Prevalence of self-medication among university students is high which constitutes a health problem that needs intervention.

  16. Correlation of adolescents' self-concept and self-esteem with some unwholesome behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.

  17. Changing experience of adverse medical events in the National Health Service: Comparison of two population surveys in 2001 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alastair M; Fenn, Paul; Rickman, Neil; Vencappa, Dev

    2017-12-01

    Care quality is important to patients and providers, but is hard to measure. This study aimed to examine changes in the frequency and severity of one quality measure - adverse events associated with medical care - in Great Britain over a 12-year period when available resources initially expanded and were subsequently constrained. Data on perceived adverse events, collected from two representative population surveys in 2001 and 2013, were analysed and compared. The samples consisted of 8202 adults aged 15 and over in 2001 and 19,746 adults aged 15 and over in 2013. The main outcome measures were self-reported illness, injury or impairment caused in the opinion of the respondent by medical treatment or care. Respondents were also asked about the perceived severity of harm in terms of health and work, and any actions taken in response. The proportion of all respondents reporting that over the last three years they had suffered some illness, injury or impairment that in their opinion was caused by their medical treatment or care was 2.5% (497/19746) in 2013, compared with 4.8% (391/8202) in 2001, a reduction of 33% after adjusting for age, gender, income and social class differences between the two surveys. Perceived impact on health and work of these events was similar in both surveys, as was the proportion of injured respondents who pursued a legal claim for financial compensation, at 11% (53/497) in 2013 and 10.5% (41/391) in 2001. We also report multivariate analyses of perceived harm rates and severity, and propensity to seek, and accept, compensation. Our results suggest that the NHS became significantly safer over this period when measured by patient perceived harm from medical care. Our survey method could provide a valuable contribution to the monitoring of trends in health-care related adverse events and the impact of patient safety initiatives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucieer, Susanna M.; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Content: Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn

  20. Adverse obstetric outcomes during delivery hospitalizations complicated by suicidal behavior among US pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Smoller, Jordan W; Avillach, Paul; Cai, Tianxi; Williams, Michelle A

    2018-01-01

    The effects of suicidal behavior on obstetric outcomes remain dangerously unquantified. We sought to report on the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes for US women with suicidal behavior at the time of delivery. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of delivery hospitalizations from 2007-2012 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. From the same hospitalization record, International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicidal behavior and adverse obstetric outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using logistic regression. Of the 23,507,597 delivery hospitalizations, 2,180 were complicated by suicidal behavior. Women with suicidal behavior were at a heightened risk for outcomes including antepartum hemorrhage (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.47-3.74), placental abruption (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.66), postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.61-3.37), premature delivery (aOR = 3.08; 95% CI: 2.43-3.90), stillbirth (aOR = 10.73; 95% CI: 7.41-15.56), poor fetal growth (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10-2.62), and fetal anomalies (aOR = 3.72; 95% CI: 2.57-5.40). No significant association was observed for maternal suicidal behavior with cesarean delivery, induction of labor, premature rupture of membranes, excessive fetal growth, and fetal distress. The mean length of stay was longer for women with suicidal behavior. During delivery hospitalization, women with suicidal behavior are at increased risk for many adverse obstetric outcomes, highlighting the importance of screening for and providing appropriate clinical care for women with suicidal behavior during pregnancy.

  1. Self-medication in academic course graduate of health in a private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thricy Dhamer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: The World Health Organization defi nes self-medication as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat their illnesses or symptoms. It is considered a public health problem that deserves special attention, since it presents risks, because of adverse drug reactions, bringing serious consequences and may lead to the death. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of self-medication realized by undergraduate students enrolled in health courses in a community college, as well the symptoms that led to this practice. Methods: This study was an observational and quantitative research, where it was used structured and pre-coded questionnaires to obtains the data, among students enrolled at 5th and 6th semesters of Biology, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition, Dentistry and Psychology at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul. Results: 342 students were evaluated, 74% female, aged between 18 and 50, which was the most prevalent age group of 21-30 years, which were 71.4% of students. The prevalence of medicines used among those surveyed was 68.7% last month, with an average of 2 medications per student. The medications were distributed by medical prescription in 282 cases (59.1%, under self-medication in 139 cases (29.1%, oriented by a pharmaceutical in 25 cases (5.2% and no response in 31 cases (6.6%. The classes of drugs most used were analgesics/antipyretics (48.2%, NSAIDs (14.2% and antacids (9.9%. The main purpose of motivating self medication were headache (14.4%, digestive disorders (13.2%, contraception (7.2% and general pain (6.0%. Conclusion: Self medication is a common practice among students in the health area, where about a third reported conduct such practice. KEYWORDS Self-medication. Student Health Occupations. Drugs.

  2. Do Self-Incentives and Self-Rewards Change Behavior? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma M; Smith, Debbie M; Epton, Tracy; Armitage, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Encouraging people to self-incentivize (i.e., to reward themselves in the future if they are successful in changing their behavior) or self-reward (i.e., prompt people to reward themselves once they have successfully changed their behavior) are techniques that are frequently embedded within complex behavior change interventions. However, it is not clear whether self-incentives or self-rewards per se are effective at bringing about behavior change. Nine databases were searched alongside manual searching of systematic reviews and online research registers. One thousand four hundred papers were retrieved, spanning a range of behaviors, though the majority of included papers were in the domain of "health psychology". Ten studies matched the inclusion criteria for self-incentive but no studies were retrieved for self-reward. The present systematic review and meta-analysis is therefore the first to evaluate the unique effect of self-incentives on behavior change. Effect sizes were retrieved from 7 of the 10 studies. Analysis of the 7 studies produced a very small pooled effect size for self-incentives (k = 7, N = 1,161), which was statistically significant, d + = 0.17, CI [0.06, 0.29]. The weak effect size and dearth of studies raises the question of why self-incentivizing is such a widely employed component of behavior change interventions. The present research opens up a new field of inquiry to establish: (a) whether or not self-incentivizing and self-rewarding are effective behavior change techniques, (b) whether self-incentives and self-rewards need to be deployed alongside other behavior change techniques, and, (c) when and for whom self-incentives and self-rewards could support effective behavior change. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Self-medication of mood and anxiety disorders with marijuana: Higher in states with medical marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Olfson, Mark; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314). Weighted logistic regression models predicted the prevalence of self-medication with drugs in U.S. states with and without MML, adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. As a negative control, analyses were repeated for self-medication with alcohol. Overall, self-medication with drugs was 3.73 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-6.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.01). For the subpopulation that only used marijuana, self-medication with drugs was 21.22 percentage points higher (95% CI: 3.91-38.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.02). In contrast, self-medication with alcohol had nearly identical prevalence in MML and non-MML states, overall and for drinkers. Among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, living in a medical marijuana law state is associated with self-medication with marijuana. While additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this association, clinical screening for self-medication with marijuana may be particularly important in states with medical marijuana laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  5. SELF MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MENINGKATKAN KOPING, NIAT DAN KEPATUHAN BEROBAT PASIEN PJK SETELAH PEMBERIAN SELF MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanim mufarokhah mufarokhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management coronary artery disease required lifelong treatment. The successful management of CHD requires efective coping, intention and medication adherence of CHD’s patients. This study aimed to explain the changes of coping, intention, and medication adherence in patients with CHD after giving self management programme in RSUD Jombang based on Theory Planned Behavior.Method: This study used a quasy experimental pretest-posttest control group design and 28 respondens selected by consecutive sampling. Independent variable was self management programme while dependent variables were coping, intention, medication adherence. Data were collected by using questonnaires measuring coping level, intention and medication adherence. The statistical test used was Mann Whitney, Wilcoxone Signed Rank and t-Test. Result: The result showed that 1 self management programme improve the level of coping in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 2 self management programme improve the level of intention in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 3 self management programme improve the level of medication adherence in patients with CHD (p < 0,001. Discussion: To change a behavior requires improvement of coping and intentions. This is in according to the Theory of Planned Behavior that behavior change is influenced by the attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention. Keywords: self management program, coping, intention, medication adherence, coronary heart disease

  6. Movement Behaviors in Children and Indicators of Adverse Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    The prevalence of overweight children is high and increasing numbers of children now show features of metabolic syndrome. Various aspects of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and lack of good-quality sleep have all been linked to this recent development of overweight and cardio-metabolic risk...... at reducing obesity and its associated metabolic complications in adulthood. In my PhD thesis I assessed objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children and related these movement behaviors to indicators of adverse health (dietary intake, adiposity......, and cardio-metabolic risk markers). Firstly, findings indicated that waist-worn accelerometers could be used to obtain a proxy measure of sleep duration meaning that monitoring of physical activity and sleep could be done by a single accelerometer worn on the waist for 24-hours a day. Secondly, most...

  7. Self-reported adverse reactions in 4337 healthcare workers immunizations against novel H1N1 influenza

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    Seybold Joachim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The use of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine has generated much debate concerning safety issues among the general population and physicians. It was questioned if this is a safe vaccine. Therefore, we investigated the safety of an inactivated monovalent H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Methods We focused on the H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix® and applied a self reporting questionnaire in a population of healthcare workers (HCWs and medical students at a major university hospital. Results In total, 4337 individuals were vaccinated, consisting of 3808 HCWs and 529 medical students. The vaccination rate of the employees was higher than 40%. The majority of individuals were vaccinated in November 2009. In total, 291 of the 4337 vaccinations were reported to lead to one or more adverse reactions (6.7%. Local reactions were reported in 3.8%, myalgia and arthralgia in 3.7%, fatigue in 3.7%, headache in 3.1%. Conclusions Our data together with available data from several national and international institutions points to a safe pandemic influenza vaccine.

  8. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Guo, Abra; Zhang, Shelley; Jagannathan, Desikan; Toldo, Luca; Tao, Cui; Smith, Barry

    2014-01-01

    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term 'adverse event' denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of adverse events and of the factors (e

  10. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  11. Domains of unprofessional behavior during medical school associated with future disciplinary action by a state medical board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teherani, Arianne; Hodgson, Carol S; Banach, Mary; Papadakis, Maxine A

    2005-10-01

    In a previous study, we showed that unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with subsequent disciplinary action. This study expands on that work by identifying the domains of unprofessional behavior that are most problematic. In this retrospective case-control study, negative comments were extracted from student files for 68 case (disciplined) and 196 matched control (nondisciplined) physicians. Comments were analyzed qualitatively and subsequently quantified. The relationship between domains of behavior and disciplinary action was established through chi-square tests and multivariate analysis of variance. Three domains of unprofessional behavior emerged that were related significantly to later disciplinary outcome: (1) poor reliability and responsibility, (2) lack of self-improvement and adaptability, and (3) poor initiative and motivation. Three critical domains of professionalism associated with future disciplinary action have been defined. These findings could lead to focused remediation strategies and policy decisions.

  12. Acute liver failure and self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, André Vitorio Câmara de; ROCHA, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; ABREU, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. AIM: To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. METHOD: Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute l...

  13. Designing an E-Learning Platform for Postoperative Arthroplasty Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumsvik, Ole Andreas; Babic, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile software application development for e-learning based on the adverse events data within the field of arthroplasty. The application aims at providing a learning platform for physicians, patients, and medical students. Design of user interface aims to meet requirements of several user groups concerned with the adverse events of the knee and hip implants. Besides the clinical patient data, the platform wants to include even electronic patient data as a result of self-monitoring. Two different modules were created, one for medical staff and one for patients, both divided into the knee and hip areas. Knowledge is represented in forms of statistics, treatment options, and detailed, actual adverse event reports. Patients are given a choice of recommendation for two main situations: 'about your diagnosis', and 'what if you get a problem' as advice and guidance during the postoperative rehabilitation. Expert evaluation resulted in acceptance of the concept and provided feedback ideas. The patient evaluation has also been positive. Implementation will mean that a high-fidelity prototype will be developed and tested in larger user groups (medical staff, patients).

  14. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Susanna M; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M J P; Themmen, Axel P N

    2016-06-01

    Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn more effectively, it is of interest to investigate whether these skills are related to academic performance. In a cross-sectional design, the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) was used to investigate the change in students' self-regulated learning skills. First and third-year students (N = 949, 81.7%) SRL-SRS scores were compared with ANOVA. The relation with academic performance was investigated with multinomial regression analysis. Only one of the six skills, reflection, significantly, but positively, changed during medical school. In addition, a small, but positive relation of monitoring, reflection, and effort with first-year GPA was found, while only effort was related to third-year GPA. The change in self-regulated learning skills is minor as only the level of reflection differs between the first and third year. In addition, the relation between self-regulated learning skills and academic performance is limited. Medical schools are therefore encouraged to re-examine the curriculum and methods they use to enhance their students' self-regulated learning skills. Future research is required to understand the limited impact on performance.

  15. Self-care behaviors of Filipino-American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Deovina N; Jordan, James L

    2010-01-01

    To examine the diabetes self-care behaviors of Filipino-American (FA) adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities-Revised and Expanded measure was administered to 192 (74 males and 118 females) FA adult immigrants with type 2 DM. Older FAs (> or =65 years), females, those who were older when they immigrated, and participants diagnosed with type 2 DM longer were more likely to follow recommended medication regimens. Younger FAs (healthful eating plans. Likewise, females reported eating five or more servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily. Moreover, older FAs reported evenly spacing carbohydrate intake everyday. Furthermore, older participants, those with less education, participants who were older when they immigrated, and those older when diagnosed with type 2 DM ate fewer foods high in fats. As to physical activity, FA males and participants with higher education exercised more frequently. Younger FAs were less likely to perform optimum type 2 DM self-care behaviors pertaining to diet, medication taking, and blood glucose testing compared to their older counterparts. This finding suggests an increased risk for type 2 DM comorbidities and/or complications in younger FAs, which may require more intensive treatments in later years. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  17. Self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Kontogiannis, Vasileios; Malachas, Konstantinos; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Kritis, Aristidis

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in the Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care behaviors measurement was administered to 215 patients, out of which 177 were eligible to participate (87 males). Patients, aged 30 years or more, were recruited through a university hospital day-clinic. Older patients (>65 years), as well as those with "higher educational level" did not distribute their daily carbohydrate intake equally. Nevertheless, they were more likely to adapt to their physician's recommendations regarding medication and to regularly perform suggested blood glucose checking. Exercise patterns were more often found for higher educated, earlier diagnosed males. Younger patients were less likely to follow their healthcare professional's recommendations, regarding diet, medication intake, blood glucose checking, foot care and exercise compared to older patients. These results pose a higher risk for complications and morbidity in younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who most possibly will require intensive treatment in the future.

  18. Corrigendum: Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.

  19. Integrating 360° behavior-orientated feedback in communication skills training for medical undergraduates: concept, acceptance and students' self-ratings of communication competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerer, Cosima; Berberat, Pascal O; Dinkel, Andreas; Rudolph, Baerbel; Sattel, Heribert; Wuensch, Alexander

    2016-10-18

    Feedback is considered a key didactic element in medical education, especially for teaching of communication skills. This study investigates the impact of a best evidence-based practice feedback concept within the context of communication skills training (CST). We evaluate this concept for acceptance and changes in students self-ratings of communication competence. Our CST integrating feedback process comprises a short theoretical introduction presenting standards for good communication and a constructive 360° feedback from three perspectives: feedback from peers, from standardized patients (SPs), and from a trainer. Feed-forward process was facilitated for documenting suggestions for improvements based on observable behaviors to maximize learning benefits. Our CST was applied to four groups of eight or nine students. We assessed the data on students' acceptance using a 6-point scale ranging from very good (1) to poor (6), applied a forced choice question to rank didactic items, and assessed changes in student' self-ratings of their communication competence on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Thirty-four medical undergraduates (82 % female, 18 % male) in their first clinical year, with an average age of 21.4 years (SD = 1.0), participated in the new training. The concept achieved high acceptance from good to very good: overall impression (M = 1.56), sufficient interaction for discussion (M = 1.15), and constructive learning atmosphere (M = 1.18). Specific elements, such as practical training with SPs (M = 1.18) and feedback by SPs (M = 1.12), showed highest acceptance. The forced choice ranking placed all feedback elements at the top of the list (feedback (FB) by SPs, rank 2; FB by trainer, rank 3; FB by colleagues, rank 4), whereas theoretical elements were at the bottom (theoretical introduction, rank 7; memory card, rank 9). Overall, student self-ratings of communication competence significantly improved in nine of the ten

  20. Self-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes among Major Depressive Disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is paucity of data on prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs and adherence and clinical outcomes of antidepressants. The present study determined the magnitude of ADRs of antidepressants and their impact on the level of adherence and clinical outcome. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among depression patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar University Hospital psychiatry clinic. The Naranjo ADR probability scale was employed to assess the ADRs. The rate of medication adherence was determined using Morisky Medication Adherence Measurement Scale-Eight. Results. Two hundred seventeen patients participated in the study, more than half of them being males (122; 56.2%. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications (124; 57.1% and about 186 (85.7% of the patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain (29; 13.2%. More than one-half (125; 57.6% of the respondents showed improved clinical outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence decreased the likelihood of poor clinical outcome by 56.8%. Conclusion. ADRs were more prevalent. However, adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. Long duration of depression negatively affects the rate of adherence. In addition, adherence was found to influence the clinical outcome of depression patients.

  1. Helping the self help others: self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Creswell, J David

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimportant value) increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account) or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account), using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion) compared to watching a peer's storytelling performance (other-directed compassion). Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  2. Prevalence & Practice of Self-Medication in Ernakulum District, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitha Paul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Self-medication can lead to many problems and has many concerns associated with it including development of drug resistance. The objectives of the current study were to assess the prevalence of self-medication practices among people residing in selected urban and rural areas of Ernakulam district, to assess the pattern of use of self-medications and to determine the differences, if any, between the rural, urban and slum population in the prevalence and pattern of use of self-medications Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted and 539 individuals from urban, rural and urban slums of Ernakulam district, Kerala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was tabulated in MS Excel and analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 15. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage was used to summarize the data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to assess the factors associated with self-medication Results In the study, 21.5% (114/539 reported that they practised self-medication within last three months. Major indications for self-medication were aches and pain (28.9%, fever (22.8% and chronic diseases (13.7%. Among those who practised self-medication, 6.1% (7/114 used antibiotics. In the final logistic regression model, being in urban area [urban areas (OR 5.8, 95% CI 3.2-10.4, urban slums (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.4] and increasing age groups [18-59 years (OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-3.8 and more than 60 years (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.6-6.5] were associated with self-medication practices. Conclusion Holistic approach should be taken to prevent the problem of self-medications, which includes proper awareness and education to public, improving access to care and regulation of pharmacies regarding sale of drugs.

