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Sample records for adventitious root development

  1. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development.

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    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  2. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

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    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  3. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots1

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    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  4. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

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    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  5. Distribution of some pectic and arabinogalactan protein epitopes during Solanum lycopersicum (L.) adventitious root development.

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    Sala, Katarzyna; Malarz, Katarzyna; Barlow, Peter W; Kurczyńska, Ewa U

    2017-01-25

    The adventitious roots (AR) of plants share the same function as primary and lateral roots (LR), although their development is mainly an adaptive reaction to stress conditions. Regeneration of grafted plants is often accompanied by AR formation thus making the grafting technique a good model for studying AR initiation and development and their means of emergence. Pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are helpful markers of particular cellular events, such as programmed cell death (PCD), elongation, proliferation or other differentiation events that accompany AR development. However, little is known about the distribution of pectins and AGPs during AR ontogeny, either in the primordium or stem tissues from which AR arise or their correspondence with these events during LR formation. AR were developed from different stem tissues such as parenchyma, xylem rays and the cambium, depending on the stem age and treatment (grafting versus cutting) of the parental tissue. Immunochemical analysis of the presence of pectic (LM8, LM19, LM20) and AGP (JIM8, JIM13, JIM16) epitopes in AR and AR-associated tissues showed differential, tissue-specific distributions of these epitopes. Two pectic epitopes (LM19, LM20) were developmentally regulated and the occurrence of the LM8 xylogalacturonan epitope in the root cap of the AR differed from other species described so far. AGP epitopes were abundantly present in the cytoplasmic compartments (mainly the tonoplast) and were correlated with the degree of cell vacuolisation. JIM8 and JIM13 epitopes were detected in the more advanced stages of primordium development, whereas the JIM16 epitope was present from the earliest division events of the initial AR cells. The comparison between AR and LR showed quantitative (AGP,) and qualitative (pectins) differences. The chemical compositions of adventitious and lateral root cells show differences that correlate with the different origins of these cells. In AR, developmental changes in the

  6. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

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    Chengming Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  7. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings.

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    da Costa, Cibele T; de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  8. WHEN STRESS AND DEVELOPMENT GO HAND IN HAND: MAIN HORMONAL CONTROLS OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOTING IN CUTTINGS

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    Cibele Tesser Da Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting (AR is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: a induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; b formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced cytokinin concentration in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 and ABP1. A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation.

  9. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  10. Localized gene expression changes during adventitious root formation in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.)

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    Micah E Stevens; Keith E Woeste; Paula M Pijut

    2018-01-01

    Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans...

  11. Expressed sequence tag analysis of functional genes associated with adventitious rooting in Liriodendron hybrids.

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    Zhong, Y D; Sun, X Y; Liu, E Y; Li, Y Q; Gao, Z; Yu, F X

    2016-06-24

    Liriodendron hybrids (Liriodendron chinense x L. tulipifera) are important landscaping and afforestation hardwood trees. To date, little genomic research on adventitious rooting has been reported in these hybrids, as well as in the genus Liriodendron. In the present study, we used adventitious roots to construct the first cDNA library for Liriodendron hybrids. A total of 5176 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated and clustered into 2921 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 2547 had significant homology to the non-redundant protein database representing a wide variety of putative functions. Homologs of these genes regulated many aspects of adventitious rooting, including those for auxin signal transduction and root hair development. Results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that AUX1, IRE, and FB1 were highly expressed in adventitious roots and the expression of AUX1, ARF1, NAC1, RHD1, and IRE increased during the development of adventitious roots. Additionally, 181 simple sequence repeats were identified from 166 ESTs and more than 91.16% of these were dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the identification of the genes associated with adventitious rooting in the genus Liriodendron for the first time and provides a valuable resource for future genomic studies. Expression analysis of selected genes could allow us to identify regulatory genes that may be essential for adventitious rooting.

  12. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

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    Sergio eTombesi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L (a hard-to-root specie leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  13. Effect of naphthalene acetic acid on adventitious root development and associated physiological changes in stem cutting of Hemarthria compressa.

