WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse environmental effects

  1. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  2. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under a license of scale-model mining systems which simulate commercial recovery could adversely affect... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... Service or another Federal agency; (5) Meteorological observations and measurements, including the setting...

  3. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based on...

  4. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  5. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of child abuse and environmental stress: A lifecourse perspective on adversity and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Prince, Dana; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2018-01-01

    There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time. In this longitudinal study, we used path analyses to examine the cumulative effects of physical child abuse and environmental stressors on adult depressive symptoms among a sample of children followed into adulthood (N = 356). The goal was to assess whether chronic physical child abuse remains an independent predictor of adult outcomes once we accounted for the cumulative effects of household and neighborhood stressors across the lifecourse. Cumulative measures of physical child abuse and environmental stress each independently predicted a higher likelihood of adult depressive symptoms (ß = .122, p < .01 and ß = .283, p < .001, respectively). After accounting for adolescent depressive symptoms, only cumulative environmental stressors independently predicted depressive symptoms (ß = .202, p < .001). Tests of the indirect effect of cumulative environmental stress on the relationship between cumulative physical abuse and adult depressive symptoms were marginally statistically significant. Results add to literature that examines child abuse, adversity, and lifecourse perspectives on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  8. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  9. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find that... adverse effect on the quality of the environment, taking into account the analyses and information in any...

  10. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Gong, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a new antiepileptic drug. The results of clinical trials suggest that oxcarbazepine is well tolerated and has less drug interactions. It is being used more and more widely in clinical practice, but its adverse effects should not be ignored. The most common adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are usually related to the central nervous system and digestive system, including fatigue, drowsiness, diplopia, dizziness, nausea and vomit. The common skin adverse reaction is rash. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine may also cause hyponatremia. This article reviews the literature from China and overseas about the adverse effets of oxcarbazepine over the last 10 years in order to find information about rational clinical use of oxcarbazepine.

  12. The psychological impact of chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Kelly, Brian; Carr, Vaughan J; Lewin, Terry J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-12-01

    The health effects of chronic environmental adversity have received insufficient attention, particularly those associated with the psychological impact of drought. Resilience or adaptive response to drought has received even less attention than vulnerability factors. This research examined factors associated with drought impact in rural and remote Australian communities. In 2008 postal surveys were completed by 302 adults (mean age 53 years; 57% female, 77% married) living in rural areas of prolonged drought exposure. Outcome measures were: (i) psychological distress (Kessler 10) and (ii) an index of concern or worry about drought. A range of predictor variables were assessed: adaptability (hopefulness, neuroticism), other adverse events, personal support and community connectedness, and sense of place, as a measure of connection to the local environment. Predictors of drought related worry differed from those associated with psychological distress levels. The former included socio-economic factors (living on a farm [Odds Ratio, OR 3.09], current employment [OR 3.64]), personal psychological characteristics (neuroticism [OR 1.29]), and greater connection with the environment (sense of place [OR 1.05]). On the other hand, psychological distress was associated chiefly with personal factors, such as higher neuroticism [OR 1.92], lower levels of hopefulness [OR 0.28], and lower perceived social support and community connectedness [OR 0.39]. Practical financial, employment and family factors were identified as important elements of drought impact, as to a lesser extent was sense of place, reflecting a confrontation with the consequences of chronic environmental degradation, while personal hopefulness may help mitigate the psychological impact of such adversity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetman, D.F.; Munby, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  14. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify the adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make this...

  15. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse effect rates. 655.207 Section 655.207... Agricultural Employment § 655.207 Adverse effect rates. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the adverse effect rates for all agricultural and logging employment shall be the prevailing wage rates in the...

  16. Non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of rivaroxaban

    OpenAIRE

    Christopoulou, Eliza C.; Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2017-01-01

    The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is useful in various indications that include venous deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/treatment after knee/hip replacement surgery and prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Its mechanism of action has been mostly associated with hemorrhage-related adverse effects; thus a number of non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of the drug have received less attention or go unrecognized. These adverse effects mainly include li...

  17. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Allison G; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar A

    2012-08-01

    To describe adverse effects in dogs and cats exposed to Environmental Protection Agency exempted plant-derived flea preventatives containing mixtures of essential oils. Retrospective study from 2006 to 2008. Records of dog and cat cases were reviewed from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center database. Thirty-nine cats and 9 dogs with history of exposure to natural flea preventatives. The following information was retrieved from each incident: number of animals, species involved, frequency, types, onset time, duration of clinical signs, exposure appropriateness, final outcome, and treatment information. Ninety-two percent of animals (n = 44) showed presence of one or more adverse effects. The frequency of adverse effects in dogs (n = 8; 89%) and cats (n = 36; 92%) was similar. Onset time of adverse effects in 39 of 44 animals occurred within 24 hours. The duration of signs in 24 animals ranged from 30 minutes to 149 hours. The products were used as per label in 77% animals (n = 37). Of 28 animals with known outcome, 50% (n = 14) recovered with bathing alone while others received intravenous fluids, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsive medications. Death (1 cat; n = 1/28; 4%) or euthanasia (1 cat and 1 dog; n = 2/28; 7%) was reported in 3 animals. Dogs and cats can experience significant adverse effects when exposed to plant-derived flea preventatives even when used according to label directions. The number of reports of exposure in cats was higher than dogs, but the frequency of reported adverse effects was similar between the 2 species. Agitation and hypersalivation were common in cats, whereas lethargy and vomiting were common in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  18. The Adverse Effects of Environmental Noise Exposure on Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Erwin; Steven, Sebastian; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Noise is a nonspecific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so-called nonauditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep, and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress. Chronic stress in turn is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, comprising increased blood pressure and dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and blood glucose, and activation of blood clotting factors, in animal models and humans. Persistent chronic noise exposure increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that aircraft noise exposure during nighttime can induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects and is even more pronounced in coronary artery disease patients. Importantly, impaired endothelial function was ameliorated by acute oral treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C, suggesting that excessive production of reactive oxygen species contributes to this phenomenon. More recently, we introduced a novel animal model of aircraft noise exposure characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to noise-dependent adverse oxidative stress-related effects on the vasculature. With the present review, we want to provide an overview of epidemiological, translational clinical, and preclinical noise research addressing the nonauditory, adverse effects of noise exposure with focus on oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 873–908. PMID:29350061

  19. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  20. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease.

  1. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  2. Defining "adverse environmental impact" and making paragraph 316(b) decisions: a fisheries management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David E; Bulleit, Kristy A N

    2002-05-17

    The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term "adverse environmental impact" and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on "unacceptable risk to the population"s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function." This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the paragraph 316(b) decision by considering the facility"s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA) alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA's Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve the public interest.

  3. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallek, L.; Krille, L.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, R.; Yamashita, S.; Zeeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    131 I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima (Japan)), may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmaco-epidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. All rights reserved. (authors)

  5. The two sides of adversity: the effect of distant versus recent adversity on updating emotional content in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Armstrong, Laura Marie; Orejuela-Dávila, Ana I; Alverio, Tabitha

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that adversity can have both adaptive and maladaptive effects, yet the emotional and working memory processes that contribute to more or less adaptive outcomes are unclear. The present study sought to investigate how updating emotional content differs in adolescents who have experienced past, recent, or no adversity. Participants who had experienced distant adversity (N = 53), no adversity (N = 58), or recent adversity only (N = 20) performed an emotion n-back task with emotional facial expressions. Results revealed that the distant adversity group exhibited significantly faster reaction times (RTs) than the no adversity and recent adversity only groups. In contrast, the recent adversity only group exhibited significantly slower RTs and more errors than the distant adversity and no adversity groups. These results suggest an emotion and executive control pathway by which both the benefits and negative effects of adversity may be conferred. Results also highlight the importance of time in assessing the impact of adversity.

  6. Adverse effects of methotrexate in three psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Hideki; Watarai, Akira; Nakano, Toshiaki; Katayama, Chieko; Nishiyama, Hiromi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2014-04-01

    Methotrexate, a folic acid analogue with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, is commonly used to treat patients with severe destructive psoriatic arthritis and has considerable efficacy. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and MTX therapy result in less treatment discontinuation due to adverse events. Despite its efficacy, MTX may result in adverse effects including hepatic, pulmonary, and renal toxicity as well as lymphoproliferative disorders and predisposition to infection. We herein report rare adverse effects of MTX treatment, specifically asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis, renal cell carcinoma, and lateral uveitis, in three psoriatic arthritis patients treated with MTX. MTX is an important drug for the treatment for psoriatic arthritis patient, but an awareness of the possible adverse effects is needed.

  7. Adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation in atopic dermatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, O.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) in atopic dermatitis (AD). We focused on the two important adverse effects of UV: photosensitivity and skin cancer risk associated with calcineurin inhibitor treatment. In chapter 2 and 3 we found that

  8. Using adaptive processes and adverse outcome pathways to develop meaningful, robust, and actionable environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Scrimgeour, Garry J; Dubé, Monique G; Wrona, Fred J; Hazewinkel, Rod R

    2017-09-01

    The primary goals of environmental monitoring are to indicate whether unexpected changes related to development are occurring in the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of ecosystems and to inform meaningful management intervention. Although achieving these objectives is conceptually simple, varying scientific and social challenges often result in their breakdown. Conceptualizing, designing, and operating programs that better delineate monitoring, management, and risk assessment processes supported by hypothesis-driven approaches, strong inference, and adverse outcome pathways can overcome many of the challenges. Generally, a robust monitoring program is characterized by hypothesis-driven questions associated with potential adverse outcomes and feedback loops informed by data. Specifically, key and basic features are predictions of future observations (triggers) and mechanisms to respond to success or failure of those predictions (tiers). The adaptive processes accelerate or decelerate the effort to highlight and overcome ignorance while preventing the potentially unnecessary escalation of unguided monitoring and management. The deployment of the mutually reinforcing components can allow for more meaningful and actionable monitoring programs that better associate activities with consequences. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:877-891. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  9. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  10. Defining “Adverse Environmental Impact” and Making § 316(b Decisions: A Fisheries Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term “adverse environmental impact” and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on “unacceptable risk to the population’s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function.” This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the § 316(b decision by considering the facility’s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA’s Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve

  11. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  12. Increasing the Adaptive Capacity of the Organism When Exposed to Adverse Environmental Factors Through Phytoadaptogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babii, N. V.; Pomozova, V. A.; Kiseleva, T. F.; Romanenko, V. O.

    2017-07-01

    The Problem of improving the quality of life of the population in modern conditions is the most relevant. The level of human health largely depends on the quality of the environment. Of special importance are the risk factors for the spread of diseases like environmental pollution, social conditions and bad habits. To the emergence of ecologically dependent diseases leads the combined impact of technogenic, social-economic, natural-climatic factors. The introduction of the principles of biotechnology, nanotechnology and innovations in industrial processing of plant resources, especially natural adaptogens, contributes to the production of balanced, ecologically clean food products functional purpose, the use of which will significantly minimize the adverse effects of the environment on humans.

  13. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  14. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  15. 11 the effects of environmental assaults on human physiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adverse effects of the environment on health. Indeed one of the ... data from Africa on the whole are not available, however in ... morbidity and mortality are malaria, acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease. All three can be linked to unfavourable environmental ... substances and the glomerular filtration rate, which.

  16. Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John E; Murphy, Philip N; Montgomery, Catharine; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia

    2011-04-01

    Ecstasy, the street name for 3,4-meththylenedioxymethamphetamine, has been associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms and impaired psychological health in both problem and recreational users. The purpose of the present paper is to determine how these impairments are related to the history of polydrug use, and the conditions under which individuals ingest ecstasy. Associations between the variables of interest were investigated utilizing negative binomial regression. Liverpool and Preston in the North West of England. A convenience sample of 159 recreational ecstasy/polydrug users (80 males, 79 females). The sample was composed primarily of undergraduates. The dependent variable was the number of reported ecstasy-related adverse effects. Independent variables included quantitative aspects of ecstasy and other drug use, and the various beliefs and behaviours associated with ecstasy use. The number of adverse effects was associated positively with life-time exposure to ecstasy and negatively with period of abstinence from the drug. Adverse effects were more common among those who consumed ecstasy and alcohol concurrently, but were unrelated to other aspects of polydrug use. They were unaffected by whether the user took precautions when using the drug, and only weakly related to prior beliefs concerning the effects of ecstasy. Greater life-time exposure to ecstasy and consuming the drug concurrently with alcohol increase the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects, including paranoia, poor general health, irritability, confusion and moodiness. Adverse effects decrease with the period of abstinence from the drug. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: A paradigm for management of a global environmental problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Che Lan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “OMIC” technologies, it may

  18. 81-85 Community Awareness of Adverse Effects of No

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    - inflammatory drugs. They were also asked if ... seek treatment for the pain. Only 8% of the study participants knew some adverse effects caused by ... (35%) of them did not know of any adverse effects due to NSAIDs but 53% cited potential ...

  19. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357218574

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of

  20. Late intestinal adverse effects of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Seiji; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Kaneko, Toru; Maruhashi, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the incidence and clinical appearance of late adverse intestinal effects in 88 patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy and 46 patients treated with radiotherapy alone for uterine cervical cancer. In the postoperative radiotherapy group, colitis, ileus and bowel fistules were seen in 13 patients (14.8%), 8 (9.1%), and 3 (3.4%) of the patients, respectively. Of these patients, 11 (12.5%) needed to have surgical therapy for these adverse effects. In the radiation alone group, 18 patients (39.1%) had colitis and 2 (4.3%) had ileus; of them, 2 patients (4.3%) needed to have surgical therapy. The higher incidence of so severe adverse effects as to require surgical therapy in the postoperative radiotherapy group indicates that adhesion caused by operation might have caused the occurrence of these adverse effects. Four of a total of 134 patients died of causes which might be attributable to irradiation. In 61 patients treated by radical hysterectomy without postoperative radiotherapy, intestinal adverse effects were not found. These results indicate that late intestinal adverse effects after radiotherapy are likely to occur in some cases very severely; therefore, careful consideration is necessary in the decision to use radiotherpay for uterine cervical cancer. (J.P.N.)

  1. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  2. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  3. Identification and Prioritization of Relationships between Environmental Stressors and Adverse Human Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Shannon M; Edwards, Stephen W

    2015-11-01

    There are > 80,000 chemicals in commerce with few data available describing their impacts on human health. Biomonitoring surveys, such as the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), offer one route to identifying possible relationships between environmental chemicals and health impacts, but sparse data and the complexity of traditional models make it difficult to leverage effectively. We describe a workflow to efficiently and comprehensively evaluate and prioritize chemical-health impact relationships from the NHANES biomonitoring survey studies. Using a frequent itemset mining (FIM) approach, we identified relationships between chemicals and health biomarkers and diseases. The FIM method identified 7,848 relationships between 219 chemicals and 93 health outcomes/biomarkers. Two case studies used to evaluate the FIM rankings demonstrate that the FIM approach is able to identify published relationships. Because the relationships are derived from the vast majority of the chemicals monitored by NHANES, the resulting list of associations is appropriate for evaluating results from targeted data mining or identifying novel candidate relationships for more detailed investigation. Because of the computational efficiency of the FIM method, all chemicals and health effects can be considered in a single analysis. The resulting list provides a comprehensive summary of the chemical/health co-occurrences from NHANES that are higher than expected by chance. This information enables ranking and prioritization on chemicals or health effects of interest for evaluation of published results and design of future studies. Bell SM, Edwards SW. 2015. Identification and prioritization of relationships between environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts. Environ Health Perspect 123:1193-1199; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409138.

  4. Health effects engineering: Perspectives for environmental health and environmental engineering studies-domestic biomass combustion as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang; Yu Qi; Chen Limin

    2007-01-01

    Health effects engineering (HEE) is a newly developed research field, which involves collaboration with environmental scientists, engineering researchers, and toxicologists. By employing the methods of HEE, one can not only confirm which attributes of the project are likely to contribute to certain health effects, but can also get rid of the adverse health effects by engineering technologies. HEE is thought to be particularly important to domestic projects in which there is a lack of environmental assessment. This paper presented the authors' viewpoints of the principles of HEE in the field of the environmental health and engineering studies by using programs of domestic biomass combustion as an example. The authors showed that there are three sub-fields of HEE, which are as follows: engineering behavior, the pollution characteristics, and the health effects. The authors conclude that the principles of HEE compose a helix with the studies in the fields of environmental science, health, and engineering, and give suggestions on how to perform HEE in a practical field

  5. Are adverse effects incorporated in economic models? An initial review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D; McDaid, C; Fonseca, T; Stock, C; Duffy, S; Woolacott, N

    2009-12-01

    To identify methodological research on the incorporation of adverse effects in economic models and to review current practice. Major electronic databases (Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Economic Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, IDEAS, MEDLINE and Science Citation Index) were searched from inception to September 2007. Health technology assessment (HTA) reports commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme and published between 2004 and 2007 were also reviewed. The reviews of methodological research on the inclusion of adverse effects in decision models and of current practice were carried out according to standard methods. Data were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Of the 719 potentially relevant references in the methodological research review, five met the inclusion criteria; however, they contained little information of direct relevance to the incorporation of adverse effects in models. Of the 194 HTA monographs published from 2004 to 2007, 80 were reviewed, covering a range of research and therapeutic areas. In total, 85% of the reports included adverse effects in the clinical effectiveness review and 54% of the decision models included adverse effects in the model; 49% included adverse effects in the clinical review and model. The link between adverse effects in the clinical review and model was generally weak; only 3/80 (manipulation. Of the models including adverse effects, 67% used a clinical adverse effects parameter, 79% used a cost of adverse effects parameter, 86% used one of these and 60% used both. Most models (83%) used utilities, but only two (2.5%) used solely utilities to incorporate adverse effects and were explicit that the utility captured relevant adverse effects; 53% of those models that included utilities derived them from patients on treatment and could therefore be interpreted as capturing adverse effects. In total

  6. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  7. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  8. Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine and its metabolites are the prevalent psychotropic substances in aquatic environment. However, to date the knowledge on their adverse effects to non-target organisms is inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate sub-lethal effects induced by the ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and to compare its toxicity to that by benzoylecgonine (BE), the other main cocaine metabolite. EME sub-lethal effects were investigated by 14 days in-vivo exposures and a multi-biomarker approach. Slight variations in biomarker responses were found at 0.15 μg/L treatment. 0.5 μg/L EME treatment induced destabilization of lysosome membranes, an overall inactivation of defense enzymes, increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation, but no variations in fixed genetic damage. The use of a biomarker response index (BRI) showed that at 0.5 μg/L both cocaine metabolites had the same toxicity to zebra mussels specimens. -- Highlights: •Sub-lethal effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to D. polymorpha were investigated. •Realistic EME concentrations caused notable adverse effects in treated bivalves. •EME induced oxidative injuries to treated-mussel lipids, protein and DNA. •EME toxicity was comparable to the benzoylecgonine one. -- Environmentally relevant ecgonine methyl ester concentrations induced adverse effects to zebra mussels

  9. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  10. A comprehensive review of regulatory test methods for endocrine adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manibusan, M K; Touart, L W

    2017-07-01

    Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects. To that end,  approximately 42 existing test guidelines (TGs) were considered in the evaluation of coverage for endocrine-related adverse effects. In addition to evaluations of whether test methods are adequate to capture endocrine-related effects, considerations of further enhancements to current test methods, along with the need to develop novel test methods to address existing test method gaps are described. From this specific evaluation, up to 35 test methods are capable of informing whether a chemical substance perturbs known endocrine related biological pathways. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that current validated test methods are adequate to discern substances that may perturb the endocrine system, resulting in an adverse health effect. Together, these test methods predominantly form the core data requirements of a typical food-use pesticide registration submission. It is recognized, however, that the current state of science is rapidly advancing and there is a need to update current test methods to include added enhancements to ensure continued coverage and public health and environmental protection.

  11. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  12. Incidence of immediate adverse effects of gadolinium contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Kouishi; Matsui, Satomi; Oikawa, Satoko; Habano, Youji; Ozaki, Daisuke; Ootake, Hidenori; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the adverse effects of intravenous injection of one of 4 types of gadolinium contrast media in 6550 patients: gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), 4299 patients; gadodiamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA), 1612; gadoteridol (Gd (HP-DO3A)), 565; and gadoterate meglumin (Gd-DOTA), 74. Thirty-two (0.49%) patients experienced adverse effects, which included rash (18.8%), nausea (40.6%), vomiting (34.4%), and an unpleasant sensation in the throat (6.3%). No patient required hospitalization. We compared the incidence of adverse effects from the 4 types of contrast media and found no difference in sex, age, body region examined, or method of contrast administration. Incidence was significantly higher for Gd (HP-DO3A) than Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA (P<0.000001). (author)

  13. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P < 0.01) and AUD severity (P < 0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Probiotics production and alternative encapsulation methodologies to improve their viabilities under adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic products are dietary supplements containing live microorganisms producing beneficial health effects on the host by improving intestinal balance and nutrient absorption. Among probiotic microorganisms, those classified as lactic acid bacteria are of major importance to the food and feed industries. Probiotic cells can be produced using alternative carbon and nitrogen sources, such as agroindustrial residues, at the same time contributing to reduce process costs. On the other hand, the survival of probiotic cells in formulated food products, as well as in the host gut, is an essential nutritional aspect concerning health benefits. Therefore, several cell microencapsulation techniques have been investigated as a way to improve cell viability and survival under adverse environmental conditions, such as the gastrointestinal milieu of hosts. In this review, different aspects of probiotic cells and technologies of their related products are discussed, including formulation of culture media, and aspects of cell microencapsulation techniques required to improve their survival in the host.

  15. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  16. Biological Sensitivity to the Effects of Childhood Family Adversity on Psychological Well-Being in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jennifer A; Ibrahim, Mariam Hanna; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-08-01

    The theory of biological sensitivity to context may inform our understanding of why some children exposed to family adversity develop mental health problems in emerging adulthood whereas others demonstrate resilience. This study investigated the interactive effects of heart rate (HR) reactivity and childhood family adversity (maltreatment and changes in family structure) on depressive symptoms and positive affect among 150 undergraduate students (18-28 years old; 77% White, non-Hispanic; 61% female). Participants reported on childhood parental divorce or death, and child maltreatment, and current depressive symptoms and positive affect. HR reactivity was assessed in response to a laboratory interpersonal stressor. HR reactivity moderated the effects of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms and positive affect; higher maltreatment was associated with more depressive symptoms and less positive affect, but only among those with average and higher levels of HR reactivity. Results suggest that higher physiological reactivity may confer greater susceptibility to environmental contexts.

  17. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  18. Cognition- and Dementia-Related Adverse Effects With Sacubitril-Valsartan: Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Report System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amichai; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Matok, Ilan; Muszkat, Mordechai

    2018-05-07

    Because neprilysin is involved in the degradation of amyloid-beta, there is concern that the angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril-valsartan could increase the risk for dementia. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Report System from July 2015 to March 2017. Cognition- and dementia-related adverse event cases were defined with the use of broad and narrow structured medical queries. During the period evaluated, 9,004 adverse event reports (out of a total of 2,249,479) involved the use of sacubitril-valsartan. Based on the broad definition, sacubitril-valsartan was associated with cognition- and dementia-related adverse events in 459 reports (5.1%), but this was lower than the proportion of these reports among other medications (6.6%, reporting odds ratio [ROR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.79). Restricting the comparison to cases with age >60 years and with the use of a comparator group with heart failure resulted in no association between sacubitril-valsartan and dementia-related adverse events, with the use of both the broad and the narrow definitions (ROR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1.02, and ROR 1.06, 95% CI 0.4-3.16, respectively). Sacubitril-valsartan is not associated with a disproportionately high rate of short-term dementia-related adverse effect reports. Long-term studies assessing cognitive outcomes are required to better establish the medication's cognition effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p<0.01). The risk of psychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All associations between specific adversities and psychosis decreased when they were adjusted for other adversities. Our findings suggest that there is a large shared effect of adversities on the risk of psychosis. Contrary to the call for further research into specific adversities, we suggest a search for mechanisms in the shared effects of traumatization. Clinical implications are thorough assessment of adversities and their possible effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Putative Adverse Outcome Pathways for Chemical Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a knowledge infrastructure for evaluating health effects of environmental chemicals. In this work we are examining proof-of-concept issues in the development and prospective application of AOPs in chemical safety. Key outputs i...

  2. Early Life Stress, Air Pollution, Inflammation, and Disease: An Integrative Review and Immunologic Model of Social-Environmental Adversity and Lifespan Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera Alvarez, Hector A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Campen, Matthew J; Slavich, George M

    2018-06-03

    Socially disadvantaged individuals are at greater risk for simultaneously being exposed to adverse social and environmental conditions. Although the mechanisms underlying joint effects remain unclear, one hypothesis is that toxic social and environmental exposures have synergistic effects on inflammatory processes that underlie the development of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and certain types of cancer. In the present review, we examine how exposure to two risk factors that commonly occur with social disadvantage-early life stress and air pollution-affect health. Specifically, we identify neuroimmunologic pathways that could link early life stress, inflammation, air pollution, and poor health, and use this information to propose an integrated, multi-level model that describes how these factors may interact and cause health disparity across individuals based on social disadvantage. This model highlights the importance of interdisciplinary research considering multiple exposures across domains and the potential for synergistic, cross-domain effects on health, and may help identify factors that could potentially be targeted to reduce disease risk and improve lifespan health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  4. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development, deficiencies may lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and animal models....