  3. Parental social support as a moderator of self-medication in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Shadur, Julia; Hussong, Andrea M

    2011-03-01

    We examined the moderating effects of parenting on the temporal relationship between negative affect and subsequent alcohol use in adolescents as an indicator of self-medication. Specifically, we tested whether youth are more likely to self-medicate if they receive less parental social support. We used a multi-method, multi-reporter strategy and an experience sampling paradigm to examine these mechanisms in an elevated-risk sample preparing for the transition to high school. Seventy-one adolescents and their parents completed home-based interviews and adolescents completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol in which they reported their alcohol use daily and their affect thrice daily. Parent-reported family communication, though no other parental support indicators, moderated the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Plotting of interactions showed a greater likelihood of drinking on days characterized by greater negative affect only in adolescents with higher levels of parent-reported family communication. This study offers tentative support for parental support as a moderator of the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Parental support may be a response to alcohol use and self-medication in teens such that parents become more involved and open in talking with their teens when they notice these patterns of behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  5. Improvements in self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication following a course in peer-supervision and communication for medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit; O Connor, Maja; Kjær, Louise Binow

    and Department of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Center for Medical Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.; belas@clu.au.dk Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of a training course in peer-supervision and communication with the aim of improving medical...... student self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication and examine the influence of course-related motivation to learn, course-related self-efficacy, and medical student well-being at baseline. Methods: A total of 127 graduate school medical students in clinical clerkship who participated...... in a course in peer-supervision and communication completed a pre-course questionnaire package including: 1) The Patient-Centeredness Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PCSEQ), 2) Course-Related Motivation to Learn (CRML), 3) Course-Related Self-Efficacy (CRSE), and 4) the Medical Student Well-Being Index (MSWBI...

  6. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months

  7. Self-medication in university students from the city of Rio Grande, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-medication is the use of medication without prescription, orientation, or supervision of a physician or dentist. Self-medication might become a serious health problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication among first and last-year students enrolled in healthcare and non-healthcare programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of 830 students in the sample, 95% answered the questionnaire – 789 students enrolled in 10 undergraduate programs. Mean age was 22 ± 6.17 years. The students answered a questionnaire covering socio-economic and demographic variables, use of medication, and medication knowledge. Information was collected on the conditions treated with medication, the medications used, and attitude towards self-medication. Results Of 789 students, 86.4% self-medicated (88.5% of 446 healthcare students). There were no significant differences in self-medication between healthcare and non-healthcare students, nor between first and last-year students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between self-medication and having children (p = 0.01), having a home pharmacy (p Illicit drug use was significantly associated with self-medication in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion The fact that being a healthcare student was associated with higher medication knowledge, but not with less self-medication, suggests that medication knowledge might contribute to increase self-medication. This should be taken into account when designing educational interventions relating to self-medication. PMID:22568959

  8. Is crying a self-soothing behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmir eGračanin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the current state-of-the-art of the scientific literature regarding the self-soothing effects of crying. Starting from the general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior, we consider different mechanisms through which these effects may appear. In the first section we briefly explain the main functions of human crying. Then we define self-soothing in terms of homeostatic processes of mood regulation and stress reduction and we underline the importance of distinguishing self-soothing effects of crying from social-soothing that it may elicit. We then provide a comprehensive review of the putative mood enhancing and relieving effects of crying and their variations stemming from characteristics of crying person, antecedents, manifestations, and social consequences of crying. We also discuss the possible methodological explanations for the seemingly discrepant findings regarding mood improvement and relief that may follow crying. We then provide theoretical and empirical support for our general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior by presenting and evaluating the possible physiological, cognitive, and behavioral mechanisms that may play a mediating role in the relationship between crying and homeostatic regulation that includes mood improvement and relief. Starting from the idea that social-soothing and self-soothing mechanisms share the same physiological systems, we propose that biological processes act in parallel with learning and reappraisal processes that accompany crying, which results in homeostatic regulation. Given the parallels between self-soothing behaviors in humans and animals, we also propose that crying might self-soothe through a mechanism that shares key properties with rhythmical, stereotypic behaviors. We conclude that, in addition to the importance of socially mediated mechanisms for the mood enhancing effects of crying, there is converging evidence for the direct, self

  9. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97. Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99 were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01. Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients.

  10. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Relationship to Behavioral and Self-Rating Measures of Impulsivity and Self-Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Closkey, Michael S.; Look, Amy E.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Pajoumand, Golnaz; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using self-report measures has shown an association between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and impulsive tendencies. However, self-injurers have not been shown to be different from comparison groups on laboratory tasks putatively assessing impulsive behavior. One explanation for these contradictory findings is that…

  11. The mediating effects of self-esteem and coronary-prone behavior on problem solving and affect under low and high stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, L; Blodgett, C J

    1989-01-01

    Self-esteem and coronary-prone behavior were identified as two personality constructs related to different stress responses. It was hypothesized that in the case of low self-esteem Type A subjects the conflicting stress responses would have a particularly adverse effect on problem-solving behavior, mood, and self-perception. Subjects were 32 Type A and 32 Type B males evenly divided into high and low self-esteem groups. Half of the subjects in each group solved 10 matrix problems under high stress, half under low stress. Compared with high self-esteem Type As, low self-esteem Type As under high stress became more hostile and perceived themselves as more tense and more hurried. They also tended to make more errors. Results are interpreted as implying that low and high self-esteem Type A subjects are not psychologically homogeneous. It is suggested that the two groups may differ substantially in terms of cardiovascular risk.

  12. Facebook False Self-Presentation Behaviors and Negative Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L

    2018-01-01

    As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.

  13. Prevalence of Self-Medication of Psychoactive Stimulants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students of Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on self-medication of psychoactive stimulants and antidepressants among pharmacy students was conducted with a structured and validated ...

  14. A Model for Protective Behavior Against the Harmful Effects of Radiation for Radiological Technologists in Medical Radiological Technologists in Medical Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Moon, In Ok

    2009-01-01

    Protective behavior of radiological technologists against radiation exposure is important to achieve reduction of the patient doses without compromising medical achievements. This study attempts to provide a basic model for the sophisticated intervention strategy that increases the level of the protective behavior of the technologists. The model was applied to real situations in Korea to demonstrate its utility. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the protective environment showed the highest relationship in the factors considered, r=0.637 (p<0.01). Secondly, the important factors were protective environment in environment characteristics, expectation for the protective behavior 0.228 (p<0.001), self efficacy 0.142 (p<0.001), and attitude for the protective behavior 0.178 (p<0.001) in personal characteristics, and daily patient -0.112 (p<0.001) and number of the participation in the education session for the protective behavior 0.074 (p<0.05). Thirdly, the final protective behavior model by a path analysis method had direct influence on the attitude 0.171 (p<0.01) and environment 0.405 (p<0.01) for the protective behavior, self efficacy 0.122 (p<0.01), expectation for the protective behavior 0.16 (p<0.01), and self-efficacy in the specialty of projects 0.154 (p<0.01). The acceptance of the model determined by the absolute fit index (GFI), 0.969, and by the incremental fit index (CFI), 0.943, showed very significant levels. Value of 2/df that is a factor applied to verify the acceptance of the model was 37, which implies that the result can be accepted in the desirable range. In addition, the parsimonious fit index configured by AGFI (0.890) and TLI (0.852) was also considered as a scale that accepts the model in practical applications. In case of the establishment of some specific intervention strategies based on the protective behavior model against harmful radiation effects proposed in this study, the strategy will provide an effective way

  15. A Model for Protective Behavior Against the Harmful Effects of Radiation for Radiological Technologists in Medical Radiological Technologists in Medical Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Moon, In Ok [Ewha Woman' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Protective behavior of radiological technologists against radiation exposure is important to achieve reduction of the patient doses without compromising medical achievements. This study attempts to provide a basic model for the sophisticated intervention strategy that increases the level of the protective behavior of the technologists. The model was applied to real situations in Korea to demonstrate its utility. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the protective environment showed the highest relationship in the factors considered, r=0.637 (p<0.01). Secondly, the important factors were protective environment in environment characteristics, expectation for the protective behavior 0.228 (p<0.001), self efficacy 0.142 (p<0.001), and attitude for the protective behavior 0.178 (p<0.001) in personal characteristics, and daily patient -0.112 (p<0.001) and number of the participation in the education session for the protective behavior 0.074 (p<0.05). Thirdly, the final protective behavior model by a path analysis method had direct influence on the attitude 0.171 (p<0.01) and environment 0.405 (p<0.01) for the protective behavior, self efficacy 0.122 (p<0.01), expectation for the protective behavior 0.16 (p<0.01), and self-efficacy in the specialty of projects 0.154 (p<0.01). The acceptance of the model determined by the absolute fit index (GFI), 0.969, and by the incremental fit index (CFI), 0.943, showed very significant levels. Value of 2/df that is a factor applied to verify the acceptance of the model was 37, which implies that the result can be accepted in the desirable range. In addition, the parsimonious fit index configured by AGFI (0.890) and TLI (0.852) was also considered as a scale that accepts the model in practical applications. In case of the establishment of some specific intervention strategies based on the protective behavior model against harmful radiation effects proposed in this study, the strategy will provide an effective way

  16. [Factors associated with self-directed learning among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann R, Camila; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bastías V, Nancy; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Self-directed learning is a skill that must be taught and evaluated in future physicians. To analyze the association between self-directed learning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment among medical students. The self-directed learning, Rosemberg self-esteem, general self- efficacy, time management and Utrecht work engagement scales were applied to 297 first year medical students. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment with self-directed learning. Self-esteem and satisfaction with studies did not enter in the model. self-esteem, academic commitment and a good time management were associated with self-directed learning in these students.

  17. [The Offer of Medical-Diagnostic Self-Tests on German Language Websites: Results of a Systematic Internet Search].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, P; Schmidt, S; Muehlan, H

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e. g. diabetes, chronic disease of the kidneys, liver, and lungs), sexually transmitted diseases (e. g. HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea), infectious diseases (e. g. tuberculosis, malaria, Helicobacter pylori), allergies (e. g. house dust, cats, histamine) and cancer as well as tests for the diagnostics of 12 different psychotropic substances. These were sold by 90 companies in Germany and by other foreign companies. The number of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be bought without a medical prescription on the Internet has increased enormously in the last 10 years. Further studies are needed for the identification of the determinants of the use of self-tests as well as the impact of the application on the experience and behavior of the user. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Future orientation in the self-system: possible selves, self-regulation, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rick H; Sherrill, Michelle R

    2006-12-01

    Possible selves are representations of the self in the future. Early theoretical accounts of the construct suggested that possible selves directly influence motivation and behavior. We propose an alternative view of possible selves as a component in self-regulatory processes through which motivation and behavior are influenced. We demonstrate the advantages of this conceptualization in two studies that test predictions generated from theoretical models of self-regulation in which the possible selves construct could be embedded. In one study, we show how viewing possible selves as a source of behavioral standards in a control-process model of self-regulation yields support for a set of predictions about the influence of possible selves on current behavior. In the other study, we examine possible selves in the context of an interpersonal model of self-regulation, showing strong evidence of concern for relational value in freely generated hoped-for and feared selves. These findings suggest that the role of possible selves in motivation and behavior can be profitably studied in models that fully specify the process of self-regulation and that those models can be enriched by a consideration of future-oriented self-representations. We offer additional recommendations for strengthening research on possible selves and self-regulation.

  19. Self-medication in university students from the city of Rio Grande, Brazil

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    Corrêa da Silva Marília

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication is the use of medication without prescription, orientation, or supervision of a physician or dentist. Self-medication might become a serious health problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication among first and last-year students enrolled in healthcare and non-healthcare programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of 830 students in the sample, 95% answered the questionnaire – 789 students enrolled in 10 undergraduate programs. Mean age was 22 ± 6.17 years. The students answered a questionnaire covering socio-economic and demographic variables, use of medication, and medication knowledge. Information was collected on the conditions treated with medication, the medications used, and attitude towards self-medication. Results Of 789 students, 86.4% self-medicated (88.5% of 446 healthcare students. There were no significant differences in self-medication between healthcare and non-healthcare students, nor between first and last-year students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between self-medication and having children (p = 0.01, having a home pharmacy (p p = 0.01. The most frequently used active ingredients were acetaminophen (paracetamol, dipyrone, aspirin, phytotherapic compounds, and tea. Illicit drug use was significantly associated with self-medication in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion The fact that being a healthcare student was associated with higher medication knowledge, but not with less self-medication, suggests that medication knowledge might contribute to increase self-medication. This should be taken into account when designing educational interventions relating to self-medication.

  20. Factors affecting nursing students' intention to report medication errors: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

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    Ben Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Mahajna, Marlen; Mahajna, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Medication errors are common among nursing students. Nonetheless, these errors are often underreported. To examine factors related to nursing students' intention to report medication errors, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, and to examine whether the theory is useful in predicting students' intention to report errors. This study has a descriptive cross-sectional design. Study population was recruited in a university and a large nursing school in central and northern Israel. A convenience sample of 250 nursing students took part in the study. The students completed a self-report questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The findings indicate that students' intention to report medication errors was high. The Theory of Planned Behavior constructs explained 38% of variance in students' intention to report medication errors. The constructs of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were found as affecting this intention, while the most significant factor was behavioral beliefs. The findings also reveal that students' fear of the reaction to disclosure of the error from superiors and colleagues may impede them from reporting the error. Understanding factors related to reporting medication errors is crucial to designing interventions that foster error reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Helping the self help others: Self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors

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    Emily K Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-minutes of writing about an important personal value versus writing about an unimportant value increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account, using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion compared to watching a peer’s storytelling performance (other-directed compassion. Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  2. Self-medication for infants with colic in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Oshikoya Kazeem A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a self-limiting condition that is distributed worldwide. It is often misdiagnosed as an organic disease for which an infant is admitted to the hospital. Many studies have described the aetiopathogenesis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of colic but none has evaluated self-medication for infants with colic. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the knowledge of Nigerian mothers about colic, their home-based management, extent of self-medication for the infants with colic and the types of medicines involved. Methods It is a prospective study conducted at the vaccination clinics of 20 primary health care centres, each from different Local Government Areas in Lagos, Nigeria. Eight hundred mothers that brought their infants for vaccination between April and September, 2006 were interviewed with open-and close-ended questionnaire. Results Six hundred and eighty three (85.4% mothers claimed they had a good knowledge of colic. Incessant and excessive cry was the main clinical feature of colic identified by 430(62.9% mothers. Three hundred and seventy eight (67.7% infants were treated by self-medication, 157 (28.1% sought medical intervention and 17 (3.1% were treated at a traditional birth attendant home. Herbal medicines constituted 51.8% of the self-medicated medicines, of which 48 (26.2% were "Ororo Ogiri". Nospamin® (49.5% and Gripe water® (43.0% were the two frequently prescribed and self-medicated medicines for infants with colic. Conclusion Nigerian mothers are deficient in their knowledge of colic. Self-medication was the most frequently used home-based intervention. Health education would appear necessary to improve parental management of this self-limiting condition.

  3. Does Preschool Self-Regulation Predict Later Behavior Problems in General or Specific Problem Behaviors?

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    Lonigan, Christopher J; Spiegel, Jamie A; Goodrich, J Marc; Morris, Brittany M; Osborne, Colleen M; Lerner, Matthew D; Phillips, Beth M

    2017-11-01

    Findings from prior research have consistently indicated significant associations between self-regulation and externalizing behaviors. Significant associations have also been reported between children's language skills and both externalizing behaviors and self-regulation. Few studies to date, however, have examined these relations longitudinally, simultaneously, or with respect to unique clusters of externalizing problems. The current study examined the influence of preschool self-regulation on general and specific externalizing behavior problems in early elementary school and whether these relations were independent of associations between language, self-regulation, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 815 children (44% female). Additionally, given a general pattern of sex differences in the presentations of externalizing behavior problems, self-regulation, and language skills, sex differences for these associations were examined. Results indicated unique relations of preschool self-regulation and language with both general externalizing behavior problems and specific problems of inattention. In general, self-regulation was a stronger longitudinal correlate of externalizing behavior for boys than it was for girls, and language was a stronger longitudinal predictor of hyperactive/impulsive behavior for girls than it was for boys.

  4. Self-Concealment and Suicidal Behaviors

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    Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…

  5. Rapid Learning of Adverse Medical Event Disclosure and Apology.

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    Raemer, Daniel B; Locke, Steven; Walzer, Toni Beth; Gardner, Roxane; Baer, Lee; Simon, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Despite published recommended best practices for full disclosure and apology to patients and families after adverse medical events, actual practice can be inadequate. The use of "cognitive aids" to help practitioners manage complex critical events has been successful in a variety of fields and healthcare. We wished to extend this concept to disclosure and apology events. The aim of this study was to test if a brief opportunity to review a best practice guideline for disclosure and apology would improve communication performance. Thirty pairs of experienced obstetricians and labor nurses participated in a 3-part exercise with mixed-realism simulation. The first part used a standardized actor patient to meet the obstetrical team. The second part used a high-fidelity simulation leading to an adverse medical event (retained sponge), and the third part used standardized actors, patient, and husband, who systematically move through stages of grief response. The participants were randomized into 2 groups, one was provided with a cognitive aid in the form of a best practice guideline for disclosure and apology and the other was only given time to plan. Four blinded raters working in pairs scored subjects on a 7-point scale using a previously developed assessment instrument modified for this study. Pooled ratings of the disclosure and apology discussion for the intervention group (n = 167, mean = 4.9, SD = 0.92) were higher than those from the control group (n = 167, mean = 4.3, SD = 1.21) (P apology conversation after reviewing a cognitive aid in the form of a best practice guideline than a control group that was only given time to prepare.

  6. Boarding is associated with higher rates of medication delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays.

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    Sri-On, Jiraporn; Chang, Yuchiao; Curley, David P; Camargo, Carlos A; Weissman, Joel S; Singer, Sara J; Liu, Shan W

    2014-09-01

    Hospital crowding and emergency department (ED) boarding are large and growing problems. To date, there has been a paucity of information regarding the quality of care received by patients boarding in the ED compared with the care received by patients on an inpatient unit. We compared the rate of delays and adverse events at the event level that occur while boarding in the ED vs while on an inpatient unit. This study was a secondary analysis of data from medical record review and administrative databases at 2 urban academic teaching hospitals from August 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005. We measured delayed repeat cardiac enzymes, delayed partial thromboplastin time level checks, delayed antibiotic administration, delayed administration of home medications, and adverse events. We compared the incidence of events during ED boarding vs while on an inpatient unit. Among 1431 patient medical records, we identified 1016 events. Emergency department boarding was associated with an increased risk of home medication delays (risk ratio [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.88), delayed antibiotic administration (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.52), and adverse events (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-4.72). On the contrary, ED boarding was associated with fewer delays in repeat cardiac enzymes (RR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) and delayed partial thromboplastin time checks (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). Compared with inpatient units, ED boarding was associated with more medication-related delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays. Until we can eliminate ED boarding, it is critical to identify areas for improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

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    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  8. The attitude-behavior discrepancy in medical decision making.

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    He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

    2014-12-01

    In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

  9. A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory

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    Biglan, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956

  10. Medication storage and self-medication behaviour amongst female students in Malaysia

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    Ali SE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence, attitudes and behaviours of medication storage and self-medication amongst female students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and cluster random sampling technique was used for respondent selection. A pre-piloted questionnaire was administered to female respondents so as to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis procedures.Results: Of the 481 participants (mean age; SD was 22.1; 3.3, 93.1% (n=448 students stated that they stored medicine in their rooms, while 70.7% (n=340 stated that they stopped taking a prescribed medicine without consulting a doctor. The prevalence of self-medication was 80.9% (n=389. The most common reasons for self-medication were related to their knowledge of their ailment and its treatment (58.0%, 14.4% thought it saved time and 8.5% mentioned that medication given by provider was not effective. The most common symptoms were otorhinolaryngology problems (22.5%, followed by respiratory disease (19.6%, Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT disease (18.1% and headache/fever (16.8%. Commonly used medicines were analgesics & antipyretics (30.2%, ear, nose & throat drugs (10.8%, vitamins & minerals (10.8%, GIT drugs (8.5%, anti-infections (7.3% and herbal medicines (3.5%. Prevalence of medicine storage and self-medication practice is high among educated female students in USM.Conclusions: There is a need to educate the students to ensure safe practice by increasing their awareness. Strict policies need to be implemented on the unrestricted availability of medicines so as to prevent the wastage of medicines.