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    Yan-Hong Yan

    Full Text Available In order to find a way to induce rooting on cuttings of Hemarthria compressa cv. Ya'an under controlled conditions, a project was carried out to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA on rooting in stem cuttings and related physiological changes during the rooting process of Hemarthria compressa. The cuttings were treated with five concentrations of NAA (0, 100, 200 300, 400 mg/l at three soaking durations (10, 20, 30 minutes, and cuttings without treatment were considered as control. Samples were planted immediately into pots after treatment. IAA-oxidase (IAAO activity, peroxidase (POD activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity were determined after planting. Results showed that NAA had positive effect on rooting at the concentration of 200 mg/l compared to other concentrations at 30 days after planting (DAP. Among the three soaking durations, 20 minutes (min of 200 mg/l NAA resulted in higher percentages of rooting, larger numbers of adventitious roots and heavier root dry weight per cutting. The lowest IAAO activity was obtained when soaked at 200 mg/l NAA for 20 min soaking duration. This was consistent with the best rooting ability, indicating that the lower IAAO activity, the higher POD activity and PPO activity could be used as an indicator of better rooting ability for whip grass cuttings and might serve as a good marker for rooting ability in cuttings.

  14. Distinct modes of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Correa, L da Rocha; Troleis, J; Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E A; Fett-Neto, A G

    2012-01-01

    The literature describes different rooting protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana as models to study adventitious rooting, and results are generally perceived as comparable. However, there is a lack of investigations focusing on the distinct features, advantages and limitations of each method in the study of adventitious rooting with both wild-type (WT) ecotypes and their respective mutants. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adventitious rooting process in three different experimental systems, all using A. thaliana, analysing the same rooting parameters after transient exposure to auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and control conditions: excised leaves, de-rooted plants and etiolated seedlings. The founding tissues and sites of origin of roots differed depending on the system used, whereas all rooting patterns were of the direct type (i.e., without callus formation). None of the systems had an absolute requirement for exogenous auxin, although rooting was enhanced by this phytohormone, with the exception of de-rooted plants, which had adventitious rooting strongly inhibited by exogenous auxin. Root elongation was much favoured in isolated leaves. Auxin-overproducing mutants could not be used in the detached leaf system due to precocious senescence; in the de-rooted plant system, these mutants had a WT-like rooting response, whereas the expression of the 'rooty' phenotype was only evident in the etiolated seedling system. Adventitious rooting of etiolated WT seedlings in the presence of exogenous auxin was inhibited by exogenous flavonoids, which act as auxin transport inhibitors; surprisingly, the flavonoid-deficient mutant chs had a lower rooting response compared to WT. Although Arabidopsis is an excellent model system to study adventitious rooting, physiological and developmental responses differed significantly, underlining the importance of avoiding data generalisation on rooting responses derived from different experimental systems with this species.

  15. Polyamines and adventitious root formation in Vitis vinifera L.

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    Laurence Geny

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyamines were examined for growth and polyamine contents in cultings, callus and primary adventitious roots of Vitis vinifera L. Variations in free, conjugated and wall-bound polyamines in cuttings were observed during rhizogenesis. The main polyamines in cuttings were conjugated polyamines while in callus and primary adventitious roots they were free polyamines. Exogenous polyamine addition did not modify the total number of roots per cutting but increased the mean size and number of long roots. Moreover, exogenous polyamines increased polyamine levels in callus and roots, particurlarly wall-bound and conjugated polyamines. The involvement of these classes of polyamines in morphogenic processes is discussed.

  16. Adventitious rooting declines with the vegetative to reproductive switch and involves a changed auxin homeostasis.

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    Rasmussen, Amanda; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Druege, Uwe; Geelen, Danny

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious rooting, whereby roots form from non-root tissues, is critical to the forestry and horticultural industries that depend on propagating plants from cuttings. A major problem is that age of the tissue affects the ability of the cutting to form adventitious roots. Here, a model system has been developed using Pisum sativum to differentiate between different interpretations of ageing. It is shown that the decline in adventitious rooting is linked to the ontogenetic switch from vegetative to floral and is mainly attributed to the cutting base. Using rms mutants it is demonstrated that the decline is not a result of increased strigolactones inhibiting adventitious root formation. Monitoring endogenous levels of a range of other hormones including a range of cytokinins in the rooting zone revealed that a peak in jasmonic acid is delayed in cuttings from floral plants. Additionally, there is an early peak in indole-3-acetic acid levels 6h post excision in cuttings from vegetative plants, which is absent in cuttings from floral plants. These results were confirmed using DR5:GUS expression. Exogenous supplementation of young cuttings with either jasmonic acid or indole-3-acetic acid promoted adventitious rooting, but neither of these hormones was able to promote adventitious rooting in mature cuttings. DR5:GUS expression was observed to increase in juvenile cuttings with increasing auxin treatment but not in the mature cuttings. Therefore, it seems the vegetative to floral ontogenetic switch involves an alteration in the tissue's auxin homeostasis that significantly reduces the indole-3-acetic acid pool and ultimately results in a decline in adventitious root formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Psoralen production in hairy roots and adventitious roots cultures of Psoralea coryfolia.