  5. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Riediger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAntidepressants are widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. Applied doses are lower than those needed to unfold an antidepressive effect. While efficacy of antidepressants for chronic pain has been reported in large randomized-controlled trials (RCT, there is inconsistent data on adverse effects and tolerability. We aimed at synthesizing data from RCT to explore adverse effect profiles and tolerability of antidepressants for treatment of chronic pain.MethodsSystematic literature research and meta-analyses were performed regarding side effects and safety of different antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The National Center for Biotechnology Information library and MEDLINE were searched. Randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in quantitative data synthesis.ResultsOut of 1,975 screened articles, 33 papers published between 1995 and 2015 were included in our review and 23 studies were included in the meta-analyses. A higher risk for adverse effects compared to placebo was observed in all antidepressants included in our analyses, except nortriptyline. The most prevalent adverse effects were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation. Amitriptyline, mirtazapine, desipramine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and nortriptyline showed the highest placebo effect-adjusted risk of adverse effects. Risk for withdrawal due to adverse effects was highest in desipramine (risk ratio: 4.09, 95%-confidence interval [1.31; 12.82] followed by milnacipran, venlafaxine, and duloxetine. The most common adverse effects under treatment with antidepressants were dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, headache, and constipation followed by palpitations, sweating, and drowsiness. However, overall tolerability was high. Each antidepressant showed distinct risk profiles of adverse effects.ConclusionOur synthesized data analysis confirmed overall

  6. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  7. Validity and reliability of a novel immunosuppressive adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Calvin J; Arabi, Ziad; Venuto, Rocco C; Consiglio, Joseph D; Wilding, Gregory E; Tornatore, Kathleen M

    2014-06-12

    After renal transplantation, many patients experience adverse effects from maintenance immunosuppressive drugs. When these adverse effects occur, patient adherence with immunosuppression may be reduced and impact allograft survival. If these adverse effects could be prospectively monitored in an objective manner and possibly prevented, adherence to immunosuppressive regimens could be optimized and allograft survival improved. Prospective, standardized clinical approaches to assess immunosuppressive adverse effects by health care providers are limited. Therefore, we developed and evaluated the application, reliability and validity of a novel adverse effects scoring system in renal transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) and mycophenolic acid based immunosuppressive therapy. The scoring system included 18 non-renal adverse effects organized into gastrointestinal, central nervous system and aesthetic domains developed by a multidisciplinary physician group. Nephrologists employed this standardized adverse effect evaluation in stable renal transplant patients using physical exam, review of systems, recent laboratory results, and medication adherence assessment during a clinic visit. Stable renal transplant recipients in two clinical studies were evaluated and received immunosuppressive regimens comprised of either cyclosporine or tacrolimus with mycophenolic acid. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed to document these adverse effect evaluations. Inter-rater reliability was determined using the Kappa statistic and intra-class correlation. A total of 58 renal transplant recipients were assessed using the adverse effects scoring system confirming face validity. Nephrologists (subject matter experts) rated the 18 adverse effects as: 3.1 ± 0.75 out of 4 (maximum) regarding clinical importance to verify content validity. The adverse effects scoring system distinguished 1.75-fold increased gastrointestinal adverse

  8. Relation between dose of bendrofluazide, antihypertensive effect, and adverse biochemical effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relevant dose of bendrofluazide for treating mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN--Double blind parallel group trial of patients who were given placebo for six weeks and then randomly allocated to various doses of bendrofluazide (1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg daily) or place...... of bendrofluazide to treat mild to moderate hypertension is 1.25-2.5 mg a day. Higher doses caused more pronounced adverse biochemical effects including adverse lipid effects. Previous trials with bendrofluazide have used too high doses....... relations between dose and effect were shown for potassium, urate, glucose, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations. The 1.25 mg dose increased only urate concentrations, whereas the 10 mg dose affected all the above biochemical variables. CONCLUSION--The relevant range of doses...

  9. Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects: the Gene-PARE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Atencio, David P.; Peters, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The development of adverse effects resulting from the radiotherapy of cancer limits the use of this treatment modality. The validation of a test capable of predicting which patients would be most likely to develop adverse responses to radiation treatment, based on the possession of speci...

  10. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  11. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  12. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Prooijen, Monique van; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6–74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p 3 , above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure.

  13. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Glimelius, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued

  14. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  15. [Adverse Effect Predictions Based on Computational Toxicology Techniques and Large-scale Databases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

     Understanding the features of chemical structures related to the adverse effects of drugs is useful for identifying potential adverse effects of new drugs. This can be based on the limited information available from post-marketing surveillance, assessment of the potential toxicities of metabolites and illegal drugs with unclear characteristics, screening of lead compounds at the drug discovery stage, and identification of leads for the discovery of new pharmacological mechanisms. This present paper describes techniques used in computational toxicology to investigate the content of large-scale spontaneous report databases of adverse effects, and it is illustrated with examples. Furthermore, volcano plotting, a new visualization method for clarifying the relationships between drugs and adverse effects via comprehensive analyses, will be introduced. These analyses may produce a great amount of data that can be applied to drug repositioning.

  16. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  17. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially

  18. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284

  19. Contribution of new technologies to characterization and prediction of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquié, David; Heneweer, Marjoke; Botham, Jane; Ketelslegers, Hans; Markell, Lauren; Pfister, Thomas; Steiling, Winfried; Strauss, Volker; Hennes, Christa

    2015-02-01

    Identification of the potential hazards of chemicals has traditionally relied on studies in laboratory animals where changes in clinical pathology and histopathology compared to untreated controls defined an adverse effect. In the past decades, increased consistency in the definition of adversity with chemically-induced effects in laboratory animals, as well as in the assessment of human relevance has been reached. More recently, a paradigm shift in toxicity testing has been proposed, mainly driven by concerns over animal welfare but also thanks to the development of new methods. Currently, in vitro approaches, toxicogenomic technologies and computational tools, are available to provide mechanistic insight in toxicological Mode of Action (MOA) of the adverse effects observed in laboratory animals. The vision described as Tox21c (Toxicity Testing in the 21st century) aims at predicting in vivo toxicity using a bottom-up-approach, starting with understanding of MOA based on in vitro data to ultimately predict adverse effects in humans. At present, a practical application of the Tox21c vision is still far away. While moving towards toxicity prediction based on in vitro data, a stepwise reduction of in vivo testing is foreseen by combining in vitro with in vivo tests. Furthermore, newly developed methods will also be increasingly applied, in conjunction with established methods in order to gain trust in these new methods. This confidence is based on a critical scientific prerequisite: the establishment of a causal link between data obtained with new technologies and adverse effects manifested in repeated-dose in vivo toxicity studies. It is proposed to apply the principles described in the WHO/IPCS framework of MOA to obtain this link. Finally, an international database of known MOAs obtained in laboratory animals using data-rich chemicals will facilitate regulatory acceptance and could further help in the validation of the toxicity pathway and adverse outcome pathway

  20. Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with metabolic syndrome,[9] this is a serious adverse effect of which the .... and Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS).[15] The presence ..... Positive and negative symptoms in affected sib pairs with schizophrenia: ...

  1. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  2. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  3. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Chiang, Tai-An

    2017-01-01

    Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN) and genetic factors (MAO) and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future. PMID:29376073

  4. Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment : An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  5. Adverse CNS-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, C H; Deckert, J

    1996-11-01

    In 1962 propranolol, the first beta adrenoceptor antagonist (beta blocker), was brought on to the market. There is now a host of different beta blockers available, and these compounds are among the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs. The efficacy of beta blockers has been proven predominantly for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Beta blockers are also used for certain types of CNS disorders, such as anxiety disorders, essential tremor and migraine. While low toxicity means that they have a favorable risk-benefit ratio, given the high intensity of use, it is essential to have a comprehensive knowledge of adverse events. Adverse events of beta blockers that can be related to the CNS are quite often neglected, even in textbooks of clinical pharmacology or review articles, and thus often misdiagnosed. The following article, therefore, after summarizing the use of beta blockers for CNS indications, critically reviews the literature on centrally mediated adverse events. General pharmacological features of beta blockers and their molecular basis of action will briefly be addressed to the extent that they are or may become relevant for central nervous pharmacotherapy and side-effects.

  6. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bogaczewicz; Tomasz Sobów

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine anal...

  7. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  8. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F.

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  9. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  11. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development and deficiencies lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and in animal models. Environmental chemicals have been shown to disrupt TH levels, yet the relationship between developmental exposur...

  12. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  13. Effect of environmental change on yield and quality of fruits and vegetables: two systematic reviews and projections of possible health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P.; Scheelbeek, P.; Bird, F.; Green, R.; Dangour, A.

    2017-12-01

    Background - Environmental changes—including climatic change, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss—threaten agricultural production and pose challenges to global food security. In this study, we review the evidence of the effects of environmental change on the yield and quality of fruits and vegetables - a food group that plays a highly important role in our diets - and assess possible implications for nutrition and health outcomes. Methods - We undertook two systematic reviews of the published literature on the effect of 8 different environmental stressors on yields and nutritional quality of (1) fruits and (2) vegetables, measured in greenhouse and field studies. We combined the review outcomes with Food Balance Sheet data to assess the potential consequences of changed availability and quality of fruits and vegetables for global nutrient deficiencies and related chronic diseases. Findings - Overall, fruits were affected more prominently by changing environmental patterns than vegetables. In tropical countries, there were largely adverse effects on yield of increased temperature and changing precipitation patterns, although in more temperate zones some beneficial effects were reported. In contrast, the effects on nutritional quality were mostly positive, especially in fruit crops, with higher vitamin and mineral content measured in most crops. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations had a predominantly positive effect on yield, especially in legumes, but a negative effect on nutritional quality of both fruits and vegetables. Adverse nutritional implications were estimated to be largest in areas characterised by high vulnerability to environmental change, high dependency on local markets, and high rates of food insecurity. Interpretation - Our study identified effects of environmental change on yields and quality of fruits and vegetables that might pose threats to population health, especially in areas vulnerable to climate-change and food insecurity. To

  14. The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry Kin Shing; Chow, Tak Sang

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1-2) and a first-person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource-security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2-3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304-314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Process for Evaluating Adverse Environmental Impacts by Cooling-Water System Entrainment at a California Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ehrler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the effects of entrainment by the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP was conducted between 1996 and 1999 as required under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act. The goal of this study was to present the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (CCRWQCB with results that could be used to determine if any adverse environmental impacts (AEIs were caused by the operation of the plant’s cooling-water intake structure (CWIS. To this end we chose, under guidance of the CCRWQCB and their entrainment technical working group, a unique approach combining three different models for estimating power plant effects: fecundity hindcasting (FH, adult equivalent loss (AEL, and the empirical transport model (ETM. Comparisons of the results from these three approaches provided us a relative measure of confidence in our estimates of effects. A total of 14 target larval fish taxa were assessed as part of the DCPP 316(b. Example results are presented here for the kelp, gopher, and black-and-yellow (KGB rockfish complex and clinid kelpfish. Estimates of larval entrainment losses for KGB rockfish were in close agreement (FH is approximately equals to 550 adult females per year, AEL is approximately equals to 1,000 adults [male and female] per year, and ETM = larval mortality as high as 5% which could be interpreted as ca. 2,600 1 kg adult fish. The similar results from the three models provided confidence in the estimated effects for this group. Due to lack of life history information needed to parameterize the FH and AEL models, effects on clinid kelpfish could only be assessed using the ETM model. Results from this model plus ancillary information about local populations of adult kelpfish suggest that the CWIS might be causing an AEI in the vicinity of DCPP.

  16. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of Environmental Enrichment to Prevent Transgenerational Effects of Paternal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Katharina; Bohacek, Johannes; Grossmann, Jonas; Brunner, Andrea M; Manuella, Francesca; Nanni, Paolo; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse experiences in early life are risk factors for the development of behavioral and physiological symptoms that can lead to psychiatric and cognitive disorders later in life. Some of these symptoms can be transmitted to the offspring, in some cases by non-genomic mechanisms involving germ cells. Using a mouse model of unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress, we show that postnatal trauma alters coping behaviors in adverse conditions in exposed males when adult and in their adult male progeny. The behavioral changes are accompanied by increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and decreased DNA methylation of the GR promoter in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is also decreased in sperm cells of exposed males when adult. Transgenerational transmission of behavioral symptoms is prevented by paternal environmental enrichment, an effect associated with the reversal of alterations in GR gene expression and DNA methylation in the hippocampus of the male offspring. These findings highlight the influence of both negative and positive environmental factors on behavior across generations and the plasticity of the epigenome across life.

  18. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  19. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  20. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  1. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  2. Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

  3. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel; Bramlage, Peter; Elsaesser, Amelie; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 ± 9 years) received adenosine (140 μg/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 ± 11.7 versus 82.4 ± 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 ± 1.9% versus 97 ± 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 ± 24.0 versus 140.9 ± 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 ± 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  4. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  5. THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The population was taken from ambulatory patients. There were 16 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was extrinsic motivation and dependent variable was Adversity Quotient. Data were collected by using questionnaire and interview, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result revealed that there was an effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient of patients with HIV/AIDS (p=0.017. The extrinsic motivation was found to have an effect on control response (p=0.027 and origin response (p=0.028, there was no influence of extrinsic motivation on ownership response (p=0.334, reach (p=0.129 and endurance (p=0.161. Discussion: It can be concluded that the extrinsic motivation with intervention of social support has a positive effect on the improvement of Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS. Further studies should measure the effectiveness of Adversity Quotient training on acceptance response in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  6. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria. ... degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to diseases on both human and animals.

  7. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  8. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  9. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical...

  10. Statin-associated muscle-related adverse effects: a case series of 354 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Stephanie; Evans, Marcella A; Denenberg, Julie O; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-06-01

    To characterize the properties and natural history of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-associated muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Patient-targeted postmarketing adverse-effect surveillance approach coupling survey design with an open-ended narrative. University-affiliated health care system. Three hundred fifty-four patients (age range 34-86 yrs) who self-reported muscle-related problems associated with statin therapy. Patients with perceived statin-associated MAEs completed a survey assessing statin drugs and dosages; characteristics of the MAEs; time course of onset, resolution, or recurrence; and impact on quality of life (QOL). Cases were assessed for putative drug adverse-effect causality by using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale criteria and were evaluated for inclusion in groups for which mortality benefit with statins has been shown. Patients reported muscle pain (93%), fatigue (88%), and weakness (85%). Three hundred patients (85%) met literature criteria for probable or definite drug adverse-effect causality. Ninety-four percent of atorvastatin usages (240/255) generated MAEs versus 61% of lovastatin usages (38/62, pstatins reproduced MAEs in 100% of 39 rechallenges versus 73% (29/40) with lower potency rechallenges (pstatin initiation varied (median 14 wks); some MAEs occurred after long-term symptom-free use. Recurrence with rechallenge had a significantly shorter latency to onset (median 2 wks). The MAEs adversely affected all assessed functional and QOL domains. Most patients with probable or definite MAEs were in categories for which available randomized controlled trial evidence shows no trend to all-cause mortality benefit with statin therapy. This study complements available information on the properties and natural history of statin-associated MAEs, affirming dose dependence and strong QOL impact. The data indicating a dose-dependent relationship between MAE risk and recurrence suggest

  11. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  12. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  13. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = −1.714 (−3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (−0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

  15. The interpersonal adverse effects reported by 1008 users of antidepressants; and the incremental impact of polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Gee, Aimee; Diggle, Jacob; Butler, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Antidepressant drugs are being prescribed at ever increasing rates internationally, despite marginal benefit compared to placebo and a range of adverse effects. Most studies of adverse effects focus on biological phenomena. This article presents the results of an online survey of 1008 self-selected anti-depressant users in Britain, which asked about five adverse effects in the interpersonal domain. The most commonly reported among participants who took only antidepressants were: Sex Life - 43.7%, Work or Study - 27.0% and Social Life - 23.5%. These rates of interpersonal adverse effects were even higher for the 52% of participants who were also taking one or more other psychiatric drugs. Only about a half (48%) felt they had been given enough information about side effects by the prescriber. Those initially prescribed medication by a psychiatrist were more likely to be on several types of drugs and reported more adverse effects than those whose prescriber was a General Practitioner (GP). Researchers and prescribers are encouraged to pay greater attention to interpersonal adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  17. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  18. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  19. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  20. Genetic inhibition of CETP, ischemic vascular disease and mortality, and possible adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schou, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib.......This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib....

  1. The development of search filters for adverse effects of surgical interventions in medline and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Wright, Kath; Loke, Yoon Kong

    2018-03-31

    Search filter development for adverse effects has tended to focus on retrieving studies of drug interventions. However, a different approach is required for surgical interventions. To develop and validate search filters for medline and Embase for the adverse effects of surgical interventions. Systematic reviews of surgical interventions where the primary focus was to evaluate adverse effect(s) were sought. The included studies within these reviews were divided randomly into a development set, evaluation set and validation set. Using word frequency analysis we constructed a sensitivity maximising search strategy and this was tested in the evaluation and validation set. Three hundred and fifty eight papers were included from 19 surgical intervention reviews. Three hundred and fifty two papers were available on medline and 348 were available on Embase. Generic adverse effects search strategies in medline and Embase could achieve approximately 90% relative recall. Recall could be further improved with the addition of specific adverse effects terms to the search strategies. We have derived and validated a novel search filter that has reasonable performance for identifying adverse effects of surgical interventions in medline and Embase. However, we appreciate the limitations of our methods, and recommend further research on larger sample sizes and prospective systematic reviews. © 2018 The Authors Health Information and Libraries Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Health Libraries Group.

  2. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternatives in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    Although it has been Federal government officials who have been accused in courts of law with mismanagement with regard to the consideration of alternatives in the environmental impact statement, the responsibility for systematically considering all alternatives to a proposed project remains with project decisionmakers in the Federal, state, or local levels of government and in industry. By applying the techniques of system cost-effectiveness analysis to the assessment of alternatives, it is believed that management will be able to clearly demonstrate that the selection of the proposed approach was neither arbitrary nor capricious. A rational approach to the assessment of alternatives should aid in meeting the mandates of environmental legislation and EIS guidelines, and it should eliminate the merit of any plaintiff's charge of mismanagement with regard to management's consideration of alternatives. Even though many interfaces between the proposed system and the environment cannot as yet be objectively quantified, application of CE techniques will demonstrate that a rigorous exploration and objective evaluation has been applied to the consideration of alternatives with respect to project objectives, financial conditions, and adverse environmental impacts

  3. Multidisciplinary approach to identification and remedial intervention for adverse late effects of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCalla, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Because of advances in surgical technique, radiation therapy, and combined chemotherapy regimens, there has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with pediatric malignancies. All treatment modalities are associated with adverse effects that may be manifested months to years after therapy. This article has provided an overview of the physiologic and psychologic adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy and described the multidisciplinary approach used by one institution to identify and initiate appropriate remedial intervention. Nurses can learn to assist in the identification of adverse late effects, provide support to the family, and facilitate appropriate intervention

  4. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  6. Developmental psychoneuroendocrine and psychoneuroimmune pathways from childhood adversity to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Chiang, Jessica J; Horn, Sarah; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-09-01

    Childhood adversity has been repeatedly and robustly linked to physical and mental illness across the lifespan. Yet, the biological pathways through which this occurs remain unclear. Functioning of the inflammatory arm of the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis are both hypothesized pathways through which childhood adversity leads to disease. This review provides a novel developmental framework for examining the role of adversity type and timing in inflammatory and HPA-axis functioning. In particular, we identify elements of childhood adversity that are salient to the developing organism: physical threat, disrupted caregiving, and unpredictable environmental conditions. We propose that existing, well-characterized animal models may be useful in differentiating the effects of these adversity elements and review both the animal and human literature that supports these ideas. To support these hypotheses, we also provide a detailed description of the development and structure of both the HPA-axis and the inflammatory arm of the immune system, as well as recent methodological advances in their measurement. Recommendations for future basic, developmental, translational, and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental study of the Wairakei Power Plant. [Effects of hydroelectric power plant on ecology of Waikato River Basin, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axtmann, R C

    1974-12-01

    Physical, chemical, biological, ecological, and aesthetic aspects of the Wairakei Power Plant are examined, in varying detail, but with primary emphasis on the chemical and thermal effluents. When flows are average or higher in the Waikato River, the Plant's environmental effects are not overly severe. However, operating requirements for the Waikato Hydro-electric System are such that the Plant sporadically produces wastes that may affect the human and natural environment adversely. These adverse effects are not presently too serious, but suggestions are made for improving the Plant's overall environmental performance. Although the point is not discussed in detail, it is clear from the results of the study that any additional thermal plants on the Waikato could strain the river's absorptive capacities severely, unless alternative disposal techniques are used for the various effluents.

  8. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  10. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants Reported by 1,431 people from 38 Countries: Emotional Blunting, Suicidality, and Withdrawal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Williams, James

    2018-06-04

    Studies of the adverse effects of antidepressants tend to focus on biological symptoms. The prevalence of suicidality and withdrawal effects are currently a source of controversy. To directly ascertain the experiences of an international sample of antidepressant users. An online survey asked adult antidepressant users whether they had experienced 20 adverse effects 'as a result of taking the antidepressant', and if so, to what degree of severity. 1,431 people from 38 countries responded. 61% of the respondents reported at least ten of the 20 effects, most commonly: 'Feeling emotionally numb' (reported by 71%), 'Feeling foggy or detached' (70%); 'Feeling not like myself' (66%), 'Sexual difficulties' (66%), 'Drowsiness' (63%), and 'Reduction in positive feelings' (60%). 'Suicidality' as a result of the drugs was reported by 50%. Withdrawal effects were reported by 59%, and 'Addiction' by 40%. Rates of adverse effects were higher for those prescribed multiple antidepressants and those who also took antipsychotics. Younger age and longer use of ADs were positively related to total adverse effects. One third did not recall being told about any side effects by the prescriber. Less than 5% were told about suicidality, emotional numbing, withdrawal effects or addiction. Asking people directly reveals far higher rates of adverse responses to antidepressants than previously understood, especially in the emotional, psychological and interpersonal domains. Given recent findings that antidepressants are only marginally more effective than placebo, the findings of the current study imply a cost-benefit analysis that cannot justify the extremely high prescription rates for these drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document defines the approaches by which EPA will ensure that disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority communities and low-income communities are identified and addressed.

  12. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  13. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  14. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando, E-mail: lecotox@unisanta.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Martini, Gisela de Assis [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC{sub 50} = 0.490 mg L{sup -1}) and embryo-larval development (IC{sub 50} = 0.135 mg L{sup -1}) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L{sup -1}) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L{sup -1}, demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  15. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando; Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo; Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC 50 = 0.490 mg L −1 ) and embryo-larval development (IC 50 = 0.135 mg L −1 ) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L −1 ) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L −1 , demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: ► Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. ► Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. ► Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  16. Neurological Adverse Effects of Antipsychotics in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Amador, Margarita; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Tapia, Cecilia; Moreno, Carmen; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Alda, José A; Muñoz, Daniel; Andrés Nestares, Patricia; Cantarero, Carmen Martínez; Arango, Celso

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic, clinical, and treatment factors that may impact on neurological adverse effects in naive and quasi-naive children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. This was a 1-year, multicenter, observational study of a naive and quasi-naive pediatric population receiving antipsychotic treatment. Two subanalyses were run using the subsample of subjects taking the 3 most used antipsychotics and the subsample of antipsychotic-naive subjects. Total dyskinesia score (DyskinesiaS) and total Parkinson score (ParkinsonS) were calculated from the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center Involuntary Movement Scale, total UKU-Cognition score was calculated from the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. Risk factors for tardive dyskinesias (TDs) defined after Schooler-Kaine criteria were studied using a logistic regression. Two hundred sixty-five subjects (mean age, 14.4 [SD, 2.9] years) with different Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders were recruited. DyskinesiaS (P < 0.001) and ParkinsonS (P < 0.001) increased at 1-year follow-up. Risperidone was associated with higher increases in DyskinesiaS compared with quetiapine (P < 0.001). Higher increases in ParkinsonS were found with risperidone (P < 0.001) and olanzapine (P = 0.02) compared with quetiapine. Total UKU-Cognition Score decreased at follow-up. Findings were also significant when analyzing antipsychotic-naive subjects. Fifteen subjects (5.8%) fulfilled Schooler-Kane criteria for TD at follow-up. Younger age, history of psychotic symptoms, and higher cumulative exposure time were associated with TD at follow-up. Antipsychotics increased neurological adverse effects in a naive and quasi-naive pediatric population and should be carefully monitored. Risperidone presented higher scores in symptoms of dyskinesia and parkinsonism. Quetiapine was the antipsychotic with less neurological adverse effects. Younger subjects, psychosis, and

  17. Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Mörike, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorize these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular concentrations of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers. PMID:25069381

  18. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  19. Development document for best technology available for the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Train, R.E.; Breidenbach, A.W.; Hall, E.P.; Barnes, D.

    1976-04-01

    This document presents the findings of an extensive study of the available technology for the location, design construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact, in compliance with and to implement Section 316(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972

  20. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  1. [Changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively( P 12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P > 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations, while adverse effects decrease significantly. Changes of

  2. Origins of Adulthood Personality: The Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Schurer, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    We test whether adverse childhood experiences exposure to parental maltreatment and its indirect effect on health are associated with age 30 personality traits. We use rich longitudinal data from a large, representative cohort of young US Americans and exploit differences across siblings to control for the confounding influences of shared environmental and genetic factors. We find that maltreatment experiences are significantly and robustly associated with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and ...

  3. Endocrine active agents: implications of adverse and non-adverse changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul M D; McIntyre, Barry S

    2002-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently in the process of developing screening and testing methodologies for the assessment of agents that may possess endocrine-like activity--the so-called endocrine disruptors. Moreover, the EPA has signaled its intention of placing information arising from such studies on the worldwide web. This has created significant interest in how such information may be used in risk assessment and by policymakers and the public in the potential regulation or deselection of specific chemical agents. The construction of lists of endocrine disruptors, although fulfilling the requirements of some parties, is really of little use when the nature of the response, the dose level employed, and the lifestage of the test species used are not given. Thus, we have already seen positive in vitro information available on the interaction with a receptor being used as a key indicator when the results of large, high quality in vivo studies showing no adverse changes have been ignored. Clearly a number of in vitro systems are available to ascertain chemical interaction with specific (mainly steroid) hormone receptors including a number of reporter gene assays. These assays only provide indicators of potential problems and should not be, in isolation, indicators of toxicity. Likewise, short-term in vivo screens such as the uterotrophic and Hershberger studies are frequently conducted in castrated animals and thus indicate the potential for a pharmacological response in vivo rather than an adverse effect. A number of new end points have been added to standard rodent testing protocols in the belief of providing more sensitivity to detect endocrine related changes. These include the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), developmental landmarks [vaginal opening (VO), preputial separation (PPS)], and in some studies the counting of nipples and areolae on males. AGD, VO, and PPS are all affected by the size of the pup in which they are measured

  4. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  5. Surface Level Ozone and its Adverse Effects on Crops and Forests: A Need for an Interdisciplinary Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar V. Krupa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface level ozone (O3 is clearly a global scale problem with regard to its adverse effects on crops, forests and native, terrestrial plant ecosystems. Photochemists and meteorologists are continuing to define the chemistry and physics of the prevalence of O3 at the ground level. Similarly, plant scientists in the U.S. and Europe have examined the effects of O3 on crops and tree seedlings or saplings through large-scale studies. Examples include the U.S. National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN, the U.S. EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency’s San Bernardino National Forest Photochemical Oxidant Study, European Open-top Chambers Programme (EOTCP, and several ongoing EU (European Union projects. In addition, there have been studies on mature tree responses through field measurements and by simulation modeling.