  11. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacy consumers' perspectives.

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    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.

  12. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  13. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran.

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    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-12-01

    Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers' scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran's scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research.

  14. Like Father, like Child: Early Life Family Adversity and Children’s Bullying Behaviors in Elementary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.E. (Else E.); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); Arseneault, L. (Louise); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFamily adversity has been associated with children’s bullying behaviors. The evidence is, however, dominated by mothers’ perceptions of the family environment and a focus on mothers’ behaviors. This prospective population-based study examined whether children’s bullying behaviors were

  15. Medical - and – psychological help to cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem

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    M. A. Yudin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Classical treatment with medications, procedures, surgery is unable to restore physical health and almost has no effect on the psychological state of a patient. This raises the question of involvement in the treatment process psychological measures, increase knowledge about the psychology of the patient, medical professionals and their interrelation during treatment. The aim: to identify the targets of psychological help for cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem (DISE. Contingent and methods. The study was conducted at the Medical Center "CA Clinic" ( Kyiv during 2014 – 2016. 178 women with cosmetological problems participated in the research, among them 82 had DISE (active treatment group and 93 had harmonic self-esteem (control group. The complex psychodiagnostic study conducted for assessment psychological state. Cosmetological patients emotional condition was studied with SCL-90-R. To study the personality characteristics, Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI, form B and self-esteem questionnaire by V. V. Stolin and S. G. Pantileyeva were used, behavioral patterns have been investigated with S. Lazarus and Folkman’s method of WCB. Psychosocial sphere was assessed with test for diagnosis of interpersonal relations by T. Leary and social and psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and R. Diamond. Results. DISE patients complete a specific group of patients who seek for cosmetic help. Skin pathology and outwardness changes in this group had negative effects especially in the field of psychosocial functioning. The external view for DISE women is associated with high social status and is a tool of psychological impact on the environment. In DISE women signs of somatization with painful and histrionic displays, tension, nervousness, frustration and distrust for the environment, a sense of loneliness were present in the psycho-emotional sphere. For DISE patients  personality and behavioral patterns such

  16. Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting Behavior on the General Health of Office Workers.

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    Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza; Ghaem, Haleh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-07-01

    Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. The respondents spent an average of 6.29 hours of an 8-hour working shift in a sitting position. The results showed that 48.8% of the participants did not feel comfortable with their workstations and 73.6% felt exhausted during the workday. Additionally, 6.3% suffered from hypertension, and 11.2% of them reported hyperlipidemia. The results of the NMQ showed that neck (53.5%), lower back (53.2%) and shoulder (51.6%) symptoms were the most prevalent problem among office workers. Based upon a multiple logistic regression, only sex had a significant association with prolonged sitting behavior (odds ratio = 3.084). Our results indicated that long sitting times were associated with exhaustion during the working day, decreased job satisfaction, hypertension, and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers. Sitting behavior had adverse effects on office workers. Active workstations are therefore recommended to improve working conditions.

  17. The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski-Sims, Eva; Rowe, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of childhood adversity in child-to-parent violence. Childhood adversity places youth at risk for internalizing behaviors (i.e. anxiety and depression) and externalizing behaviors (i.e. aggression). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 80 youth who have been arrested for domestic battery against a mother. This study reported high prevalence rates of childhood adversity (mean score of 10 out of 17 events). Multiple regression analysis indicated that insecure attachment predicted depression among females (F(6, 73)=4.87, p<0.001), and previous experience with child maltreatment and/or witness to parental violence predicted anxiety among females (F(6, 73)=3.08, p<0.01). This study is the first study to explore childhood adversity among a sample of perpetrators of child-to-mother violence and notably adds to our understanding of the multiple pathways connecting childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and depression and anxiety among a difficult to treat youth population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Fredericks, Emily M; Katz, Benjamin; Shapiro, Lilly Fink; Holden, Kelsie; Kaciroti, Niko; Gonzalez, Richard; Hunter, Christine; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-02-01

    Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e.g., eating, exercise habits), many of which involve self-regulation. This paper presents the scientific rationale for examining self-regulation mechanisms that are hypothesized to relate to health behaviors, specifically obesogenic eating, that have not been examined in children. We describe novel intervention protocols designed to enhance self-regulation skills, specifically executive functioning, emotion regulation, future-oriented thinking, and approach bias. Interventions are delivered via home visits. Assays of self-regulation and obesogenic eating behaviors using behavioral tasks and self-reports are implemented and evaluated to determine feasibility and psychometrics and to test intervention effects. Participants are low-income 9-12 year-old children who have been phenotyped for self-regulation, stress, eating behavior and adiposity through early childhood. Study goals are to examine intervention effects on self-regulation and whether change in self-regulation improves obesogenic eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral Recommendations in Health Research News as Cues to Action: Self-Relevancy and Self-Efficacy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2016-08-01

    This study argues that behavioral recommendations in health news function as cues to action. A proposed self-oriented model seeks to explore the impacts of behavioral recommendations in health research news as cues to action through their influences on self-relevancy and self-efficacy. A content analysis (Study 1) first establishes that health research news commonly features behavioral recommendations. A message experiment (Study 2) then explores the utility of behavioral recommendations as cues to action by demonstrating a self-relevancy effect: Health research news with, as opposed to without, behavioral recommendations increases the self-relevancy of advocated health behaviors, which then improve people's attitudes toward and intentions to adopt those behaviors. A second message experiment (Study 3) tests whether varying presentations of behavioral recommendations alter their effectiveness as cues to action and thus people's behavioral intentions through a dual effect process. In addition to the previously demonstrated self-relevancy effect, this experiment shows that concrete, as opposed to abstract, behavioral recommendations trigger a self-efficacy effect, increasing perceived self-efficacy and further improving behavioral intentions.

  20. Self-Esteem and Anger in Borderline Patients With Self-Injury Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla Maria; Horta, Maria Purificação

    2018-04-01

    Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23). Those who injure themselves seem to have a lower self-esteem (p < 0.001), yet the strengthening of self-esteem seems to have different outcomes, according to the presence or absence of self-injury. Anger and self-esteem seem to influence the severity of diagnosis, but only in patients who self-injure. Anger and self-esteem may influence borderline patients differently according to the presence or absence of self-injury.

  1. Self-Medication and Contributing Factors: A Questionnaire Survey Among Iranian Households

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    Nadia Abdarzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a serious danger in every health sector which potentially brings harmful side effects for the society. The aim of this research was to investigate self-medication and its contributing factors among residents of Yazd province in Iran in 2014. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 580 families living in Yazd in the time period of study were contributed to fill out the questions organized in two sections of demographic and self-medication factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 through appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Self-medication was reported in 53.4% of the cases. The most frequent self-prescribed medications were related to pain killer drugs (26.6%. There was a significant statistical relation between self-medication and households’ age, occupation and income, level of parents’ education, number of children and place of residence. Among different reasons for self-medication the most important one was reported to be accessibility (3.44+1.3. Conclusion: Due to the considerable prevalence of self-medication and its harmful effects on every society, such an issue should be appropriately controlled through legal regulations particularly in the area of selling dangerous drugs. Furthermore, provision of proper information and warning the population about harmful side effects can be helpful in this regard. 

  2. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 354 male students with an average age of 21.95 (SD ± 3.43 participated in this study. Our study showed that self-medication among male students was high (86.6% compared to results shown in other studies in the same region. Headache (59.9%, cough/cold (41% and fever (24.6% were the most common symptoms associated with self-medication. Congruent with the medical conditions reported, the most widely used medications without prescriptions were paracetamol (34.7%, followed by antibiotics (31.4% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28.7%. Our study shows that antibiotics were sometimes irrationally used for self-treatment of cough and fever. Self-medication was highly frequent among the students. Influence of TV advertisements, high accessibility of pharmacies and convenience stores, as well as good buying power were found to be leading factors for self-medication among male university students.

  3. Sexual Fears and Avoidant Sexual Behavior in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stefan P; Mateva, Nonka G; Iliev, Yanko T; Dechev, Ivan D; Karalilova, Rositsa V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears--aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.

  4. Time Spent With Children and Working Parents’ Willingness to Medicate ADHD-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Pajo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How much time parents spend with their children is likely to influence their judgments of children’s behaviors and the behaviors themselves. In the diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, parents are key informants and decide whether their children should receive medication. This exploratory study investigates the relationship between working parents’ willingness to medicate ADHD-like behaviors and the time they can spend with their children during a regular workday. The participants (409 parents of 5- to 17- year-old children reporting having no child with emotional or behavioral problems and 87 reporting having such a child were drawn from a population-based telephone survey of parents stratified by race and ethnicity in two urban Florida counties. Path analysis models, controlling for selected sociodemographic and household variables, showed that spending more time with one’s children during a regular workday and self-identifying as African American were negatively related to willingness to medicate among parents of children with problems. Among parents reporting no children with problems, only the number of children in the household and the parent-type household showed relationships to willingness to medicate, while mothers were more likely than fathers to spend more time with children. These observed relationships were of moderate effect but underscore the importance to initiate studies using valid measures of quantity and quality of parental time spent with ADHD children, and to query parents on these points when assessing the information they provide to clinicians.

  5. Child Development in the Context of Adversity: Experiential Canalization of Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of poverty-related adversity on child development, drawing upon psychobiological principles of experiential canalization and the biological embedding of experience. They integrate findings from research on stress physiology, neurocognitive function, and self-regulation to consider adaptive processes in response to…

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Extremity: New Evidence for Sexual Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Beauregard, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a wide range of behavioral, health, and psychiatric deficits and have recently been used to study the development of serious offending careers. Unfortunately, this research paradigm has largely ignored forensic populations. This study utilized the adverse childhood experiences framework to examine the associations between exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences on sexual homicide using a sample of 616 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders from Canada 85 of whom committed sexual homicide. Epidemiological tables of odds revealed that a gradient of adverse childhood experiences was associated with sexual homicide, but that the most significant risks were for offenders who had the most extensive abuse histories. In adjusted models, exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences increased the odds of sexual homicide by 334%, 249%, and 546%, respectively. These effects intensified in models adjusted for childhood enuresis, cruelty to animals, parental abandonment, deviant sexual behaviors, poor self-image, and sexual problems to 559%, 326%, and 849%, respectively. The adverse childhood experiences framework is a systematic way to organize the criminogenic developmental sequela in sexual homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Malaria self-medication among students of a Nigerian Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    67%) practice self medication. One hundred and fifty students (60%) believe self medication should be discouraged and most of them 98(55.4%) believe it encourages drug abuse. Conclusion: The students treat themselves when they believe ...

  8. Prevalence of self-medication practices and its associated factors in Urban Puducherry, India

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    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Self medication is an important concern for health authorities at global level. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self medication for allopathic drugs and associated factors among households of urban community. This study was also aimed at assessing the attitude of respondents who had experienced self-medication. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in field practice area attached to a medical institution in urban Puducherry. A total of 352 subjects from 124 households were selected by random sampling. With pretested interview schedule, information regarding self-medication use in the past three months and associated sociodemographic factors, purpose, source of drug procurement, attitude toward self-medication use were collected. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was found to be 11.9%. Males, age >40 years and involving in moderate level activity of occupation, were found to be significantly associated with higher self-medication usage (P < 0.05. Fever (31%, headache (19%, and abdominal pain (16.7% are most common illnesses where self-medication is being used. Telling the symptoms to pharmacist (38.1% was the commonest method adopted to procure drugs by the users. Majority of the self-medication users expressed that self-medication is harmless (66.6% and they are going to use (90% and advice others also (73.8% to use self-medication drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication is an important health issue in this area. Health education of the public and regulation of pharmacies may help in limiting the self-medication practices.

  9. The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Manstead, Antony S R; Louis, Winnifred R; Kotterman, Diana; Wolfs, Jacqueline

    2008-06-01

    The authors used a revised planned behavior model in the consumer domain. The revised model incorporated separate measures of descriptive and injunctive/ prescriptive norms, self-identity, and past behavior in an effort to improve the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) in relation to a self-reported consumer behavior: purchasing one's preferred soft drink. At Time 1, respondents (N = 112) completed self-report measures of (a) attitudes, (b) perceived behavioral control, (c) descriptive and injunctive/prescriptive norms, (d) self-identity, (e) past behavior, and (f) intentions. The authors assessed self-reported behavior 1 week later (Time 2). Attitudes, injunctive/prescriptive norms, descriptive norms, past behavior, and self-identity were all positively related to purchase intentions, and intentions were predictive of self-reported behavior at Time 2. These findings highlight the utility of the TPB in the consumer domain.

  10. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

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    suvadip biswas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in a government medical college of West Bengal, India. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Among the participants 54.2% had self-medicated in the last six months. The antibiotics most commonly used being metronidazole (67.4%, azithromycin (32.6% and norfloxacin (16.8%. Regarding the source of the antibiotics used for self-medication 41.6% participants went for leftover medicines at home, 34.8% participants obtained the drug from community pharmacies or drug stores. Hospital pharmacies and medicine samples were the source of the drugs for 19.2% and 4.4% participants respectively for this purpose. This study has shown that self-medication with antibiotics is common among undergraduate nursing students. There is a need for a rigorous mass enlightenment campaign to educate the population, including the health care professional about the disadvantages and possible complications of antibiotic self-medication

  11. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Self-regulation during job search: the opposing effects of employment self-efficacy and job search behavior self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songqi; Wang, Mo; Liao, Hui; Shi, Junqi

    2014-11-01

    Adopting a self-regulatory perspective, the current study examined the within-person relationships among job search cognitions, job search behaviors, and job search success (i.e., number of job offers received). Specifically, conceptualizing job search behaviors as guided by a hierarchy of means-end (i.e., job search behavior-employment) goal structure, we differentiated employment self-efficacy from job search behavior self-efficacy. Our results showed that higher levels of perceived job search progress could lead to more frequent job search behaviors through enhancing job search behavior self-efficacy. However, higher levels of perceived job search progress could also lead to less frequent job search behaviors through elevating employment self-efficacy. In addition, the relationships between perceived job search progress and efficacy beliefs were moderated by job seekers' level of internal attribution of their progress. Finally, we found that at the within-person level, frequency of job search behaviors was positively related to number of job offers received. These findings were discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Self-medication with antibiotics in Europe and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    A postal survey was conducted to determine and compare the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in 19 European countries. Face to face interviews were conducted with the respondents of the postal survey to study the determinants of self-medication.

  14. Maternal medical risks during pregnancy and childhood externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-04-25

    Research has indicated that maternal health during the prenatal period and at delivery carries far reaching significance for the development of offspring. Even so, the role of the accumulation of maternal medical risks during pregnancy in the development of externalizing behavior during childhood has generally been overlooked. The present study investigates whether the accumulation of maternal medical risks during the prenatal period is positively associated with childhood externalizing behavior, and whether this association is stronger among male offspring. We examined a large, nationally representative sample of children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Information concerning maternal medical history, including the presence of a number of medical risks during pregnancy, was obtained through hospital records. A subsample of children with both parent and teacher reports of externalizing behavior during kindergarten was employed in the present study. A greater number of maternal medical risks during pregnancy increased the odds of childhood externalizing behavior across settings, but only among male offspring. The predicted probability of persistent externalizing behavior among males increased from .084 in the absence of maternal medical risks during pregnancy to .241 in the presence of three or more maternal medical risks during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that maternal medical risks during the prenatal period can have far-reaching consequences for the behavioral development of male offspring. Treatment of medical risks among expectant mothers may have the added benefit of reducing the likelihood of childhood externalizing behavior among male progeny. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-medication among healthcare and non-healthcare students at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Hladnik, Ziga; Kersnik, Janko

    2010-01-01

    To determine the incidence of self-medication among University of Ljubljana students and the effect of the type of curriculum on the pattern of self-medication. The study included a sample of 1,294 students who freely accessed a self-administered web-based questionnaire in the Slovene language that consisted of a preliminary letter introducing the term 'self-treatment' and 2 sections about self-medication. The preliminary letter asked participants to report the practice of self-treatment during the past year. The main outcome measures were percentages of those reporting self-medication during the past year, which were then used to compare healthcare and non-healthcare students. A majority of students (1,195, 92.3%), both healthcare and non-healthcare, reported the use of some sort of self-medication during the study period. More healthcare students in their senior year (353, 94.1%) than those in their junior year (245, 89.4%) used self-medication (p = 0.04). Healthcare students (p = 0.05) thought that self-medication without improvement of the symptoms should last for 1 week or less. They acquired the drugs for self-medication from pharmacies; thought that previous doctors' advice in a similar situation was a more important reason for self-medication; would seek the advice of a physician or pharmacist for different ways of self-treatment, and quite interestingly thought that self-medication was not very safe. On the other hand, non-healthcare students acquired the drugs from healers and friends. The study showed that self-medication was common among all University of Ljubljana students, but that healthcare-related education in students and young adults led to more responsible use of self-medication. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Web-Based Medical Service: Technology Attractiveness, Medical Creditability, Information Source, and Behavior Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan Huei

    2017-08-02

    Web-based medical service (WBMS), a cooperative relationship between medical service and Internet technology, has been called one of the most innovative services of the 21st century. However, its business promotion and implementation in the medical industry have neither been expected nor executed. Few studies have explored this phenomenon from the viewpoint of inexperienced patients. The primary goal of this study was to explore whether technology attractiveness, medical creditability, and diversified medical information sources could increase users' behavior intention. This study explored the effectiveness of web-based medical service by using three situations to manipulate sources of medical information. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected from people who had never used WBMS before. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the mediation and moderated-mediation effects. Perceived ease of use (P=.002) and perceived usefulness (P=.001) significantly enhance behavior intentions. Medical credibility is a mediator (P=.03), but the relationship does not significantly differ under diverse manipulative information channels (P=.39). Medical credibility could explain the extra variation between technology attractiveness and behavior intention, but not significant under different moderating effect of medical information sources. ©Shan Huei Wang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.