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    Baskaran, P; Jayabalan, N

    2009-07-01

    Psoralea corylifolia is an endangered plant producing various compounds of medical importance. Adventitious roots and hairy roots were induced in cultures prepared from hypocotyl explants. Psoralen content was evaluated in both root types grown either in suspension cultures or on agar solidified medium. Psoralen content was approximately 3 mg g(-1) DW in suspension grown hairy roots being higher than in solid grown hairy roots and in solid and suspension-grown adventitious roots.

  18. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  19. Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation.

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    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Bussell, John Desmond; Schwambach, Joseli; Pop, Tiberia Ioana; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Gutierrez, Laurent; Cavel, Emilie; Chaabouni, Salma; Ljung, Karin; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Pamfil, Doru; Bellini, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process.

  20. Jasmonates act positively in adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Lischweski, Sandra; Muchow, Anne; Guthörl, Daniela; Hause, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background Petunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach. Results To reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (...

  1. Strigolactones Suppress Adventitious Rooting in Arabidopsis and Pea1[C][W][OA

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    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B.; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  2. Nitric oxide mediates the indole acetic acid induction activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in adventitious root development.

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    Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lanteri, María Luciana; Lombardo, María Cristina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2004-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during the adventitious rooting process in cucumber (Cucumis sativus; Pagnussat et al., 2002, 2003). However, not much is known about the complex molecular network operating during the cell proliferation and morphogenesis triggered by auxins and NO in that process. Anatomical studies showed that formation of adventitious root primordia was clearly detected in indole acetic acid (IAA)- and NO-treated cucumber explants, while neither cell proliferation nor differentiation into root primordia could be observed in control explants 3 d after primary root was removed. In order to go further with signal transduction mechanisms that operate during IAA- and NO-induced adventitious root formation, experiments were designed to test the involvement of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in that process. Cucumber explants were treated with the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or with SNP plus the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO. Protein extracts from those explants were assayed for protein kinase (PK) activity by using myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrate in both in vitro and in-gel assays. The activation of a PK of approximately 48 kD could be detected 1 d after NO treatment with a maximal activation after 3 d of treatment. In control explants, a PK activity was detected only after 4 d of treatment. The MBP-kinase activity was also detected in extracts from IAA-treated explants, while no signal was observed in IAA + cPTIO treatments. The PK activity could be inhibited by the cell-permeable MAPK kinase inhibitor PD098059, suggesting that the NO-dependent MBP-kinase activity is a MAPK. Furthermore, when PD098059 was administered to explants treated with SNP or IAA, it produced a delay in root emergence and a dose-dependent reduction in root number. Altogether, our results suggest that a MAPK signaling cascade is activated during the adventitious rooting process

  3. Transcriptional sequencing and analysis of major genes involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments.

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    Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Hong-Na; Wu, Qing-Song; Muday, Gloria K

    2017-06-01

    A total of 74,745 unigenes were generated and 1975 DEGs were identified. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment were revealed. Adventitious root formation is a crucial step in plant vegetative propagation, but the molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation remains unclear. Adventitious roots formed only at the proximal cut surface (PCS) of mango cotyledon segments, whereas no roots were formed on the opposite, distal cut surface (DCS). To identify the transcript abundance changes linked to adventitious root development, RNA was isolated from PCS and DCS at 0, 4 and 7 days after culture, respectively. Illumina sequencing of libraries generated from these samples yielded 62.36 Gb high-quality reads that were assembled into 74,745 unigenes with an average sequence length of 807 base pairs, and 33,252 of the assembled unigenes at least had homologs in one of the public databases. Comparative analysis of these transcriptome databases revealed that between the different time points at PCS there were 1966 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), while there were only 51 DEGs for the PCS vs. DCS when time-matched samples were compared. Of these DEGs, 1636 were assigned to gene ontology (GO) classes, the majority of that was involved in cellular processes, metabolic processes and single-organism processes. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment are predicted to encode polar auxin transport carriers, auxin-regulated proteins, cell wall remodeling enzymes and ethylene-related proteins. In order to validate RNA-sequencing results, we further analyzed the expression profiles of 20 genes by quantitative real-time PCR. This study expands the transcriptome information for Mangifera indica and identifies candidate genes involved in adventitious root formation in cotyledon segments of mango.