  6. Review article. Adverse hematological effects of hexavalent chromium: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Rina Rani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increas¬es the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI, with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma. Excess Cr (VI, not reduced in plasma, may enter erythrocytes and lymphocytes and in rodents it induces microcytic anemia. The toxic effects of chromium (VI include mitochondrial injury and DNA damage of blood cells that leads to carcinogenicity. Excess Cr (VI increases cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ATP depletion thereby inducing eryptosis. Se, vitamin C, and quercetin are assumed to have some protective effect against hexavalent chromium induced hematological disorders.

  7. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  9. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  10. The EPA/NIEHS Children's Environmental Health And ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) have jointly supported the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (“Children’s Centers”) program since 1998, forming a highly successful and collaborative, interdisciplinary research network. Methods: These multidisciplinary, translational research centers are investigating the role of a wide range of environmental exposures in adverse children's health outcomes and how to protect children's health. Studies include how exposure to chemicals such as ambient air pollutants, arsenic in water and food, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) including bisphenol A (BPA), manganese, organophosphate pesticides and polybrominated flame retardants may, in combination with other factors such as social and behavioral factors and genetic susceptibility, result in adverse birth and health outcomes including asthma, autism, childhood leukemia, changes in epigenetics/gene expression, changes in neurodevelopment and immune system function -- and how to prevent adverse health outcomes. The Children's Centers are using approaches including longitudinal cohort and case-control studies and environmental epidemiology in conjunction with laboratory-based studies to find novel biomarkers of exposure, early developmental and pubertal effects and gene-environment interactions. Community engagement is a key part of the program

  11. Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow, Sandy; Florkowski, Christopher M; Chambers, Stephen T; Priest, Patricia C; Stewart, Alistair W; Jennings, Lance C; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Murdoch, David R

    2014-12-15

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamin D improves resilience to the adverse effects of earthquakes. Opportunistic addition to an established randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Christchurch, New Zealand, where a prolonged series of catastrophic earthquakes beginning on 4 September 2010 occurred, which caused widespread destruction, fatalities, and extensive psychological damage. 322 healthy adults (241 women; 81 men) aged 18-67 who were already participating in the vitamin D and acute respiratory infections study (VIDARIS) between February 2010 and November 2011. Participants were randomised to receive an oral dose of either 200,000 IU vitamin D3 monthly for two months then 100,000 IU monthly (n=161) or placebo (n=161) for a total of 18 months. This is a post hoc analysis from the previously published VIDARIS trial. The primary endpoint in the current analysis was the self reported effects and overall adverse impact of the Christchurch earthquakes as assessed by questionnaire four months after the most destructive earthquake on 22 February 2011, which was used as the index event. The secondary end point was the number of "psychological" adverse events that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments as part of the original VIDARIS trial. 308 participants completed the earthquake impact questionnaire (n=152 in the vitamin D group and 156 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in the number of self reported adverse effects between those receiving vitamin D supplementation and those receiving placebo. There was also no difference in the overall adverse impact score between treatment groups (χ(2) P=0.44). The exception was that those in the vitamin D group experienced more adverse effects on family relationships (22% v 13%; χ(2) P=0.03). The number of psychological adverse events-such as fatigue, stress, anxiety, and insomnia-that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments was significantly

  12. An evaluation of environmental effects of the DOE HLW repository siting and characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, M.F.; Ulland, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) environmental investigations in progress on the environmental effects of past and proposed activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Yucca Mountain repository. The environmental investigations refer to those studies specifically related to resource evaluation, impact assessment and mitigation planning for the repository program; it is defined to exclude consideration of technical suitability determinations, socioeconomics and transportation. This paper addresses the question of what are the disturbances created by past and proposed DOE activities related to repository siting and characterization at Yucca Mountain. It discusses considerations in linking disturbance to the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts

  13. Adverse Effects with Ambulatory Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration in Adult Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Alicia Rodríguez-Mireles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunode ciency (CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, affecting 1:25,000- 75,000 people. It is characterized by the absence or decrease antibody production. Treatment for CVID consists on human immunoglobulin administration, and the intravenous route is the most common route for administration, at 400-800 mg/kg of weight every 3-4 weeks. Adverse effects associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg use occur in 25% of all infusions, with severe adverse reactions presenting in less than 1% of all patients. Acute renal failure can occur as a severe adverse reaction, which presents 1-10 days after starting IVIg treatment. In our center we implemented an ambulatory scheme for IVIg administration, which allows its administration in an average of 3 hours, without severe adverse effects. Objectives: To describe adverse effects and to evaluate the frequency of renal failure secondary to ambulatory IVIg administration in patients with common variable immunode ciency. Material and method: A descriptive and prospective study was done including adult patients con de nitive diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, receiving IVIg at replacement dose every 3 weeks. All patients were evaluated with clinical exploration, somatometry, serum creatinine, albumin and urea determination, 24 hours creatinine clearance, glomerular ltration rate with CKD-EPI, and immediate renal function associated with accumulated IVIg. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: We determined adverse effects in 25 patients with common variable immunode ciency (15 women and 10 men, average age 36.7 years, during a 10 months period (January-September 2013. During this period 284 IVIg infusions were administered using our scheme, frequency of adverse effects were 12.9%, with 5.2% of early adverse effects and 7.7% late adverse effects, all being mild to moderate, in some cases required analgesic and

  14. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in Turkish patients .... For the control group, the dentists randomly included in the study 12 ..... soft tissue from infections.[9,12,24] Studies ...

  15. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  16. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  17. Consequences of emergency contraceptives: the adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomin, Anne; Keller, Valentin; Daraï, Emile; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) offers women an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy following intercourse. Despite the constant improvement of availability of different molecules and techniques already existing (Yuzpe regimen, levonorgestrel, intrauterine device) and the emergence of ulipristal acetate, the numbers of unintended pregnancies and unplanned births could still be reduced. This review will evaluate all the information about the potential adverse effects and tolerability of each method of EC by putting them in balance with their safety and effectiveness. A literature search until December 2013 was performed to identify all trials studying the safety data available concerning EC. Different means of EC have been demonstrated to be generally safe and well tolerated. These data support women information in order to improve use and efficacy of EC.

  18. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  19. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  20. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  1. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzyun, M.; Sohn, Eun-Young; Khan, A.L.; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  2. Adverse effects of homeopathy, what do we know? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Kristoffersen, Agnete A; Alræk, Terje; Liu, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    Homeopathy is a popular treatment modality among patient, however there is sparse research about adverse effects of homeopathy. A concept unique for homeopathy, is homeopathic aggravation that is understood as a transient worsening of the patients' symptoms before an expected improvement occurs. From a risk perspective it is vital that a distinction between homeopathic aggravations and adverse effects is established. There is a lack of systematic information on how frequent adverse effects and homeopathic aggravations are reported in studies. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). The searches were limited from the year 1995 to January 2011. Forty-one RCTs, with a total of 6.055 participants were included. A subtotal of 39 studies was included in the additional meta-analysis. A total of 28 trials (68%) reported adverse effects and five trials (12%) reported homeopathic aggravations. The meta-analysis (including six subgroup comparisons) demonstrated that no significant difference was found between homeopathy and control with OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.14, I(2)=54%. More than two third of the adverse effects were classified as grade 1 (68%) and two third were classified as grade 2 (25%) and grade 3 (6%) according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Homeopathic aggravation was classified as grade 1 (98%) and grade 3 (2%), suggesting that homeopathic aggravations were reported to be less severe than adverse effects. The methodological quality according to a method recommended in the Cochrane handbook for RCTs, was high. Adverse effects including the concept of homeopathic aggravations are commonly reported in trials. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the proportion of patients experiencing adverse effects to be similar for patients randomized to homeopathic treatment compared to patients randomized to placebo and conventional medicine

  3. Adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is associated with high morbidity as well as significant mortality rate. Today the risk of death in pemphigus from the side effect of oral prednisolone is greater than risk of death from the disease itself. Objec­tive: To observe the adverse effects of parenteral dexamethasone compared with oral prednisolone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Methods: An interventional study was carried out in the department of Dermatology and Venereol­ogy, Bangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total number of patients was thirty and among them fifteen patients were treated with parenteral dexamethasone (Group-A and other fifteen were treated with oral prednisolone (Group-B. Results: The study showed statistically significant differences of skin lesion as well as mucosal lesion of pemphigus after 6 weeks of therapy between of two groups (P<0.05. The most common adverse effects were increased body weight(40%, increased appetite(40%, and puffy face(40% in dexamethasone group. In prednisolone group, these side effects were 60% of the subjects. Other side effects in dexamethasone group were hyperglycemia (33.33%, hypertension (26.66%, and sleep disturbance (13.33%. In prednisolone group, other side effects were hyperglycemia(33.33%, hypertension(40%, gastritis (33.33%, nausea, vomiting (13.33% in each , reactivation of tuberculosis, herpes zoster infection, sleep disturbance, and mood change were 6.66% in each group. Conclusion: In the light of the findings of the study, we conclude that each of the treatment of dexamethasone group and prednisolone group is individually effective and safe in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris but adverse effects are less in parenteral dexamethasone group than oral prednisolone group. So parenteral dexamethasone can be used as an alternative drug in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris.

  4. Prostate cancer outcomes in France: treatments, adverse effects and two-year mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This very large population-based study investigated outcomes after a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of mortality rates, treatments and adverse effects. Methods Among the 11 million men aged 40 years and over covered by the general national health insurance scheme, those with newly managed PCa in 2009 were followed for two years based on data from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Patients were identified using hospitalisation diagnoses and specific refunds related to PCa and PCa treatments. Adverse effects of PCa treatments were identified by using hospital diagnoses, specific procedures and drug refunds. Results The age-standardised two-year all-cause mortality rate among the 43,460 men included in the study was 8.4%, twice that of all men aged 40 years and over. Among the 36,734 two-year survivors, 38% had undergone prostatectomy, 36% had been treated by hormone therapy, 29% by radiotherapy, 3% by brachytherapy and 20% were not treated. The frequency of treatment-related adverse effects varied according to age and type of treatment. Among men between 50 and 69 years of age treated by prostatectomy alone, 61% were treated for erectile dysfunction and 24% were treated for urinary disorders. The frequency of treatment for these disorders decreased during the second year compared to the first year (erectile dysfunction: 41% vs 53%, urinary disorders: 9% vs 20%). The frequencies of these treatments among men treated by external beam radiotherapy alone were 7% and 14%, respectively. Among men between 50 and 69 years with treated PCa, 46% received treatments for erectile dysfunction and 22% for urinary disorders. For controls without PCa but treated surgically for benign prostatic hyperplasia, these frequencies were 1.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Conclusions We report high survival rates two years after a diagnosis of PCa, but a high frequency of PCa treatment-related adverse effects. These frequencies remain

  5. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  6. Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Breinlinger, Susanne; Hirt, Vanessa; Teicher, Martin H; Odenwald, Michael; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-11-13

    Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. Exposure to adversities were assessed by interviews in n=180 cases and n=70 controls. In cases, symptom severities were obtained for psychotic symptoms and dissociation. Conditioned random forest regression determined the importance of type and timing of ACE for positive and negative symptom severity, and mediator analyses evaluated the role of dissociative symptoms in the relationship between adversities and psychotic symptoms. Cases experienced substantially more abuse and neglect than controls. Adversities were related in a dose-dependent manner to psychotic disorder. An array of adversities was associated with more severe positive symptoms, while the conditioned random forest regression depicted neglect at age 10 as the most important predictor. Dissociative symptoms mediated the small relation of trauma load in childhood and positive symptoms. The role of trauma and ACE on psychotic symptoms can be specified by neglect during frontocortical development in the exacerbation of positive symptoms. The mediating role of dissociation is restricted to the relation of childhood trauma and positive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Potential Return on Public Investment in Detecting Adverse Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Desai, Rishi J; Park, Moa; Gagne, Joshua J; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available. The drug examples studied were rofecoxib, cerivastatin, and troglitazone. Using an individual patient simulation model and the health care system perspective, we estimated the potential costs that could have been averted by early systematic detection of safety hazards through the implementation of active surveillance programs. We found that earlier drug withdrawal made possible by active safety surveillance would most likely have resulted in savings in direct medical costs of $773-$884 million for rofecoxib, $3-$10 million for cerivastatin, and $38-$63 million for troglitazone in the United States through the prevention of adverse events. By contrast, the yearly public investment in Food and Drug Administration initiated population-based pharmacovigilance activities in the United States is about $42.5 million at present. These examples illustrate a critical and economically justifiable role for active adverse effect surveillance in protecting the health of the public.

  8. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  9. [Intestinal cleaning for colonoscopy in children: effectiveness, adherence and adverse effects of schemes differentiated by age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Isabel; Arancibia, María Eugenia; Alliende, Francisco; Ríos, Gloria; Rodríguez, Lorena; Lucero, Yalda; Saelzer, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Adequate intestinal cleanliness is crucial to achieve optimal colonoscopy performance. Several bowel preparation (BP) schemes have been proposed, but there is still no consensus as regards which is the most suitable in paediatric patients. To describe the effectiveness, adherence, and adverse effects of BP protocols differentiated by age group in paediatric patients subjected to colonoscopy. Prospective, study that included patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes); 4y-9y 11 m (PEG 3350 without electrolytes + bisacodyl); 10 y-18 y (PEG 3350 with electrolytes). Demographic, clinical information, adherence and adverse effects were registered. Effectiveness was determined using a validated scale (Boston modified) during colonoscopy. A total of 159 patients were included, of which 87 (55%) were males, and with a median age of 4 years (range 1 m-17 years). Seventy eight percent of patients achieved successful BP. The higher effectiveness was observed in the groups of < 6 m (96%) and 10-18 y (91%). Constipation was significantly more frequent (29%) in the 4 yo-9 yo 11 m in which lower effectiveness was observed (69%). Good adherence was observed in 87% of patients. Adverse effects were observed in a third of patients, although they were mild and did not lead to the suspension of the BP. Satisfactory results were achieved with the BP schemes used, with a successful BP being obtained in 4 out of 5 patients. Results were different between groups, which is probably related to previous bowel transit and indicated medication.

  10. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Differentiating pathway-specific from nonspecific effects in high-throughput toxicity data: A foundation for prioritizing adverse outcome pathway development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals for biological activity, primarily using high-throughput in vitro bioassays. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a means to link pathway-specific biological activities with potential ...

  12. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in Turkish ... chronic oral disease of humankind that is characterized by progressive .... using a periodontal probe, mirror, and air syringe under adequate ..... reported that isotretinoin produced a significant salivary flow ...

  13. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lauren J; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have observed an adverse association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide (OPs) and child cognition, but few studies consider the potential role of social stressors in modifying this relationship. We seek to explore the potential role of early social adversities in modifying the relationship between OPs and child IQ in an agricultural Mexican American population. Participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort study, include 329 singleton infants and their mothers followed from pregnancy through age 7. Dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations (DAPs), a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide exposure, were measured in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy and averaged. Child cognitive ability was assessed at 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition. Demographic characteristics and adversity information were collected during interviews and home visits at numerous time points from pregnancy until age 7. Among low-income Latina mothers and their children in the Salinas Valley, total adversity and specific domains of adversity including poor learning environment and adverse parent-child relationships were negatively associated with child cognition. Adverse associations between DAP concentrations and IQ were stronger in children experiencing greater adversity; these associations varied by child sex. For example, the association between prenatal OP exposure and Full-Scale IQ is potentiated among boys who experienced high adversity in the learning environment (β=-13.3; p-value child IQ differently among male and female children. These findings emphasize the need to consider plausible interactive pathways between social adversities and environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse effects in coronary angiography: a comparative study of different temperature contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Peng; Wang Qiulin; Cai Guocai; Li Lu; Jiang Licheng; Yang Zhen; Huang Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between different temperature contrast medium and the occurrence of adverse effects, including the chest discomfort, the changes of heart rate, ST segment and T wave, the operating time and the used dosage of contrast medium, in performing coronary angiography. Methods: According to the contrast medium temperature used in coronary angiography, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: room temperature group (n=521) and warm temperature group (n=522). The contrast medium used in warm temperature group was bathed in 37 ℃ water for 60 minutes when the coronary angiography was carried out. The T Wave amplitude changes ≥ 0.01 mv, ST segment depression ≥ 0.05 mv, changes in heart rate ≥ 10 times/min were brought into the positive accounting. The occurrence of adverse effects, such as palpitation, chest distress and pectoralgia, the operative time and the used dosage of contrast medium were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences in the changes of heart rate, ST segment deviation, T wave change and operating time existed between the two groups (P<0.05). And the difference in the occurrence of adverse effects between the two groups was also statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: When performing coronary angiography, warming of the contrast medium with water bath is greatly conducive to the prevention of cardiac adverse effects. (authors)

  15. Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Burke, Taylor A; Boland, Elaine M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-05-01

    Most theoretical frameworks regarding the role of life stress in bipolar disorders (BD) do not incorporate the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis theorizes that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, the relationship between major life stressors and episode initiation declines (Post, 1992). The present study aimed to test an extension of the kindling hypothesis in BD by examining the effect of early life adversity on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Data from 145 bipolar participants (59.3% female, 75.2% Caucasian, and mean age of 20.19 years; SD = 1.75 years) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project (112 Bipolar II; 33 Cyclothymic disorder). Participants completed a self-report measure of early adversity at baseline and interview-assessed mood episodes and life events at regular 4-month follow-ups. Results indicate that early childhood adversity sensitized bipolar participants to the effects of recent stressors only for depressive episodes and not hypomanic episodes within BD. This was particularly the case with minor negative events. The current study extends prior research examining the kindling model in BD using a methodologically rigorous assessment of life stressors and mood episode occurrence. Clinicians should assess experiences of early adversity in individuals with BD as it may impact reactivity to developing depressive episodes in response to future stressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Transgenerational Effects of Early Environmental Insults on Aging and Disease Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambeskovic, Mirela; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse early life experiences are major influences on developmental trajectories with potentially life-long consequences. Prenatal or early postnatal exposure to stress, undernutrition or environmental toxicants may reprogram brain development and increase risk of behavioural and neurological

  17. Developing a gene biomarker at the tipping point of adaptive and adverse responses in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining mechanism-based biomarkers that distinguish adaptive and adverse cellular processes is critical to understanding the health effects of environmental exposures. Shifting from in vivo, low-throughput toxicity studies to high-throughput screening (HTS) paradigms and risk...

  18. Environmental assessment report to BEPCo Canada Company on exploratory drilling on EL2407

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-19

    BEPCo. Canada Company (BEPCo) is planning to drill exploratory deepwater wells offshore from Nova Scotia. This environmental assessment report was prepared to satisfy regulatory requirements associated with offshore drilling. It focuses on valued environmental components chosen during a scoping process. This report evaluated the potential project-related effects on marine benthos, marine fish, marine mammals, marine turtles, marine birds, special areas, and other ocean users. Discharges and emissions from the project include drilling mud and rock cuttings, small amounts of produced water, ship discharges and atmospheric emissions. This report includes oceanographic plume modelling for allowable discharges of mud and cuttings at sea. The report predicts that the potential adverse effects of the valued environmental components will be short term and highly localized around the drilling rigs. It was suggested that any adverse effects could be mitigated through the use of technically feasible mitigation and standard offshore oil and gas industry procedures for environmental health and safety. It was concluded that BEPCo's proposed drilling program for EL-2407 can be conducted without any significant adverse effects on Nova Scotia's offshore environment. 121 refs., 27 tabs., 24 figs.

  19. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30-70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from...

  20. adverse effects of low dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Khan, D.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency of adverse effects attributed to Methotrexate (MTX) toxicity and serum minimum toxic concentration with low dose MTX in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from March 2010 to March 2011. Methodology: One hundred and forty adult patients of RA receiving low dose MTX (10 mg/week) for at least 3 months, ere included by consecutive sampling. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after the oral dose of MTX. Serum alanine transaminase and creatinine were analyzed on Hitachi and blood counts on Sysmex analyzer. Serum MTX concentration was measured on TDX analyzer. Results: Out of one hundred and forty patients; 68 males (49%) and 72 females (51%), 38 developed MTX toxicity (27%), comprising of hepatotoxicity in 12 (8.6%), nephrotoxicity in 3 (2.1%), anaemia in 8 (5.7%), leucopenia in 2 (1.4%), thrombocytopenia in 3 (2.1%), pancytopenia in 2 (1.4%), gastrointestinal adverse effects in 5 (3.6%) and mucocutaneous problems in 3 (2.1%). Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed serum minimum toxic concentration of MTX at cutoff value of 0.71 mu mol/l with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. Conclusion: Adverse effects of low dose MTX were found in 27% of RA patients, mainly comprising of hepatotoxicity and haematological problems. MTX toxicity can be detected by therapeutic drug monitoring of serum concentration of 0.71 mu mol/l with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76% in the patients on low dose MTX maintenance therapy. (author)

  1. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P well as social isolation from the family and community.

  2. Adverse Effects of Smoking on Outcomes of Orthopaedic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sheung-tung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has many adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly on the outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Smoking is associated with surgical site infection and postoperative wound complications after spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, and fracture fixation; nonunion after spinal fusion, ankle fusion, osteotomy, and internal fixation and bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion; worse outcomes after lumbar disc prolapse, spinal stenosis, and cervical myelopathy surgery; peripro...

  3. Possible adverse effects of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Cecilie; Lindegaard Poulsen, Christina; Hartling, Ulla Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine, young girls and women have reported a broad range of symptoms. These have been described as possible adverse effects of the vaccine. In this study, we describe demographic characteristics, symptomatology......, clinical and laboratory test results in patients referred with suspected adverse effects in the Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study. The patients filled out a questionnaire, were interviewed by a doctor and received a standard physical examination...... still in diagnostic workup when the present study concluded. CONCLUSIONS: The patients reported a wide range of symptoms. We found an overall low prevalence of POTS. It should be further investigated whether these patients might suffer from a functional disorder rather than from adverse effects...

  4. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: CSIR’S environmental human health risk assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental health risk assessment deals with risks associated with manmade and natural environmental hazards. Environmental health risk assessment provides a means of estimating the probability of adverse health effects associated with hazards...

  5. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  6. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...... reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  8. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  9. [Management of adverse drug effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G

    2000-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are still considered one of the main problems of drug therapy. ADRs are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, decreased compliance and therapeutic success as well as high direct and indirect medical costs. Several considerations have to come into play when managing a potential ADR. It is critical to establish an accurate clinical diagnosis of the adverse event. Combining information about drug exposure together with considering other possible causes of the reaction is crucial to establish a causal relationship between the reaction and the suspected drug. Identification of the underlying pathogenesis of an ADR together with the severity of the reaction will have profound implications on continuation of drug therapy after an ADR. Since spontaneous reports about ADRs are a key stone of a functioning post-marketing surveillance system and therefore play a key role in improving drug safety, health care professionals are highly encouraged to report ADRs to a local or national organization. However, because the majority of ADRs is dose-dependent and therefore preventable, individualization of pharmacotherapy may have a major impact on reducing such events.

  10. More effective assessment of adverse effects and comorbidities in epilepsy: results of a Phase II communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, John M; Labiner, David M; Gilliam, Frank G; Penovich, Patricia E; Onofrey, Meaghan; Eagan, Corey A; Holmes, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate conversations about epilepsy between community-based neurologists and patients. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and mood/behavioral issues were infrequently discussed, and neurologists and patients disagreed about these issues postvisit. Follow-up research was conducted to assess the impact of a previsit assessment tool on discussions of epilepsy. Twenty neurologists reviewed a tool incorporating questions from validated instruments (Adverse Events Profile [AEP] and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy [NDDI-E]). Naturally occurring interactions between neurologists and 60 patients were recorded. Neurologists and patients were interviewed separately. All components were transcribed and analyzed using sociolinguistics. Using the previsit assessment tool increased the number of discussions about adverse effects and mood/behavioral issues and increased neurologist-patient agreement about issues postvisit. Visit length did not increase significantly when the tool was used. Ten months after follow-up research, 50% of neurologists reported continuing to use the tool in everyday practice with patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...

  12. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...

  13. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  14. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Deras, Diana C.; Reyes, Francianella

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  15. The environmental effects of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G; Chong, J; Kluczewska, A; Lau, A; Gorjy, S; Tennant, M

    2000-12-01

    Dental amalgam is one of the most commonly used materials in restorative dentistry. However, one of its major components, mercury, is of particular concern due to its potential adverse effects on humans and the environment. In this review, the environmental impact of dental amalgam will be discussed, with particular reference to the effects attributed to its mercury component. Mercury commonly occurs in nature as sulfides and in a number of minerals. Globally, between 20,000-30,000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment each year as a result of human activities. According to a recent German report, approximately 46 per cent of the freshly triturated amalgam is inserted as new amalgam restorations and the rest is waste. Depending on the presence of an amalgam separating unit, some of the generated amalgam-contaminated sludge is discharged into the sewage system. Lost or extracted teeth with amalgam fillings and amalgam-contaminated waste, such as trituration capsules and cotton rolls are discharged with the solid waste and, in most instances, are incinerated. Use of disinfectants containing oxidizing substances in dental aspirator kits may contribute to remobilization of mercury and its subsequent release into the environment. Nevertheless, dental mercury contamination is only a small proportion of terrestrial mercury (3-4 per cent), which is quite insignificant compared with industrial pollution and combustion of fossil fuels by vehicles. The environmental impact of dental mercury is mainly due to the poor management of dental amalgam waste. Proper collection of mercury-contaminated solid waste prevents the release of mercury vapour during combustion. In addition, the use of amalgam separating devices reduces the amount of amalgam-contaminated water released from dental clinics.

  16. Adverse outcomes of poor micronutrient status in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fernando E; Gonzalez, Horacio

    2002-05-01

    The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies and excesses in children up to reproductive age are presented. A summary of risks and adverse functional and health outcomes associated with deficient and excessive intakes and nutrition status of iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D, folate, vitamin B12, and riboflavin is presented. Nutrient-nutrient interactions of micronutrients, age, gender, and other host and environmental conditions, such as pregnancy, genetic conditions, overall nutrition, force of infection, and social conditions are considered as covariates in trying to define causation and outcomes due to specific micronutrients. The outcomes analyzed focus on growth and development, mental and neuromotor performance, immunocompetence, physical working capacity, morbidity, and in the case of pregnancy, overall reproductive performance. The results presented include responses to specific and multiple "experimental" interventions. A brief analysis of possible public health programs is presented, with emphasis on prevention.