  18. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  19. Self-transcendence and medication adherence in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nezbile F; Dunn, Karen S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-transcendence and medication adherence among older adults prescribed antihypertensive medication. Descriptive, correlational research design. Forty-six older adults who were prescribed antihypertensive medications from an independent living facility participated in this study. Participants were given a survey that included a demographic questionnaire, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. No significant relationship was found between medication adherence and self-transcendence (r = -.20, p = .18). Ninety percent of the participants however, admitted to cutting back or stopping their medication without notifying their providers. Continued investigation is needed to identify reasons why older adults fail to adhere to taking prescribed hypertension medications in order to improve health outcomes in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  1. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The Relationship between Health Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Care Behaviors in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Masoompour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglecting self-care behaviors is considered an important factor contributing to mortality among diabetic patients. According to Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory, there is a close relationship between individual performance and self-efficacy. Moreover, access to health-related information or health literacy can affect health status. Aim: To investigate the relationship between health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors in diabetic patients. Method: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 400 patients with diabetes referred to a diabetes clinic during 2015. The participants were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tools included Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. To analyze the data, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were run in SPSS, version 19. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.1±10.1 years and 74.75% of them were male. The mean scores of self-care behaviors, health literacy, and self-efficacy were 61.94±14.35, 63.6±20.7, and 146.3±22.9, respectively. Moreover, the results of Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant direct correlation between health literacy and self-efficacy (P=0.03, r=0.1, as well as health literacy and self-care behaviors (P=0.04, r=0.1. Furthermore, self-efficacy had a significant direct correlation with self-care behaviors (P

  3. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  4. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to In-flight Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen,Erik

    2017-01-01

    The drive to undertake long-duration space exploration missions at greater distances from Earth gives rise to many challenges concerning human performance under extreme conditions. At NASA, the Human Research Program (HRP) has been established to investigate the specific risks to astronaut health and performance presented by space exploration, in addition to developing necessary countermeasures and technology to reduce risk and facilitate safer, more productive missions in space (NASA Human Research Program 2009). The HRP is divided into five subsections, covering behavioral health, space radiation, habitability, and other areas of interest. Within this structure is the ExMC Element, whose research contributes to the overall development of new technologies to overcome the challenges of expanding human exploration and habitation of space. The risk statement provided by the HRP to the ExMC Element states: "Given that medical conditions/events will occur during human spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance in mission and for long term health" (NASA Human Research Program 2016). Within this risk context, the Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element is specifically concerned with establishing evidenced-based methods of monitoring and maintaining astronaut health. Essential to completing this task is the advancement in techniques that identify, prevent, and treat any health threats that may occur during space missions. The ultimate goal of the ExMC Element is to develop and demonstrate a pathway for medical system integration into vehicle and mission design to mitigate the risk of medical issues. Integral to this effort is inclusion of an evidence-based medical and data handling system appropriate for long-duration, exploration-class missions. This requires a clear Concept of Operations, quantitative risk metrics or other tools to address changing risk throughout a mission, and system scoping and system

  5. An over-the-counter central sensitization therapy: a chronic back pain registry study of pain relief, medication use and their adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelin, Richard; Koneru, Sree N; Rawe, Ian M

    2017-03-01

    Back pain, the most prevalent musculoskeletal chronic pain condition, is usually treated with analgesic medications of questionable efficacy and frequent occurrence of adverse side effects. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the ActiPatch medical devices in reducing chronic back pain, document medication related adverse side effects and establish their impact on quality of life. Upon completing a 7-day trial, subjects were contacted via email with an assessment form using the Constant Contact email program. A total of 1394 responses were collected from subjects who used the device for back pain. Medication adverse effects are common and impact quality of life in the lay population. ActiPatch is an effective intervention for the majority of subjects for treating chronic back pain, although this requires further investigation in randomized clinical trials.

  6. Adverse Childhood Environment: Relationship With Sexual Risk Behaviors and Marital Status in a Large American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2017-01-01

    A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs. never married, divorced, or a member of an unmarried couple). Data come from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample contains 17,530 men and 23,978 women aged 18-54 years living in 13 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia. Adverse childhood environment is assessed through 11 retrospective measures of childhood environment, including having grown up with someone who was depressed or mentally ill, who was an alcoholic, who used or abused drugs, or who served time in prison; whether one's parents divorced in childhood; and two scales measuring childhood exposure to violence and to sexual trauma. The results indicate that adverse childhood environment is associated with increased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors or taking an HIV test, and increased likelihood of being in an unmarried couple or divorced/separated, for both men and women. The predictions are supported by the data, lending further support to the hypothesis that childhood environments influence adult reproductive strategy.

  7. The self medication use among adolescents aged between 13–18 years old; Prevalence and behavior, Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Homod Albatti

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in Riyadh, particularly among adolescents. Easy access to pharmacies was found to be the leading cause for self-medication. The use of these drugs was associated with inappropriate drug use and the deterioration of health status. Self-medication should be closely monitored and awareness should be increased with educational programs among students.

  8. Self-regulation of Exercise Behavior in the TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Jackson, Andrew S.; Bray, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test experiential and behavioral processes of change as mediators of the prediction of exercise behavior by two self-regulation traits, self-efficacy and self-motivation, while controlling for exercise enjoyment. Methods Structural equation modeling was applied to questionnaire responses obtained from a diverse sample of participants. Objective measures defined adherence (928 of 1279 participants attended 80% or more of sessions) and compliance (867 of 1145 participants exercised 30 minutes or more each session at their prescribed heart rate). Results Prediction of attendance by self-efficacy (inversely) and self-motivation was direct and also indirect, mediated through positive relations with the typical use of behavioral change processes. Enjoyment and self-efficacy (inversely) predicted compliance with the exercise prescription. Conclusions The results support the usefulness of self-regulatory behavioral processes of the Transtheoretical Model for predicting exercise adherence, but not compliance, extending the supportive evidence for self-regulation beyond self-reports of physical activity used in prior observational studies. PMID:24311018

  9. What to do in the event of an adverse anaesthetic event or medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An “adverse event” is harm, injury or a complication. It may or may not result from error. A “medical error” can be serious (has the potential to cause permanent injury or is transient, but potentially constitutes life-threatening harm), minor (does not cause harm or have the potential to do so), a “near miss” (an error that could ...

  10. Coping with adverse drug events in patients with heart failure : Exploring the role of medication beliefs and perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R. H.; Jaarsma, T.; Ranchor, A. V.; van der Meer, K.; Groenier, K. H.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Denig, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes coping strategies that patients with heart failure (HF) use to manage adverse drug events (ADEs). The included coping strategies were social support seeking, information seeking, non-adherence and taking alleviating medication. The role of beliefs about medication and ADE

  11. Suicidality in male prisoners: influence of childhood adversity mediated by dimensions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet-Mardirossian, Hélène; Jehel, Louis; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to study the influence of childhood adversity on suicidal behavior in male prisoners. Including a random sample of 899 male prisoners (French National Mental Health Prison Survey, 2003), this paper studied suicidal ideations and suicide attempts using MINI criteria, and personality using Temperament and Character Inventory. Risk factors of suicidality were examined, and structural equations studied the influence of childhood trauma on suicidality, mediated by personality dimensions. The prisoners reported high levels of childhood adversity. More than a third reported recent suicidal ideations. Childhood adversity and dimensions of personality were associated with suicidality. Structural equations showed that childhood adversity was positively associated with suicidality, mediated by poor dimensions of character (affective stability, self-cooperativeness, and self-transcendence). In conclusion, these results confirm the importance of screening and treatment of childhood trauma among male prisoners. They suggest the importance to study dimensions of personality and tailor treatment to specific needs. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Impulsivity in self-mutilative behavior: psychometric and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S; Sass, H; Favazza, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines impulsivity as a central factor in moderate/superficial self-mutilation such as skin-cutting and burning. A sample of 165 subjects were divided into four groups, namely self-mutilators, patients with any modes of impulsive behavior other than self-mutilation, patients without any impulsive behavior, and normal probands. All were administered the 10th version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Inventory for the Assessment of Factors of Aggressiveness. They also were interviewed carefully in regards to both impulsive and self-mutilative behavior. A d-fenfluramine challenge test was administered to 36 females and prolactin levels were measured. On the whole results implicate impulsive personality functioning as a major factor in subjects with moderate/superficial self-mutilative behavior whose trait pathology is similar to personality disordered patients with other modes of self-harming impulsive behavior.

  13. Suicidal ideation and self-harm following K2 use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shannon; Bliss, Sarah; Malik, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    There is emerging evidence of adverse effects associated with K2 and similar synthetic cannabinoid compounds marketed as herbal alternatives to marijuana. Few studies were identified regarding the psychiatric effects of K2, including suicidal ideation, and to our knowledge none have been written related to self-harm following use of K2. A healthy 20-year-old single Caucasian male with no previous psychiatric diagnoses or treatment was brought by police to the ED with acute agitation, confusion, suicidal ideation, and self-inflicted trauma after smoking K2. Evaluation in the ED was notable for agitation, significant abrasions, respiratory rate of 30, negative UDS, and sinus tachycardia on EKG. Once medically stabilized, he was transferred to the inpatient psychiatric unit for continued monitoring. Upon evaluation on the psychiatric unit the following day, his symptoms had completely resolved, he continued to deny any previous psychiatric history, and was discharged home. K2 and other synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to have significant medical and psychiatric adverse effects and they are still readily available for purchase. Evidence is limited regarding the psychiatric effects; however, synthetic cannabinoid products may potentially lead to suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviors amongst many other psychiatric symptoms.The long-term risks are still unclear, but some studies suggest the possibility of inducing chronic psychotic symptoms and worsening underlying psychiatric illness. Continued research is needed regarding the effects of these substances as well as an increase in public awareness of the risks.

  14. The economic burden of nurse-sensitive adverse events in 22 medical-surgical units: retrospective and matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouaket, Eric; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'Amour, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of nurse-sensitive adverse events in 22 acute-care units in Quebec by estimating excess hospital-related costs and calculating resulting additional hospital days. Recent changes in the worldwide economic and financial contexts have made the cost of patient safety a topical issue. Yet, our knowledge about the economic burden of safety of nursing care is quite limited in Canada in general and Quebec in particular. Retrospective analysis of charts of 2699 patients hospitalized between July 2008 - August 2009 for at least 2 days of 30-day periods in 22 medical-surgical units in 11 hospitals in Quebec. Data were collected from September 2009 to August 2010. Nurse-sensitive adverse events analysed were pressure ulcers, falls, medication administration errors, pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Descriptive statistics identified numbers of cases for each nurse-sensitive adverse event. A literature analysis was used to estimate excess median hospital-related costs of treatments with these nurse-sensitive adverse events. Costs were calculated in 2014 Canadian dollars. Additional hospital days were estimated by comparing lengths of stay of patients with nurse-sensitive adverse events with those of similar patients without nurse-sensitive adverse events. This study found that five adverse events considered nurse-sensitive caused nearly 1300 additional hospital days for 166 patients and generated more than Canadian dollars 600,000 in excess treatment costs. The results present the financial consequences of the nurse-sensitive adverse events. Government should invest in prevention and in improvements to care quality and patient safety. Managers need to strengthen safety processes in their facilities and nurses should take greater precautions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CYP2D6 phenotypes are associated with adverse outcomes related to opioid medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Sauver JL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L St Sauver,1,2 Janet E Olson,1,3 Veronique L Roger,1,2,4 Wayne T Nicholson,5 John L Black III,3,6 Paul Y Takahashi,7 Pedro J Caraballo,7 Elizabeth J Bell,2 Debra J Jacobson,1,2 Nicholas B Larson,1 Suzette J Bielinski,1,3 1Department of Health Sciences Research, 2Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 3Center for Individualized Medicine, 4Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 7Department of Primary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Variation in the CYP2D6 gene may affect response to opioids in both poor and ultrarapid metabolizers, but data demonstrating such associations have been mixed, and the impact of variants on toxicity-related symptoms (e.g., nausea is unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between CYP2D6 phenotype and poor pain control or other adverse symptoms related to the use of opioids in a sample of primary care patients.Materials and methods: We identified all patients in the Mayo Clinic RIGHT Protocol who were prescribed an opioid medication between July 01, 2013 and June 30, 2015, and categorized patients into three phenotypes: poor, intermediate to extensive, or ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizers. We reviewed the electronic health record of these patients for indications of poor pain control or adverse symptoms related to medication use. Associations between phenotype and outcomes were assessed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression.Results: Overall, 257 (25% of RIGHT Protocol participants patients received at least one opioid prescription; of these, 40 (15% were poor metabolizers, 146 (57% were intermediate to extensive metabolizers, and 71 (28% were ultrarapid metabolizers. We removed patients that were prescribed a CYP2D6 inhibitor medication (n=38. After adjusting for age and sex, patients with a poor or ultrarapid

  17. [Preliminary study on general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines based on adverse reaction/event literature analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-03-01

    Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.

  18. Behavioral Referents of Presented Self-Esteem in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiwanger, Jane

    In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…

  19. Respiratory therapists and critical-thinking behaviors: a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess critical-thinking behaviors of respiratory therapists through self-report. Using a quantitative survey research method, respiratory therapists rated themselves on seven critical thinking skills. The effects of personal variables on the self-assessments were also investigated. The respiratory therapists self-assessed their critical-thinking behaviors highest in the categories of prioritizing, troubleshooting, and communicating. Anticipating was self-assessed as the lowest-ranked critical-thinking behavior. Age and educational level were found to have no effect on the self-assessed behaviors, while years of experience in respiratory care and gender were found to affect self-assessed troubleshooting, decision making, and anticipating. The results of this study suggest that educators and clinicians should consider learning strategies that incorporate the use of experience when targeting novice practitioners.

  20. Nurses’ attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen JF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Objective: Examine nurses’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses’ medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses’ confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Results: Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p<0.01, providing information on new medications (0.52; p<0.05, using open-ended questions (0.51; p<0.01, and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p<0.05. Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient

  1. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  2. Health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanny, Walton; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Tsay, Shiow-Luan; Wang, Tsae-Jyy

    2013-09-01

    The study purpose was to explore the relationships among health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors of patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study with a descriptive correlational design was conducted. Patients (N = 150) with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes clinics in the Marshall Islands. Levels of health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors were assessed by a questionnaire. Health literacy, receiving diabetes education, and employment status together explained 11.8% of the variance in self-efficacy (F((3,147)) = 7.58, p < .001). Patients who had higher health literacy, received more diabetes-related education, were currently employed and had better self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and marital status together explained 16.7% of the variance in self-care behaviors (F((2,148)) = 15.96, p < .001). Patients who had higher self-efficacy and who were married had better self-care behaviors. Strategies are needed to incorporate the concept of self-efficacy in the design of diabetes education to promote patients' self-care behaviors, with an emphasis on dealing with hyper- or hypoglycemia, following the diet plan, and checking blood sugar levels as recommended. Diabetes education material that requires a lower literacy level may be needed for older or unemployed adult populations. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikman, Jacoba M; Milders, Maarten V; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST) and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX) with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury, allowing for early

  4. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Spikman

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury

  5. The Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Based Medication Information Seeking Behavior in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alfurih, Suha; Aldremly, Maha; Alzayyat, Ma'an; Alsurimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    The internet has become an important resource to help people search for online medication information. This study aims to report the prevalence and profile of Saudi online medication seeking behavior. Conducted via a web-based survey with Twitter participants between January-February, 2015, the primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of using the internet to search for medication related information. A valid sample of 4847 participants was collected over the period of the study. Out of the total participants, 68.3% (n=3311) were found to seek online medication related information frequently. Most of the social media users were female 83.5% (n=2766). The majority of respondents 63.6% (n= 3081) used Google, followed by Twitter 28.7% (n= 1392), Snapchat 21%, (n=1019), WhatsApp 13.8% (n= 670), Instagram 11.4%, (n= 553), and Facebook 5.5 % (n= 267), with few searching YouTube 1.3% (n=65) to access online medication information. Findings indicate that the Saudi population actively uses the internet and social media to obtain medication information. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of the internet and social media on user perception, attitude, and behavior with the use of online medication information.

  6. The value of self-medication: summary of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Joshua; Blanchette, Christopher M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the international evidence that is currently available on the economic value of self-care through responsible self-medication, in terms of the measures related to access to treatment, time, and productivity. A targeted literature search was conducted for 1990-2016, including data gathered from members of the World Self-Medication Industry and searches on PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Google Scholar. Specific searches of individual drug classes known to be switched to non-prescription status in this period were also conducted. A total of 71 articles were identified, of which 17 (11 modeling studies, six retrospective analyses) were included in the review. Evidence from modeling studies and retrospective analyses of grouped data across a range of common conditions for which non-prescription medications are available in different countries/regions showed that the use of non-prescription products for the treatment of common conditions or for symptom management (e.g. allergies, chronic pain, migraine, vaginitis, gastrointestinal symptoms, or common cold symptoms) had considerable value to patients, payers, and employers alike in terms of cost savings and improved productivity. Potential benefits of self-medication were also identified in preventative healthcare strategies, such as those for cardiovascular health and osteoporosis. This review was limited by a targeted, but non-systematic approach to literature retrieval, as well as the inclusion of unpublished reports/white papers and patient self-reported data. The evidence identified in this literature review shows that responsible, appropriate self-medication with non-prescription products can provide significant economic benefits for patients, employers, and healthcare systems worldwide.

  7. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.

  8. Automedicación en gestantes que acuden al Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Perú 2011 Self-medication behavior among pregnant women user of the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Peru 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Miní

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes y sus características, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se entrevistó a 400 gestantes que acudían a control prenatal en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Lima. El 10,5% (42 pacientes se automedicó durante la gestación, el 64,6% opinó que la automedicación puede producir malformaciones congénitas a sus bebes. Los medicamentos consumidos por las gestantes estuvieron en categoría A y B de la clasificación de la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de EUA (FDA; principalmente, consumieron paracetamol (47,6% y amoxicilina (16,7%. Todas las mujeres que se automedicaron durante la gestación lo habían hecho antes de estar embarazadas. De acuerdo con estos resultados concluimos que la prevalencia de automedicación en gestantes del estudio es baja, comparado con la literatura internacional.We aim to determine the prevalence of self prescribing behaviour during pregnancy and its characteristics. For this purpose, we designed a cross sectional study and interviewed 400 pregnant women who had their prenatal care at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima. We found that 10.5% of the patients (42 patients had a self prescribing behavior during pregnancy, 64.5% think that self prescribing behavior can produce congenital malformations. The medications used were classified as type A and B according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Paracetamol was used more frequently (47.6% followed by amoxicillin (16.7%. All the women who self-prescribed have had this behavior before pregnancy. According to these results, we conclude there is a low prevalence of self-prescribing behavior during pregnancy compared to the international literature.

  9. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Neighbourhood and dwelling characteristics associated with the self-reported adverse health effects of heat in most deprived urban areas: a cross-sectional study in 9 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2015-03-01

    Dwelling and neighbourhood characteristics associated with the prevalence of self-reported heat-induced adverse health effects are not well known. We interviewed 3485 people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities in Québec, Canada. The prevalence of heat-induced adverse health effects was 46%, out of which one fourth led to medical consultation. Multivariate analyses showed that dissatisfaction with the summer dwelling temperature, which refers to home heat exposure, and perception that the neighbourhood is polluted due to traffic, were determinant, even after adjusting for current health status. These risk indicators can be used to identify subgroups at high risk and as priority-setting criteria for urban renewal programs for the hotter climate to come. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral control blunts reactions to contemporaneous and future adverse events: Medial prefrontal cortex plasticity and a corticostriatal network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Maier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for many years that the ability to exert behavioral control over an adverse event blunts the behavioral and neurochemical impact of the event. More recently, it has become clear that the experience of behavioral control over adverse events also produces enduring changes that reduce the effects of subsequent negative events, even if they are uncontrollable and quite different from the original event controlled. This review focuses on the mechanism by which control both limits the impact of the stressor being experienced and produces enduring, trans-situational “immunization”. The evidence will suggest that control is detected by a corticostriatal circuit involving the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the posterior dorsomedial striatum (DMS. Once control is detected, other mPFC neurons that project to stress-responsive brainstem (dorsal raphe nucleus, DRN and limbic (amygdala structures exert top–down inhibitory control over the activation of these structures that is produced by the adverse event. These structures, such as the DRN and amygdala, in turn regulate the proximate mediators of the behavioral and physiological responses produced by adverse events, and so control blunts these responses. Importantly, the joint occurrence of control and adverse events seems to produce enduring plastic changes in the top–down inhibitory mPFC system such that this system is now activated by later adverse events even if they are uncontrollable, thereby reducing the impact of these events. Other issues are discussed that include a whether other processes such as safety signals and exercise, that lead to resistance/resilience, also use the mPFC circuitry or do so in other ways; b whether control has similar effects and neural mediation in humans, and c the relationship of this work to clinical phenomena.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Thomas R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (in which mild and brief contingent electric stimulation is delivered) was evaluated with five cases involving severe mental retardation and previously unmanageable self-injurious behavior. Findings indicated almost complete elimination of the self-injurious behavior with followup suggesting continuing…

  13. Growth motivation as a moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina M; Park, Sun W; Folger, Susan F

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral self-handicapping is a strategy used to protect attributions about ability. People behaviorally self-handicap by creating an obstacle to their success so failure is attributed to the obstacle instead of to their ability. Although past research has observed behavioral self-handicapping exclusively in men, the current research revealed a moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women: growth motivation, which reflects the desire to develop one's abilities and learn from failure. Participants (N = 100) completed a test purportedly predictive of successful careers and relationships, and some were given failure feedback about their performance. Participants could behaviorally self-handicap by choosing to complete another test in a performance-impairing environment. Although men self-handicapped more overall, women self-handicapped more after failure when they were low in growth motivation. These results highlight a novel moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women.