  4. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Origin, timing, and gene expression profile of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Margareta; Geier, Thomas; Smolka, Anders; Ahlman, Annelie; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative propagation, but difficult to achieve in many crops. Understanding its molecular mechanisms is thus important for such species. Here we aimed at developing a rooting protocol for direct AR formation in stems, locating cellular AR origins in stems and exploring molecular differences underlying adventitious rooting in hypocotyls and stems. In-vitro-grown hypocotyls or stems of wild-type and transgenic ecotype Columbia (Col-0) of Arabidopsis thaliana were rooted on rooting media. Anatomy of AR formation, qRT-PCR of some rooting-related genes and in situ GUS expression were carried out during rooting from hypocotyls and stems. We developed a rooting protocol for AR formation in stems and traced back root origins in stems by anatomical and in situ expression studies. Unlike rooting in hypocotyls, rooting in stems was slower, and AR origins were mainly from lateral parenchyma of vascular bundles and neighboring starch sheath cells as well as, to a lesser extent, from phloem cap and xylem parenchyma. Transcript levels of GH3-3, LBD16, LBD29, and LRP1 in hypocotyls and stems were similar, but transcript accumulation was delayed in stems. In situ expression signals of DR5::GUS, LBD16::GUS, LBD29::GUS, and rolB::GUS reporters in stems mainly occurred at the root initiation sites, suggesting their involvement in AR formation. We have developed an efficient rooting protocol using half-strength Lepoivre medium for studying AR formation in stems, traced back the cellular AR origins in stems, and correlated expression of rooting-related genes with root initiation sites.

  6. Benefits of flooding-induced aquatic adventitious roots depend on the duration of submergence: linking plant performance to root functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huber, Heidrun; Beljaars, Simone J M; Birnbaum, Diana; de Best, Sander; de Kroon, Hans; Visser, Eric J W

    2017-07-01

    Temporal flooding is a common environmental stress for terrestrial plants. Aquatic adventitious roots (aquatic roots) are commonly formed in flooding-tolerant plant species and are generally assumed to be beneficial for plant growth by supporting water and nutrient uptake during partial flooding. However, the actual contribution of these roots to plant performance under flooding has hardly been quantified. As the investment into aquatic root development in terms of carbohydrates may be costly, these costs may - depending on the specific environmental conditions - offset the beneficial effects of aquatic roots. This study tested the hypothesis that the balance between potential costs and benefits depends on the duration of flooding, as the benefits are expected to outweigh the costs in long-term but not in short-term flooding. The contribution of aquatic roots to plant performance was tested in Solanum dulcamara during 1-4 weeks of partial submergence and by experimentally manipulating root production. Nutrient uptake by aquatic roots, transpiration and photosynthesis were measured in plants differing in aquatic root development to assess the specific function of these roots. As predicted, flooded plants benefited from the presence of aquatic roots. The results showed that this was probably due to the contribution of roots to resource uptake. However, these beneficial effects were only present in long-term but not in short-term flooding. This relationship could be explained by the correlation between nutrient uptake and the flooding duration-dependent size of the aquatic root system. The results indicate that aquatic root formation is likely to be selected for in habitats characterized by long-term flooding. This study also revealed only limited costs associated with adventitious root formation, which may explain the maintenance of the ability to produce aquatic roots in habitats characterized by very rare or short flooding events. © The Author 2017. Published by

  7. Effect of ABT + S3307 on sugar metabolism and adventitious root in cuttings of Dendrocalamus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Ling; Liang Guangjian; Li Ling

    2003-01-01

    Application of ABT + S3307 to the cuttings of Dendrocalamus spp. promoted the sucrase activity. The contents of sucrose and starch in the cuttings based and the first node were decreased. Compared with the control, the content of reducing sugar was increased obviously in the cutting based. The transportation of 3 H-glucose from labeled site to the base in treated cuttings was increased with the adventitious root formation. At the same time, the contents of structural substance in the cuttings based and the adventitious root were raised. The high content of carbohydrate and reducing activity in the adventitious root were available for growth of the roots