  17. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse health effects of cigarette smoke: aldehydes Crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal and malonaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Sleijffers A; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; Amsterdam JGC van; TOX

    2006-01-01

    Crotonaldehyde in cigarette smoke can be concluded to induce airway damage in humans. This is one conclusion derived from the existing data found in the literature and reported here in the discussion on adverse health effects and possible addictive effects due to the exposure of crotonaldehyde,

  19. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  20. A systematic review of possible serious adverse health effects of nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Fariss, Marc W

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and critically evaluate studies of serious adverse health effects (SAHEs) in humans using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Serious adverse health effects refer to adverse events, leading to substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions. Strength of evidence evaluations and conclusions were also determined for the identified SAHEs. We evaluated 34 epidemiological studies and clinical trials, relating NRT use to cancer, reproduction/development, CVD, stroke and/or other SAHEs in patients, and four meta-analyses on effects in healthy populations. The overall evidence suffers from many limitations, the most significant being the short-term exposure (≤12 weeks) and follow-up to NRT product use in most of the studies, the common failure to account for changes in smoking behaviour following NRT use, and the sparse information on SAHEs by type of NRT product used. The only SAHE from NRT exposure we identified was an increase in respiratory congenital abnormalities reported in one study. Limited evidence indicated a lack of effect between NRT exposure and SAHEs for CVD and various reproduction/developmental endpoints. For cancer, stroke and other SAHEs, the evidence was inadequate to demonstrate any association with NRT use. Our conclusions agree with recent statements from authoritative bodies.

  1. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  2. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  3. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S; Swinburn, Tracy K; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda.

  4. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13......% of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long...

  5. Global issues in environmental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B D

    1993-03-01

    This overview will discuss a number of the issues posed by the challenge of international environmental health. The reasons that environmental problems occurring elsewhere in the world are of importance to occupational and environmental physicians in North America include the interconnectedness of the biosphere of our planet so that environmental alterations in one part of the globe can have an adverse outcome on our health and well-being; the often high levels of pollution and environmental degradation elsewhere provide an opportunity to determine and predict adverse consequences of environmental agents pertinent to protecting our own health; and, most importantly, our own ability to provide assistance in helping economic development occur in a setting of low risk of environmental pollution.

  6. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  7. The Effect Of Extrinsic Motivation On Adversity Quotient In Patients With HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  8. The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on Adversity Quotient in Patients with Hiv/aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  9. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaz Wessler

    Full Text Available The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4-8 mM. ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75-90% in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb] or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb. Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh

  10. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junyi; Hu, Yanmei; Zhu, Yin; Yin, Ping; Xu, Shifen

    2015-01-01

    As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world. PMID:26339265

  11. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  12. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Ristovska, Gordana; Dadvand, Payam

    2017-10-19

    Introduction: Three recent systematic reviews suggested a relationship between noise exposure and adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the World Health Organization (WHO) noise guidelines and conduct an updated systematic review of environmental noise, specifically aircraft and road traffic noise and birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, being small for gestational age and congenital malformations. Materials and methods : We reviewed again all the papers on environmental noise and birth outcomes included in the previous three systematic reviews and conducted a systematic search on noise and birth outcomes to update previous reviews. Web of Science, PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched for papers published between June 2014 (end date of previous systematic review) and December 2016 using a list of specific search terms. Studies were also screened in the reference list of relevant reviews/articles. Further inclusion and exclusion criteria for the studies provided by the WHO expert group were applied. Risk of bias was assessed according to criteria from the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for case-control and cohort studies. Finally, we applied the GRADE principles to our systematic review in a reproducible and appropriate way for judgment about quality of evidence. Results: In total, 14 studies are included in this review, six studies on aircraft noise and birth outcomes, five studies (two with more or less the same population) on road traffic noise and birth outcomes and three related studies on total ambient noise that is likely to be mostly traffic noise that met the criteria. The number of studies on environmental noise and birth outcomes is small and the quality of evidence generally ranges from very low to low, particularly in case of the older studies. The quality is better for the more recent traffic noise and birth outcomes studies. As there were too few studies, we did

  13. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Adverse Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Three recent systematic reviews suggested a relationship between noise exposure and adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the World Health Organization (WHO noise guidelines and conduct an updated systematic review of environmental noise, specifically aircraft and road traffic noise and birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, being small for gestational age and congenital malformations. Materials and methods: We reviewed again all the papers on environmental noise and birth outcomes included in the previous three systematic reviews and conducted a systematic search on noise and birth outcomes to update previous reviews. Web of Science, PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched for papers published between June 2014 (end date of previous systematic review and December 2016 using a list of specific search terms. Studies were also screened in the reference list of relevant reviews/articles. Further inclusion and exclusion criteria for the studies provided by the WHO expert group were applied. Risk of bias was assessed according to criteria from the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for case-control and cohort studies. Finally, we applied the GRADE principles to our systematic review in a reproducible and appropriate way for judgment about quality of evidence. Results: In total, 14 studies are included in this review, six studies on aircraft noise and birth outcomes, five studies (two with more or less the same population on road traffic noise and birth outcomes and three related studies on total ambient noise that is likely to be mostly traffic noise that met the criteria. The number of studies on environmental noise and birth outcomes is small and the quality of evidence generally ranges from very low to low, particularly in case of the older studies. The quality is better for the more recent traffic noise and birth outcomes studies. As there were too few

  14. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2017-10-01

    GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  16. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D.; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D.; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W.; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J.; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T.; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies. This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. PMID:28077473

  17. Effects of environmental risks and polygenic loading for schizophrenia on cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Emma; Bois, Catherine; Gibson, Jude; Duff, Barbara; Watson, Andrew; Roberts, Neil; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Hall, Jeremy; McIntosh, Andrew M; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2017-06-01

    There are established differences in cortical thickness (CT) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar (BD) patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown to what extent environmental or genetic risk factors impact on CT in these populations. We have investigated the effect of Environmental Risk Scores (ERS) and Polygenic Risk Scores for SCZ (PGRS-SCZ) on CT. Structural MRI scans were acquired at 3T for patients with SCZ or BD (n=57) and controls (n=41). Cortical reconstructions were generated in FreeSurfer (v5.3). The ERS was created by determining exposure to cannabis use, childhood adverse events, migration, urbanicity and obstetric complications. The PGRS-SCZ were generated, for a subset of the sample (Patients=43, HC=32), based on the latest PGC GWAS findings. ANCOVAs were used to test the hypotheses that ERS and PGRS-SCZ relate to CT globally, and in frontal and temporal lobes. An increase in ERS was negatively associated with CT within temporal lobe for patients. A higher PGRS-SCZ was also related to global cortical thinning for patients. ERS effects remained significant when including PGRS-SCZ as a fixed effect. No relationship which survived FDR correction was found for ERS and PGRS-SCZ in controls. Environmental risk for SCZ was related to localised cortical thinning in patients with SCZ and BD, while increased PGRS-SCZ was associated with global cortical thinning. Genetic and environmental risk factors for SCZ appear therefore to have differential effects. This provides a mechanistic means by which different risk factors may contribute to the development of SCZ and BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential adverse effects of oseltamivir in rats: males are more vulnerable than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed Ali

    2011-09-01

    Oseltamivir is the most widely used antiviral drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. However, not much is known about its adverse effects. The potential side effects were investigated in male and female rats (140-170 g). Oseltamivir was administered at 2.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 5 days. For both genders, treatment with oseltamivir resulted in significant reductions in the hepatic activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Also for both genders, oseltamivir produced modest reductions in the hepatic activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, quinone oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A, as well as hepatic glutathione content. For both genders, neither the kidney functions nor protein profile was affected by oseltamivir. Oseltamivir also caused significant elevation in serum levels of both triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol and in the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, in both genders. For male animals only, oseltamivir treatment elevated the serum level of total cholesterol as well as the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Oseltamivir caused oxidative stress and acute toxicity in the liver, and disrupted the cholesterol and lipid metabolism but was less likely to cause serious drug interactions. There was a sexual differentiation in these adverse effects, with adverse effects being more evident in male rats.

  19. Evaluating bio environmental effects of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on water and aquatic organism of Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatti, F.

    2000-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants is always subjected to emission of some radioactive materials in the form of gaseous, liquids and solids in the environment. The heat from condenser coolant discharged to the sea can have some adverse effects on biological systems as thermal pollution. In this project, the radiation and thermal effects on Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants on aquatic animals in Persian Gulf were studied. The mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of pollutant and pathways of radioactive materials from air to sea water and from sea to animals and human bodies were considered. some environmental samples from Persian Gulf were measured for radioactivity using high-purity Ge/Li detectors and Gamma-spectroscopy. The results indicates that the erection of B usher Nuclear Power Plants and its operation in the normal operation can have no adverse effects on environment, and also its thermal pollution is of no importance due to low area for coolant discharges

  20. Shared Physiological and Molecular Responses in Marine Fish and Invertebrates to Environmental Hypoxia: Potential Biomarkers of Adverse Impacts on Marine Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.; Rahman, S.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the effects of environmental exposure to hypoxia (dissolved oxygen: reproduction, growth and metabolism in both fish and invertebrates is essential for accurate predictions of its chronic impacts on marine communities. Marked disruption of reproduction and its endocrine control was observed in Atlantic croaker collected from the hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Recent research has shown that growth and its physiological upregulation is also impaired in hypoxia-exposed marine fish. Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP), which inhibits growth, was increased in croaker livers, whereas plasma levels of IGF, the primary regulator of growth, were decreased in snapper after hypoxia exposure. In addition, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates changes in metabolism during adaptation to hypoxia, was upregulated in croaker collected from hypoxic environments. Interestingly, similar changes in the expression of IGFBP and HIF-1 have been found in marine crustaceans after hypoxia exposure, suggesting these responses to hypoxia are common to marine fish and invertebrates. Preliminary field studies indicate that hypoxia exposure also causes epigenetic modifications, including increases in global DNA methylation, and that these epigenetic changes can influence reproduction and growth in croaker. Epigenetic modifications can be passed to offspring and persist in future generations no longer exposed to an environmental stressor further aggravating its long-term adverse impacts on population abundance and delaying recovery. The growing availability of complete invertebrate genomes and high-throughput DNA sequencing indicates similar epigenetic studies can now be conducted with marine invertebrates. Collectively, the results indicate that environmental hypoxia exposure disrupts major physiological functions in fish and invertebrates critical for maintenance of their populations.

  1. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  3. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions...

  4. Adverse effects of gluten ingestion and advantages of gluten withdrawal in nonceliac autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Matthias, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    In light of the coincident surge in overall gluten intake and the incidence of autoimmune diseases, the possible biological adverse effects of gluten were explored. PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened for reports published between 1964 and 2016 regarding the adverse effects of gluten as well as the effects of a gluten-free diet on autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies describing gluten intake in animal models or cell lines and gluten-free diets in human autoimmune diseases were reviewed. Multiple detrimental aspects of gluten affect human health, including gluten-dependent digestive and extradigestive manifestations mediated by potentially immunological or toxic reactions that induce gastrointestinal inadequacy. Gluten affects the microbiome and increases intestinal permeability. It boosts oxidative stress and affects epigenetic behavior. It is also immunogenic, cytotoxic, and proinflammatory. Gluten intake increases apoptosis and decreases cell viability and differentiation. In certain nonceliac autoimmune diseases, gluten-free diets may help curtail the adverse effects of gluten. Additional in vivo studies are needed to unravel the puzzle of gluten effects in humans and to explore the potential beneficial effects of gluten-free diets in autoimmune diseases. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Tozan, Y; Singer, B H

    2001-09-01

    Roll back malaria (RBM) aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and cost-effective control strategies. But the evidence base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is the discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified multiple malaria control programmes that incorporated environmental management as the central feature. Prominent among them are programmes launched in 1929 and implemented for two decades at copper mining communities in Zambia. The full package of control measures consisted of vegetation clearance, modification of river boundaries, draining swamps, oil application to open water bodies and house screening. Part of the population also was given quinine and was sleeping under mosquito nets. Monthly malaria incidence rates and vector densities were used for surveillance and adaptive tuning of the environmental management strategies to achieve a high level of performance. Within 3-5 years, malaria-related mortality, morbidity and incidence rates were reduced by 70-95%. Over the entire 20 years of implementation, the programme had averted an estimated 4173 deaths and 161,205 malaria attacks. The estimated costs per death and malaria attack averted were US$ 858 and US$ 22.20, respectively. Over the initial 3-5 years start-up period, analogous to the short-duration of cost-effectiveness analyses of current studies, we estimated that the costs per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted were US$ 524-591. However, the strategy has a track record of becoming cost-effective in the longer term, as maintenance costs were much lower: US$ 22-92 per DALY averted. In view of fewer adverse ecological effects, increased sustainability and better uses of local resources and knowledge, environmental management--integrated with pharmacological, insecticidal and bednet interventions

  6. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  7. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in

  8. A Review of Adversity, The Amygdala and the Hippocampus: A Consideration of Developmental Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the human developmental neuroimaging literature that investigates outcomes following exposure to psychosocial adversity is presented with a focus on two subcortical structures – the hippocampus and the amygdala. Throughout this review, we discuss how a consideration of developmental timing of adverse experiences and age at measurement might provide insight into the seemingly discrepant findings across studies. We use findings from animal studies to suggest some mechanisms through which timing of experiences may result in differences across time and studies. The literature suggests that early life may be a time of heightened susceptibility to environmental stressors, but that expression of these effects will vary by age at measurement. PMID:20161700

  9. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Information concerning the use of plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors is presented under the following chapter headings: probable adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; means for mitigating adverse environmental effects; alternative dispositions of plutonium; relationship between local short term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and economic analysis and cost-benefit balancing

  10. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  11. Quality of life and adverse effects of olanzapine versus risperidone therapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Katarina Melo; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves, Maria; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; de Paula Soares Rachetti, Vanessa; Filgueira Júnior, Antônio; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the effects of treatment with an atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine or risperidone) on quality of life (QoL) and to document adverse effects in 115 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attended the ambulatory service of Hospital Dr. João Machado, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables were compared. The QoL Scale validated for Brazil (QLS-BR) was used to evaluate QoL, and adverse effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Patients in both drug groups showed severe impairment in the occupational domain of the QLS-BR. Global QLS-BR scores indicated impairment among risperidone users and severe impairment among olanzapine users. The most significant side effects were associated with risperidone, including asthenia/lassitude/fatigue, somnolence/sedation, paresthesia, change in visual accommodation, increased salivation, diarrhea, orthostatic posture, palpitations/tachycardia, erythema, photosensitivity, weight loss, galactorrhea, decreased sexual desire, erectile/orgasmic dysfunction, vaginal dryness, headache, and physical dependence. QoL was impaired in patients using olanzapine and in those using risperidone. Risperidone use was associated with psychic, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects and other side effects.

  12. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Marie-Claude; Duchaine, Caroline S; Aubé, Karine; Talbot, Denis; Mantha-Bélisle, Marie-Michèle; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; St-Hilaire, France; Biron, Caroline; Vézina, Michel; Brisson, Chantal

    2018-02-28

    Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849) and 2-3 years following (T2, n = 2560) QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91) and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77-1.03). Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.998). Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers' mental health.

  13. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Letellier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES, is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849 and 2–3 years following (T2, n = 2560 QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.91 and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77–1.03. Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75–0.998. Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers’ mental health.

  14. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Zukowski, Sara

    2018-01-09

    Energy drink consumption has increased dramatically among young Canadians, with anecdotal evidence of adverse health effects. There is a lack of population-based studies to examine the prevalence of adverse events from energy drinks, particularly among young people. The current study sought to assess adverse events from energy drinks among a population-based sample of youth and young adults in Canada. An online survey was conducted in 2015 with a national sample of youth (aged 12-17 yr) and young adults (aged 18-24 yr) recruited from a consumer panel. Respondents reported prior consumption of energy drinks as well as adverse outcomes, concurrent activities associated with the outcomes and whether medical attention was sought or considered. Adverse events from coffee were also assessed for comparison. Weighted analyses are reported. Of the 2055 respondents, 1516 (73.8%) reported having ever consumed an energy drink, and 1741 (84.7%) reported having ever consumed coffee (unweighted). Overall, 55.4% of respondents who had ever consumed an energy drink reported that they had experienced at least 1 adverse event, including fast heartbeat (24.7%), difficulty sleeping (24.1%), headache (18.3%), nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (5.1%), chest pain (3.6%) and seizures (0.2%); 3.1% had sought or had considered seeking medical help for an adverse event. The prevalence of reported adverse events was significantly greater among energy drink consumers than among coffee consumers (36.0%) (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.56]), as was the proportion who reported seeking or considering seeking medical help for adverse events (3.1% v. 1.4%) (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.39-3.41]). More than half of youth and young adults who had consumed energy drinks reported adverse outcomes, some serious enough to warrant seeking medical help. The adverse outcomes were consistent with the physiologic effects of caffeine but were significantly more prevalent than with other sources of

  15. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in XRCC3 and Radiation-Induced Adverse Effects on Normal Tissue: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhe Song

    Full Text Available The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3 protein plays an important role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The relationship between XRCC3 polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced adverse effects on normal tissue remains inconclusive. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to elucidate the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and radiation-induced adverse effects on normal tissue. All eligible studies up to December 2014 were identified through a search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Seventeen studies involving 656 cases and 2193 controls were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to evaluate the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced normal tissue adverse effects. We found that the XRCC3 p.Thr241Met (rs861539 polymorphism was significantly associated with early adverse effects induced by radiotherapy (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.31-3.01, P = 0.001. A positive association lacking statistical significance with late adverse effects was also identified (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 0.97-1.68, P = 0.08. In addition, the rs861539 polymorphism was significantly correlated with a higher risk of adverse effects induced by head and neck area irradiation (OR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.49-3.89, p = 0.0003 and breast irradiation (OR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.02-1.95, p = 0.04, whereas the correlation was not significant for lung irradiation or pelvic irradiation. Furthermore, XRCC3 rs1799794 polymorphism may have a protective effect against late adverse effects induced by radiotherapy (OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86, P = 0.01. Well-designed large-scale clinical studies are required to further validate our results.

  16. Mesotherapy-induced panniculitis treated with dapsone: case report and review of reported adverse effects of mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer; Rao, Babar

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a procedure involving the injection of substances into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Used in Europe for decades in the treatment of various medical conditions and cosmetic fat dissolution, the technique only recently became widely available in the United States. Mesotherapy has been surrounded by controversy pertaining to efficacy and has been associated with localized complications, including allergic reactions, necrosis, and infections. Panniculitis is a rare adverse reaction to mesotherapy that may result from injection pressure, local trauma, or the type of injected substances. Treatment options for complications are limited. We report a case of mesotherapy-induced panniculitis successfully treated with dapsone. This case illustrates one of the potential adverse effects of mesotherapy and suggests that dapsone may be effective in the treatment of panniculitis resulting from such injections. Reported adverse effects associated with mesotherapy are also reviewed.

  17. Leveraging 3D chemical similarity, target and phenotypic data in the identification of drug-protein and drug-adverse effect associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    Drug-target identification is crucial to discover novel applications for existing drugs and provide more insights about mechanisms of biological actions, such as adverse drug effects (ADEs). Computational methods along with the integration of current big data sources provide a useful framework for drug-target and drug-adverse effect discovery. In this article, we propose a method based on the integration of 3D chemical similarity, target and adverse effect data to generate a drug-target-adverse effect predictor along with a simple leveraging system to improve identification of drug-targets and drug-adverse effects. In the first step, we generated a system for multiple drug-target identification based on the application of 3D drug similarity into a large target dataset extracted from the ChEMBL. Next, we developed a target-adverse effect predictor combining targets from ChEMBL with phenotypic information provided by SIDER data source. Both modules were linked to generate a final predictor that establishes hypothesis about new drug-target-adverse effect candidates. Additionally, we showed that leveraging drug-target candidates with phenotypic data is very useful to improve the identification of drug-targets. The integration of phenotypic data into drug-target candidates yielded up to twofold precision improvement. In the opposite direction, leveraging drug-phenotype candidates with target data also yielded a significant enhancement in the performance. The modeling described in the current study is simple and efficient and has applications at large scale in drug repurposing and drug safety through the identification of mechanism of action of biological effects.

  18. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  1. Accelerating Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework is increasingly being adopted as a tool for organizing and summarizing the mechanistic information connecting molecular perturbations by environmental stressors with adverse outcomes relevant for ecological and human health outcomes. However, the conventional process for assembly of these AOPs is time and resource intensive, and has been a rate limiting step for AOP use and development. Therefore computational approaches to accelerate the process need to be developed. We previously developed a method for generating computationally predicted AOPs (cpAOPs) by association mining and integration of data from publicly available databases. In this work, a cpAOP network of ~21,000 associations was established between 105 phenotypes from TG-GATEs rat liver data from different time points (including microarray, pathological effects and clinical chemistry data), 994 REACTOME pathways, 688 High-throughput assays from ToxCast and 194 chemicals. A second network of 128,536 associations was generated by connecting 255 biological target genes from ToxCast to 4,980 diseases from CTD using either HT screening activity from ToxCast for 286 chemicals or CTD gene expression changes in response to 2,330 chemicals. Both networks were separately evaluated through manual extraction of disease-specific cpAOPs and comparison with expert curation of the relevant literature. By employing data integration strategies that involve the weighting of n

  2. Environmental assessment for geothermal loan guarantee: South Brawley geothermal exploration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The foregoing analysis indicates that the proposed geothermal field experiment could result in several adverse environmental effects. Such effects would lie primarily in the areas of air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use, and water consumption. However, for the most part, mitigating measures have been, or easily could be, included in project plans to reduce these adverse effects to insignificant levels. Those aspects of the project which are not completely amenable to mitigation by any reasonable means include air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use and water use.

  3. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  4. The association between cumulative adversity and mental health: considering dose and primary focus of adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Giora; Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2012-09-01

    The study addressed the dose-response model in the association of cumulative adversity with mental health. Data of 1,725 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, distress (lifetime depression, depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, optimism/hope). The maximal effect of cumulative trauma emerged in the contrast between 0-2 and 3+ events, where the higher number of events related to higher distress but also to higher well-being. While self-oriented adversity revealed no, or negative, association with well-being, other-oriented adversity revealed a positive association. The study suggests an experiential dose of cumulative adversity leading to a co-activation of distress and well-being. The source of this co-activation seems to be other-oriented adversity.

  5. Adverse effects as a consequence of being the subject of orthopaedic manual therapy training, a worldwide retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, M; Thoomes, E; Carlesso, L; Kerry, R; Rushton, A

    2017-06-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) use a range of manual therapy techniques developed to an advanced level through postgraduate orthopaedic manipulative physical therapy (OMPT) programmes. The aim of this study was to describe the adverse effects experienced by students after having techniques performed on them as part of their OMPT training. A descriptive online survey of current students and recent graduates (≤5 years)m of OMPT programmes across the 22 Member Organisations of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists. The questionnaire was completed by 1640 respondents across 22 countries (1263 graduates, 377 students. Some 60% of respondents reported never having experienced adverse effects during their manual therapy training. Of the 40% who did, 66.4% reported neck pain, 50.9% headache and 32% low back pain. Most reports of neck pain started after a manipulation and/or mobilisation, of which 53.4% lasted ≤24 h, 38.1% > 24 h but <3 months and 13.7% still experienced neck pain to date. A small percentage of respondents (3.3%) reported knowing of a fellow student experiencing a major adverse effect. Mild to moderate adverse effects after practising manual therapy techniques are commonly reported, but usually resolve within 24 h. However, this survey has identified the reported occurrence of major adverse effects that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  7. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters. (LK)

  8. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters

  9. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Local adverse effects associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate or severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Ribeiro Pinto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize local adverse effects (in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs in patients with moderate or severe asthma. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 200 asthma patients followed in the Department of Pharmaceutical Care of the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Referral Center, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had been using ICSs regularly for at least 6 months. Local adverse effects (irritation, pain, dry throat, throat clearing, hoarseness, reduced vocal intensity, loss of voice, sensation of thirst, cough during ICS use, altered sense of taste, and presence of oral candidiasis were assessed using a 30-day recall questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients studied, 159 (79.5% were women. The mean age was 50.7 ± 14.4 years. In this sample, 55 patients (27.5% were using high doses of ICS, with a median treatment duration of 38 months. Regarding the symptoms, 163 patients (81.5% reported at least one adverse effect, and 131 (65.5% had a daily perception of at least one symptom. Vocal and pharyngeal symptoms were identified in 57 (28.5% and 154 (77.0% of the patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dry throat, throat clearing, sensation of thirst, and hoarseness. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported adverse effects related to ICS use were common among the asthma patients evaluated here.

  11. Environmental report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, G.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory's mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws

  12. Environmental report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, G.C. [ed.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory`s mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws.

  13. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  14. The applicability of animal health surveillance systems for post-market monitoring of potential adverse effects of genetically modified (GM) feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, L; Kleter, G A; Kostov, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Guitian, J

    2018-04-20

    A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evidence of outcome effects due to GM feed are consolidated. These outcomes were reviewed and checked for consistency in order to identify plausible syndromes suitable for conducting surveillance. The 24 selected studies showed no consistent changes in any health parameter. There were no repeated studies in any species by GM crop type and animal species. As such, there is insufficient evidence to inform the design of surveillance systems for detecting known adverse effects. Animal health surveillance systems have been proposed for the post market monitoring of potential adverse effects in animals. Such systems were evaluated for their applicability to the detection of hypothetical adverse effects and their strengths and weaknesses to detect syndromes of concern are presented. For known adverse effects, applied controlled post-market studies may yield conclusive and high-quality evidence. For detecting unknown adverse effects, the use of existing surveillance systems may still be of interest. A simulation tool developed within the project can be adapted and applied to existing surveillance systems to explore their applicability to the detection of potential adverse effects of GM feed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Management of adverse effects with antituberculosis chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Wada, Masako

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis has now become a curable disease with chemotherapy. So it is natural that the present issues in tuberculosis management are focused on how to complete standard chemotherapy. In this context, management of adverse effects constitutes an essential part of antituberculosis chemotherapy, as well as directly observed therapy. In this symposium, discussions were held about three major subjects on this issue. First, hepatotoxicity develops frequently and has sometimes fatal outcome, which makes it the most problematic adverse effect. "Management of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy" was published by the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (JST) in 2006. Dr. Shinsho Yoshiba evaluated this recommendation and pointed out that the criteria for discontinuation of drug based on AST, ALT and bilirubin levels is too sensitive and the concept of predicting fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is lacking. He stressed the importance of monitoring serum prothrombin time for predicting FHF. Next, allergic drug reaction such as fever or skin rash often causes distress, although rarely fatal. As isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP) are key drugs for the cure, readministration of these drugs is often attempted by desensitization therapy. "Recommendation about desensitization therapy of antituberculosis drugs" was also published by JST in 1997. Dr. Yoshihiro Kobashi reported high success rates of 79 percent for INH and 75 percent for RFP according to this recommendation. He also reported correlated factor with the success, such as the longer period from the discontinuation to the desensitization therapy and lower doses of drugs at starting desensitization. Finally, we sometimes experience transient worsening of radiographical findings and general symptoms during antituberculosis chemotherapy. This is presumed to be due to allergic reaction to dead bacilli without requiring discontinuation of the drug. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced pneumonia requring

  16. Comparing the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Citalopram with Nortriptylinee in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hedayat Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari H1, Saki M2, Sohrabi P3, Tarrahi MJ4, Movahedi M5, Badrizadeh A6, Baqeri Kh7 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. General Practitioner, Neurology and Psychoiatry Hospital, Khorramabad 4. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 6. B.Sc of Nursing, Staff Member of Research and Technology Office, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 7. B.Sc of Nursing, Psychology hospital Abstract Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most common mental disorders all over the world. An effective treatment preserves an acceptable level of function in the affected patients. Different drugs are used in the treatment of MDD, and each of them has specific therapeutic and adverse effects. Recently, SSRI drugs are used in the treatment of this disorder, and yet there is not enough study about them. Thus, we decided to compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of Nortriptyline with that of Citalopram in MDD. Materials and methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 80 MMD (DSM-IV-TR patients, who that not any other mental, substance and organic disorders were selected. Samples were randomly assigned into two groups which were treated with Nortriptyline or Citalopram. Efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Efficacy was similar in two groups, and no significant differences between the two groups were observed in the mean scores. The comparison of adverse effects between the two groups showed a significant difference in the hypersomnia, dry mouth, anorexia and nausea

  17. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  18. Interplay between Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Childhood Adversity in First-Presentation Psychotic Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C.; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Murray, Robin M.