  14. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  15. Impact of Self-concept on Preschoolers’ Dental Anxiety and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Different factors affect children’s behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child’s anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child’s anxiety and child’s behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P self-concept and child’s behavior scores (r = 0.491, P self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment. PMID:26697152

  16. Impact of Self-concept on Preschoolers' Dental Anxiety and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Leila; Vafaei, Ali; Sohrabi, Azin; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Bahadori, Zahra; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Dadashi, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims . Different factors affect children's behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child's anxiety and behavior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child's anxiety and child's behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = -0.545, P self-concept and child's behavior scores (r = 0.491, P self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treatment.

  17. Adverse drug reactions reported by consumers for nervous system medications in Europe 2007 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. In the European Union, more countries have allowed consumers to report ADRs directly to the regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to characterize ADRs reported by European...... consumer for nervous system medications....

  18. A Comparison of Self-reported Medication Adherence to Concordance Between Part D Claims and Medication Possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Samuel T; Stearns, Sally C; Zhou, Lei; Thudium, Emily; Alburikan, Khalid A; Tran, Richard; Rodgers, Jo E

    2017-05-01

    Medicare Part D claims indicate medication purchased, but people who are not fully adherent may extend prescription use beyond the interval prescribed. This study assessed concordance between Part D claims and medication possession at a study visit in relation to self-reported medication adherence. We matched Part D claims for 6 common medications to medications brought to a study visit in 2011-2013 for the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. The combined data consisted of 3027 medication events (claims, medications possessed, or both) for 2099 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the association of concordance (visit only, Part D only, or both) with self-reported medication adherence while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, veteran status, and availability under Generic Drug Discount Programs. Relative to participants with high adherence, medication events for participants with low adherence were approximately 25 percentage points less likely to match and more likely to be visit only (PDiscount Programs were 3 percentage points more likely to be visit only. Part D claims were substantially less likely to be concordant with medications possessed at study visit for participants with low self-reported adherence. This result supports the construction of adherence proxies such as proportion days covered using Part D claims.

  19. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  20. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    2005-01-01

    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  1. A Study of the Prevalence of Self-Medication Practice among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials among university students in southwestern Nigeria and evaluate the factors associated with self-medication. Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 2000 university students using a convenient sampling ...

  2. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  3. Childhood adversity and behavioral health outcomes for youth: An investigation using state administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self Esteem and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Roger B.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...

  5. Sun protection behavior and knowledge of patients attending laser clinic to prevent adverse events of laser: A Cross-sectional, Single Center, Tertiary Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lueangarun, Suparuj; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2018-06-08

    Limited data of sun protection knowledge in laser treatment patients exists therefore, preventative information should be provided by dermatologists to minimize harmful effects. To assess sun protection knowledge-behavior and knowledge to prevent adverse events from laser therapy among patients who visited a laser clinic at a tertiary university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a self-reported questionnaire, cross-sectional survey. All participants from the Laser Clinic in KCMH were recruited into the study. A Total of 385 patients were enrolled into the study; 80.5% female participants. Patients who never received laser treatment significantly lacked proper sun protection knowledge to prevent adverse events of lasers when compared to those who previous received laser treatments regarding the application of sunscreen after laser treatment (56.6% vs 17.4%, p protection in the post laser area (41.9% vs 20.4%, p knowledge of sun protection to prevent adverse events were significantly different among the group of educational levels and previous history of laser treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  7. Delivering health information about self-medication to older adults: use of touchscreen-equipped notebook computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, P J; Strickler, Z; Shellman, J; Padula, A T

    2001-11-01

    Preventing Drug Interactions in Active Older Adults is an educational intervention to prevent prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug and alcohol interactions in active, community-living older adults. The objectives of the program are to increase older adults' knowledge of potential interactions of prescription medications with OTC drugs and alcohol and to increase their confidence (self-efficacy) about how to avoid such interactions. An interactive multimedia computer software program (Personal Education Program or PEP) was designed for the learning styles and psychomotor skills of older adults. Focus groups of older adults evaluated PEP components in a formative manner during development. The program content dealing with antacids, calcium supplements, and acid reducers was pilot tested with 60 older adults recruited from local senior centers. Participants used the PEP on notebook computers equipped with infrared-sensitive touchscreens. Users of PEP had greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores than controls. Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the PEP and reported their intent to make specific changes in self-medication behaviors.

  8. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation with Nutrition and Exercise Behaviors in a Community Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Weaver, Michael T; Hanna, Kathleen M; Newsome, Kathleen; Mogos, Mulubrhan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association of self-efficacy and self-regulation with nutrition and exercise behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional design and included 108 participants (54 men, 54 women). Nutrition behaviors (fruit/vegetable consumption, dinner cooking, and restaurant eating) and exercise were measured using total days in last week a behavior was reported. Instruments measuring self-efficacy and self-regulation demonstrated excellent Cronbach's alphas (.93-.95). Path analysis indicated only fruit/vegetable consumption and exercise were associated with self-efficacy and self-regulation. Self-regulation showed direct association with fruit/vegetable consumption and exercise, but self-efficacy had direct association only with exercise. Self-efficacy and self-regulation should be strategically used to promote health behaviors.

  10. Perspectives on medical malpractice self-insurance financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Kitchen, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Financial reporting of medical malpractice self-insurance is evolving. The Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Section 954-450-25 provides guidance for accounting and financial reporting for medical malpractice. Discounting of medical malpractice liabilities has been reassessed in recent years. Malpractice litigation reform efforts continue in several states. Accountable care organizations could increase the frequency of medical malpractice claims because of patients' heightened expectations regarding quality of care.

  11. Rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events among hospitalized children following implementation of a resident handoff bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Amy J; Sectish, Theodore C; Simon, Dennis W; Keohane, Carol; McSweeney, Maireade E; Chung, Erica Y; Yoon, Catherine S; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Wassner, Ari J; Harper, Marvin B; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-12-04

    Handoff miscommunications are a leading cause of medical errors. Studies comprehensively assessing handoff improvement programs are lacking. To determine whether introduction of a multifaceted handoff program was associated with reduced rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events, fewer omissions of key data in written handoffs, improved verbal handoffs, and changes in resident-physician workflow. Prospective intervention study of 1255 patient admissions (642 before and 613 after the intervention) involving 84 resident physicians (42 before and 42 after the intervention) from July-September 2009 and November 2009-January 2010 on 2 inpatient units at Boston Children's Hospital. Resident handoff bundle, consisting of standardized communication and handoff training, a verbal mnemonic, and a new team handoff structure. On one unit, a computerized handoff tool linked to the electronic medical record was introduced. The primary outcomes were the rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events measured by daily systematic surveillance. The secondary outcomes were omissions in the printed handoff document and resident time-motion activity. Medical errors decreased from 33.8 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 27.3-40.3) to 18.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 14.7-21.9; P < .001), and preventable adverse events decreased from 3.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 1.7-4.8) to 1.5 (95% CI, 0.51-2.4) per 100 admissions (P = .04) following the intervention. There were fewer omissions of key handoff elements on printed handoff documents, especially on the unit that received the computerized handoff tool (significant reductions of omissions in 11 of 14 categories with computerized tool; significant reductions in 2 of 14 categories without computerized tool). Physicians spent a greater percentage of time in a 24-hour period at the patient bedside after the intervention (8.3%; 95% CI 7.1%-9.8%) vs 10.6% (95% CI, 9.2%-12.2%; P = .03). The average duration of verbal

  12. Efficacy and adverse effects of medical marijuana for chronic noncancer pain: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Amol; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Zoheiry, Nivan; Lakha, Shehnaz Fatima

    2015-08-01

    To determine if medical marijuana provides pain relief for patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) and to determine the therapeutic dose, adverse effects, and specific indications. In April 2014, MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted using the terms chronic noncancer pain, smoked marijuana or cannabinoids, placebo and pain relief, or side effects or adverse events. An article was selected for inclusion if it evaluated the effect of smoked or vaporized cannabinoids (nonsynthetic) for CNCP; it was designed as a controlled study involving a comparison group, either concurrently or historically; and it was published in English in a peer-review journal. Outcome data on pain, function, dose, and adverse effects were collected, if available. All articles that were only available in abstract form were excluded. Synthesis A total of 6 randomized controlled trials (N = 226 patients) were included in this review; 5 of them assessed the use of medical marijuana in neuropathic pain as an adjunct to other concomitant analgesics including opioids and anticonvulsants. The 5 trials were considered to be of high quality; however, all of them had challenges with masking. Data could not be pooled owing to heterogeneity in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol potency by dried weight, differing frequency and duration of treatment, and variability in assessing outcomes. All experimental sessions in the studies were of short duration (maximum of 5 days) and reported statistically significant pain relief with nonserious side effects. There is evidence for the use of low-dose medical marijuana in refractory neuropathic pain in conjunction with traditional analgesics. However, trials were limited by short duration, variability in dosing and strength of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and lack of functional outcomes. Although well tolerated in the short term, the long-term effects of psychoactive and neurocognitive effects of medical marijuana remain unknown. Generalizing the use of medical

  13. STRUCTURE OF READINESS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирило Соцький

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the analysis of the existing approaches to interpretation of the notion of selfdevelopment in psychological and pedagogical literature. It has been determined, that professional and personal self-development is carried out with the help of mechanisms of self-knowledge, self-organization, self-education, self-esteem, self-control. The research also presents the clarified essence and structure of the readiness of medical college students for professional self-development. Value, motivational, cognitive, operating, and volitional components have been singled out. Factors and stages of intending medical employees’ selfdevelopment have been substantiated in the article.

  14. Incorporating Natural Products, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Self-Care and Digital/Mobile Health Technologies into Molecular-Behavioral Combination Therapies for Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaj, Grzegorz; Ahern, Margaret M.; Kuhn, Alexis; Judkins, Zachary S.; Bowen, Randy C.; Chen, Yizhe

    2016-01-01

    Merging pharmaceutical and digital (mobile health, mHealth) ingredients to create new therapies for chronic diseases offers unique opportunities for natural products such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), curcumin, resveratrol, theanine, or α-lipoic acid. These compounds, when combined with pharmaceutical drugs, show improved efficacy and safety in preclinical and clinical studies of epilepsy, neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, depression, schizophrenia, diabetes and cancer. Their additional clinical benefits include reducing levels of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. We describe how pleiotropic natural products can be developed as bioactive incentives within the network pharmacology together with pharmaceutical drugs and self-care interventions. Since approximately 50% of chronically-ill patients do not take pharmaceutical drugs as prescribed, psychobehavioral incentives may appeal to patients at risk for medication non-adherence. For epilepsy, the incentive-based network therapy comprises anticonvulsant drugs, antiseizure natural products (n-3 PUFA, curcumin or/and resveratrol) coupled with disease-specific behavioral interventions delivered by mobile medical apps. The add-on combination of antiseizure natural products and mHealth supports patient empowerment and intrinsic motivation by having a choice in self-care behaviors. The incentivized therapies offer opportunities: (1) to improve clinical efficacy and safety of existing drugs, (2) to catalyze patient-centered, disease self-management and behavior-changing habits, also improving health-related quality-of-life after reaching remission, and (3) merging copyrighted mHealth software with natural products, thus establishing an intellectual property protection of medical treatments comprising the natural products existing in public domain and currently promoted as dietary supplements. Taken together, clinical research on synergies between existing drugs and pleiotropic natural products

  15. Narratives of Self-Neglect: Patterns of Traumatic Personal Experiences and Maladaptive Behaviors in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Cynthia; Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Abrams, Robert C; Pavlou, Maria; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69). Interviews included a comprehensive psychiatric assessment using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis-I and II Disorders and an unstructured interview that allowed subjects to describe important elements of their life stories. Content analysis was used to identify personal experiences and behavior patterns in each subject's narrative. Four types of traumatic personal experiences (psychologically traumatic loss, separation or abandonment (29%); violent victimization, physical trauma, or sexual abuse (19%); exposure to war or political violence (9%); prolonged mourning (7%)) and five behavior patterns (significant financial instability (23%), severe lifelong mental illness (16%), mistrust of people or paranoia (13%), distrust and avoidance of the medical establishment (13%), substance abuse or dependence (13%)) were identified in the life stories. Patterns of traumatic personal experiences and maladaptive behaviors that self-neglecters frequently report were identified. Experiences, perceptions, and behaviors developed over a lifetime may contribute to elder self-neglect. Further exploration and better understanding of these patterns may identify potential risk factors and areas for future targeted screening, intervention, and prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Personality Makes a Difference: Attachment Orientation Moderates Theory of Planned Behavior Prediction of Cardiac Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Shira; Vilchinsky, Noa; Fisher, William A; Khaskia, Abed; Mosseri, Morris

    2017-12-01

    To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N = 106) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including sociodemographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs. Six months post-discharge, 90 participants completed a questionnaire measuring adherence to medication. Attachment orientations moderated some of the predictions of the TPB model. PBC predicted intention and reported adherence, but these associations were found to be significant only among individuals with lower, as opposed to higher, attachment anxiety. The association between attitudes and intention was stronger among individuals with higher, as opposed to lower, attachment anxiety. Only among individuals with higher attachment avoidance, subjective norms were negatively associated with intention to take medication. Cognitive variables appear to explain both adherence intention and behavior, but differently, depending on individuals' attachment orientations. Integrating personality and cognitive models may prove effective in understanding patients' health behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Foot care education and self management behaviors in diverse veterans with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Olson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan M Olson1, Molly T Hogan2, Leonard M Pogach3, Mangala Rajan3, Gregory J Raugi4, Gayle E Reiber51University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Department of Veterans Affairs, New Jersey Healthcare System, Center for Healthcare Knowledge Management, East Orange, NJ, USA; 4Division of Dermatology, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Research and Development, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to examine differences in self-reported diabetes foot care education, self management behaviors, and barriers to good foot care among veterans with diabetes by race and ethnicity. Data was collected using the Veterans Health Administration Footcare Survey, a validated tool that assessed demographic, general health, diabetes and foot self-care information, barriers to foot self-care, receipt of professional foot care, and satisfaction with current care. We mailed surveys to a random sample of patients with diabetes from eight VA medical centers. Study participants were 81% White; 13% African American; 4% Asian, and 2% American Indian and Pacific Islanders. The majority of respondents felt that they did not know enough about foot self-care. There were large gaps between self-reported knowledge and actual foot care practices, even among those who reported “knowing enough” on a given topic. There were significant differences in self-reported foot care behaviors and education by race and ethnicity. These findings document the need for culturally-specific self-management education to address unique cultural preferences and barriers to care.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic foot, patient self-management, ethnic groups, education

  18. Phytotherapy in Germany : Its Role in Self-Medication and in Medical Prescribing

    OpenAIRE

    LUTZ, HEIDE; Pharmaceutical Biology, Pharmaceutical Institute, University of Tuebingen

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the present state of herbal medicine in Germany. Phytotherapeutic drugs (herbal remedies) are of considerable importance in Germany, both in self-medication and in medical prescriptions. They represent approx. 5.4% of the prescriptions by medical doctors, and 10% of the entire domestic drug market. The Federal Health Office of the German Ministry of Health has officially evaluated the efficacy and safety of approx. 300 medicinal plants used in Germany; their evalu...

  19. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  20. [Effects of Self-management Program applying Dongsasub Training on Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, Self-management Behavior and Blood Pressure in Older Adults with Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsuk; Song, Misoon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a self-management program applying Dongsasub training based on self-efficacy theory, and to verify the program effectiveness on self-esteem as well as self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and blood pressure. The study design was a non-equivalent, pre-post controlled quasi-experiment study. Thirty-eight patients aged 65 and older from a senior welfare center in Seoul participated in this study (20 patients in the experimental group and 18 patients in the control group). The self-management program applying Dongsasub training consisted of eight sessions. After development was complete the program was used with the experimental group. Outcome variables included self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-management behaviors measured by questionnaires, and blood pressure measured by electronic manometer. Self-efficacy (t=2.42, p=.021), self-esteem (t=2.57, p=.014) and self-management behaviors (t=2.21, p=.034) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (t=-2.14, p=.040) was significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, diastolic blood pressure (t=-.85, p=.400) was not significantly different between the two groups. The results indicate that the self-management program applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention in community settings for improving self-management behaviors for older adults with hypertension.

  1. Self-control and academic performance: Two field studies on university citizenship behavior and counterproductive academic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....

  2. A Modified Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System to Assess Diabetes Self-management Behaviors and Diabetes Care in Monterrey Mexico: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the leading causes of death from worldwide non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of diabetes in the Mexico (MX–United States border states exceeds the national rate in both countries. The economic burden of diabetes, due to decreased productivity, disability, and medical costs, is staggering and increases significantly when T2DM-related complications occur. The purpose of this study was to use a modified behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS to describe the T2DM self-management behaviors, diabetes care, and health perception of a convenience sample of adults with T2DM in Monterrey, MX. This cross-sectional study design, with convenience sampling, was conducted with a convenience sample (n = 351 of adults in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, MX who self-reported a diagnosis of T2DM. Potential participants were recruited from local supermarkets. Twenty-six diabetes and health-related items were selected from the BRFSS and administered in face-to-face interviews by trained data collectors. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics. The mean age was 47 years, and the mean length of time with T2DM was 12 years. The majority was taking oral medication and 34% required insulin. Daily self-monitoring of feet was performed by 56% of the participants; however, only 8.8% engaged in blood glucose self-monitoring. The mean number of health-care provider visits was 9.09 per year, and glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c was assessed 2.6 times per year. Finally, only 40.5% of the participants recalled having a dilated eye exam. We conclude the modified BRFSS survey administered in a face-to-face interview format is an appropriate tool for assessing engagement in T2DM self-management behaviors, diabetes care, and health perception. Extension of the use of this survey in a more rigorous design with a larger scale survey is encouraged.

  3. Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn AJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Annemiek J Linn,1 Julia CM van Weert,1 Barbara C Schouten,1 Edith G Smit,1 Ad A van Bodegraven,2 Liset van Dijk31Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The barriers to patients’ successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1 to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2 to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior.Patients and methods: Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers. The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients’ barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores.Results: The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was

  4. The Relationship Between Aerobic Activity Health Conditions and Medical Visits Among Men and Women Serving Aboard Navy Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... Contingency tables were computed for amount of self-reported aerobic activity and prevalence rate of adverse health conditions, number of adverse health conditions, number of medical visits, and gender...