  8. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. The TOR Pathway Is Involved in Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis and Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kexuan; Dong, Pan; Wang, Wanjing; Feng, Li; Xiong, Fangjie; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shumin; Feng, Shun; Wang, Bangjun; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis . The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato. To dissect TOR signaling in potato, the rapamycin hypersensitive potato plants (BP12-OE) were engineered by introducing yeast FKBP12 ( ScFKBP12 ) into potato. We found that rapamycin can significantly attenuate the capability of adventitious root formation in BP12-OE potatoes. KU63794 (KU, an active-site TOR inhibitor) combined with rapamycin can more significantly suppress adventitious root formation of BP12-OE potato than the single treatments, such as KU63794 or rapamycin, indicating its synergistic inhibitory effects on potato adventitious root formation. Furthermore, RNA-seq data showed that many genes associated with auxin signaling pathway were altered when BP12-OE potato seedlings were treated with rapamycin + KU, suggesting that TOR may play a major role in adventitious root formation via auxin signaling. The auxin receptor mutant tir1 was sensitive to TOR inhibitors and the double and quadruple mutants including tir1afb2, tir1afb3 , and tir1afb1afb2afb3 displayed more sensitive to asTORis than single mutant tir1 . Consistently, overexpression of AtTIR1 in Arabidopsis and potato can partially overcome the inhibitory effect of asTORis and promote adventitious root formation under asTORis treatments. These observations suggest that TOR signaling regulates adventitious root formation by mediating auxin signaling in Arabidopsis and potato.

  10. Genetic linkage map and QTL identification for adventitious rooting traits in red gum eucalypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Murugan; Bachpai, Vijaya Kumar Waman; Mayavel, A; Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Nagarajan, Binai; Rajasugunasekar, D; Sivakumar, Veerasamy; Yasodha, Ramasamy

    2018-05-01

    The eucalypt species, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis , show tolerance to drought and salinity conditions, respectively, and are widely cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of tropical countries. In this study, genetic linkage map was developed for interspecific cross E. tereticornis  ×  E. camaldulensis using pseudo-testcross strategy with simple sequence repeats (SSRs), intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The consensus genetic map comprised totally 283 markers with 84 SSRs, 94 ISSRs, and 105 SRAP markers on 11 linkage groups spanning 1163.4 cM genetic distance. Blasting the SSR sequences against E. grandis sequences allowed an alignment of 64% and the average ratio of genetic-to-physical distance was 1.7 Mbp/cM, which strengths the evidence that high amount of synteny and colinearity exists among eucalypts genome. Blast searches also revealed that 37% of SSRs had homologies with genes, which could potentially be used in the variety of downstream applications including candidate gene polymorphism. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for adventitious rooting traits revealed six QTL for rooting percent and root length on five chromosomes with interval and composite interval mapping. All the QTL explained 12.0-14.7% of the phenotypic variance, showing the involvement of major effect QTL on adventitious rooting traits. Increasing the density of markers would facilitate the detection of more number of small-effect QTL and also underpinning the genes involved in rooting process.

  11. [Effects of culture conditions on biomass and active components of adventitious roots culture in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Cao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    To optimize the culture condition of adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture by manipulation of inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The multiplication of adventitious roots reached the peak when the inoculum was 20 g x L(-1). The effects of sucrose concentration and salt strength on adventitious roots were observed. The contents of polysaccharides were higher when the medium contained more sucrose. 40 g x L(-1) sucrose was favorable for roots growth and biosynthesis of Re, while 30 g x L(-1) was favorable for the biosynthesis of Rb1 and Rg1. 3/4MS medium was benefit for the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. The contents of polysaccharides were decreased with the increase of salt strength. The results showed that inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength have significant influences on adventitious roots growth, secondary metabolite and polysaccharide synthesis in P. ginseng.