    2016-01-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis. PMID:27648571

  19. Interplay between Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Childhood Adversity in First-Presentation Psychotic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C; Campbell, Desmond D; Cherny, Stacey S; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J; Murray, Robin M; Vassos, Evangelos; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis.

  20. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  1. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY85 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. All of the tokamak machines, the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), has a full year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak and the RF Test Facility were in operation. The phased approach to TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the establishment of locations for off-site monitoring. An environmental committee established in December 1984 reviewed items of environmental importance. During CY85 no adverse effects to the environmental resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations

  2. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...

  3. Environmental radiations and childhood dynamic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1981-01-01

    In Fukushima prefecture the first nuclear power plant attained criticality in 1971. Since then 6 reactors have been in operation. Increasing concern is the possible adverse effects due to ionizing radiations released from nuclear reactors. As the radiation level around the nuclear power plants is usually low, induced effects are necessarily delayed ones which require tens of years to appear. Among other tissues, embryos and foetuses are most radiosensitive and induced effects result in the change of childhood dynamic statistics. In this report dynamic statistics including stillbirth, perinatal death, neonatal death, infant death, 3rd year examinations were surveyed in 18 health centers in the prefecture from 1961 to 1979. Environmental radiation levels in each district (health centers) were compared and were arranged in order, 1, 2, ... etc. Dynamic statistics were also compared for each district and were arranged in order. Order correlation coefficients were calculated and a linearity between radiation level and health status was tested. No significant values were obtained ranging from 0.66 to -0.43 of correlation coefficients. Still birth decreased 4.4%/y since 1963 and neonatal death decreased 6.7%/y and infant death also decreased 8.7%/y since 1957 on an average. These decreases were negatively correlated with the proliferation of water supply service, sewage service and increase of physicians in 18 districts including 2 which are under continuous observation of environmental radiations released from nuclear power plants. Childhood dynamic statistics have been turning better in the last 10 years in prefecture with the difference of 47 mR/y (lowest values of 56 mR/y on an average in 3 prefectures and highest of 103 mR/y in 4 ones). Environmental radiation may initiate adverse effects on prenatal lives but the hygienic improvement in recent years must extinguish the promotion of the adverse effects. This may be a plausible explanation. (author)

  4. The Matthew Effect and widely prescribed pharmaceuticals lacking environmental monitoring: case study of an exposure-assessment vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing ambient exposure to chemical stressors often begins with time-consuming and costly monitoring studies to establish environmental occurrence. Both human and ecological toxicology are currently challenged by the unknowns surrounding low-dose exposure/effects, compounded by the reality that exposure undoubtedly involves mixtures of multiple stressors whose identities and levels can vary over time. Long absent from the assessment process, however, is whether the full scope of the identities of the stressors is sufficiently known. The Matthew Effect (a psychosocial phenomenon sometimes informally called the "bandwagon effect" or "iceberg effect," among others) may adversely bias or corrupt the exposure assessment process. The Matthew Effect is evidenced by decisions that base the selection of stressors to target in environmental monitoring surveys on whether they have been identified in prior studies, rather than considering the possibility that additional, but previously unreported, stressors might also play important roles in an exposure scenario. The possibility that the Matthew Effect might influence the scope of environmental stressor research is explored for the first time in a comprehensive case study that examines the preponderance of "absence of data" (in contrast to positive data and "data of absence") for the environmental occurrence of a very large class of potential chemical stressors associated with ubiquitous consumer use - active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Comprehensive examination of the published data for an array of several hundred of the most frequently used drugs for whether their APIs are environmental contaminants provides a prototype example to catalyze discussion among the many disciplines involved with assessing risk. The findings could help guide the selection of those APIs that might merit targeting for environmental monitoring (based on the absence of data for environmental occurrence) as well as the prescribing of those

  5. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  6. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  7. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer....406 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the...

  8. Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I, sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  9. Adverse effect of nano-silicon dioxide on lung function of rats with or without ovalbumin immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great advances of nanomaterials have brought out broad important applications, but their possible nanotoxicity and risks have not been fully understood. It is confirmed that exposure of environmental particulate matter (PM, especially ultrafine PM, are responsible for many lung function impairment and exacerbation of pre-existing lung diseases. However, the adverse effect of nanoparticles on allergic asthma is seldom investigated and the mechanism remains undefined. For the first time, this work investigates the relationship between allergic asthma and nanosized silicon dioxide (nano-SiO₂. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ovalbumin (OVA-treated and saline-treated control rats were daily intratracheally administered 0.1 ml of 0, 40 and 80 µg/ml nano-SiO₂ solutions, respectively for 30 days. Increased nano-SiO₂ exposure results in adverse changes on inspiratory and expiratory resistance (Ri and Re, but shows insignificant effect on rat lung dynamic compliance (Cldyn. Lung histological observation reveals obvious airway remodeling in 80 µg/ml nano-SiO₂-introduced saline and OVA groups, but the latter is worse. Additionally, increased nano-SiO₂ exposure also leads to more severe inflammation. With increasing nano-SiO₂ exposure, IL-4 in lung homogenate increases and IFN-γ shows a reverse but insignificant change. Moreover, at a same nano-SiO₂ exposure concentration, OVA-treated rats exhibit higher (significant IL-4 and lower (not significant IFN-γ compared with the saline-treated rats. The percentages of eosinophil display an unexpected result, in which higher exposure results lower eosinophil percentages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This was a preliminary study which for the first time involved the effect of nano-SiO₂ to OVA induced rat asthma model. The results suggested that intratracheal administration of nano-SiO₂ could lead to the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and the airway remolding with or without OVA

  10. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... prevailing piece rate, the agreed-upon collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate...-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural... the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates (AEWRs) and the 2010 maximum allowable meal and travel...

  11. Surveillance of adverse effects following vaccination and safety of immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Luhm, Karin Regina; Monteiro, Sandra Aparecida Moreira Gomes; Freitas, Fabiana Ramos Martin de

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the review was to analyze conceptual and operational aspects of systems for surveillance of adverse events following immunization. Articles available in electronic format were included, published between 1985 and 2009, selected from the PubMed/Medline databases using the key words "adverse events following vaccine surveillance", "post-marketing surveillance", "safety vaccine" and "Phase IV clinical trials". Articles focusing on specific adverse events were excluded. The major aspects underlying the Public Health importance of adverse events following vaccination, the instruments aimed at ensuring vaccine safety, and the purpose, attributes, types, data interpretation issues, limitations, and further challenges in adverse events following immunization were describe, as well as strategies to improve sensitivity. The review was concluded by discussing the challenges to be faced in coming years with respect to ensuring the safety and reliability of vaccination programs.

  12. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection.

  13. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. Final environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of environmental monitoring programs and research during development of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley is presented. One of the major objectives was to develop programs for environmental assessment and protection that could serve as an example for similar types of development. The monitoring studies were designed to establish baseline conditions (predevelopment) of the physical, biological, and human environment. Potential changes were assessed and adverse environmental impacts minimized. No major environmental impacts resulted from development of the Raft River Geothermal Research Facility. The results of the physical, biological, and human environment monitoring programs are summarized.

  14. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen; Aََََbdurazak Jumale; Rajkapoor Balasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF) since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects ass...

  15. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  16. The Adverse Effects and Treatment Results of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy During Fasting/Non-Fasting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Tural Onur, Seda; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur; Tanriverdi, Elif; Bagci, Belma Akbaba; Bahadir, Ayse; Hattatoglu, Didem Gorgun; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Yurt, Sibel

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit. For the fasting patients, we prescribed bupropion or varenicline after dinner (once daily) as the maintenance therapy. We recorded demographic characteristics of the patients, fasting state, drugs taken for smoking cessation, and the dosage of the medication. At the first follow-up visit, adverse effects seen with the treatment were recorded. We conducted telephone interviews 6 months after the first visits of the patients to learn the current smoking status of the groups. Of the total 57 patients, 20 (35.1%) were fasting and 37 (64.9%) were not fasting. Fasting and non-fasting patients were similar for sex, age, smoking pack-years, marital status, educational status, and mean Fagerström scores (p >.05). Adverse effects and quit rates after 6 months of follow-up were similar between the fasting and non-fasting groups (p >.05). Although our sample size was small, we found no difference in the rates of adverse effects or smoking cessation using a single daily oral dose of bupropion or varenicline between a fasting group and a non-fasting group that received conventional dosing.

  17. Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation and potential adverse health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Maric, B.; Zivkovic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of protection from the non-ionizing radiation has presented an actual subject in the last twenty years both worldwide and in our country. Great attention has been paid to this problem throughout the world and there is not almost a field of human activities that disregards the effect of non-ionizing radiation to the human health.The object of this work is to point concisely, on the basis of numerous domestic and foreign referential data, to the potential adverse health effects caused by uncontrolled exposure to non-ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Final environmental statement related to operation of White Mesa Uranium Project, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental impact statements are presented under the following headings: the existing environment; mining and milling operations; air quality; land use; mineral resources; soils; radiological impacts; socioeconomic impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relation between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments

  19. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  20. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  1. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program. Volume IV. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    A broad overview is presented of the many implications of LMFBR program implementation, up to and encompassing a fully developed LMFBR power plant economy, including the secondary impacts, the unavoidable adverse environmental impacts, cumulative environmental impacts, and cost-benefit analyses, and alternative energy strategies. Under the heading of secondary impacts, the national implications of the availability of electricity from LMFBRs, and the specific economic impacts of the LMFBR program are examined. The currently feasible alternatives and potential future alternatives for mitigating adverse environmental impacts of the LMFBR fuel cycle are described. The problems of safeguarding special nuclear material from potential diversion to unauthorized purposes are analyzed. The cumulative environmental effects of LMFBR operation to the Year 2020, the decommissioning of LMFBRs and fuel cycle facilities upon the completion of their useful life, the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that will accompany implementation of an LMFBR economy, and an analysis of the costs and benefits of implementing the LMFBR Program are included. (U.S.)

  2. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  3. Zinc Ions as Effectors of Environmental Oxidative Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-redox active transition metal Zn is a micronutrient that plays essential roles in protein structure, catalysis and regulation of function. Inhalational exposure to ZnO or Zn salts in occupational and environmental settings leads to adverse health effects, the severity of ...

  4. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy A A Comhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown.In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD, a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity.From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288 were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage.ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  5. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  6. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  7. Evidence behind FDA alerts for drugs with adverse cardiovascular effects: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  8. Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, a new source of nicotine exposure was introduced to the United States market, the electronic cigarette (ECIG) or "e-cigarette". Since then, the USA ECIG market has been doubling annually. Despite their widespread popularity, there is a paucity of existing data regarding ECIG toxicity. We report the experience of a statewide poison system. The database of a statewide poison system was queried for human ECIG exposures from 2010 (when Poisindex code first generated) through 2012. Year, age, manner and route of exposure, estimate exposure amount, product concentration, if evaluated at healthcare facility and symptoms were recorded. A total of 35 cases were identified--4 in 2010, 12 in 2011, 19 in 2012. Age range 8 months-60 years. Reported symptoms were mild and transient. Five patients were evaluated in an emergency department and none were admitted. Product concentrations ranged from 4 to 30 mg of nicotine per ml. Poison centers are likely to see an increase in exposures to ECIG given their growing popularity. Our modest results suggest that adverse effects and accidental exposures to ECIG cartridges are unlikely to result in serious toxicity.

  9. Acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients in Japan. Study of 31 cases at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Takuya; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hanyu, Nahoko

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients has increased in Japan. HIV-positive patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. This paper retrospectively reports the acute adverse effects of radiation therapy on HIV-positive patients who were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious diseases Center Komagome Hospital (TMCICK). Thirty-one cases involving 24 HIV-positive cancer patients who were treated at TMCICK from January 1997 to March 2009 were included in this study. All acute adverse effects of radiation therapy were examined during, and one month after, the last radiation therapy session. Acute adverse effects were classified according to the site of radiation therapy treatment and analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Grade 3 acute adverse effects were seen in 17% of cases, and Grade 2 toxicities were found in 23% of patients. Damage to the skin and mucosa, including stomatitis or diarrhea, tended to occur after low-dose radiation therapy; however, no severe acute adverse effects were seen in other organs, such as the brain, lung, and bone. Acute adverse effects tended to occur earlier in HIV-positive patients and became severe more frequently than in the general population. In particular, disorders of the mucosa, such as those of the oral cavity, pharynx, and intestine, tended to occur rapidly. It was shown that radiation therapy is safe when treatment is performed carefully and that it is a very useful treatment for cancer in HIV-positive patients. (author)

  10. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  11. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months

  12. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  13. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  14. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  15. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  16. The National Environmental Policy Act and DOE's programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisenbaker, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires that all agencies of the federal government prepare a detailed statement on any action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Such a statement must include the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, and alternatives to the proposed action. In requiring environmental statements, NEPA encourages viewing related actions collectively and looking at cumulative impacts. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is a broad environmental analysis of a program or policy prepared when actions are connected and may have cumulative environmental impacts. The PEIS benefits include providing input into an agency's planning and decision making, assessing potential environmental consequences of a wide range of alternatives before options have been foreclosed, and allowing consideration of systemwide impacts of various alternatives early in the decision-making process. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare its PEIS on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. The PEIS will consider programmatic issues and integrated approaches to the program; address national, program-wide alternatives rather than site-specific actions; and provide for subsequent NEPA documents of narrower scope to be prepared to address site-specific or project-specific actions

  17. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred; Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael; Prooijen, Monique van; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Ménard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Laperriere, Norm; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  18. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  19. Adverse Outcome Pathway Networks II: Network Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Angrish, Michelle M; Fortin, Marie C; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leonard, Marc; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Munn, Sharon; O'Brien, Jason M; Pollesch, Nathan L; Smith, L Cody; Zhang, Xiaowei; Knapen, Dries

    2018-02-28

    Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks. First, graph theory-based approaches for identifying important topological features are illustrated using two example AOP networks derived from existing AOP descriptions. Second, considerations for identifying the most significant path(s) through an AOP network from either a biological or risk assessment perspective are described. Finally, approaches for identifying interactions among AOPs that may result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic responses, or previously undefined emergent patterns of response, are introduced. Along with a companion article (Knapen et al. part I), these concepts set the stage for development of tools and case studies that will facilitate more rigorous analysis of AOP networks, and the utility of AOP network-based predictions, for use in research and regulatory decision-making. Collectively, this work addresses one of the major themes identified through a SETAC Horizon Scanning effort focused on advancing the AOP framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Light pollution : A case study in framing an environmental problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Light pollution is a topic gaining importance and acceptance in environmental discourse. This concept provides a framework for categorizing the adverse effects of nighttime lighting, which advocacy groups and regulatory efforts are increasingly utilizing. However, the ethical significance of the

  1. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  2. Differential renal adverse effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin in preterm infants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacifici GM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Maria Pacifici Medical School, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Section of Pharmacology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of renal adverse effects caused by ibuprofen or indomethacin in order to choose the safer drug to administer to preterm infants. Methods: The following three parameters of renal function were taken into consideration: 1 the urine output; 2 the serum creatinine concentration; and 3 the frequency of oliguria. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and Embase databases as search engines. Results: Urine output ranged from 3.5±1.2 to 4.0±1.4 mL/kg/h after ibuprofen treatment, and from 2.8±1.1 to 3.6±1.4 mL/kg/h after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 higher than those for indomethacin. The serum creatinine concentrations ranged from 0.98±0.24 to 1.48±0.2 mg/dL after ibuprofen treatment, and from 1.06±0.24 and 2.03±2.10 mg/dL after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 lower than those for indomethacin. The frequency of oliguria ranged from 1.0% to 9.6% (ibuprofen and from 14.8% to 40.0% (indomethacin, and was significantly lower following ibuprofen than indomethacin administration. In infants with body weight lower than 1,000 g, oliguria appeared in 5% (ibuprofen and 40% (indomethacin; P=0.02. Conclusion: Indomethacin is associated with more severe renal adverse effects than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is less nephrotoxic than indomethacin and should be used to treat patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Immaturity increases the frequency of adverse effects of indomethacin. Keywords: ibuprofen, indomethacin, patent-ductus-arteriosus, renal-side-effects

  3. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  5. Expert panel evaluation of health information technology effects on adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Kern, Lisa M; Brenner, Samantha; Hufstader, Meghan; Patel, Vaishali; Kaushal, Rainu

    2014-08-01

    Adverse events (AEs) among hospitalized patients occur frequently and result in significant sequelae. Federal policy is incentivizing health information technology (HIT) use, although research demonstrating safety benefits from HIT is mixed. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of HIT on reducing 21 different inpatient AEs. Identifying AEs most likely to be reduced by HIT can inform the design of future studies evaluating its effectiveness. We conducted a modified Delphi panel of national experts in HIT and safety. We conducted a focused literature review to inform the experts. Using a novel framework, experts rated each AE as 'definitely reduced by health IT,' 'possibly reduced by health IT' and 'not likely to be reduced by health IT'. From our panel discussion, experts identified six AEs as 'definitely reduced by health IT': (1) adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with digoxin; (2) ADE associated with IV heparin; (3) ADE associated with hypoglycaemic agents; (4) ADE associated with low molecular weight heparin and factor Xa inhibitor; (5) contrast nephropathy associated with catheter angiography; and (6) ADE hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile. Understanding the effects of HIT on patient outcomes will be essential to ensuring that the significant federal investment results in anticipated improvements. This study serves as an important early step in helping with the design of future work evaluating level of HIT infrastructure and rates of inpatient AEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adverse Renal Effects of Novel Molecular Oncologic Targeted Therapies: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D. Jhaveri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel targeted anti-cancer therapies have resulted in improvement in patient survival compared to standard chemotherapy. Renal toxicities of targeted agents are increasingly being recognized. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here we review the adverse renal effects associated with a selection of currently approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to EGFR, HER2, BRAF, MEK, ALK, PD1/PDL1, CTLA-4, and novel agents targeted to VEGF/R and TKIs. In summary, electrolyte disorders, renal impairment and hypertension are the most commonly reported events. Of the novel targeted agents, ipilumumab and cetuximab have the most nephrotoxic events reported. The early diagnosis and prompt recognition of these renal adverse events are essential for the general nephrologist taking care of these patients.

  7. Adverse Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish N. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs were developed with the prime object of minimizing gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are seen with the use of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Their long-term use is limited by the development of hypertension, edema, and congestive heart failure in a significant proportion of patients. NSAIDs block the activity of both COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, which mediate the enzymatic conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 and other prostaglandin (PG metabolites. It is well established that the cardiovascular profile of COX-2 inhibitors can be accounted for by inhibition of COX-dependent PG synthesis. Following the COX-mediated synthesis of PGH2 from arachidonate, PGH2 is metabolized to one of at least five bioactive PGs, including PGE2, PGI2, PGF2, PGD2, or thromboxane A2 (TXA2. These prostanoids have pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, altering platelet function and renal function, and they are acting either as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors. Although COX-1 and COX-2 exhibit similar biochemical activity in converting arachidonate to PGH2in vitro, the ultimate prostanoids they produce in vivo may be different due to differential regulation of COX-1 and COX-2, tissue distribution, and availability of the prostanoid synthases. PGs have been established as being critically involved in mitigating hypertension, helping to maintain medullary blood flow (MBF, promoting urinary salt excretion, and preserving the normal homeostasis of thrombosis, and the researchers found that the use of COX-2 inhibitors caused many serious complications in altering the normal body homeostasis. The purpose of the present research is to explain briefly the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors on the renal and cardiovascular system.

  8. Adverse effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hwan; Kang, Hye-Min; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a concerning environmental pollutant that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in the aquatic food web. However, the effects of MeHg on marine zooplankton are poorly understood even though zooplankton are considered key mediators of the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in high-trophic marine organisms. Here, the toxicity of MeHg in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus was assessed, and its adverse effects on growth rate and reproduction were demonstrated. Antioxidant enzymatic activities were increased in the presence of MeHg, indicating that these enzymes play an important role in the defense response to MeHg, which is regulated by a complex mechanism. Subsequent activation of different patterns of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was demonstrated, providing a mechanistic approach to understand the signaling pathways involved in the effects of MeHg. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the toxicity of MeHg and the underlying defense mechanism in response to MeHg exposure in marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Are adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs different in symptomatic partial and idiopathic generalized epilepsies? The Portuguese-Brazilian validation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H H; Alonso, N B; Vidal-Dourado, M; Carbonel, T D; de Araújo Filho, G M; Caboclo, L O; Yacubian, E M; Guilhoto, L M

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of administration of the Portuguese-Brazilian translation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to 100 patients (mean age=34.5, SD=12.12; 56 females), 61 with symptomatic partial epilepsy (SPE) and 39 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) (ILAE, 1989) who were on a stable antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen and being treated in a Brazilian tertiary epilepsy center. Carbamazepine was the most commonly used AED (43.0%), followed by valproic acid (32.0%). Two or more AEDs were used by 69.0% of patients. The mean LAEP score (19 questions) was 37.6 (SD=13.35). The most common adverse effects were sleepiness (35.0%), memory problems (35.0%), and difficulty in concentrating (25.0%). Higher LAEP scores were associated with polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.005), female gender (P0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Depression: r=0.637, P<0.001; Anxiety: r=0.621, P<0.001) dimensions. LAEP overall scores were similar in people with SPE and IGE and were not helpful in differentiating adverse effects in these two groups. Clinical variables that influenced global LAEP were seizure frequency (P=0.050) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the last month (P=0.031) in the IGE group, and polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.003 and P=0.003) in both IGE and SPE groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental consequences of new energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Torbjoern

    1991-09-01

    This report summarises and assesses the environmental consequences associated with new energy technologies, with particular emphasis on their use for space heating supplies in the built environment. In the case of solar heating, it is primarily the processes associated with the production of the necessary materials and ground use requirements that can adversely affect the environment. There is also a certain risk associated with the leakage of heat transfer fluid. For heat stores, problem areas are primarily those associated with heating of the ground, discharge of foreign substances in connection with water treatment and conflicts of other users of ground water. The main adverse effects of heat pumps are their emissions of CFCs, which damage the ozone layer, utilisation of certain types of heat sources and the need to provide primary energy for mechanical drive of the pumps. All three of these new energy technologies are regarded as having less environmental consequences than conventional alternatives, although this assumes a change to less hazardous working media in heat pumps. A mutual comparison of the three technologies indicates that solar heating and heat stores have somewhat better environmental characteristics than heat pumps

  11. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  12. Annex I commitments: adverse economic impacts on developing countries: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, M.K.; Gupta, S.; Bhandari, P. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2000-07-01

    This document examines the claim that legally binding commitments undertaken by Annex I Parties to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would result in adverse economic impacts on developing countries. This is examined through the case of the Indian economy. The impact of a range of carbon taxes on trade between India and the US (a major trading partner) is analysed, using a partial, static framework. This study reveals that impacts on India of commitments of Annex I countries to comply with emissions reduction targets 'prima facie' are marginal. However, economies importing capital intensive products from Annex I countries are likely to have adverse second-order impacts. In such a scenario, there is a case for increased south-south trade with increased flows from countries with a large industrial base. Higher costs in Annex I countries will have a two-fold effect on developing economies in the long-term: more rapid evolution of their indigenous industrial base and positive environmental transitions that accompany development. (author)

  13. Efficacy of Environmental Health E-Training for Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, Megan L.; Yancey, Elissa; Beidler, Caroline; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Communities report a low level of trust in environmental health media coverage. In order to support risk communication objectives, the goals of the research study were to identify whether or not there is a gap in environmental reporting training for journalists, to outline journalists’ methods for gathering environmental health news, to observe journalists’ attitudes toward environmental health training and communication, and to determine if electronic training (online/e-training) can effectively train journalists in environmental health topics. The results indicated that environmental journalists have very little to no formal environmental journalism training. In addition, a significant percentage of journalists do not have any formal journalism education. Respondents most preferred to receive continuing environmental journalism training online. Online instruction was also perceived as effective in increasing knowledge and providing necessary reporting tools, even among participants adverse to online instructional methods. Our findings highlight the changing media climate’s need for an increase in electronic journalism education opportunities to support environmental health journalism competencies among working professional journalists. PMID:26998499

  14. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  15. Environmental contaminant mixtures modulate in vitro influenza infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Bandoro, Christopher; Shehata, Laila

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, particularly organochlorinated contaminants (OCs), are associated with a ranged of adverse health effects, including impairment of the immune system and antiviral immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) is an infectious disease of major global public health concern and exposure...... studies such as ours can shed light on the complex processes underlying host-pathogen-pollutant interactions....... to OCs can increase the susceptibility, morbidity, and mortality to disease. It is however unclear how pollutants are interacting and affecting the outcome of viral infections at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the effects of a mixture of environmentally relevant OCs on IAV infectivity...