  5. Impact of Self-concept on Preschoolers’ Dental Anxiety and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Erfanparast

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Different factors affect children’s behavior during dental treatment, including psychological and behavioral characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of self-concept on child’s anxiety and be-havior during dental treatment in 4 to 6-year-old children. Materials and methods. A total of 235 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years were included in this descriptive analytic study. Total self-concept score for each child was assessed according to Primary Self-concept Scale before dental treatment. Child’s anxiety and child’s behavior were assessed, during the restoration of mandibular primary molar, using clinical anxi-ety rating scale and Frankl Scale, respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation be-tween the total self-concept score with the results of clinical anxiety rating scale and Frankl Scale. Results. There was a moderate inverse correlation between the self-concept and clinical anxiety rating scale scores (r = −0.545, P < 0.001, and a moderate correlation between the self-concept and child’s behavior scores (r = 0.491, P < 0.001. A strong inverse relation was also found between the anxiety and behavior scores (r = −0.91, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Children with higher self-concept had lower anxiety level and better behavioral feedback during dental treat-ment.

  6. Self-Access Learning in Medical English (ME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anişoara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual learning is a pre-requisite of formal ME credit allocation in higher education (HE, albeit this may be hard to document and quantify. Edmodo-enhanced self-access learning can be customized to accommodate different learning styles, form basic learning skills and field-specific subskills, extend and expand the students’ medical language use, while also meeting the desiderata of independent curriculum-stipulated learning that can thus be exploited and demonstrated. The paper will reflect on the design of ME multimedia assignments as well as the quantitative and qualitative results, motivation and attitude of a group of medical students working on Edmodo self-access ME learning as part of a class research project for two years.

  7. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  8. Self-Compassion and Suicidal Behavior in College Students: Serial Indirect Effects via Depression and Wellness Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher Rabon, Jessica; Sirois, Fuschia M.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: College students may be at heightened risk for suicide and suicidal behavior due to maladaptive cognitive-emotional factors and failure to practice basic health behaviors. However, self-compassion and wellness behaviors may protect against risk. The relation between self-compassion and suicidal behavior and the contributing roles of…

  9. Self-regulation theory: applications to medical education: AMEE Guide No. 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Cleary, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation theory, as applied to medical education, describes the cyclical control of academic and clinical performance through several key processes that include goal-directed behaviour, use of specific strategies to attain goals, and the adaptation and modification to behaviours or strategies to optimise learning and performance. Extensive research across a variety of non-medical disciplines has highlighted differences in key self-regulation processes between high- and low-achieving learners and performers. Structured identification of key self-regulation processes can be used to develop specific remediation approaches that can improve performance in academic and complex psycho-motor skills. General teaching approaches that are guided by a self-regulation perspective can also enhance academic performance. Self-regulation theory offers an exciting potential for improving academic and clinical performance in medical education.

  10. A behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum proposal for Japanese undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine cor...

  11. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  13. The relationship between self-monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, G.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Management and Industrial Relations; Fuller, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Management and Industrial Relations]|[USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Smith, D.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior is behavior which is discretionary on the part of the individual, not recognized by the organizational reward system, yet contributes to the effectiveness of the organization. In this study the relationship between self-monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior was examined. Support was found for the hypothesis that individuals high in self-monitoring are also more likely to perform organizational citizenships behaviors. Implications for management and future research are discussed.

  14. Reasons for self-medication and perceptions of risk among Mexican migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Stewart, Analisia

    2012-08-01

    Although the frequency of self-medication among Mexican migrants has been well-documented in the public health literature, the multiple reasons for this practice are poorly understood. Most studies point to migrants' cultural preferences for Mexican medications, their prior experiences in countries where antibiotics are loosely regulated, and their lack of access to health care as the primary factors behind their self-medication. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 23 Mexican migrants in a farm working community in the interior of California, we argue that occupational vulnerability is an equally important factor that encourages self-medication. All 23 of our interviewees reported having engaged in some degree of self-medication, notable in this location 8 h from the US-Mexico border. Among interviewees, occupational vulnerability represented an even more important factor influencing self-medication than lack of health insurance or lack of legal documentation. While interviewees did express a preference for Mexican medications as more potent and effective, this did not necessarily translate to a preference for using them without a doctor's supervision. Finally, we show that rather than remaining unaware of the risks of following this custom "transported from Latin America", Mexican migrants devised an elaborate hierarchy of resort of the safest self-medication practices to follow.

  15. Evaluation of self-medication amongst university students in Abbottabad, Pakistan; prevalence, attitude and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hanif; Khan, Shujaat A; Ali, Sayyad; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Chohan, Ossam; Hassan, Syed M F; Khan, Kashif M; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication is a serious issue in most parts of the world. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Abbottabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey study was carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad during December 1 - December 31,2011. A sample of 275 students was selected for the study using convenience method of sampling. Data were managed and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0. Inferences were drawn using Z-test Out of 268 respondents (male = 61.6%, female = 38.6%), 138 were non-health professional students whereas 130 were health professional students. The prevalence of self-medication was 95.5%. Most common factor (45.7%) responsible for self-medication was "low severity of disease". Most common symptom (50.8%) that caused self-medication and stocking of medicines was "storage of medicines for multi purposes". Some respondents (22.7%) got addicted due to self-medication. Most of the students trust in allopathic medicines system. High prevalence of self-medication can be controlled through regulatory authorities, mass education and availability of health facilities.

  16. Boys have caught up, family influences still continue: Influences on executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation in elementary students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Saalbach, Henrik; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2017-03-01

    The development of self-regulation is influenced by various child-level and family-level characteristics. Previous research focusing on the preschool period has reported a female advantage in self-regulation and negative effects of various adverse features of the family environment on self-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate growth in self-regulation (i.e., executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation) over 1 school year during early elementary school and to explore the influences of child sex, the level of home chaos, and family educational resources on self-regulation. Participants were 263 German children (51% boys; mean age 8.59 years, SD = 0.56 years). Data were collected during the fall and spring of the school year. A computer-based standardized test battery was used to assess executive functioning. Caregiver ratings assessed children's behavioral self-regulation and information on the family's home environment (chaotic home environment and educational resources). Results suggest growth in elementary school children's executive functioning over the course of the school year. However, there were no significant changes in children's behavioral self-regulation between the beginning and the end of Grade 3. Sex differences in executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation were found, suggesting an advantage for boys. Educational resources in the family but not chaotic family environment were significantly related to self-regulation at both time-points. Children from families with more educational resources scored higher on self-regulation measures compared to their counterparts from less advantaged families. We did not find evidence for child-level or family-level characteristics predicting self-regulation growth over time. Findings suggest that the male disadvantage in self-regulation documented in previous studies might be specific to characteristics of the sample and the context in which the data were collected. Adequate self

  17. Measuring severe adverse events and medication selection using a “PEER Report” for nonpsychotic patients: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Hoffman,1 Charles DeBattista,2 Rob J Valuck,3 Dan V Iosifescu41Neuro-Therapy Clinic, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado, SKAGES School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: We previously reported on an objective new tool that uses quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG normative- and referenced-electroencephalography sampling databases (currently called Psychiatric EEG Evaluation Registry [PEER], which may assist physicians in determining medication selection for optimal efficacy to overcome trial-and-error prescribing. The PEER test compares drug-free QEEG features for individual patients to a database of patients with similar EEG patterns and known outcomes after pharmacological interventions. Based on specific EEG data elements and historical outcomes, the PEER Report may also serve as a marker of future severe adverse events (eg, agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, suicidality, homicidality, mania, hypomania with specific medications. We used a retrospective chart review to investigate the clinical utility of such a registry in a naturalistic environment.Results: This chart review demonstrated significant improvement on the global assessment scales Clinical Global Impression – Improvement and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction – Short Form as well as time to maximum medical improvement and decreased suicidality occurrences. The review also showed that 54.5% of previous medications causing a severe adverse event would have been raised as a caution had the PEER Report been available at the time the drug was prescribed. Finally, due to the significant amount of off-label prescribing of psychotropic medications, additional, objective, evidence-based data aided the prescriber toward better choices.Conclusion: The PEER Report may be

  18. [The relationships among self-identity, self-esteem and attitude towards sexual behavior in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Takako; Tachi, Etsuko; Ogasawara, Akihiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2002-10-01

    It has been reported that the young people of today tend to engage in sexual behavior at an early age and the abortion rate is high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of post-adolescents with regard to sexual behaviors and the relationship to self-identity and self-esteem. The subjects were 234 males (mean +/- SD 20.2 +/- 1.1 years) and 460 females (mean +/- SD 19.5 +/- 1.1 years) 4-year university students aged 18 to 23 years in Aichi Prefecture. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire was used to survey the subjects with regard to self-identity ("Establishment of Self" scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and sexual attitude and behavior. The scores on both scales and subscales of the "Establishment of Self" scale, "Foundation of Identity (Foundation)" and "Establishment of Identity (Establishment)", were calculated and intercompared, along with sexual attitude and behavior, controlled for age and school type. The mean total score of the "Establishment of Self" scale for males was 55.3 (SD9.2) and for females 52.2 (SD9.3), while those for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were 27.2 (SD5.5) and 25.7 (SD5.2), respectively. There was significant positive correlation all scales in both sexes. Both male and female students had positive attitude towards sex and a negative view of "traditional gender roles" particularly females. Of the subjects, 82.4% of males and 69.5% of females were thinking of accepting a request for sexual intercourse from their partners. Many students understood the "need for contraception", that is a component of contraceptive behavior. Most of them, however, didn't acquire the other components. A total of 68.3% of males and 48.2% of females had experienced sexual intercourse during the last year. Of these, 50.6% of males and 58.2% of females consistently used contraception. The score on the "Establishment of Self" scale was higher among both the male and female students who responded positively to having

  19. [Analysis of the current situation the oral medical interns' awareness on occupation safety behavior in college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Song; Yu, Wang; Rongrong, He; Ying, Xu

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine the awareness oral medical interns about occupation safety protection of knowledge and to present a scientific basis for perfecting the occupation safety education system and standard protection behavior. A self-designed questionnaire that used a retrospective questionnaire survey on 425 stomatological interns, scoring, and statistical analysis of the survey were performed. The questionnaire included occupation safety prevention knowledge, behavior cognitive, and protective behavior, among others. The questionnaire recovery rate was 100%, and the average scores of the prevention knowledge and behavior cognitive were 4.55 ± 0.91 and 4.40 ± 1.05, respectively. More than 90% interns can conduct the conventional protection, and less than 40% can perform special protection. For the item "occupation safety protection knowledge", the scores of three grade III hospitals were higher than that of stomatological hospitals and second level of first-class hospitals; the difference was statistically significant (P safety protection knowledge, behavioral cognitive, and protection behavior. The average score was higher for than for boys in the three contents, and the average score of interns accepting pre-job training was higher than those rejected; the difference was statistically significant (P safety knowledge of oral medical interns is not sufficient, and the protective behavior is poor. Schools and hospitals should strengthen the intern occupation safety and protection education and improve the status of occupation safety behavior.

  20. Revisiting the 'self-medication' hypothesis in light of the new data linking low striatal dopamine to comorbid addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A George; Voruganti, Lakshmi L N P

    2015-06-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are at a high risk, almost 4.6 times more likely, of having drug abuse problems than persons without psychiatric illness. Among the influential proposals to explain such a high comorbidity rate, the 'self-medication hypothesis' proposed that persons with schizophrenia take to drugs in an effort to cope with the illness and medication side effects. In support of the self-medication hypothesis, data from our earlier clinical study confirmed the strong association between neuroleptic dysphoria and negative subjective responses and comorbid drug abuse. Though dopamine has been consistently suspected as one of the major culprits for the development of neuroleptic dysphoria, it is only recently our neuroimaging studies correlated the emergence of neuroleptic dysphoria to the low level of striatal dopamine functioning. Similarly, more evidence has recently emerged linking low striatal dopamine with the development of vulnerability for drug addictive states in schizophrenia. The convergence of evidence from both the dysphoria and comorbidity research, implicating the role of low striatal dopamine in both conditions, has led us to propose that the person with schizophrenia who develops dysphoria and comorbid addictive disorder is likely to be one and the same.

  1. Medical student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication in adolescent medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer L; Pasold, Tracie L; Boateng, Beatrice A; Hense, Devon J

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication with teen issues and learning activities. Data were collected during the 8-week pediatric rotation for third-year medical students at a local children's hospital. Students completed a self-efficacy instrument at the beginning and end of the rotation; knowledge and communication skills were evaluated during standardized patient cases as part of the objective structured clinical examination. Self-efficacy, knowledge and communication frequencies were described with descriptive statistics; differences between groups were also evaluated utilizing two-sample t-tests. Self-efficacy levels of both groups increased by the end of the pediatric rotation, but students in the two-lecture group displayed significantly higher self-efficacy in confidentiality with adolescents (t(35)=-2.543, p=0.02); interviewing adolescents, assessing risk, sexually transmitted infection risk and prevention counseling, contraception counseling were higher with marginal significance. No significant differences were found between groups for communication; assessing sexually transmitted infection risk was marginally significant for knowledge application during the clinical exam. Medical student self-efficacy appears to change over time with effects from different learning methods; this higher self-efficacy may increase future comfort and willingness to work with this high-risk, high-needs group throughout a medical career.

  2. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  3. The influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial behavior among K-12 teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim Neto, Roque do Carmo; Rodrigues, Vinicius P; Stewart, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) assess the unique contributions of self-efficacy to entrepreneurial behavior among teachers; (2) identify the best instrument(s) to measure such contributions by testing a domain-specific instrument (teacher self-efficacy) vs. a general (occupational self-efficacy) one; (3......) identify the demographic characteristics associated with entrepreneurial behavior. A sample of 401 teachers from across the USA completed the online survey. The findings indicated that self-efficacy predicts entrepreneurial behavior and that occupational self-efficacy is a slightly better predictor...... of entrepreneurial behavior than teacher self-efficacy. The results also identified age and education as the demographic characteristics associated with entrepreneurial behavior....

  4. Gender differences in teachers' behaviors in relation to adolescents' self-concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboya, M M

    1995-12-01

    Gender differences in the relationship between teachers' behaviors and adolescents' self-concepts were investigated in 276 (156 boys and 120 girls) Standard Ten students from two coeducational high schools in Langa, Cape Town, South Africa. The Perceived Teacher Behavior Inventory was used to measure adolescents' self-concepts. Analysis indicated significant differences in perceived teachers' behavior and adolescents' self-description scale scores between boys and girls. Further, students' self-concept dimensions most strongly associated with teachers' behaviors were relations with family, general school, and health.

  5. Childhood self-regulatory skills predict adolescent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, Madeleine E; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of premature death. Better self-regulatory capacity is a key psychosocial factor that has been linked with reduced likelihood of tobacco use. Studies point to the importance of multiple forms of self-regulation, in the domains of emotion, attention, behavior, and social regulation, although no work has evaluated all of these domains in a single prospective study. Considering those four self-regulation domains separately and in combination, this study prospectively investigated whether greater self-regulation in childhood is associated with reduced likelihood of either trying cigarettes or becoming a regular smoker. Hypotheses were tested using longitudinal data from a cohort of 1709 US children participating in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics--Child Development Supplement. Self-regulation was assessed at study baseline when children ranged in age from 6 to 14 years, using parent-reported measures derived from the Behavior Problems Index and Positive Behavior Scale. Children ages 12-19 self-reported their cigarette smoking, defined in two ways: (1) trying and (2) regular use. Separate multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate odds of trying or regularly using cigarettes, taking account of various potential confounders. Over an average of five years of follow-up, 34.5% of children ever tried cigarettes and 10.6% smoked regularly. Higher behavioral self-regulation was the only domain associated with reduced odds of trying cigarettes (odds ratio (OR) = .85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = .73-.99). Effective regulation in each of the domains was associated with reduced likelihood of regular smoking, although the association with social regulation was not statistically significant (ORs range .70-.85). For each additional domain in which a child was able to regulate successfully, the odds of becoming a regular smoker dropped by 18% (95% CI = .70-.97). These findings suggest that effective childhood self

  6. Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...

  7. Practitioner Review: Current Best Practice in the Management of Adverse Events during Treatment with ADHD Medications in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Graham, John; Taylor, Eric; Sergeant, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medication is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. While medications for ADHD are generally well-tolerated, there are common, although less severe, as well as rare but severe adverse events AEs during treatment with ADHD drugs. The aim of this review is to provide

  8. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  9. The Role of Self-Concept in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of research…

  10. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    suvadip biswas; aritra ghosh; Krishnendu Mondal; Saikat Kumar Dalui; Mithilesh Haldar; Supreeti Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in ...

  11. Shiraz medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHRDAD ASKARIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students’ perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample. The study was performed during one month in 2013, using stratified random sampling method. The instrument of the study was the Persian version of the questionnaire of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM.The questionnaire includes demographic information, questions about the meaning of the professionalism, history of medical ethics education programs and 12 behavioral questions. The data were analyzed using student t-test and Pearson correlation test. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: Forty percent of respondents did not know the meaning of professionalism. The mean±SD score of behavioral questions was 5.91±1.2 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean±SD score of excellence questions was 4.94±1.7. It was 7.05±1.9 for ‘honor/integrity’, and 6.07±2.1 for ‘altruism/respect’ questions. There was a significant association between gender and excellence score (p=0.007. Conclusion: Medical students assessed their colleagues’ professional behavior as poor. They did not have proper information about professionalism. Medical students are future general practitioners and respecting medical ethics by them is very important in a perfect health system. Universities should emphasize the importance of teaching professionalism to medical students and faculty members, using innovative education methods.

  12. Is detection of adverse events affected by record review methodology? an evaluation of the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbeck, Maria; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Henriksson, Peter; Jürgensen, Urban; Muren, Olav; Nilsson, Lena; Pukk Härenstam, Karin

    2013-04-15

    There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the "Global Trigger Tool". Adverse events "causing harm without permanent disability" accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. More adverse events were identified using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study

  13. Adolescent prosocial behavior: the role of self-processes and contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn R; Filisetti, Laurence; Looney, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Peer- and teacher-reported prosocial behavior of 339 6th-grade (11-12 years) and 8th-grade (13-14 years) students was examined in relation to prosocial goals, self-processes (reasons for behavior, empathy, perspective taking, depressive affect, perceived competence), and contextual cues (expectations of peers and teachers). Goal pursuit significantly predicted prosocial behavior, and goal pursuit provided a pathway by which reasons for behavior were related to behavior. Reasons reflected external, other-focused, self-focused, and internal justifications for behavior; each reason was related to a unique set of self-processes and contextual cues. Associations between prosocial outcomes and sex and race (Caucasian and African American) were mediated in part by self-processes and contextual cues. The implications of studying prosocial behavior from a motivational perspective are discussed.

  14. Assessing medical students' self-regulation as aptitude in computer-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyuksoon S; Kalet, Adina L; Plass, Jan L

    2011-03-01

    We developed a Self-Regulation Measure for Computer-based learning (SRMC) tailored toward medical students, by modifying Zimmerman's Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) for K-12 learners. The SRMC's reliability and validity were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 109 first-year medical students were asked to complete the SRMC. Bivariate correlation analysis results indicated that the SRMC scores had a moderate degree of correlation with student achievement in a teacher-developed test. In Study 2, 58 third-year clerkship students completed the SRMC. Regression analysis results indicated that the frequency of medical students' usage of self-regulation strategies was associated with their general clinical knowledge measured by a nationally standardized licensing exam. These two studies provided evidence for the reliability and concurrent validity of the SRMC to assess medical students' self-regulation as aptitude. Future work should provide evidence to guide and improve instructional design as well as inform educational policy.