  12. [Effects of Ca2+ on nitric oxide-induced adventitious rooting in cucumber under drought stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Lan; Niu, Li Juan; Hu, Lin Li; Liao, Wei Biao; Chen, Yue

    2017-11-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. 'Xinchun 4') was used to explore the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) during adventitious rooting under drought stress. Rooting parameters, endogenous Ca 2+ fluorescent intensity and the antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD, CAT and APX) in cucumber explants under drought stress were investigated. The results showed that treatment with 200 μmol·L -1 CaCl 2 and 0.05% PEG significantly improved the number and length of adventitious root in cucumber explants under drought stress, while the application of Ca 2+ chelating agent (EGTA) and channel inhibitor (BAPTA/AM) significantly decreased NO-induced number and length of adventitious root under drought stress. Under drought stress, the fluorescence intensity of Ca 2+ in hypocotyls treated with NO and CaCl 2 was improved, however, the Ca 2+ fluorescence intensity in the hypocotyls treated with NO scavenger (cPTIO) was significantly lower than that in the hypocotyls treated with NO. Under drought stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the cucumber explants were significantly promoted by the treatments with NO and CaCl 2 , however, Ca 2+ chelating agent and channel inhibitor significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by NO. In conclusion, Ca 2+ might be involved in the process of NO-adjusted antioxidant enzymes activity during adventitious rooting under drought stress, which alleviated the negative effects of drought on the adventitious rooting and promoted the formation of adventitious roots.

  13. Jasmonates act positively in adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischweski, Sandra; Muchow, Anne; Guthörl, Daniela; Hause, Bettina

    2015-09-22

    Petunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach. To reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (PhAOC)-RNAi construct. The transgenic plants exhibited strongly reduced PhAOC transcript and protein levels as well as diminished accumulation of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine after wounding in comparison to wild type and empty vector expressing plants. Reduced levels of endogenous jasmonates resulted in formation of lower numbers of ARs. However, this effect was not accompanied by altered levels of auxin and aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC, precursor of ethylene) or by impaired auxin and ethylene-induced gene expression. Neither activity of cell-wall invertases nor accumulation of soluble sugars was altered by jasmonate deficiency. Diminished numbers of AR in JA-deficient cuttings suggest that jasmonates act as positive regulators of AR formation in petunia wild type. However, wound-induced rise in jasmonate levels in petunia wild type cuttings seems not to be causal for increased auxin and ethylene levels and for sink establishment.

  14. Calcium and Calmodulin Are Involved in Nitric Oxide-Induced Adventitious Rooting of Cucumber under Simulated Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lijuan; Yu, Jian; Liao, Weibiao; Yu, Jihua; Zhang, Meiling; Dawuda, Mohammed M

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic stress is a major form of abiotic stress that adversely affects growth and development of plants and subsequently reduces yield and quality of crops. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) on the process of adventitious rooting in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) under simulated osmotic stress was investigated. The results revealed that the effect of exogenous NO and Ca 2+ in promoting the development of adventitious roots in cucumber seedlings under simulated osmotic stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor nitroprusside (SNP) or 200 μM Ca 2+ . The application of Ca 2+ chelators or channel inhibitors and calmodulin (CaM) antagonists significantly reversed NO-induced adventitious rooting, implying that endogenous Ca 2+ /CaM might be involved in NO-induced adventitious rooting under osmotic stress. Moreover, intracellular Ca amount was also increased by NO in cucumber hypocotyls during the development of adventitious roots under osmotic stress. This increase of endogenous Ca 2+ was inhibited by NO specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), nitrate reductase inhibitors tungstate (Na 2 WO 4 ) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ) . This gives an indication that Ca 2+ might be a downstream signaling molecule in the adventitious root development by NO under osmotic condition. The results also show that NO or Ca 2+ play a positive role in improving plant water status and photosynthetic system by increasing chlorophyll content and photochemical activity in leaves. Furthermore, NO and Ca 2+ treatment might alleviate the negative effects of osmotic stress by decreasing membrane damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Therefore, Ca 2+ /CaM may act as a downstream signaling molecule in NO-induced development of adventitious root

  15. Comparative evaluation of oxidative enzyme activities during adventitious rooting in the cuttings of grapevine rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Cafer; Erdal, Serkan; Kaya, Ozkan; Atici, Okkeş