  16. Adverse Effects of Nonsystemic Steroids (Inhaled, Intranasal, and Cutaneous): a Review of the Literature and Suggested Monitoring Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ratika; Fonacier, Luz S

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled, intranasal, and cutaneous steroids are prescribed by physicians for a plethora of disease processes including asthma and rhinitis. While the high efficacy of this class of medication is well known, the wide range of adverse effects, both local and systemic, is not well elucidated. It is imperative to monitor total steroid burden in its varied forms as well as tracking for possible side effects that may be caused by a high cumulative dose of steroids. This review article highlights the adverse effects of different steroid modalities as well as suggests a monitoring tool to determine steroid totality and side effects.

  17. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  18. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY84 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and PPPL's largest tokamak, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) had a complete year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak was in operation and the RF Test Facility came on-line. The phased approach of TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the addition of neutron monitors. During CY84 there were no adverse effects to the environment resulting from any operational program at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations

  19. Adverse respiratory effects associated with cadmium exposure in small-scale jewellery workshops in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Blanc, Paul D; Sahu, Subhashis

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important metal with both common occupational and environmental sources of exposure. Although it is likely to cause adverse respiratory effects, relevant human data are relatively sparse. A cross-sectional study of 133 workers in jewellery workshops using Cd under poor hygienic conditions and 54 referent jewellery sales staffs was performed. We assessed symptoms, performed spirometry, measured urinary Cd levels in all study subjects and quantified airborne total oxidant contents for 35 job areas in which the studied workforce was employed. We tested the association of symptoms with exposure relative to the unexposed referents using logistic regression analysis, and tested the association between urinary Cd levels and lung function using multiple regression analysis, adjusting for demographics, smoking and area-level airborne oxidants. Exposed workers had 10 times higher urinary Cd values than referents (geometric mean 5.8 vs 0.41 µg/dl; p600 ml decrement for each, pdecrement in FVC and a 39 ml decrement in FEV1 (p<0.01), taking into account other covariates including workplace airborne oxidant concentrations. This cohort of heavily exposed jewellery workers experienced frequent respiratory symptoms and manifested a marked deficit in lung function, demonstrating a strong response to Cd exposure.

  20. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  1. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  2. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  3. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  4. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  5. Perceived medication adverse effects and coping strategies reported by chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, R.H.E.; Denig, P.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Jaarsma, T.

    Data on medication adverse effects (AEs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) are primarily based on results from clinical trials. Little is known about AEs perceived by CHF patients in daily practice and how patients deal with these subjective AEs. To describe the scope and nature of perceived AEs of CHF

  6. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  7. PPTOX III: Environmental Stressors in the Developmental Origins of Disease - Evidence and Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Barouki, Robert; Gluckman, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Fetal and early postnatal development constitutes the most vulnerable time period of human life in regard to adverse effects of environmental hazards. Subtle effects during development can lead to functional deficits and increased disease risk later in life. The hypothesis stating that environmen...

  8. Effects of environmental noise on cognitive (dys)functions in schizophrenia: A pilot within-subjects experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Bernice; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly in attention, memory and executive function domains, is commonly present and associated with poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. In healthy adults, environmental noise adversely affects many cognitive domains, including those known to be compromised in schizophrenia. This pilot study examined whether environmental noise causes further cognitive deterioration in a small sample of people with schizophrenia. Eighteen outpatients with schizophrenia on sta...

  9. The consequences of early life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccari, S.; Krugers, H.J.; Morley-Fletcher, S.; Szyf, M.; Brunton, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early life experiences, such as stress exposure or sub-optimal maternal care can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as

  10. Neuroproteomics and Environmental Chemical-induced Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological advances in science have aided the field of neuroproteomics with refined tools for the study of the expression, interaction, and function of proteins in the nervous system. With the aid of bioinformatics, neuroproteomics can reveal the organization of dynamic, funct...

  11. Iohexol and iopamidol myelography in the dog: a clinical trial comparing adverse effects and myelographic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.; Jakovljevic, S.; Teclaw, R.F.; Han, C.M.; Hurd, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In a blind clinical trial, adverse effects after iohexol and iopamidol myelography were evaluated in 151 dogs. Eighty-one dogs were given iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and 70 dogs were given iopamidol (200 mgI/ml) by pre-determined assignment. Each dog was evaluated postmyelographically for seizures, hyperthermia, prolonged recovery from anesthesia and intensification of pre-existing neural signs. Myelographic quality was evaluated with a subjective scoring method. In comparing iohexol and iopamidol groups, there was not a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects or in myelographic quality. Iopamidol and iohexol appeared to be equally efficacious for routine canine myelography

  12. ADVERPred-Web Service for Prediction of Adverse Effects of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergey M; Lagunin, Alexey A; Rudik, Anastasia V; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2018-01-22

    Application of structure-activity relationships (SARs) for the prediction of adverse effects of drugs (ADEs) has been reported in many published studies. Training sets for the creation of SAR models are usually based on drug label information which allows for the generation of data sets for many hundreds of drugs. Since many ADEs may not be related to drug consumption, one of the main problems in such studies is the quality of data on drug-ADE pairs obtained from labels. The information on ADEs may be included in three sections of the drug labels: "Boxed warning," "Warnings and Precautions," and "Adverse reactions." The first two sections, especially Boxed warning, usually contain the most frequent and severe ADEs that have either known or probable relationships to drug consumption. Using this information, we have created manually curated data sets for the five most frequent and severe ADEs: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, severe hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity, with more than 850 drugs on average for each effect. The corresponding SARs were built with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software and had balanced accuracy values of 0.74, 0.7, 0.77, 0.67, and 0.75, respectively. They were implemented in a freely available ADVERPred web service ( http://www.way2drug.com/adverpred/ ), which enables a user to predict five ADEs based on the structural formula of compound. This web service can be applied for estimation of the corresponding ADEs for hits and lead compounds at the early stages of drug discovery.

  13. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting and the preventive measures to be followed to avoid them. Methods: The literature was reviewed through searching in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists to identify the related articles. Results: Many health benefits have been attributed to Islamic fasting, including the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and asthma. On the other hand, some studies have mentioned a few health problems associated with Islamic fasting, such as headaches, heartburn, constipation, dehydration, decreased sleep quality, and anemia, which may occur in some fasting individuals during Ramadan. Conclusion: Islamic fasting could be beneficial for health if it is performed correctly. During Ramadan, fasting individuals are advised to adhere to a balanced diet that contains sufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses, meat, fish, milk, and dairy products. Moreover, fasting individuals must drink adequate fluids, such as water, fresh fruit juices, and soups, in order to prevent the possible adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting.

  14. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  15. A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graef, F.; Römbke, J.; Binimelis, R.; Myhr, A.I.; Hilbeck, A.; Breckling, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Stachow, U.; Catacora-Vargas, G.; Bohn, T.; Quist, D.; Darvas, B.; Dudel, G.; Oehen, B.; Meyer, H.; Henle, K.; Wynne, B.; Metzger, M.J.; Knäbe, S.; Settele, J.; Székács, A.; Wurbs, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Murphy-Bokern, D.; Buiatti, M.; Giovannetti, M.; Debeljak, M.; Andersen, E.; Paetz, A.; Dzeroski, S.; Tappeser, B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Wosniok, W.; Séralini, G.-E.; Aslaksen, I.; Pesch, R.; Maly, S.; Werner, A.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments

  16. Renal Tubular Acidosis an Adverse Effect of PD-1 Inhibitor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy El Bitar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Urine and blood studies were in favor of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA. Following a negative workup for an underlying etiology, immunotherapy-induced RTA was suspected. Withholding of the offending agent and initiation of steroid therapy resulted in adequate response. The present report provides the first presentation of RTA as a renal immune-related adverse event secondary to nivolumab. Nephrologists and oncologists should be familiar with potentially life-threatening renal side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  17. Caregiver Acceptance of Adverse Effects and Use of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Mark; Wolfson, Christina; Vandal, Alain C.; Bergman, Howard; Xie, Qihao

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers play a determining role in choosing treatments for persons with Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to examine caregivers' willingness to have persons with Alzheimer's disease continue taking cholinesterase inhibitors in the event that any 1 of 11 adverse effects was to occur. Data were gathered via postal questionnaire…

  18. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Benedict, Merle D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated. PMID:23888128

  19. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass....... Some studies also indicate that exercise might moderate ADT-related changes in body composition. However, beneficial effects of exercise interventions on other ADT-related conditions have not been conclusively proven. Trials investigating the effects of ADT on fracture risk and development of diabetes...

  20. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  1. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  2. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  3. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  4. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making.

  5. Vitamin C: intravenous use by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and adverse effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Padayatty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal information and case reports suggest that intravenously administered vitamin C is used by Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM practitioners. The scale of such use in the U.S. and associated side effects are unknown.We surveyed attendees at annual CAM Conferences in 2006 and 2008, and determined sales of intravenous vitamin C by major U.S. manufacturers/distributors. We also queried practitioners for side effects, compiled published cases, and analyzed FDA's Adverse Events Database. Of 199 survey respondents (out of 550, 172 practitioners administered IV vitamin C to 11,233 patients in 2006 and 8876 patients in 2008. Average dose was 28 grams every 4 days, with 22 total treatments per patient. Estimated yearly doses used (as 25 g/50 ml vials were 318,539 in 2006 and 354,647 in 2008. Manufacturers' yearly sales were 750,000 and 855,000 vials, respectively. Common reasons for treatment included infection, cancer, and fatigue. Of 9,328 patients for whom data is available, 101 had side effects, mostly minor, including lethargy/fatigue in 59 patients, change in mental status in 21 patients and vein irritation/phlebitis in 6 patients. Publications documented serious adverse events, including 2 deaths in patients known to be at risk for IV vitamin C. Due to confounding causes, the FDA Adverse Events Database was uninformative. Total numbers of patients treated in the US with high dose vitamin C cannot be accurately estimated from this study.High dose IV vitamin C is in unexpectedly wide use by CAM practitioners. Other than the known complications of IV vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe. Physicians should inquire about IV vitamin C use in patients with cancer, chronic, untreatable, or intractable conditions and be observant of unexpected harm, drug interactions, or benefit.

  6. The economic cost of adverse health effects from wildfire-smoke exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuho Kochi; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    The economic costs of adverse health effects associated with exposure to wildfire smoke should be given serious consideration in determining the optimal wildfire management policy. Unfortunately, the literature in this research area is thin. In an effort to better understand the nature of these economic costs, we review and synthesise the relevant literature in three...

  7. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  9. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Format for Presentation of Material in Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discussed. In the case of nuclear power plant construction or siting, consideration will be given to the.... Affected environment. The environmental impact statement will succinctly describe the environment to be... decisionmaking. The discussion will include any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the...

  11. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  12. Environmental levels of microwave radiation around a satellite earth station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Bangay, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the background to claims of possible adverse health effects arising from exposure to environmental levels of microwave radiation around satellite earth stations. Results of a recent survey of the environmental levels of microwave radiation around two 32 metre diameter satellite communications antennas owned and operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission (OTC) of Australia are presented. From the measurements obtained in this survey it can be concluded that the environmental levels of microwave radiation around the OTC and similar satellite facilities do not pose a health risk to persons in the vicinity

  13. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Atsma, Femke; van Dongen, Anne; de Kort, Wim

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB variables play a role as well? Emphasis is placed on possible sex differences. TPB variables were assessed within 12,051 whole blood donors. Also, donors reported the occurrence of adverse reactions during or after their last donation. Blood bank records were used to determine whether donors stopped donating within the next 2 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of self-reported adverse reactions on stopping risk, adjusting for the TPB variables. Analyses were performed separately for both sexes. Men have a lower odds of reporting a NR or a VVR than women (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.43; and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36, for NR and VVR, respectively). For both sexes, only a VVR was associated with stopping risk, which is higher in men (men, OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.19-7.11; women, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.35-2.35). After adjusting for the TPB variables both ORs declined (men, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.86-6.15; women, OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.14). Also, self-efficacy and affective attitude are negatively associated with adverse reactions. Female donors report more VVRs than male donors, but male donors have a higher stopping risk after a VVR than female donors. Coping differences and possible reporting tendencies might play a role. For donor retention purposes, prevention and coping techniques should take sex differences into account. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Regional Geographic Information Systems of Health and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurolap Semen A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new scientific and methodological approach to designing geographic information systems of health and environmental monitoring for urban areas. Geographic information systems (GIS are analytical tools of the regional health and environmental monitoring; they are used for an integrated assessment of the environmental status of a large industrial centre or a part of it. The authors analyse the environmental situation in Voronezh, a major industrial city, located in the Central Black Earth Region with a population of more than 1 million people. The proposed research methodology is based on modern approaches to the assessment of health risks caused by adverse environmental conditions. The research work was implemented using a GIS and multicriteria probabilistic and statistical evaluation to identify cause-and-effect links, a combination of action and reaction, in the dichotomy ‘environmental factors — public health’. The analysis of the obtained statistical data confirmed an increase in childhood diseases in some areas of the city. Environmentally induced diseases include congenital malformations, tumors, endocrine and urogenital pathologies. The main factors having an adverse impact on health are emissions of carcinogens into the atmosphere and the negative impact of transport on the environment. The authors identify and characterize environmentally vulnerable parts of the city and developed principles of creating an automated system of health monitoring and control of environmental risks. The article offers a number of measures aimed at the reduction of environmental risks, better protection of public health and a more efficient environmental monitoring.

  15. Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting Behavior on the General Health of Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza; Ghaem, Haleh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-07-01

    Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. The respondents spent an average of 6.29 hours of an 8-hour working shift in a sitting position. The results showed that 48.8% of the participants did not feel comfortable with their workstations and 73.6% felt exhausted during the workday. Additionally, 6.3% suffered from hypertension, and 11.2% of them reported hyperlipidemia. The results of the NMQ showed that neck (53.5%), lower back (53.2%) and shoulder (51.6%) symptoms were the most prevalent problem among office workers. Based upon a multiple logistic regression, only sex had a significant association with prolonged sitting behavior (odds ratio = 3.084). Our results indicated that long sitting times were associated with exhaustion during the working day, decreased job satisfaction, hypertension, and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers. Sitting behavior had adverse effects on office workers. Active workstations are therefore recommended to improve working conditions.

  16. Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of Liverpool Adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Adverse drug event, Epilepsy, Older adults, Cronbach's alpha, Liverpool Adverse Events. Profile, Seizure ... uncommon symptoms such as memory loss [5]. Age is a known .... to control seizures and minimize their side effects. [22].

  17. Adverse Life Experience and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation and Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Hasking, Penelope A; Martin, Graham

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether emotion regulation and rumination moderated and/or mediated the relationship between accumulated adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence. In class, Australian high school students (n = 2637, 12-18 years, 68% female) from 41 schools completed well-validated measures of adverse life experience, emotion regulation, rumination and psychological distress, and were followed up 1 year later (n = 1973, 75% retention rate). Adjusting for age, gender and baseline psychological distress, adverse life experience predicted psychological distress 1 year later. Expressive suppression and rumination were positively associated with psychological distress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with psychological distress and moderated the relationship between adverse life experience and psychological distress. This relationship was also partially mediated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and rumination. Promoting cognitive reappraisal and minimizing expressive suppression and rumination may be useful strategies to improve mental health for adolescents who have experienced adverse life events. Future research should examine whether adolescents who have experienced adverse life events can be trained in effective emotion regulation strategies and whether this training can prevent development of psychological maladjustment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  19. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. Comparar a incidência e a intensidade de efeitos adversos agudos e a variação da temperatura da pele da face através da termografia após a aplicação de ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram incluídos 20 voluntários sadios, de ambos os gêneros, submetidos à VNI com máscara oronasal por 1 h e divididos aleatoriamente em

  20. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  1. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.I.A.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Berkmortel, H. van den; Kramers, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis.

  2. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  3. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N

    2009-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  5. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families. Copyright © 2016 by the

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MIHAI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From a company’s perspective, there seem to be two underlying forces driving company interest in various kinds of environmental performance data that might be considered varieties of accounting. The first is a growing demand from company stakeholders, based on an increased interest in environmental issues. Interested stakeholders are not only the consumers, but also industrial customers, financialinstitutions and others. For this reason, more and more companies are producing environmental reports, but these are often low on data content, which adversely affects company credibility on environmental issues.

  7. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section 266.19... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.19 Environmental impact. (a) General. The Administrator has determined that providing..., or other significant adverse environmental impact on any mode of transportation; (6) The action is...

  8. Cutaneous adverse effect during concomitant therapy with phenytoin and holoencefalica radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, M.; Jachoian, A.; Santini, A.; Mara, C.; Ferreira, V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Phenytoin is one of anticonvulsant drugs (AC) which together with the Corticosteroids are used frequently in patients with intracranial tumors either early or metastatic; the association of treatments can cause adverse effects within which are skin reactions called erythema multiforme (EM) syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) whose incidence is 5 to 10%, with an increased risk are used when the AC associated with treatment with radiotherapy (RT).Case report: A 48 year old woman in whom primitive brain metastases were diagnosed breast cancer, so phenytoin, corticosteroids and performed RT presenting holoencefálica for such treatment maculo-papular skin reaction symmetrical onset zone Radiant treatment extension neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, oral mucositis, conjunctivitis and fever, which improved after stopping treatment altogether. Discussion: The clinical picture presented matches the description of the 30 Reported SJS / TEN in the literature with the use of AC and RT cases. The clinical course of the skin reactions in our patient represents the possible combined effect of phenytoin and RT as causative agents and analyzed the occurrence of side effects occurred in the third week of starting treatment with both therapeutic modalities such as what described in these reactions and improved frankly to stop treatment until disappear entirely. Cutaneous adverse reactions may occur as a complication severe in patients treated with RT and phenytoin and both treatments should suspend the first sign of side effects must continue once the patient recovered with AC radiant modifying drug treatment if necessary. There are differences of opinion regarding the prophylactic use of drug therapy in patients with AC intracranial tumors both early and metastatic. The American Academy of Neurology held a consensus in 2000 whose recommendations are non-routine use of AC in patients diagnosed intracerebral tumor that has not

  9. Adverse effects of perioperative paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kontinen, V K

    2014-01-01

    with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects...... of perioperative non-opioid analgesics, and randomised trials and cohort/retrospective studies. Generally, data on AE are sparse and related to the immediate post-operative period. For paracetamol, the incidence of AEs appears trivial. Data are inconclusive regarding an association of NSAIDs with mortality...

  10. Gender differences in the effects of childhood adversity on alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-07-01

    To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.

  11. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  12. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  13. An overview of adverse health effects caused by mycotoxins and bioassays for their detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Leusden van FM; MGB

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to moulds and their (toxic) metabolites (mycotoxins) is a menace to human and animal health. A risk analysis can shed light on the actual risk of adverse health effects. In a previously published RIVM report (nr. 257852 002) on hazard identification the genera, Aspergillus, Penicillium,

  14. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This study, which builds on previous research demonstrating that drinking motives are associated with adverse consequences, investigates the associations between drinking motives and non-alcohol-attributed adverse consequences and disentangles alcohol-related and direct......, differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... indirect effects (via alcohol use) on injuries and academic problems; the association was negative for conformity motives. The direct effect, that is, the effect above and beyond alcohol use, indicated more negative consequences among those who tended to drink more frequently for coping motives. More...

  15. Superconducting Super Collider: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides as much information as possible at this stage of the project development regarding the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) at each of the site alternatives. However, the DOE recognizes that further review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required prior to construction and operation of the proposed SSC project at the selected site based on more detailed design and to identify specific mitigation measures which can be incorporated into final design. Accordingly, following selection of a site for the proposed SSC, the DOE will prepare a Supplemental EIS to address in more detail the impacts of constructing and operating the proposed SSC at the selected site and alternatives for mitigating those impacts. To measure the effects of constructing the SSC at any of the seven alternative sites, the DOE determined which aspects of the human environment would be significantly affected. The EIS describes the baseline conditions at each of the seven site alternatives, the trends underway resulting in changes, the potential environmental impacts expected if the SSC were sited, possible mitigations of adverse impacts, and resulting residual adverse impacts

  16. Baseline glucose level is an individual trait that is negatively associated with lifespan and increases due to adverse environmental conditions during development and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bibiana; Briga, Michael; Jimeno, Blanca; Moonen, Sander; Verhulst, Simon

    2018-05-01

    High baseline glucose levels are associated with pathologies and shorter lifespan in humans, but little is known about causes and consequences of individual variation in glucose levels in other species. We tested to what extent baseline blood glucose level is a repeatable trait in adult zebra finches, and whether glucose levels were associated with age, manipulated environmental conditions during development (rearing brood size) and adulthood (foraging cost), and lifespan. We found that: (1) repeatability of glucose levels was 30%, both within and between years. (2) Having been reared in a large brood and living with higher foraging costs as adult were independently associated with higher glucose levels. Furthermore, the finding that baseline glucose was low when ambient temperature was high, and foraging costs were low, indicates that glucose is regulated at a lower level when energy turnover is low. (3) Survival probability decreased with increasing baseline glucose. We conclude that baseline glucose is an individual trait negatively associated with survival, and increases due to adverse environmental conditions during development (rearing brood size) and adulthood (foraging cost). Blood glucose may be, therefore, part of the physiological processes linking environmental conditions to lifespan.

  17. Evaluation of the adverse effects of subcutaneous carprofen over six days in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steagall, P V M; Moutinho, F Q; Mantovani, F B; Passarelli, D; Thomassian, A

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the adverse effects of carprofen in seven healthy cats. Values for CBC, biochemical profiles and platelet aggregation were measured before and at seven days after SID treatment with subcutaneous carprofen: 4 mg/kg (day 1), 2mg/kg (day 2 and 3) and 1mg/kg (day 4 and 6) (CG) or 0.35 ml of saline (SG) for six days in a randomized, blinded, cross-over study with a four-week washout period. No treatment was given on day 5. Endoscopy of the GI tract was performed pre-treatment and on day 7 post-treatment. There were no significant changes in hematological profiles, biochemical profiles and endoscopy grading scores within nor between groups, except for lower albumin values at baseline than on day 7 (CG), and globulin and ALP values were higher at baseline than on day 7 in CG and SG. SC administration of carprofen over six days did not cause any adverse effects on gastrointestinal, hematological, or serum biochemical variables.

  18. Prevention and management of statin adverse effects: A practical approach for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; Beach, Jessica E; Pearson, Glen J

    2018-01-01

    Statin-associated adverse effects, primarily muscle-related symptoms, occur in up to approximately one-third of patients in clinical practice. Recently, a Canadian Consensus Working Group outlined 6 key principles to assess and manage patients with goal-inhibiting statin intolerance, defined as a syndrome characterized by symptoms or biomarker abnormalities that prevent the long-term use of and adherence to indicated statin therapy, which includes a trial of at least 2 statins and precludes reversible causes of statin adverse effects. These principles ensure patients are appropriately receiving a statin and aware of both the benefits and risks of therapy. As well, they address factors that may increase the risk of statin-associated myopathy. A thorough assessment of patients' clinical and laboratory history should be performed in any patient presenting with muscle symptoms on statin therapy, followed by a systematic dechallenge/rechallenge approach. In practice, most patients with statin intolerance due to muscle symptoms will be able to tolerate another statin. This is of particular importance because of the relative paucity of compelling evidence demonstrating a cardiovascular benefit with nonstatin therapies. Pharmacists are ideally situated to provide patient education, recommend changes to therapy and monitor patients with goal-inhibiting statin intolerance.

  19. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  20. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  1. Environmental effects of fuel peat use in Finland. An LCA-based Decision Analysis Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1998-02-01

    Finland is a country where the main domestic energy sources are restricted to hydroelectric power, wood and peat from which hydropower is practically utilized fully. The use of peat as energy source has increased drastically since the oil crisis in the beginning of the seventies and the peat exploitation industry is nowadays a significant supplier of labour in Finland. Peat is, in contrast to fossil energy sources, exploited and used as an energy source within the country's borderline. Therefore, all direct extractions and emissions takes place in Finland.The influence of the processes, which occur during the life cycle of fuel peat, on the environment as a whole is yet somewhat unclear. The aim of the study is to map and assess the overall environmental impacts of production and use of fuel peat in Finland and to bring these impacts in relation with total environmental impacts in Finland caused by anthropogenic emissions. The results should be comparable with the impacts of other product life cycles (for instance other fuels). Furthermore, the detection of data gaps which are present is an important element of the study. Research questions are (1) What are the contributions of the different stressors which are emitted during the life cycle of fuel peat in Finland to global and regional environmental impacts? The environmental impacts involved are global impacts like the greenhouse effect as well as regional environmental impacts, e.g.acidification, eutrophication, toxic effects, ozone formation and effects on biodiversity; and (2) What are the contributions expressed per functional unit? Emissions released during the life cycle of fuel peat were inventorized. The emissions were characterized into the various impact categories and a valuation of the various impacts was performed, based on the Decision Analyses Impact Assessment (DAIA). In DAIA, country specific values were applied for estimating the potential of the stressors to cause adverse environmental effects

  2. Environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management within the AREVA sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosaasen, A.; Frostad, S.

    2006-01-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the AREVA Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. The McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its environmental management system represents an integrated approach to environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management based on operational results. In Canada, sustainable development is promoted through the application of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). Environmental Assessment (EA) is a planning tool, which incorporates environmental considerations before irrevocable decisions are taken. The basic tenet of the Act is the determination of whether the potential environmental effects of a project are adverse, significant and likely, taking into consideration mitigation measures. Thus, project planning and design entails an iterative process that incorporates mitigation measures to minimize potentially significant adverse effects. As part of the EA process conservative approaches are taken to predict potential effects. Several important elements are generated through the EA process including: a set of environmental effects predictions, a compliance and environmental effects monitoring program, a follow-up program to address uncertainties in the prediction of environmental effects, and the identification of contingency measures that could be implemented should non-conservative assumptions be identified in the original assessment framework. The challenge is to integrate each of these elements into the environmental management framework of the operating facility and develop an iterative mechanism to evaluate operational performance relative to what was originally predicted. In Saskatchewan, a requirement of operational licenses is the periodic evaluation of the 'Status of the Environment' surrounding operational facilities. These

  3. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of social adversity and HIV on subcortical shape and neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Kuhn, Taylor P; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Bilder, Robert M; Williamson, Timothy J; Singer, Elyse J; Arentoft, Alyssa

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of social adversity (SA) and HIV infection on subcortical shape alterations and cognitive functions. Participants included HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV- (n = 23) individuals who underwent MRI, neurocognitive and clinical assessment, in addition to completing questionnaires from which responses were used to create an SA score. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were extracted from T1-weighted images. Parametric statistical analyses were used to compare the radial distance of the structure surface to a median curve to determine the presence of localized shape differences as a function of HIV, SA and their interaction. Next, multiple regression was used to examine the interactive association between HIV and SA with cognitive performance data. An HIV*SA interactive effect was found on the shape of the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Specifically, HIV-infected participants (but not HIV-uninfected controls) who evidenced higher levels of SA displayed an inward deformation of the surface consistent with reduced volume of these structures. We found interactive effects of HIV and SA on learning/memory performance. These results suggest that HIV+ individuals may be more vulnerable to neurological and cognitive changes in the hippocampus and amygdala as a function of SA than HIV- individuals, and that SA indicators of childhood SES and perceived racial discrimination are important components of adversity that are associated with cognitive performance.