  15. Behavior Self-Control and the Contract Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study to determine the success of university students' behavioral self-control projects. Results indicate that the teaching of self-control principles is easily integrated into personal adjustment classes and can have lasting effects on students' coping skills. (KC)

  16. Serious adverse events with infliximab: analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Gartlehner, Gerald; Powell, Gregory E; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    Serious adverse events such as bowel obstruction, heart failure, infection, lymphoma, and neuropathy have been reported with infliximab. The aims of this study were to explore adverse event signals with infliximab by using a long period of post-marketing experience, stratifying by indication. The relative reporting of infliximab adverse events to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was assessed with the public release version of the adverse event reporting system (AERS) database from 1968 to third quarter 2005. On the basis of a systematic review of adverse events, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms were mapped to predefined categories of adverse events, including death, heart failure, hepatitis, infection, infusion reaction, lymphoma, myelosuppression, neuropathy, and obstruction. Disproportionality analysis was used to calculate the empiric Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (EB05, EB95) for adverse event categories. Infliximab was identified as the suspect medication in 18,220 reports in the FDA AERS database. We identified a signal for lymphoma (EB05 = 6.9), neuropathy (EB05 = 3.8), infection (EB05 = 2.9), and bowel obstruction (EB05 = 2.8). The signal for granulomatous infections was stronger than the signal for non-granulomatous infections (EB05 = 12.6 and 2.4, respectively). The signals for bowel obstruction and infusion reaction were specific to patients with IBD; this suggests potential confounding by indication, especially for bowel obstruction. In light of this additional evidence of risk of lymphoma, neuropathy, and granulomatous infections, clinicians should stress this risk in the shared decision-making process.

  17. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  18. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adulthood Aggression and Self-Esteem-A Study on Male Forensic Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Khodabandeh; Marzieh Khalilzadeh; Zahra Hemati

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The curr...

  19. Workplace bullying in Serbia: The relation of self-labeling and behavioral experience with job-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying has been identified as a widespread problem in contemporary organizational research. The aim of the paper was to acquire theoretically based and comparable findings about workplace bullying in Serbia: to explore the behavioral experience and self-labeling approaches (applying the Negative Acts Questionnaire - Revised, NAQ-R and their relationship with job-related behaviors. The sample comprised 1,998 employees. Prevalence rates of workplace bullying based on self-labeling and behavior experience approaches overlap significantly (70% of employees operationally identified as bullied had also labeled themselves as bullied. Both the self-labeling and behavioral experience approach showed significant correlations with job-related behaviors (perceived threat to a total job, absenteeism, intention to leave, and perceived productivity. Previously bullied, presently bullied and non-bullied employees differed significantly on all four job-related behaviors, with large effect size for the intention to leave and medium effect size for the perceived threat to a total job. The findings support combining self-labeling and behavioral experience approaches in workplace bullying research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  20. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  1. Perceived teaching behaviors and self-determined motivation in physical education: a test of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we tested the effects of specific dimensions of perceived teaching behaviors on students' self-determined motivation in physical education. In accordance with the tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), we expected the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness would mediate these effects. Secondary school students (N=498) ages 12-17 years completed measures of perceived teaching behaviors for seven dimensions: (a) democratic behavior, (b) autocratic behavior (c) teaching and instruction, (d) situation consideration, (e) positive general feedback, (f) positive nonverbal feedback, and (h) negative nonverbal feedback. They also completed measures of perceived satisfaction for competence, autonomy, relatedness, and self-determined motivation. A path-analytic model revealed a positive, indirect effect of perceived positive general feedback on self-determined motivation. The effects of perceived autocratic behavior and negative nonverbal feedback were direct and negative, whereas the effects of teaching and instruction and situation consideration were direct and positive. Results suggest that feedback, situation consideration, and teaching and instruction are essential antecedents to self-determined motivation.

  2. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  3. Is fasting safe? A chart review of adverse events during medically supervised, water-only fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, John S; Saul, Bradley C; Goldhamer, Alan C; Myers, Toshia R

    2018-02-20

    Evidence suggests that fasting, during which only water is consumed, results in potentially health promoting physiological effects. However, peer-reviewed research assessing the safety of water-only fasting is lacking. To address this, we conducted a chart review to describe adverse events (AEs) that occurred during medically supervised, water-only fasting. Electronic charts from patient visits to a residential medical facility from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. Patients who were at least 21 years of age and water-only fasted for ≥2 consecutive days with a refeeding period equal to half of the fast length were included. Out of 2539 charts, 768 visits met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. AEs were abstracted from chart notes and classified according to CTCAE (v4.03) and MedDRA (v12.1) terminology. Descriptive analysis of AEs is reported. During the protocol period, the highest grade AE (HGAE) in 555 visits was a grade 2 event or lower, in 212 visits it was a grade 3 event, in 1 visit it was a grade 4 event, and there were no grade 5 events. There were 2 (0.002%) visits with a serious adverse event (SAE). The majority of AEs identified were mild (n = 4490, 75%) in nature and known reactions to fasting. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive analysis of AEs experienced during medically supervised, water-only fasting conducted to date. Overall, our data indicate that the majority of AEs experienced were mild to moderate and known reactions to fasting. This suggests that the protocol used in this study can be safely implemented in a medical setting with minimal risk of a SAE.

  4. Educational needs for improving self-care in heart failure patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, EunSeok; Clark, Patricia C; Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Higgins, Melinda; Lobb, Maureen; Smith, Andrew L; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2012-01-01

    To explore the need for self-monitoring and self-care education in heart failure patients with diabetes (HF- DM patients) by describing cognitive and affective factors to provide guidance in developing effective self-management education. A cross-sectional correlation design was employed using baseline patient data from a study testing a 12-week patient and family dyad intervention to improve dietary and medication-taking self-management behaviors in HF patients. Data from 116 participants recruited from metropolitan Atlanta area were used. Demographic and comorbidities, physical function, psychological distress, relationship with health care provider, self-efficacy (medication taking and low sodium diet), and behavioral outcomes (medications, dietary habits) were assessed. Descriptive statistics and a series of chi-square tests, t tests, or Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare HF patients with and without DM. HF-DM patients were older and heavier, had more comorbidities, and took more daily medications than HF patients. High self-efficacy on medication and low-sodium diet was reported in both groups with no significant difference. Although HF-DM patients took more daily medications than HF, both groups exhibited high HF medication-taking behaviors. The HF-DM patients consumed significantly lower total sugar than HF patients but clinically higher levels of sodium. Diabetes educators need to be aware of potential conflicts of treatment regimens to manage 2 chronic diseases. Special and integrated diabetes self-management education programs that incorporate principles of HF self-management should be developed to improve self-management behavior in HF-DM patients.

  5. Boys have not caught up, family influences still continue: Influences on executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation in elementary students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Saalbach, Henrik; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2017-09-01

    The development of self-regulation is influenced by various child-level and family-level characteristics. Previous research focusing on the preschool period reported a female advantage in self-regulation and negative effects of various adverse features of the family environment on self-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate growth in self-regulation (i.e., executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation) over 1 school year during early elementary school and to explore the influences of child sex, the level of home chaos, and family educational resources on self-regulation. Participants were 263 German children (51% girls; mean age 8.59 years, SD = 0.56 years). Data were collected during the fall and spring of the school year. A computer-based standardized test battery was used to assess executive functioning. Caregiver ratings assessed children's behavioral self-regulation and information on the family's home environment (chaotic home environment and educational resources). Results suggest growth in elementary school children's executive functioning over the course of the school year. However, there were no significant changes in children's behavioral self-regulation between the beginning and the end of Grade 3. Sex differences in inhibitory control/cognitive flexibility and behavioral self-regulation were found, suggesting an advantage for girls. Educational resources in the family but not chaotic family environment were significantly related to self-regulation at both time-points. Children from families with more educational resources scored higher on self-regulation measures compared to their counterparts from less advantaged families. We did not find evidence for child-level or family-level characteristics predicting self-regulation growth over time. Findings add to the evidence of a gender gap in self-regulation skills, but suggest that it might not further widen towards the end of elementary school age. Adequate self-regulation skills should

  6. Self-medication in three Orange Free State communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lates of non-compliance were explored, but self- medication was not found to be a substitute for formal medical care. S Air Med J 1993; 83: 345·346. Medicines. None. 1-3 types ... availability and accessibility of professional health care;. (iv) the perceived health .... tent manner in which cultural differences, education, health ...

  7. A learning collaborative of CMHCs and CHCs to support integration of behavioral health and general medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Steven D; Mauer, Barbara; Kern, John; Girn, Kamaljeet; Ingoglia, Charles; Campbell, Jeannie; Galbreath, Laura; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Integration of general medical and mental health services is a growing priority for safety-net providers. The authors describe a project that established a one-year learning collaborative focused on integration of services between community health centers (CHCs) and community mental health centers (CMHCs). Specific targets were treatment for general medical and psychiatric symptoms related to depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This observational study used mixed methods. Quantitative measures included 15 patient-level health indicators, practice self-assessment of resources and support for chronic disease self-management, and participant satisfaction. Sixteen CHC-CMHC pairs were selected for the learning collaborative series. One pair dropped out because of personnel turnover. All teams increased capacity on one or more patient health indicators. CHCs scored higher than CMHCs on support for chronic disease self-management. Participation in the learning collaborative increased self-assessment scores for CHCs and CMHCs. Participant satisfaction was high. Observations by faculty indicate that quality improvement challenges included tracking patient-level outcomes, workforce issues, and cross-agency communication. Even though numerous systemic barriers were encountered, the findings support existing literature indicating that the learning collaborative is a viable quality improvement approach for enhancing integration of general medical and mental health services between CHCs and CMHCs. Real-world implementation of evidence-based guidelines presents challenges often absent in research. Technical resources and support, a stable workforce with adequate training, and adequate opportunities for collaborator communications are particular challenges for integrating behavioral and general medical services across CHCs and CMHCs.

  8. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.

  9. Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direc...

  10. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  11. Nurses' systems thinking competency, medical error reporting, and the occurrence of adverse events: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare professionals' systems thinking is emphasized for patient safety. To report nurses' systems thinking competency, and its relationship with medical error reporting and the occurrence of adverse events. A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated Systems Thinking Scale (STS), was conducted. Nurses from two teaching hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. There were 407 (60.3%) completed surveys. The mean STS score was 54.5 (SD 7.3) out of 80. Nurses with higher STS scores were more likely to report medical errors (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.08) and were less likely to be involved in the occurrence of adverse events (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93-0.98). Nurses showed moderate systems thinking competency. Systems thinking was a significant factor associated with patient safety. Impact Statement: The findings of this study highlight the importance of enhancing nurses' systems thinking capacity to promote patient safety.

  12. Prevalence of self-medication in Brazil and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Fernandes, Maria Eneida Porto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the prevalence and associated factors regarding the use of medicines by self-medication in Brazil. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using data from the PNAUM (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), collected between September 2013 and February 2014 by interviews at the homes of the respondents. All people who reported using any medicines not prescribed by a doctor or dentist were classified as self-medication practitioners. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (Poisson regression) and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated in order to investigate the factors associated with the use of self-medication by medicines. The independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and access to and use of health services. In addition, the most commonly consumed medicines by self-medication were individually identified. The self-medication prevalence in Brazil was 16.1% (95%CI 15.0-17.5), with it being highest in the Northeast region (23.8%; 95%CI 21.6-26.2). Following the adjusted analysis, self-medication was observed to be associated with females, inhabitants from the North, Northeast and Midwest regions and individuals that have had one, or two or more chronic diseases. Analgesics and muscle relaxants were the therapeutic groups most used for self-medication, with dipyrone being the most consumed medicines. In general, most of the medicines used for self-medication were classified as non-prescriptive (65.5%). Self-medication is common practice in Brazil and mainly involves the use of non-prescription medicines; therefore, the users of such should be made aware of the possible risks. Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à utilização de medicamentos por automedicação no Brasil. Este estudo transversal de base populacional foi realizado com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de medicamentos (PNAUM

  13. Self-Explanation, An Instructional Strategy to Foster Clinical Reasoning in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Chamberland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical reasoning is a critical and complex skill that medical students have to develop in the course of their training. Although research on medical expertise has successfully examined the different components of that skill, designing educational interventions that support the development of clinical reasoning in students remains a challenge for medical educators. The theory of medical expertise describes how students׳ medical knowledge develops and is progressively restructured during their training and in particular through clinical exposure to patient problems. Instructional strategies to foster students’ learning from practice with clinical cases are scarce. This article describes the use of self-explanation as such a strategy. Self-explanation is an active learning technique of proven effectiveness in other domains which consists of having students explaining to themselves information on to-be-learned materials. The mechanisms through which self-explanation fosters learning are described. Self-explanation promotes knowledge development and revision of mental representations through elaboration on new information, organisation and integration of new knowledge into existing cognitive structures and monitoring of the learning process. Subsequently, the article shows how self-explanation has recently been investigated in medicine as an instructional strategy to support students׳ clinical reasoning. Available studies have demonstrated that students׳ diagnostic performance improves when they use self-explanation while solving clinical problems of a less familiar clinical topic. Unfamiliarity seems to trigger more self-explanations and to stimulate students to reactivate relevant biomedical knowledge, which could lead to the development of more coherent representations of diseases. The benefit of students׳ self-explanation is increased when it is combined with listening to residents׳ self-explanation examples and with prompts. The

  14. A medical assistant-based program to promote healthy behaviors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Robert L; Mody-Bailey, Priti; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Gott, Sherrie; Araujo, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Most primary care patients have at least 1 major behavioral risk: smoking, risky drinking, low physical activity, or unhealthy diet. We studied the effectiveness of a medical assistant-based program to identify and refer patients with risk behaviors to appropriate interventions. We undertook a randomized control trial in a practice-based research network. The trial included 864 adult patients from 6 primary care practices. Medical assistants screened patients for 4 risk behaviors and applied behavior-specific algorithms to link patients with interventions. Primary outcomes were improved risk behaviors on standardized assessments. Secondary outcomes included participation in a behavioral intervention and the program's effect on the medical assistants' workflow and job satisfaction. Follow-up data were available for 55% of participants at a mean of 12 months. The medical assistant referral arm referred a greater proportion of patients than did usual care (67.4 vs 21.8%; P effects on program adoption. Engaging more primary care team members to address risk behaviors improved referral rates. More extensive medical assistant training, changes in practice culture, and sustained behavioral interventions will be necessary to improve risk behavior outcomes.

  15. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...

  16. Implementation of a web-based tool for patient medication self-management: the Medication Self-titration Evaluation Programme (Med-STEP for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Informatics tools may help support hypertension management.Objective To design, implement and evaluate a web-based system for patient anti-hypertensive medication self-titration.Methods Study stages included: six focus groups (50 patients to identify barriers/facilitators to patient medication self-titration, software design informed by qualitative analysis of focus group responses and a six-month single-arm pilot study (20 patients to assess implementation feasibility.Results Focus groups emphasised patient need to feel confident that their own primary care providers were directly involved and approved of the titration protocol. Physicians required 3.3 ± 2.8 minutes/patient to create individualised six-step medication pathways for once-monthly blood pressure evaluations. Pilot participants (mean age of 51.5 ± 11 years, 45% women, mean baseline blood pressure 139/84 ± 12.2/7.5 mmHg had five medication increases, two non-adherence self-reports, 52months not requiring medication changes, 24 skipped months and 17 months with no evaluations due to technical issues. Four pilot patients dropped out before study completion. From baseline to study completion, blood pressure decreased among the 16 patients remaining in the study (8.0/4.7 mmHg, p = 0.03 for both systolic and diastolic pressures.Conclusions Lessons learned included the benefit of qualitative patient analysis prior to system development and the feasibility of physicians designing individual treatment pathways. Any potential clinical benefits were offset by technical problems, the tendency for patients to skip their monthly self-evaluations and drop outs. To be more widely adopted such systems must effectively generalise to a wider range of patients and be integrated into clinical workflow.

  17. When Low Self-Esteem Encourages Behaviors that Risk Rejection to Increase Interdependence: The Role of Relational Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Levi R.; McNulty, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship requires engaging in behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support. Who takes such risks and who avoids them? Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping such behaviors, they can be used to make competing predictions regarding the direction of this effect. Six studies reconcile these contrasting predictions by demonstrating that the effects of self-esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self-construal— i.e., the extent to which people define themselves by their close relationships. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the opportunity to disclose negative personal information (Study 1) and feelings of intimacy (Study 2) to their dating partners. In Study 3, married couples reported the extent to which they confided in one another. In Study 4, we manipulated self-esteem and relational self-construal and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that increase interdependence. In Studies 5 and 6, we manipulated the salience of interpersonal risk and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence. In all six studies, self-esteem was positively associated with behaviors that can increase interdependence among people low in relational self-construal but negatively associated with those behaviors among people high in relational self-construal. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the role of self-esteem in relationships will be most complete to the extent that they consider the degree to which people define themselves by their close relationships. PMID:23586411

  18. The relationship between assessment methods and self-directed learning readiness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Katherine S

    2016-03-11

    This research explored the assessment of self-directed learning readiness within the comprehensive evaluation of medical students' knowledge and skills and the extent to which several variables predicted participants' self-directed learning readiness prior to their graduation. Five metrics for evaluating medical students were considered in a multiple regression analysis. Fourth-year medical students at a competitive US medical school received an informed consent and an online survey. Participants voluntarily completed a self-directed learning readiness scale that assessed four subsets of self-directed learning readiness and consented to the release of their academic records. The assortment of metrics considered in this study only vaguely captured students' self-directedness. The strongest predictors were faculty evaluations of students' performance on clerkship rotations. Specific clerkship grades were mildly predictive of three subscales. The Pediatrics clerkship modestly predicted critical self-evaluation (r=-.30, p=.01) and the Psychiatry clerkship mildly predicted learning self-efficacy (r =-.30, p=.01), while the Junior Surgery clerkship nominally correlated with participants' effective organization for learning (r=.21, p=.05). Other metrics examined did not contribute to predicting participants' readiness for self-directed learning. Given individual differences among participants for the variables considered, no combination of students' grades and/or test scores overwhelmingly predicted their aptitude for self-directed learning. Considering the importance of fostering medical students' self-directed learning skills, schools need a reliable and pragmatic approach to measure them. This data analysis, however, offered no clear-cut way of documenting students' self-directed learning readiness based on the evaluation metrics included.

  19. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  20. Factors associated with self-medication in Spain: a cross-sectional study in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclós, Gracia; Olivar, Teresa; Rodilla, Vicent

    2018-06-01

    The identification of factors which may influence a patient's decision to self-medicate. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of the adult population (at least 16 years old), using data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey in Spain, which included 22 188 subjects. Logistic regression models enabled us to estimate the effect of each analysed variable on self-medication. In total, 14 863 (67%) individuals reported using medication (prescribed and non-prescribed) and 3274 (22.0%) of them self-medicated. Using logistic regression and stratifying by age, four different models have been constructed. Our results include different variables in each of the models to explain self-medication, but the one that appears on all four models is education level. Age is the other important factor which influences self-medication. Self-medication is strongly associated with factors related to socio-demographic, such as sex, educational level or age, as well as several health factors such as long-standing illness or physical activity. When our data are compared to those from previous Spanish surveys carried out in 2003 and 2006, we can conclude that self-medication is increasing in Spain. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Annemiek J; van Weert, Julia Cm; Schouten, Barbara C; Smit, Edith G; van Bodegraven, Ad A; van Dijk, Liset

    2012-01-01

    The barriers to patients' successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1) to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2) to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior. Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology) was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers) or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers). The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients' barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores. The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was found between nurses who encouraged question-asking behavior and memory barriers (r = -0.228, P = 0.042) and between nurses who summarized information (r = -0.254, P = 0.023) or used cartoons or pictures (r = -0.249, P = 0.026) and concern barriers. Moreover, a significant relationship between patients' emotional cues about side effects and perceived concern barriers (r = 0.244, P = 0.029) was found as well

  2. Medication compliance behavior in psychiatric out‑patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychotropic medication adherence is a major challenge in psychiatric patients with comorbidity. Objective: The objective was to determine medication adherence behavior among psychiatric out‑patients with psychoactive substance use comorbidity in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Settings and Design: A ...