  5. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.J.T.; Atsma, F.; van Dongen, A.; de Kort, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB

  6. Are there more adverse effects with lingual orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Kumar, Satish

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and LILACS database, review of references cited in included articles and a manual search of leading orthodontic journals. No language restrictions were imposed in the search. Study authors were contacted when necessary.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in healthy patients that directly compared the adverse effects following treatment using buccal and lingual appliances. Studies involving single arch or dual arch appliances were considered. Studies on patients with systemic diseases, animal studies and in vitro studies were excluded. The primary outcomes of interest to the authors were a list of adverse effects: pain, caries, eating and speech difficulties and oral hygiene.Data extraction and synthesisTwo authors reviewed the titles and abstracts of all studies identified through the search without blinding to names of authors or publication dates. Selected articles from searches were evaluated independently by two authors against established inclusion criteria, disagreements were resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool (randomised trials) and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for non-randomised studies. The level of agreement between the authors was assessed using the Cohen kappa statistic. A meta-analysis was performed to provide pooled effect estimate (expressed as odds ratio) as well as 95% confidence interval. The outcomes of interest were pain, caries, eating difficulties, speech difficulties and deficient oral hygiene. Heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistic and potential causes explored. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot.ResultsEight articles were included; three RCTs and five CCTs. One RCT was considered to be at high risk of bias, one moderate risk and one low risk. Of the non-randomised studies, four were low risk and one was high risk

  7. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  8. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  9. A systematic review on the role of environmental toxicants in stem cells aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodjat, Mahshid; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are an important target for environmental toxicants. As they are the main source for replenishing of organs in the body, any changes in their normal function could affect the regenerative potential of organs, leading to the appearance of age-related disease and acceleration of the aging process. Environmental toxicants could exert their adverse effect on stem cell function via multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms, resulting in changes in the stem cell differentiation fate and cell transformation, and reduced self-renewal capacity, as well as induction of stress-induced cellular senescence. The present review focuses on the effect of environmental toxicants on stem cell function associated with the aging process. We categorized environmental toxicants according to their preferred molecular mechanism of action on stem cells, including changes in genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic levels and enhancing oxidative stress. Pesticides, tobacco smoke, radiation and heavy metals are well-studied toxicants that cause stem cell dysfunction via induction of oxidative stress. Transgenerational epigenetic changes are the most important effects of a variety of toxicants on germ cells and embryos that are heritable and could affect health in the next several generations. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of toxicant-induced stem cell aging will help us to develop therapeutic intervention strategies against environmental aging. Meanwhile, more efforts are required to find the direct in vivo relationship between adverse effect of environmental toxicants and stem cell aging, leading to organismal aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of intermediate level radioactive waste, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following topics: background and description; environmental impact of the proposed action; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long term productivity; state, local, or regional conflicts; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and cost benefit analysis. Four Appendices are provided: Glossary of terms; Characterization of existing environment; Calculations; Environmental monitoring of existing environment

  11. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of statin adverse effects and intolerance: Canadian Working Group Consensus update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G B John; Tashakkor, A Yashar; Baker, Steven; Bergeron, Jean; Fitchett, David; Frohlich, Jiri; Genest, Jacques; Gupta, Milan; Hegele, Robert A; Ng, Dominic S; Pearson, Glen J; Pope, Janet

    2013-12-01

    The Proceedings of a Canadian Working Group Consensus Conference, first published in 2011, provided a summary of statin-associated adverse effects and intolerance and management suggestions. In this update, new clinical studies identified since then that provide further insight into effects on muscle, cognition, cataracts, diabetes, kidney disease, and cancer are discussed. Of these, the arenas of greatest controversy pertain to purported effects on cognition and the emergence of diabetes during long-term therapy. Regarding cognition, the available evidence is not strongly supportive of a major adverse effect of statins. In contrast, the linkage between statin therapy and incident diabetes is more firm. However, this risk is more strongly associated with traditional risk factors for new-onset diabetes than with statin itself and any possible negative effect of new-onset diabetes during statin treatment is far outweighed by the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits. Additional studies are also discussed, which support the principle that systematic statin rechallenge, and lower or intermittent statin dosing strategies are the main methods for dealing with suspected statin intolerance at this time. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant adverse...

  13. Control of adverse effects of explosive blasting in mines by using shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems and its future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.D. [Maharashtra Explosives Ltd., Nagpur (India)

    2000-04-01

    Every kind of blasting in mines produces some adverse effects on environment, such as ground vibration, noise, fly rock etc. Presently, for restricting these adverse effects, use of shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems are gaining momentum. There are some inherent shortcomings of this initiation system regarding chances of misfires. This paper discusses the various adverse effects of blasting, advantages of shock tube initiation system and the shortcomings of shock tube initiation system regarding chances of misfire and how misfire arises out of failure of shock tube initiation system is different and more dangerous than the misfire occurring due to failure of conventional system (with detonating fuse and cord relays). 1 tab.

  14. Managing adverse effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, James N; Ramamurthy, Chethan; Borghaei, Hossein

    2018-05-01

    Remarkable efficacy has been achieved in a variety of cancer types by targeting immune checkpoints. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor ipilimumab, the programmed death 1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and the programmed death ligand 1 inhibitors atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are the agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain advanced malignancies. These agents mark a departure from both standard cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. However, they are associated with a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can manifest as a wide range of autoimmune phenomena. The irAEs can affect any system in the body and in rare cases are life-threatening. It is critical for the practicing medical oncologist to recognize and promptly treat any irAEs that may develop.

  15. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S COMPUTATIONAL TOXCIOLOGY PROGRAM - METABOLISM AND METABONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to safeguard public health and the environment from adverse effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food. Protecting human health and the environment carries with it the ch...

  16. Environmental audits of oil and gas properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.D.; Forbes, S.

    1991-01-01

    The growing concern over one, the cost of correcting environmental damage and two, the potential financial liabilities associated with the acquisition, sale or lease of oil and gas properties, has led many prospective buyers to investigate the environmental liabilities associated with the property transfer. The environmental audit provides a tool or mechanism to assist the prudent investor in identifying environmental problems that could adversely effect an otherwise normal business activity. Accordingly, an environmental audit can identify potential environmental liabilities associated with the property, thus allowing the investor an opportunity to better assess financial risks. In addition, should the negative findings of the environmental audit be limited, the findings could be used by the buyer in negotiating the final price of the subject property to account for potential or known liabilities. As this suggests, environmental damage to an oil and gas property does not necessarily render the property worthless. This paper provides a brief guide on environmental audits of oil and gas properties as well as general information on the most common exploration and production wastes

  17. Environmental impact statements: new legal technique for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M F

    1975-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has required Federal agencies to re-examine all their programs affecting the environment, to consider alternative policies, to coordinate their actions with other agencies, and to disclose their environmental analyses to the public. In short, it has attempted to change decision processes markedly, in order to respond to wide-spread public concern about a deteriorating natural and human environment. The mandates of the policy are listed, but knowing that these were not sufficient to change existing agency practices, Congress established what has been called an ''action-forcing mechanism.'' Each federal agency must ''include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official.'' This statement must cover the following five points as specified in Section 102(2)(c): the environmental impact of the proposed action; any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented; alternatives to the proposed action; the relationship between local and short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented. Section 102 has been considered the heart of the National Environmental Policy Act. The specific five-point environmental report--known as an environmental impact statement--is the visible evidence of an agency's compliance with the environmental policy articulated by Congress. (MCW)

  18. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  19. A critical assessment of adverse pregnancy outcome and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Gernot; Pihlstrom, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    Pre-term birth is a major cause of infant mortality and morbidity that has considerable societal, medical, and economic costs. The rate of pre-term birth appears to be increasing world-wide and efforts to prevent or reduce its prevalence have been largely unsuccessful. To review the literature for studies investigating periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for pre-term birth and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Variability among studies in definitions of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes as well as widespread inadequate control for confounding factors and possible effect modification make it difficult to base meaningful conclusions on published data. However, while there are indications of an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in some populations, there is no conclusive evidence that treating periodontal disease improves birth outcome. Based on a critical qualitative review, available evidence from clinical trials indicates that, although non-surgical mechanical periodontal treatment in the second trimester of pregnancy is safe and effective in reducing signs of maternal periodontal disease, it does not reduce the rate of pre-term birth. Clinical trials currently underway will further clarify the potential role of periodontal therapy in preventing adverse birth outcomes. Regardless of the outcomes of these trials, it is recommended that large, prospective cohort studies be conducted to assess risk for adverse pregnancy outcome in populations with periodontal disease. It is critical that periodontal exposure and adverse birth outcomes be clearly defined and the many potential confounding factors and possible effect modifiers for adverse pregnancy outcome be controlled in these studies. If periodontal disease is associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in these specific populations, large multicenter randomized-controlled trials will be needed to determine if prevention or

  20. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  1. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the ‘legal requirement’ discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The ‘common ground’ regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less

  2. Adverse Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Dementia, According to the Pharmacovigilance Databases of the United-States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault B Ali

    Full Text Available This survey analyzes two national pharmacovigilance databases in order to determine the major adverse reactions observed with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia. We conducted a statistical analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS and the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Database (CVARD concerning the side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors. The statistics calculated for each adverse event were the frequency and the reporting odds ratios (ROR. A total of 9877 and 2247 reports were extracted from the FAERS and CVARD databases, respectively. A disproportionately higher frequency of reports of death as an adverse event for rivastigmine, compared to the other acetylcholinesterase inhibiting drugs, was observed in both the FAERS (ROR = 3.42; CI95% = 2.94-3.98; P<0.0001 and CVARD (ROR = 3.67; CI95% = 1.92-7.00; P = 0.001 databases. While cholinesterase inhibitors remain to be an important therapeutic tool against Alzheimer's disease, the disproportionate prevalence of fatal outcomes with rivastigmine compared with alternatives should be taken into consideration.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Jin Song

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

  4. Adverse effects after radical external beam radiotherapy of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional dose-planning and a limited field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljung, G.; Haeggman, M.; Hansson, H.; Holmberg, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    Adverse effects were assessed after definitive limited field, 2-dimensional CT-planned radiation treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. In 66 surviving patients, out of a total of 176 treated patients, personal interviews were performed and self-administered questionnaires distributed. The average follow-up was 6.6 years. Adverse effects with regard to bowel function and micturition were investigated, and graded 0-4 with increasing severity and impact on performance status, essentially according to the RTOG toxicity scoring system. Sexual functions were registered on visual analogue scales. The majority of adverse effects were considered minor (grade 1) and did not require any treatment. Late adverse effects on bowel and bladder or urethra that required treatment (grade 2-4) were reported in up to 8% (n=5) of cases respectively. Late bowel side-effects that interfered with life style (grade 3-4) occurred in up to 3% (n=2) of patients; the majority were rectal complications. Corresponding urinary side-effects were registered in up to 6% (n=4) of the patients. Major surgical interventions were not required. Sexual functions were substantially affected in 60% of cases not administered endocrine treatment. Multivariate analyses could not identify patient or treatment risk factors related to complications. (orig.)

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Zofia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure. Timing of exposure to EDCs is crucial for the intensity of adverse health effects. It is now evident that fetuses, infants, and/or young children are the most susceptible groups, especially in the early development periods. Prenatal exposure to EDCs that mimic endogenous hormones may contribute to the altered fetal programming and in consequence lead to PCOS and other adverse health effects, potentially transgenerationally. Acute or prolonged exposure to EDCs and AGEs through different life cycle stages may result in destabilization of the hormonal homeostasis and lead to disruption of reproductive functions. They may also interfere with metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that can exacerbate the PCOS phenotype and contribute to PCOS consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since wide exposure to environmental toxins and their role in the pathophysiology of PCOS are supported by extensive data derived from diverse scientific models, protective strategies and strong recommendations should be considered to reduce human exposure to protect present and future generations from their adverse health effects. Copyright

  6. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy Geothermal Power Plant No. 1: draft environmental impact report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects of the proposed geothermal power plant are discussed: the project description; the environment in the vicinity of project as it exists before the project begins, from both a local and regional perspective; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the growth inducing impacts. (MHR)

  7. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  8. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  9. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stephen Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s. Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  10. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself: an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van den Berkmortel, Hanneke; Kramers, Kees

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Melatonin for Atypical Antipsychotic-Induced Metabolic Adverse Effects: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kamath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine the effect of melatonin administration on atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects in patients with psychiatric disorders. A systematic search was performed in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Randomized controlled trials studying the effect of melatonin on antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects were identified and subjected to meta-analysis. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 57 patients on melatonin and 61 patients on placebo. Melatonin produced a significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo (mean difference = −4.44 [95% CI, −7.00 to −1.88]; p=0.0007; I2 = 13%, but not the systolic blood pressure (mean difference = −4.23 [95% CI, −8.11 to −0.36]; p=0.03; I2 = 0%. Although a decrease in the body mass index was seen in the melatonin group, the difference was not significant in the random-effects analysis model. To conclude, in patients on atypical antipsychotics, melatonin at a dose of up to 5 mg/day for a treatment duration of up to 12 weeks attenuated the rise in diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo but had no significant effects on other metabolic parameters.

  12. Melatonin for Atypical Antipsychotic-Induced Metabolic Adverse Effects: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ashwin; Rather, Zahoor Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the effect of melatonin administration on atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects in patients with psychiatric disorders. A systematic search was performed in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Randomized controlled trials studying the effect of melatonin on antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects were identified and subjected to meta-analysis. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 57 patients on melatonin and 61 patients on placebo. Melatonin produced a significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo (mean difference = -4.44 [95% CI, -7.00 to -1.88]; p = 0.0007; I 2 = 13%), but not the systolic blood pressure (mean difference = -4.23 [95% CI, -8.11 to -0.36]; p = 0.03; I 2 = 0%). Although a decrease in the body mass index was seen in the melatonin group, the difference was not significant in the random-effects analysis model. To conclude, in patients on atypical antipsychotics, melatonin at a dose of up to 5 mg/day for a treatment duration of up to 12 weeks attenuated the rise in diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo but had no significant effects on other metabolic parameters.

  13. Stereological study on the effect of vitamin C in preventing the adverse effects of bisphenol A on rat ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Soleimani Mehranjani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental pollutant, can generate free radicals which damages the reproductive system. Vitamin C is an antioxidant which may prevent the adverse effects of free radicals. Objective: The aim was to investigate the effect of vitamin C on the ovary tissue in rats treated with BPA. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 female Wistar rats (200±20 gr were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6: control, BPA (60 μg/Kg/day, vitamin C (150 mg/Kg/day and BPA + vitamin C and orally treated for 20 days. The left ovaries were taken out, fixed for tissue processing and studied using stereological methods. Data were analyzed with SPSS using one-way ANOVA, and the means were considered significantly different at (p<0.05. Results: The total volume of ovary and cortex (p<0.01, medulla (p<0.05, the volume of corpus luteum (p<0.001 and the mean number of antral follicles (p<0.001 significantly reduced in BPA group compared with control, while the number of atretic follicles increased (p<0.05. The volume of oocyte (p<0.01 and its nucleus (p<0.001 in the antral follicles and the thickness of zona pellucida (ZP in the secondary (p<0.05 and antral (p<0.001 follicles significantly decreased in BPA group compared with controls. The above parameters in the BPA + vitamin C group were compensated to control level. Conclusion: Vitamin C can be used as a potential antioxidant in the case of BPA toxication

  14. The joint contribution of maternal history of early adversity and adulthood depression to socioeconomic status and potential relevance for offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Unternaehrer, Eva; Gaudreau, Hélène; Lydon, John E; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the interactive effects of maternal childhood adversity and later adulthood depression on subsequent socioeconomic status (SES). Our community sample ranged from 230 to 243 mothers (across measures) drawn from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Maternal childhood adversity scores were derived using an integrated measure derived from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Parental Bonding Index (PBI). Maternal depression was measured in the prenatal period with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). SES measures included maternal highest level of education and family income as obtained prenatally. The analyses yielded significant interaction effects between maternal childhood adversity and prenatal depression that predicted income, prenatally. Women who reported higher levels of childhood adversity combined with higher levels of self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to live in low SES environments. Results also showed that level of education was predicted by childhood adversity independent of maternal symptoms of depression. The results suggest that SES is influenced by a life course pathway that begins in childhood and includes adversity-related mental health outcomes. Since child health and development is influenced by both maternal mental health and SES, this pathway may also contribute to the intergenerational transmission of the risk for psychopathology in the offspring. The results also emphasize the importance of studying potential precursors of low SES, a well-documented environmental risk factor for poor developmental outcomes in the offspring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Subjective effects, misuse, and adverse effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate treatment in adolescent substance abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Lewis, Daniel F; Riggs, Paula D; Davies, Robert D; Adler, Lenard A; Sonne, Susan; Somoza, Eugene C

    2011-10-01

    Psychostimulants are effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but may be associated with euphoric effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects. These risks are perceived by some clinicians to be greater in substance-abusing adolescents relative to non-substance-abusing adults. The present study evaluates the subjective effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects associated with the use of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), relative to placebo, for treating ADHD in adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) as a function of substance use severity and compared these risks with those associated with the treatment of ADHD in adults without a non-nicotine SUD. Datasets from two randomized placebo-controlled trials of OROS-MPH for treating ADHD, one conducted with 303 adolescents (13-18) with at least one non-nicotine SUD and one with 255 adult smokers (18-55), were analyzed. Outcome measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Liking Scale, self-reported medication compliance, pill counts, and adverse events (AEs). Euphoric effects and misuse/diversion of OROS-MPH were not significantly affected by substance use severity. The euphoric effects of OROS-MPH did not significantly differ between the adolescent and adult samples. Adults rated OROS-MPH as more effective in treating ADHD, whereas adolescents reported feeling more depressed when taking OROS-MPH. The adolescents lost more pills relative to the adults regardless of treatment condition, which suggests the importance of careful medication monitoring. Higher baseline use of alcohol and cannabis was associated with an increased risk of experiencing a treatment-related AE in OROS-MPH, but baseline use did not increase the risk of serious AEs or of any particular category of AE and the adolescents did not experience more treatment-related AEs relative to the adults. With good monitoring, and in the context of substance abuse treatment, OROS-MPH can

  16. Environmental quality of mussel farms in the Vigo estuary: Pollution by PAHs, origin and effects on reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Y., E-mail: yruiz@uvigo.e [Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Inmunology, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Suarez, P., E-mail: psuarez@uvigo.e [Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Inmunology, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Alonso, A., E-mail: amam@uvigo.e [Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Inmunology, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Longo, E., E-mail: elongo@uvigo.e [Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Villaverde, A., E-mail: carlosvt@uvigo.e [Department of Statistic and Operational Research, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); San Juan, F., E-mail: fsanjuan@uvigo.e [Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Inmunology, University of Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This work analyzes the influence of environmental and physiological parameters on PAHs accumulation in cultured mussels. Lipid content and reproductive stage are directly related with PAHs accumulation pattern. We observed a rapid accumulation and depuration of PAHs, mainly during periods of nutrients accumulation, spawns and gonadic restorations. Correlations between PAHs accumulation and physiological status indicate when mussels are more susceptible to adverse effects of these pollutants. A positive correlation between mutagenic congener's accumulation and occurrence of gonadic neoplastic disorders is shown for the first time in mussels. Molecular indices were used to identify the origin of hydrocarbons accumulated by Mytilus, showing a chronic pyrolytic pollution and pollutant episodes by petrogenic sources and biomass combustion in the studied area. Multivariate analysis suggests the possibility of including physiological parameters of sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring programs, mainly in aquaculture areas, taking into account their two aspects: farms productivity and human food safety. - Physiological parameters of sentinel organisms provides information about potentially negative effects of pollutants on aquaculture farms productivity and human food safety.

  17. Environmental quality of mussel farms in the Vigo estuary: Pollution by PAHs, origin and effects on reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Y.; Suarez, P.; Alonso, A.; Longo, E.; Villaverde, A.; San Juan, F.

    2011-01-01

    This work analyzes the influence of environmental and physiological parameters on PAHs accumulation in cultured mussels. Lipid content and reproductive stage are directly related with PAHs accumulation pattern. We observed a rapid accumulation and depuration of PAHs, mainly during periods of nutrients accumulation, spawns and gonadic restorations. Correlations between PAHs accumulation and physiological status indicate when mussels are more susceptible to adverse effects of these pollutants. A positive correlation between mutagenic congener's accumulation and occurrence of gonadic neoplastic disorders is shown for the first time in mussels. Molecular indices were used to identify the origin of hydrocarbons accumulated by Mytilus, showing a chronic pyrolytic pollution and pollutant episodes by petrogenic sources and biomass combustion in the studied area. Multivariate analysis suggests the possibility of including physiological parameters of sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring programs, mainly in aquaculture areas, taking into account their two aspects: farms productivity and human food safety. - Physiological parameters of sentinel organisms provides information about potentially negative effects of pollutants on aquaculture farms productivity and human food safety.

  18. Childhood adversities and clinical symptomatology in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and adverse effects of intravenous lignocaine therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of intravenous lignocaine infusions (IV lignocaine in fibromyalgia. Methods Prospective study of the adverse effects of IV lignocaine in 106 patients with fibromyalgia; retrospective questionnaire study of the efficacy of IV lignocaine in 50 patients with fibromyalgia. Results Prospective study: Two major (pulmonary oedema and supraventricular tachycardia and 42 minor side-effects were reported. None had long-term sequelae. The commonest was hypotension (17 cases. Retrospective study: Pain and a range of psychosocial measures (on single 11-point scales improved significantly after treatment. There was no effect of the treatment on work status. The average duration of pain relief after the 6-day course of treatment was 11.5 ± 6.5 weeks. Conclusions Intravenous lignocaine appears to be both safe and of benefit in improving pain and quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia. This needs to be confirmed in prospective randomised controlled trials.

  20. Environmental Assessment: Permanent Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Salix sp., Populus sp., Lemna minor , Cyperus sp. Delta Green Ground Beetle The Delta Green Ground Beetle, Elaphrus viridis Horn, 1878 is a...and the SCLA. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time. None of...environmental effects on adjacent populations. Therefore, no disproportionately high and adverse effects will occur to minority and low-income

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  2. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pcompany of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  3. An over-the-counter central sensitization therapy: a chronic back pain registry study of pain relief, medication use and their adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelin, Richard; Koneru, Sree N; Rawe, Ian M

    2017-03-01

    Back pain, the most prevalent musculoskeletal chronic pain condition, is usually treated with analgesic medications of questionable efficacy and frequent occurrence of adverse side effects. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the ActiPatch medical devices in reducing chronic back pain, document medication related adverse side effects and establish their impact on quality of life. Upon completing a 7-day trial, subjects were contacted via email with an assessment form using the Constant Contact email program. A total of 1394 responses were collected from subjects who used the device for back pain. Medication adverse effects are common and impact quality of life in the lay population. ActiPatch is an effective intervention for the majority of subjects for treating chronic back pain, although this requires further investigation in randomized clinical trials.

  4. Early life adversity and telomere length: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, K K; Levandowski, M; Ridout, S J; Gantz, L; Goonan, K; Palermo, D; Price, L H; Tyrka, A R

    2018-04-01

    Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design. A comprehensive search in July 2016 of PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 2462 studies. Multiple reviewers appraised studies for inclusion or exclusion using a priori criteria; 3.9% met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into a structured form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality, validity and bias. Forty-one studies (N=30 773) met inclusion criteria. Early adversity and telomere length were significantly associated (Cohen's d effect size=-0.35; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.24; P<0.0001). Sensitivity analyses revealed no outlier effects. Adversity type and timing significantly impacted the association with telomere length (P<0.0001 and P=0.0025, respectively). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that medication use, medical or psychiatric conditions, case-control vs longitudinal study design, methodological factors, age and smoking significantly affected the relationship. Comprehensive evaluations of adversity demonstrated more extensive telomere length changes. These results suggest that early adversity may have long-lasting physiological consequences contributing to disease risk and biological aging.

  5. Toxicity effects of an environmental realistic herbicide mixture on the seagrass Zostera noltei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Buffan-Dubau, Evelyne; Budzinski, Hélène; Kallerhoff, Jean; Merlina, Georges; Silvestre, Jérome; Auby, Isabelle; Nathalie Tapie; Elger, Arnaud

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide seagrass declines have been observed due to multiple stressors. One of them is the mixture of pesticides used in intensive agriculture and boat antifouling paints in coastal areas. Effects of mixture toxicity are complex and poorly understood. However, consideration of mixture toxicity is more realistic and ecologically relevant for environmental risk assessment (ERA). The first aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of realistic herbicide mixture exposure on physiological endpoints of Zostera noltei. The second aim was to assess the environmental risks of this mixture, by comparing the results to previously published data. Z. noltei was exposed to a mixture of four herbicides: atrazine, diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor, simulating the composition of typical cocktail of contaminants in the Arcachon bay (Atlantic coast, France). Three stress biomarkers were measured: enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase, effective quantum yield (EQY) and photosynthetic pigment composition after 6, 24 and 96 h. Short term exposure to realistic herbicide mixtures affected EQY, with almost 100% inhibition for the two highest concentrations, and photosynthetic pigments. Effect on pigment composition was detected after 6 h with a no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 1 μg/L total mixture concentration. The lowest EQY effect concentration at 10% (EC 10 ) (2 μg/L) and pigment composition NOEC with an assessment factor of 10 were above the maximal field concentrations along the French Atlantic coast, suggesting that there are no potential short term adverse effects of this particular mixture on Z. noltei. However, chronic effects on photosynthesis may lead to reduced energy reserves, which could thus lead to effects at whole plant and population level. Understanding the consequences of chemical mixtures could help to improve ERA and enhance management strategies to prevent further declines of seagrass meadows worldwide. Copyright © 2016

  6. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  7. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with

  8. Current policies, strategies and aspects of environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has already shown its value for implementing and strengthening sustainable development, as it combines the precautionary principles with the principle of preventing environmental damage and also arranges for public participation. EIA is already used as an effective instrument for improving the quality of the environment at the national level and it is understood that the EIA Convention will lead to environmentally sound and sustainable development by providing information on the interrelationship between economic activities and their environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary context. The Convention obliges Parties to assess the environmental impacts at an early stage of planning and includes measures and procedures to prevent, control or reduce any significant adverse effect on the environment, particularly any transboundary effect, which is likely to be caused by a proposed activity or any major change to an existing activity

  9. Abuse of religion and environmental pollution in Nigeria: An Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Ibrahim Adebayo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of places of worship and the increase in the number of devotees of religions are considered by many to be a welcome development, but their adverse effects on environmental degradation have hardly been considered. This paper attempts to study the role or the abuse of religion on environmental pollution and its implications for sustainable development in Nigeria. Based upon primary and secondary information, this study found that religion has largely been misused by its practitioners resulting in environmental pollution, with a serious negative influence on sustainable development. The paper further suggests possible solutions to this problem on the basis of Islamic injunctions for sustainable environmental development.