  3. Self-Injurious Behavior: An Animal Model of an Autism Endophenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    alterations in specific DARPP-32-mediated signaling mechanisms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Autism , self-injurious behavior, neuroscience, dopamine , DARPP-32...Injurious Behavior: An Animal Model of an Autism Endophenotype Darragh Devine University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Autism , self...injurious behavior, neuroscience, dopamine , DARPP-32, stress, anxiety Abstract on next page. 75 dpdevine@ufl.edu REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved

  4. Psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families: the role of proximal and distal adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2008-12-01

    The study investigated if proximal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced in the last year) or distal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced before the last year) is a better predictor of adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior. It also tested for the specificity, accumulation and gradient of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior, and for the interaction between proximal and distal contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior. The sample was 199 11-18 year old children from a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which measures four difficulties (hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems) and prosocial behavior, was used. Confounders were age, gender, and maternal educational qualifications. To model the relationship between the five SDQ scales and contextual risk multivariate response regression models and multivariate response logistic regression models that allow the error terms of the scale specific models to be correlated were fitted. This study highlighted the importance of proximal contextual risk in predicting both broad and externalizing psychopathology, and the importance of considering risk accumulation rather than specificity in predicting psychopathology. By showing that the number of proximal adverse life events experienced had a steady, additive effect on broad and externalizing psychopathology, it also highlighted the need to protect adolescents experiencing current risk from further risk exposure. By showing that the number of distal adverse life events experienced did not affect the proximal risk's impact on either broad or externalizing psychopathology, it highlighted the need to protect all adolescents, irrespective of experience of early life adversities, from risk.

  5. Patient experience in a coordinated care model featuring diabetes self-management education integrated into the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Debra; O'Brian, Catherine A; Lipman, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight about patient experience of diabetes self-management education in a patient-centered medical home. Six focus groups consisting of 37 people with diabetes, diverse in race and ethnicity, were conducted at 3 sites. Participants described their experience in the program and their challenges in diabetes self-management; they also suggested services to meet their diabetes care needs. The most common theme was ongoing concerns about care and support. There was much discussion about the value of the support provided by health navigators integrated in the diabetes health care team. Frequent concerns expressed by participants centered on personal challenges in engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Ongoing programmatic support of self-management goals was widely valued. Individuals who received health care in a patient-centered medical home and could participate in diabetes self-management education with integrated support valued both activities. The qualitative results from this study suggest need for more formalized exploration of effective means to meet the ongoing support needs of people with diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Investigating the relationship between intelligence quotient and self-regulation in students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ghiasi Nadooshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the importance of IQ and self-monitoring in human behavior and its effects on the individual's life, this study examines the relationship between IQ and self-regulation in students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. The population included all the students studying at Birjand University of Medical Sciences (n=2300. According to Cochran’s Formula, the sample was calculated as 171 persons who were selected by random sampling method. To assess IQ, R B Cattell’s standard test 3rd scale, while Snyder’s 25-item standard test was used to assess self-regulation. The validity of self-regulatory questionnaire was approved by experts. Its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha as 85%. For data analysis, Pearson correlation test, ANOVA and independent T-test were used at a significance level p≤0.05. Results: From among the 171 participants, n=91 (53.2% were women. The average age of study participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ score and scores of self-regulation were 106±10.44 and 12.35±3.20 respectively. IQ scores did not show significant correlation with self-regulation test results (P>0.641. Girls were of a significantly higher mean IQ score (P=0.04. Self-regulatory mean score of men was significantly higher than women (P=0.007. Conclusion: Teaching and learning self-regulatory approach can enhance self-confidence of students during externship, internship and theoretical classes, hence improved academic performance.

  7. Self-efficacy: a predictor but not a cause of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R M

    1992-12-01

    The concept of self-efficacy, as expounded by Bandura as part of his Social Cognitive Theory, has made considerable impact in the psychological literature. It is argued that self-efficacy is a useful hypothetical construct for predicting behavior, but it has no valid claim to being a cause of behavior. Claims for self-efficacy as a causal agent have failed to acknowledge that self-efficacy itself is an epi-phenomenon of performance. Conventional learning theory explanations of observed performance levels are shown to be more parsimonious than accounts relying on the concept of self-efficacy.

  8. Directionality in the Relationship of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, and Mood Changes in Facilitating Improved Physical Activity and Nutrition Behaviors: Extending Behavioral Theory to Improve Weight-Loss Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2017-06-01

    To improve understanding of directionality in the dynamic relationships among psychosocial predictors of behavioral changes associated with weight loss. In women with obesity participating in a new behavioral weight-loss treatment that emphasizes physical activity (n = 53; body mass index = 34.7 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ), mediation and moderated-mediation models were fit to assess directionality in the self-efficacy-self-regulation change relationship and additional effects of mood change and its basis on fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity behaviors through month 6 and from months 6 to 24. Self-regulation was a stronger predictor of change in self-efficacy than vice versa. Mood change did not moderate the relationships significantly between changes in self-efficacy and/or self-regulation, and weight loss behavior. Emotional eating significantly changed mediated relationships between changes in mood and fruit/vegetable intake through month 6 (95% confidence interval, -0.05 to 0.00). Findings clarified relationships of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and mood in the prediction of weight loss behaviors, and informed behavioral treatments for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.

  11. Self-Management of On-Task Homework Behavior: A Promising Strategy for Adolescents with Attention and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Michael I.; Zhe, Elizabeth J.; Haugen, Kimberly A.; Klein, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    Students with attention and behavior problems oftentimes experience difficulty finishing academic work. On-task behavior is frequently cited as a primary reason for students' failure to complete homework assignments. Researchers have identified self-monitoring and self-management of on-task behavior as effective tools for improving homework…

  12. [Childhood traumatization, dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior in borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merza, Katalin; Harmatta, János; Papp, Gábor; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2017-05-01

    Childhood traumatization plays a significant role in the etiology of borderline personality disorder. Studies found a significant association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior. The aim of our study was to assess dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injury among borderline inpatients and to reveal the association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and self-injurious behavior. The sample consisted of 80 borderline inpatients and 73 depressed control patients. Childhood traumatization, dissociation and self-injurious behavior were assessed by questionnaires. Borderline patients reported severe and multiplex childhood traumatization. Cumulative trauma score and sexual abuse were the strongest predictors of dissociation. Furthermore, we have found that cumulative trauma score and dissociation were highly predictive of self-injurious behavior. Our results suggest that self-injurious behavior and dissociation in borderline patients can be regarded as indicators of childhood traumatization. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 740-747.

  13. Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Hodgson, Carol S; Teherani, Arianne; Kohatsu, Neal D

    2004-03-01

    To determine if medical students who demonstrate unprofessional behavior in medical school are more likely to have subsequent state board disciplinary action. A case-control study was conducted of all University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine graduates disciplined by the Medical Board of California from 1990-2000 (68). Control graduates (196) were matched by medical school graduation year and specialty choice. Predictor variables were male gender, undergraduate grade point average, Medical College Admission Test scores, medical school grades, National Board of Medical Examiner Part 1 scores, and negative excerpts describing unprofessional behavior from course evaluation forms, dean's letter of recommendation for residencies, and administrative correspondence. Negative excerpts were scored for severity (Good/Trace versus Concern/Problem/Extreme). The outcome variable was state board disciplinary action. The alumni graduated between 1943 and 1989. Ninety-five percent of the disciplinary actions were for deficiencies in professionalism. The prevalence of Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in the cases was 38% and 19% in controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that disciplined physicians were more likely to have Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in their medical school file (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.02; p =.02). The remaining variables were not associated with disciplinary action. Problematic behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Professionalism is an essential competency that must be demonstrated for a student to graduate from medical school.

  14. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with heart failure-A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Type D personality is associated with medication non-adherence. Both Type D personality and non-adherence are predictors of poor outcomes. Self-efficacy, which is modifiable, is also associated with medication adherence. To determine the relationships among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in 84 heart failure patients. Self-efficacy, Type D personality, medication adherence, demographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical linear regression was used. Type D patients were more likely to have lower self-efficacy (p = .023) and medication non-adherence (p = .027) than non-Type D patients. Low self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence (p mediation. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence. Developing and applying interventions to enhance self-efficacy may help to sever the link between Type D personality and poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-Handicapping Behavior: A Critical Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsrud, Robert Steven

    Since the identification of self-handicapping strategies in 1978, considerable attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Self-handicapping is a strategy for discounting ability attributions for probable failure while augmenting ability attributions for possible success. Behavioral self-handicaps are conceptually distinct from self-reported…

  16. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  17. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  18. The divergent impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genetic polymorphisms on executive function in adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels.

  20. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Methods Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Results Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Limitation Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Conclusions Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels. PMID:26295806

  1. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  2. Determinants of academic stress and stress-related self- medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self-medication was 31.58 and 29.20 % among pharmacy and medical students, ... Conclusion: Academic stress in undergraduate students in health disciplines is ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical .... students stayed with family (N = 136, 63.8 %). ..... Conflict of interest.

  3. Diabetes Medication Assistance Service: the pharmacist's role in supporting patient self-management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple Antipsychotic Medication Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Horn, Paul S; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of multiple antipsychotic medications in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by reviewing the longitudinal medication management of 1100 patients consecutively treated for behavioral symptoms associated with ASD at a tertiary care specialty clinic. We identified all patients with ASD treated with daily doses of two or more antipsychotics for at least two visits at our clinic. For each patient meeting inclusion criteria, diagnostic and demographic data were collected. To evaluate clinical need and effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in this sample, we reviewed symptoms targeted with each antipsychotic medication and concomitant medications prescribed. Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale ratings had been completed at the time of each visit, and the duration of treatment with antipsychotic medications was determined. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of antipsychotic medication use in ASD, we reviewed reported adverse effects and calculated body mass index (BMI) change with treatment. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria (6.4% of our sample). The majority of patients were moderately to severely ill Caucasian males, as determined by baseline mean CGI-S of 4.7 (SD = 0.8), and were diagnosed with autistic disorder and comorbid intellectual disability. The mean age was 15.1 years (SD = 10.9), the primary targeted symptoms were agitation/irritability, physical aggression, and self-injury. The majority of patients remained on two or more antipsychotics for >1 year. In this population, patients demonstrated greater symptomatic improvement and generally tolerated treatment without significant adverse effects. The use of two or more antipsychotic medications may be increasingly common in patients with ASD. This retrospective study demonstrates that this treatment approach may be of some clinical benefit, and is generally well

  5. A Multivariate Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health Behaviors and Outcomes among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Getachew, Beth; Shah, Jean; Payne, Jackie; Pillai, Dina; Berg, Carla J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) prior to age 18 years and multiple health behaviors (eg, cigarette and other substance use) and outcomes (eg, obesity, depression) for a large college sample. Participants: 2,969 college students from seven universities in the state of Georgia were included…

  6. Possible adverse events in children treated by manual therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphreys B Kim

    2010-06-01

    patients undergoing manual therapy, particularly spinal manipulation report that mild to moderate adverse events are common and self limiting. However serious adverse events are rare and much less than for medication commonly prescribed for these problems. More high quality research specifically addressing adverse events and pediatric manual therapy is needed.

  7. Depression and medication adherence among older Korean patients with hypertension: Mediating role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Won, Mi Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have reported the negative effects of depression on adherence to antihypertensive medication. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this relationship in elderly patients with hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence among older patients with hypertension. The data were collected from October to December 2014. A total of 255 older patients with hypertension were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Depression and self-efficacy were statistically significant predictors of medication adherence in older patients with hypertension. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and medication adherence. Interventions targeting self-efficacy could increase the confidence of patients in their ability to actively take their medicines. Moreover, health care providers should be aware of the importance of early detection of depression in older patients with hypertension. Future studies with longitudinal data are warranted to clarify the multidirectional relationships between depression, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Psychosomatic symptoms in medical outpatients: an investigation of self-handicapping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Miranda, J

    1991-01-01

    Investigated self-handicapping theory as it relates to somatization in medical patients. We predicted that medical outpatients (N = 113) would report psychosomatic symptoms in response to events that threaten their self-esteem. As predicted, results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that high-perfectionism patients reported somatic symptoms positively related to the number of events that jeopardize their sense of accomplishment, whereas low-perfectionism patients' somatic symptoms were not related to these events (p = .005). Contrary to prediction, high-dependency patients did not differ significantly from low-dependency patients in the relationship of somatic symptoms and events that threatened their interpersonal relationships (p = .115). Implications of these findings and the utility of self-handicapping theory for predicting somatization in medical patients are discussed.

  9. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  10. [Motivation and self-directed learning among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Márquez U, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Bastías V, Nancy; Espinoza P, Camila

    2016-05-01

    Motivation is an essential aspect in the training process of medical students. The association that motivation can have with learning self-regulation is of utmost importance for the design of curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation. To describe the motivational aspects of self-directed learning among medical students from a traditional Chilean University. A qualitative, descriptive study based on grounded theory of Strauss and Corbin. Twenty 4th and 5th year medical students were selected using a maximum variation sampling technique. After obtaining an informed consent, semi-structured interviews and field notes were carried out. Data were analyzed to the level of open coding through Atlas-ti 7.5.2. From the student point of view, personal motivational aspects are linked to the search for information, constant updating, the perception of the physician-patient relationship and interest in subject matters. From the scope of teachers, a main issue is related to their ability to motivate students to develop independent study skills. Personal motivational aspects facilitate the development of independent study skills, specifically in the search of information. The role of teachers is crucial in promoting these skills and the perception of medical students from their learning process.

  11. Imagine-Self Perspective-Taking and Rational Self-Interested Behavior in a Simple Experimental Normal-Form Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Karbowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants’ attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.

  12. Imagine-Self Perspective-Taking and Rational Self-Interested Behavior in a Simple Experimental Normal-Form Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Adam; Ramsza, Michał

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants' attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.

  13. Pathways of empowerment perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lin, Kun-Der; Lee, Yu-Li; Wang, Yi-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    To validate a hypothesized model exploring the influencing pathways of empowerment perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Overall, 295 patients with T2DM were recruited from five endocrine clinics in Taiwan through convenience sampling. Data regarding personal characteristics, empowerment perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, and HbA1c levels were collected. A structural equation modeling was used to validate the hypothesized model. Significant direct pathways were determined from empowerment perceptions to health literacy, from health literacy to self-efficacy, from self-efficacy to self-care behaviors, and from self-care behaviors to HbA1c levels. The empowerment perceptions and health literacy relatively influenced self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy and self-care behaviors relatively influenced glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Modifying self-care behaviors have been demonstrated to be the most essential for improving glycemic control. To improve self-care behaviors, healthcare providers should target improving self-efficacy, and enhancing health literacy can be considered to be a potential strategy for improving self-efficacy. To enhance health literacy, healthcare providers could use an empowerment approach rather than an authoritative approach that emphasizes patient compliance in managing patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-related behaviors moderate the association between age and self-reported health literacy among Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen-Van; Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, I-Feng; Lin, Ying-Chin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2017-05-24

    The role of health-related behaviors in the association between age and health literacy has not been well-elucidated. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the interactions between age and health-related behaviors in 942 women in Taiwan between February and October 2013. Women aged 18-78 years were randomly sampled and recruited from the national administrative system. Self-reported health literacy was measured by the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in Mandarin, asking about sociodemographics and essential health-related behaviors (watching health-related television, community involvement). The interviews were conducted confidentially by well-trained interviewers after having participants' consent. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for education attainment, self-perceived social status, ability to pay for medication, and health-related behaviors, health literacy was significantly negatively related to age (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = (-0.07; 0.00); p = .03). The lower health literacy among older women was significantly modified by watching health-related television programs (from "rarely/not-at-all", B = -0.08 (-0.12, -0.04), p women's health literacy and likely their health.

  15. Writing, self-reflection, and medical school performance: the Human Context of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Reamy, Brian V; Anderson, Denise; Olsen, Cara; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J; Auster, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Finding ways to improve communication and self-reflection skills is an important element of medical education and continuing professional development. This study examines the relationship between self-reflection and educational outcomes. We correlate performance in a preclinical course that focuses on self-reflection as it relates to contextual elements of patient care (Human Context of Health Care), with educational measures such as overall grade point average, clinical clerkship scores, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. Student performance in Human Context of Health Care correlated with MCAT-Verbal scores, MCAT-writing sample scores, clerkship grades, and overall medical school grade point average (R = 0.3; p self-reflection skills are often neglected in undergraduate medical curricula. Our findings suggest that these skills are important and correlate with recognized long-term educational outcomes.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  17. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  18. An epidemiological study on herbal product self-medication practice among psychotic outpatients from Serbia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Nikolić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of herbal products (HPs is a common practice in the traditional medicine of people from southeastern Serbia. In this study, we focused on the usage of HPs as a self-medication practice among patients diagnosed with a mental illness, by aiming to ascertain the usage prevalence, the identity of the main plant taxa utilized, their formulations and target symptoms. This was accomplished through a cross-sectional study of psychiatric outpatients, conducted in the Clinic for Mental Health Protection in Niš, and which included a questionnaire on HP utilization and a non-structured psychiatric interview. Typically, single, middle-aged males, with a secondary education degree, utilized Matricaria chamomilla and/or Melissa officinalis in a form of an infusion (tea for relieving anxiety and psychotic symptoms. In some cases, adverse effects were noted when HPs were used in combination with prescribed psychotropic medications. Our and previous results urge a thorough evaluation of possible benefits and/or harmful interactions of HP with standard medication in the treatment of psychiatric patients.

  19. Self-Efficacy and the Self-Monitoring of Selected Exercise and Eating Behaviors of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 85 college students indicate that self-efficacy is a moderately strong predictor of self-monitored performance of dietary and exercise behaviors when measured following a self-monitored performance attempt. (IAH)

  20. COMPARISON OF FOUR METHODS TO DETECT ADVERSE EVENTS IN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Dhamanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDeteksi terjadinya kejadian yang tidak diharapkan (KTD telah menjadi salah satu tantangan dalam keselamatan pasien oleh karena itu metode untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD sangatlah penting untuk meningkatkan keselamatan pasien. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk membandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari beberapa metode untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD di rumah sakit, meliputi review rekam medis, pelaporan insiden secara mandiri, teknologi informasi, dan pelaporan oleh pasien. Studi ini merupakan kajian literatur untuk membandingkan dan menganalisa metode terbaik untuk mendeteksi KTD yang dapat diimplementasikan oleh rumah sakit. Semua dari empat metode telah terbukti mampu untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD di rumah sakit, tetapi masing-masing metode