  10. Contextual Drivers of Environmental Values Cross-Culturally: Evidence from Europe Between 2004 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Orru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, owing to the importance of environ- mental conditions to human wellbeing globally. This paper focuses on why people’s values toward care for nature and environmental protection change — one of the antecedents to pro-environmental norms and behaviour. We aimed to clarify how individual and country-level contextual factors affect environmental values in Europe. Our cross-national study used data on individual environmental values from the 2004 and 2012 rounds of the European Social Survey, in combination with macro-level data on socio-economic security, countries’ environmental performance and educational levels. Country-level results revealed that throughout the studied years, nature held more importance to people in countries with increased levels of unemployment and exacerbated income disparities, including in transitional, post-socialist economies. Care for environment is less prominent in countries already performing well in terms of socio-economic and environmental performance, i.e. in states that may have higher resilience capacity towards adverse environmental impacts. Besides a state’s science education, which functions as an effective socialiser of caring for nature, practical experiences with adverse environmental impacts (e.g. health impairment could be used to predict an increase in the mean value of the natural environment in a country.

  11. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 2. Draft environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, W. H.

    1976-06-01

    The need for additional uranium enrichment facilities and the environmental impacts of the add-on gaseous diffusion plant proposed for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed. A detailed description of the proposed facilities is included and unavoidable adverse environmental effects, possible alternatives, and anticipated benefits from the proposed facilities are considered. The flora and fauna of the area are tabulated and possible effects of air and water pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are postulated. The extent of anticipated noise impact on the vicinity and the anticipated extent of civic envolvement are discussed. (CH)

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 2. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The need for additional uranium enrichment facilities and the environmental impacts of the add-on gaseous diffusion plant proposed for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed. A detailed description of the proposed facilities is included and unavoidable adverse environmental effects, possible alternatives, and anticipated benefits from the proposed facilities are considered. The flora and fauna of the area are tabulated and possible effects of air and water pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are postulated. The extent of anticipated noise impact on the vicinity and the anticipated extent of civic envolvement are discussed

  13. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia

    1996-01-01

    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...

  14. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  15. Cascade Heritage Power Project assessment and screening report[With respect to review of the application for an environmental assessment certificate pursuant to the British Columbia Environmental Assessement Act, SBC 2002, c. 43 and with respect to the requirements of a screening pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, SC 1992, c. 37 as amended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-12

    In 1999, Powerhouse Development Inc. submitted an application to the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office (EAO) for its proposed Cascade Heritage Power Project, a 25-megawatt run-of-the-river hydroelectric facility that consists of a weir, an intake structure, an underground tunnel, a power plant, a substation and a transmission line. The proposed site is on the Kettle River near Grand Forks, British Columbia in the unique recreational area of the Cascade Canyon and Falls. The project is also situated within Okanagan First Nations territory. In 2002, the proponent redesigned its application to address public concerns regarding the potential impacts on recreation and tourism, water availability, water quality, fish, land use and energy policy. The proponent agreed to continue consulting with local residents and community groups about the project. Okanagan Nation Alliance (ONA) consultation opportunities were provided by EAO during the assessment of the project. ONA issues of concern included potential adverse effects on water quantity and quality, fish, wildlife, vegetation, and archaeological sites, including a sacred spiritual site. The ONA were also concerned about restrictions on access to the area for traditional use. This paper summarized issues regarding the following potential project effects: the various elements of the redesigned project, intended to mitigate the potential adverse effects of the original proposal; the location of project components and how the project will operate; the potential environmental effects and proposed mitigation measures; and, the potential socio-economic effects and proposed mitigation measures. With reference to environmental effects, it was determined that fish habitat information requirements for the project have been addressed satisfactorily along with terrestrial biodiversity issues related to 11 wildlife species that are listed as endangered. Natural Resources Canada concluded that the proponent adequately

  16. Benefits and adverse effects of post-operative radiation therapy after radical cystectomy for patients with advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, Noboru; Komatsu, Hideki; Tanabe, Nobuaki; Tago, Kiichiro; Ueno, Akira

    1995-01-01

    The benefits and adverse effects of post-operative irradiation for advanced bladder cancer patients were investigated. Ten patients with pT3b, pT4 or pN+ bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy at Yamanashi Medical University Hospital during 7 years and 3 months from October 1983 to December 1991 received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Group 1). During the same period, six patients with recurrent tumor after radical cystectomy were treated by radiotherapy (Group II). Stages of the primary tumors were PT2 in 1, pT3a in 2, pT3b in 6 and pT4 in 7 cases. In addition, 10 of 16 patients (63%) had positive nodes. During the follow-up period, seven patients died of cancer, and one died of other cause. As a result eight patients (5 in Group I, 3 in Group II) are alive. The cumulative 5-year survival rate is 50%. However, nine of the 16 patients (56%) suffered from the small bowel obstruction as an adverse effect of irradiation. Six patients required resection of the small bowel or bypass surgery. Radiation after radical cystectomy seemed to be effective for the local control of the tumor, but the adverse effect to the digestive system was very severe and common. (author)

  17. The effect of brain based learning with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningtyas, V.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to find out the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL) with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient (AQ) on mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the model to optimize the brain in the new concept learning and real life problem solving by making the good environment. Adversity Quotient is the ability to response and faces the problems. In addition, it is also about how to turn the difficulties into chances. This AQ classified into quitters, campers, and climbers. The research method used in this research was quasi experiment by using 2x3 factorial designs. The sample was chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The instruments were test and questionnaire for the data of AQ. The results showed that (1) BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement, (2) there is no significant difference between each types of AQ on mathematics achievement, and (3) there is no interaction between learning model and AQ on mathematics achievement.

  18. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  19. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  20. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  1. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  2. Occupational health of miners at altitude: adverse health effects, toxic exposures, pre-placement screening, acclimatization, and worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    Mining operations conducted at high altitudes provide health challenges for workers as well as for medical personnel. To review the literature regarding adverse health effects and toxic exposures that may be associated with mining operations conducted at altitude and to discuss pre-placement screening, acclimatization issues, and on-site surveillance strategies. We used the Ovid ( http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) search engine to conduct a MEDLINE search for "coal mining" or "mining" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude" and a second MEDLINE search for "occupational diseases" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude." The search identified 97 articles of which 76 were relevant. In addition, the references of these 76 articles were manually reviewed for relevant articles. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with increased sympathetic tone that may result in elevated blood pressure, particularly in workers with pre-existing hypertension. Workers with a history of coronary artery disease experience ischemia at lower work rates at high altitude, while those with a history of congestive heart failure have decreased exercise tolerance at high altitude as compared to healthy controls and are at higher risk of suffering an exacerbation of their heart failure. PULMONARY EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with various adverse pulmonary effects, including high-altitude pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, subacute mountain sickness, and chronic mountain sickness. Mining at altitude has been reported to accelerate silicosis and other pneumoconioses. Miners with pre-existing pneumoconioses may experience an exacerbation of their condition at altitude. Persons traveling to high altitude have a higher incidence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration while sleeping than do persons native to high altitude. Obesity increases the risk of pulmonary hypertension, acute mountain sickness, and sleep-disordered breathing. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: The most common adverse neurological

  3. Treatment of the adverse effects from acupuncture and their economic impact: a prospective study in 73,406 patients with low back or neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Pach, Daniel; Reinhold, Thomas; Wruck, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Mank, Sigrid; Willich, Stefan N

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the frequency of adverse effects due to acupuncture treatment, the need for treatment and the costs in patients with chronic low back or neck pain. This prospective observational study included patients who received acupuncture for chronic low back pain or chronic neck pain. After treatment all patients documented adverse events associated with acupuncture (defined as adverse effects) and provided details e.g. on treatment. Cost data was provided by the health insurance companies. We used a societal perspective including direct health care costs related to the acupuncture and the indirect costs caused through lost workdays. From 73,406 patients, 5440 patients (7.4% [95% CI 7.2%; 7.6%] reported experiencing at least one adverse effect and 1422 patients (1.9% [1.8%; 2.0%]) required treatment. The subsequent treatments reported were either self-treatment (1.2% [1.09%; 1.25%]), treatment with medication and/or by a physician (0.6% [0.57%; 0.68%]), or treatment in a hospital (0.03% [0.02%; 0.04%]). Patients reporting adverse effects that required treatment had higher costs compared to patients without adverse effects (at 3months €1265 [1179; 1351] vs. €1140 [1128; 1153] and at 12months € 3534 [3256; 3812] vs. € 3249 [3209; 3289]. The difference was caused through the expense of visiting physicians and higher indirect costs (difference at 3months: €125 [38; 211], p=0.005 and at 12months: €285 [4; 566], p=0.047). Adverse effects from acupuncture occur in about 7% of patients and were mainly treated by themselves. When these effects needed treatment by a health professional additional expenses were the consequence. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The cost of nurse-sensitive adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Sharon Holcombe

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for nursing leaders to determine the cost of adverse events and effective levels of nurse staffing. The growing transparency of quality and cost outcomes motivates healthcare leaders to optimize the effectiveness of nurse staffing. Most hospitals have robust cost accounting systems that provide actual patient-level direct costs. These systems allow an analysis of the cost consumed by patients during a hospital stay. By knowing the cost of complications, leaders have the ability to justify the cost of improved staffing when quality evidence shows that higher nurse staffing improves quality. An analysis was performed on financial and clinical data from hospital databases of 3,200 inpatients. The purpose was to establish a methodology to determine actual cost per case. Three diagnosis-related groups were the focus of the analysis. Five adverse events were analyzed along with the costs. A regression analysis reported that the actual direct cost of an adverse event was dollars 1,029 per case in the congestive heart failure cases and dollars 903 in the surgical cases. There was a significant increase in the cost per case in medical patients with urinary tract infection and pressure ulcers and in surgical patients with urinary tract infection and pneumonia. The odds of pneumonia occurring in surgical patients decreased with additional registered nurse hours per patient day. Hospital cost accounting systems are useful in determining the cost of adverse events and can aid in decision making about nurse staffing. Adverse events add costs to patient care and should be measured at the unit level to adjust staffing to reduce adverse events and avoid costs.

  5. Potential Adverse Effects of Violent Video Gaming: Interpersonal- Affective Traits Are Rather Impaired Than Disinhibition in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin S. Kimmig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of mass shootings, which were associated with excessive use of violent video games, fueled the debate of possible effects violent video games may have on adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between violent video gaming effects and the disposition of adverse behavior traits such as interpersonal-affective deficits and disinhibition. Data of 167 young adults, collected by an online questionnaire battery, were analyzed for lifetime video game exposure differences (i.e., non-gamers, non-violent video gamers, stopped violent video game users, and ongoing violent video game users as well as for recent exposure effects on adverse behavior traits (Levenson’s Psychopathy Scale, while controlling for other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. While interpersonal-affective deficits were significantly higher in participants with ongoing violent video game exposure compared to non-gamers and non-violent video gamers, disinhibition was significantly higher in both – stopped and ongoing – violent video game exposure groups compared to non-gamers. Recent violent video game exposure was a stronger predictor for interpersonal-affective deficits, but was also significant for disinhibition. Considering that we observed small to medium effects in a sample of young adults with little to moderate use of violent video games highlights the importance of further investigating the potential adverse effects of violent video games on quality of social relationships.

  6. Potential Adverse Effects of Violent Video Gaming: Interpersonal- Affective Traits Are Rather Impaired Than Disinhibition in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Ann-Christin S; Andringa, Gerda; Derntl, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The increasing trend of mass shootings, which were associated with excessive use of violent video games, fueled the debate of possible effects violent video games may have on adolescents and young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between violent video gaming effects and the disposition of adverse behavior traits such as interpersonal-affective deficits and disinhibition. Data of 167 young adults, collected by an online questionnaire battery, were analyzed for lifetime video game exposure differences (i.e., non-gamers, non-violent video gamers, stopped violent video game users, and ongoing violent video game users) as well as for recent exposure effects on adverse behavior traits (Levenson's Psychopathy Scale), while controlling for other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. While interpersonal-affective deficits were significantly higher in participants with ongoing violent video game exposure compared to non-gamers and non-violent video gamers, disinhibition was significantly higher in both - stopped and ongoing - violent video game exposure groups compared to non-gamers. Recent violent video game exposure was a stronger predictor for interpersonal-affective deficits, but was also significant for disinhibition. Considering that we observed small to medium effects in a sample of young adults with little to moderate use of violent video games highlights the importance of further investigating the potential adverse effects of violent video games on quality of social relationships.

  7. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  8. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  9. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  10. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  11. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated. We argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts

  12. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  13. Final environmental statement concerning proposed rule making action: acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Information on the ECCS requirements for PWR and BWR reactors are presented concerning environmental impact, alternatives, adverse environmental effects, relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity, irreversible and irretrievable commitment of resources, cost-benefit analysis, and discussion of significant comments received on the draft environmental statement. (U.S.)

  14. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  15. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  16. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Hyllested, Lea Maria Ronneberg; Meegaard, Line

    2017-01-01

    ) to a NOAC. Switching was most frequently caused by inconvenience (34%) and adverse effects (23%). Although half of all patients had recently bought over-the-counter analgesics, purchase of ibuprofen and aspirin was rare (6%). More VKA users than NOAC users felt limited in their everyday life because...

  17. Meta-analysis of recent studies on patients admitted to hospital due to adverse drug effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atiqi, R.; Cleophas, T. J.; van Bommel, E.; Zwinderman, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of drugs has expanded during the previous decade. However, earlier studies oil patients admitted for adverse drugs effects (ADEs) have been heterogeneous. The objectives of this Study were to assess the number of recent admissions to hospital Clue to ADEs and to assess the degree of

  18. Generation of computationally predicted Adverse Outcome Pathway networks through integration of publicly available in vivo, in vitro, phenotype, and biological pathway data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework is becoming a widely used tool for organizing and summarizing the mechanistic information connecting molecular perturbations by environmental stressors with adverse ecological and human health outcomes. However, the conventional process...

  19. Wind turbine environmental assessment -- Vol 1: Screening document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The environmental effects of the proposed construction and operation of up to three wind turbines on the Toronto waterfront are evaluated in accordance with the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) and Regulations. The nine sections of the report provide background on the environmental assessment and the wind turbine project; provide justification for the project and describes alternative sites and wind turbine technologies; outlines the scope of the project; sketches the biophysical and socio-economic environment; presents an evaluation of the environmental impacts and proposed mitigating measures; describes the public consultation program that was carried out; summarizes the comments received from interested parties; presents the conclusion of the environmental impact assessment; and responds to the public comments received on the draft screening document. Most of the concerns raised involved avoidance reactions by birds, disruption or fragmentation of wildlife, the potential for high kill rate of small nocturnal migrants and young birds, and the effect of noise on breeding birds. The overall recommendation of the consultants is that the project is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects and its construction and operations should be authorized. 115 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs. (14 appendices are in volume 2)

  20. Toxicogenomics in Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinke, Alexandra; Buchinger, Sebastian

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge and recent progress in the field of environmental, aquatic ecotoxicogenomics with a focus on transcriptomic methods. In ecotoxicogenomics the omics technologies are applied for the detection and assessment of adverse effects in the environment, and thus are to be distinguished from omics used in human toxicology [Snape et al., Aquat Toxicol 67:143-154, 2004]. Transcriptomic methods in ecotoxicology are applied to gain a mechanistic understanding of toxic effects on organisms or populations, and thus aim to bridge the gap between cause and effect. A worthwhile effect-based interpretation of stressor induced changes on the transcriptome is based on the principle of phenotypic-anchoring [Paules, Environ Health Perspect 111:A338-A339, 2003]. Thereby, changes on the transcriptomic level can only be identified as effects if they are clearly linked to a specific stressor-induced effect on the macroscopic level. By integrating those macroscopic and transcriptomic effects, conclusions on the effect-inducing type of the stressor can be drawn. Stressor-specific effects on the transcriptomic level can be identified as stressor-specific induced pathways, transcriptomic patterns, or stressors-specific genetic biomarkers. In this chapter, examples of the combined application of macroscopic and transcriptional effects for the identification of environmental stressors, such as aquatic pollutants, are given and discussed. By means of these examples, challenges on the way to a standardized application of transcriptomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. This is also done against the background of the application of transcriptomic methods in environmental regulation such as the EU regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

  1. Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Erickson, Zachary T; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-10-06

    An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage. F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination. Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael K; Barra, Nicole G; Alfaidy, Nadia; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy through cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapies or e-cigarette use continues to be a widespread public health problem, impacting both fetal and postnatal health. Yet, at this time, there remains limited data regarding the safety and efficacy in using these nicotine products during pregnancy. Notably, reports assessing the effect of nicotine exposure on postnatal health outcomes in humans, including reproductive health, are severely lacking. Our current understanding regarding the consequences of nicotine exposure during pregnancy is limited to a few animal studies, which do not comprehensively address the underlying cellular mechanisms involved. This paper aims to critically review the current knowledge from human and animal studies regarding the direct and indirect effects (e.g. obesity) of maternal nicotine exposure, regardless of its source, on reproductive outcomes in pregnancy and postnatal life. Furthermore, this review highlights several key cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse reproductive deficits including oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. By understanding the interplay of the cellular mechanisms involved, further strategies could be developed to prevent the reproductive abnormalities resulting from exposure to nicotine in utero and influence informed clinical guidelines for pregnant women. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by

  4. Nivolumab, a new immunomodulatory drug, a new adverse effect; adrenal crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karbek Akarca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the advancements in medicine, new information is obtained regarding cancer, new antineoplastic agents are developed. Frequent use of these new pharmacological agents emergency physicians to be vigilant about their side effects. We present a case of adrenal crisis in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, caused by an immunomodulatory drug; nivolumab. While adverse events are related to other immunomodulatory drugs have been reported in literature, our case is the first nivolumab-related adrenal failure to be reported. A patient with lung cancer presented to the emergency room(ER with nausea and vomiting. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, persistent hypoglycemia led to the diagnosis of adrenal crisis. Having direct effect on the immune system, these drugs were claimed to be highly reliable. However, there is no reliable data on the side effect profile of these agents. It should be kept in mind that life-threatening auto-immune reactions may occur. Keywords: Nivolumab, Immunomodulation, CTLA 4 antigen, Adrenal crisis

  5. The lesser of two adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chayan; Egan, John

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to complex systems are interconnected processes involved in providing high-quality patient care. A case study and a root cause analysis (RCA) illustrate a patient safety effort with unintended consequences. A 38-year-old woman presented to the hospital for odynophagia and vomiting. The patient developed Mobitz type 2, second-degree heart block temporally associated with the administration of intravenous ondansetron. RESPONSE TO THE EVENT: An Ishikawa, or fishbone, diagram conducted to enumerate potential contributing factors indicated that a key factor appeared to be an institutional restriction against using intravenous (i.v.) promethazine, which resulted in ondansetron being the only readily available i.v. anti-emetic on formulary. The anesthesia department requested that i.v. promethazine be removed from all operating and recovery room automated medication dispensing machines. The pharmacy department, given the realization that individual departments were taking independent action regarding promethazine, discussed the matter with the medical director, who issued a memo banning the use of i.v. promethazine. An institutional ban on i.v. anti-emetics such as promethazine may have resulted in an increase in the use of ondansetron and contributed to this adverse reaction. The reason to restrict promethazine is not well reported in the literature. In limiting the use of promethazine for patient safety concerns, the inadvertent increase in adverse reactions of the alternative medication, ondansetron, may have been overlooked. The resultant RCA underscores the need for careful cataloguing of adverse medication effects. Stakeholders should anticipate as many "downstream effects" of quality and patient safety improvements as possible. Comprehensive reporting of adverse medication effects will augment the emerging science of patient safety.

  6. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Challenges in Creating Evidence in Environmental Health Risk Assessments: The Example of Second-Hand Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are directed to influence the (state of a risk factor, either by behavioral or environmental changes. Therefore, environmental health risk assessments are highly relevant for public health decision making and policy development. The credibility of an environmental health risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. In this article, the main challenges for assessing the impact of a potential adverse health effect from an environmental pollutant are described. Second-hand smoke (SHS was chosen to illustrate the current state of evidence. The assessment of the impact of potential adverse health effects from environmental risk factors is dependent on several issues, such as the hypothesized health outcome, the nature of the exposure, the dose-response-relationship and the variability and susceptibility of the exposed population. The example of SHS exposure highlights the need for evidence-based public health. Several challenges in terms of study design, assessment methods, as well as data analysis and synthesis with respect to the stratification of results, and consideration of bias and confounding exist. Future research needs to take into account which methods and techniques will be used to generate evidence for population-level decisions.

  8. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

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    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  9. Integrating publicly-available data to generate computationally-predicted adverse outcome pathways for hepatic steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a way of organizing knowledge related to the key biological events that result in a particular health outcome. For the majority of environmental chemicals, the availability of curated pathways characterizing potential toxicity ...

  10. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  11. Not Only Health: Environmental Pollution Disasters and Political Trust

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    Xun Gong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, the economy of China has sustained rapid growth. However, the extensive development pattern severely deteriorates the ecological environment, which has been recognized as adverse effects on citizens’ physical and mental health. Simultaneously, the political trust in China has been in decline after staying at a high level for a long time. In this paper, we state that, in addition to health issues, environmental pollution can also lead to important political consequences. Using statistics on the occurrence of environmental pollution disasters and a nationally representative survey database in China, we find that environmental pollution disasters can negatively affect citizens’ trust of the government. This relationship persists after a series of endogenous tests and robustness checks. Path analysis indicates that this relationship can be partially mediated by the increase in citizens’ environmental awareness. The cross-sectional analyses on individual characteristics demonstrate that the negative effect of environmental pollution disasters on political trust is less pronounced for female citizens and citizens who are communist party members. Finally, we report that the government’s positive attitudes and activities in resolving environmental pollution problems can partially offset the negative effect of environmental pollution disasters on political trust.

  12. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

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    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors. In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  13. Environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion in Bangladesh: an analysis of farmers' perceptions and their determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    2003-06-01

    Farmers' perception of the environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion and factors determining such awareness were examined using survey data from 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. Results reveal that farmers are well aware of the adverse environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology, although their awareness remains confined within visible impacts such as soil fertility, fish catches, and health effects. Their perception of intangible impacts such as, toxicity in water and soils is weak. Level and duration of modern agricultural technology adoption directly influence awareness of its adverse effects. Education and extension contacts also play an important role in raising awareness. Awareness is higher among farmers in developed regions, fertile locations and those with access to off-farm income sources. Promotion of education and strengthening extension services will boost farmers' environmental awareness. Infrastructure development and measures to replenish depleting soil fertility will also play a positive role in raising awareness.

  14. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  15. CYP2D6 polymorphisms may predict occurrence of adverse effects to tamoxifen: a preliminary retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramage I

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ishani Wickramage,1 Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon,1 Merenchi Arachchige Yasantha Ariyaratne,2 Asanka Sudeshini Hewage,1 Tharmini Sundralingam,1 1Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IBMBB, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2National Cancer Institute, Maharagama, Sri Lanka Introduction and aims: Tamoxifen is an adjuvant drug effective in treating hormone ­receptor – positive breast cancer. However, 30%–50% of patients relapse and many develop adverse effects, such as hot flashes and fatty liver. Allelic variations altering the activity of cytochrome P450-2D6 enzyme affect response to tamoxifen by modulating metabolism of tamoxifen into its pharmacologically active metabolite endoxifen. Although association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and recurrence of breast cancer in patients on tamoxifen had been reported, little evidence exists on association between these polymorphisms and adverse effects to tamoxifen. This study explored the association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and tamoxifen effects, hitherto not studied in Sri Lanka. Methods: A retrospective preliminary study was carried out on 24 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen for minimally 3 months attending National Cancer Institute, Maharagama, Sri Lanka. They were not on CYP2D6-inhibiting drugs, chemotherapy or other endocrine therapy, and had no conditions that could occur as adverse effects to tamoxifen before starting the therapy. Their blood samples were collected, DNA was extracted and genotyped using SNaPshot Multiplex sequencing based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP assay. Results: SNP/allele frequencies detected: 1846G>A (confirmatory of *4 null allele=8.3%; 2549delA (confirmatory of *3 null allele=50%; 100C>T (suggestive of *10 reduced functional allele, in addition to other alleles=0%; combination of 2988G>A, -1584C and 2850C>T (strongly suggestive of *41 or other reduced functional allele=4.8%. Occurrence of heterozygous 2988G>A SNP with

  16. Renal function and symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Lundström, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal impairment and the risk of toxicity caused by accumulation of opioids and/or active metabolites is an under-investigated issue. This study aimed at analysing if symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer were associated with renal function. METHODS: Cross...... loss of appetite (P = 0.04). No other significant associations were found. CONCLUSION: Only severe constipation and loss of appetite were associated with low GFR in patients treated with morphine. Oxycodone and fentanyl, in relation to the symptoms studied, seem to be safe as used and titrated...

  17. Linking mechanistic data to endpoints of regulatory concern using the adverse outcome pathway framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to increase the uptake and use of high throughput screening data in environmental risk assessment, it is important to establish scientifically credible links between measures of biological pathway perturbation and apical adverse outcomes in humans and wildlife. The adver...

  18. Comparative evaluation of adverse effects in the use of powder trivalent antivenom and liquid antivenoms in Bothrops snake bites

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    Iran Mendonça da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snake bite, a problem in public health, generally occurs where there is no electric power. METHODS: A comparative clinical study was conducted with 102 victims of Bothrops snake bite, from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; 58 victims were treated with liofilizated trivalent antivenom serum (SATL and 44 victims treated with liquid bivalent and monovalent antivenom serum (SAMBL. RESULTS: 17% (10/58 of patients presented adverse effects with the SATL and 25% (11/44 with the SAMBL. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistic difference in number of adverse effects between the two types of snake bite antivenom.

  19. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy geothermal power plant No. 1. Final environmental impact report