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated changes in peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities through adventitious rooting in hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks. Three grapevine rootstocks with different propensity to produce adventitious roots were selected: recalcitrant (Ramsey), non-recalcitrant (Rupestris du Lot) and intermediate (99R) cultivars. The averages of root number at 65 days were 96 in Lot, 76 in 99R and 30 in Ramsey. Both enzyme activities characteristically increased before adventitious rooting, regardless of rooting ability of the rootstocks, and then decreased. POX activity increased in Ramsey cuttings at 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days after planting, and then decreased gradually until 51 days. The highest POX activity was determined in Ramsey rootstock with the highest rooting ability and the lowest activity was determined in the rootstocks with the lowest rooting ability. PPO activity gradually increased in Ramsey rootstock cuttings from 10 days to 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days, and then decreased until 51 days. A significant correlation was identified between high POX activity and adventitious rooting capability in rootstocks, but the same result was not determined with PPO activity. A recalcitrant rooting variety cannot increase POX activity sufficiently before rooting. Therefore applications that could increase POX activity in stem cuttings during rooting may facilitate increased rooting in such rootstocks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  17. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  18. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. "Galega Vulgar"-Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Lousa, Diana; M Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Peixe, Augusto; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; G Cardoso, Hélia

    2018-02-17

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.

  19. The effect of flowering on adventitious root-formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selim, H.H.A.

    1956-01-01

    The rooting of cuttings from day-neutral tomato was not influenced by flower development, nor by SD or LD treatments of them or of the mother plants. In cuttings of the SD plant Perilla crispa flower initiation and development severely inhibited rooting. Leaves produced about 61 %

  20. A co-opted hormonal cascade activates dormant adventitious root primordia upon flooding in solanum dulcamara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J.W.; Beek, Te Tim A.H.; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR

  1. Petunia as model for elucidating adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis: at the nexus of physiology, genetics, microbiology and horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp

    2018-05-17

    Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis. In the present review, we introduce the tools of the Petunia model system. Then, we discuss findings regarding the hormonal and metabolic control of adventitious rooting in the context of diverse environmental factors as well as findings on the function of arbuscular mycorrhiza related to nutrient uptake and resistance to root pathogens. Considering the recent publication of the genomes of the parental species of P. hybrida and other tools available in the petunia scientific community, we will outline the quality of petunia as a model for future system-oriented analysis of root development and function in the context of environmental and genetic control, which are at the heart of modern horticulture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic...... roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic...... adventitious roots contain a complete photosynthetic pathway. Underwater photosynthetic rates are similar to those of stems, with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(max)) of 0.38 µmol O(2) m(-2) s(-1); however, this is c. 30-fold lower than that of aquatic-adapted leaves. Under saturating light with 300 mmol...

  3. Dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formation and enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The effect of temporary dark exposure on adventitious root formation (ARF) in Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell' cuttings was investigated. Histological and metabolic changes in the cuttings during the dark treatment and subsequent rooting in the light were recorded. Excised cuttings were exposed to the dark for seven days at 10 degrees C followed by a nine-day rooting period in perlite or were rooted immediately for 16 days in a climate chamber at 22/20 degrees C (day/night) and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100micromolm(-2)s(-1). Dark exposure prior to rooting increased, accelerated and synchronized ARF. The rooting period was reduced from 16 days (non-treated cuttings) to 9 days (treated cuttings). Under optimum conditions, despite the reduced rooting period, dark-exposed cuttings produced a higher number and length of roots than non-treated cuttings. An increase in temperature to 20 degrees C during the dark treatment or extending the cold dark exposure to 14 days caused a similar enhancement of root development compared to non-treated cuttings. Root meristem formation had already started during the dark treatment and was enhanced during the subsequent rooting period. Levels of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and starch in leaf and basal stem tissues significantly decreased during the seven days of dark exposure. This depletion was, however, compensated during rooting after 6 and 24h for soluble sugars in leaves and the basal stem, respectively, whereas the sucrose level in the basal stem was already increased at 6h. The association of higher carbohydrate levels with improved rooting in previously dark-exposed versus non-treated cuttings indicates that increased post-darkness carbohydrate availability and allocation towards the stem base contribute to ARF under the influence of dark treatment and provide energy for cell growth subject to a rising sink intensity in the base of the cutting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L; de Araujo, Artur T; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F; de Almeida, Márcia R; Matsuura, Hélio N; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus , the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1 , a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1 , suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression ( TPL , IAA12 ) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1 , showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process.

  5. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L.; de Araujo, Artur T.; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Matsuura, Hélio N.; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. PMID:29067033

  6. Establishment of in vitro adventitious root cultures and analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Andrographolide is the principal bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, to which various diverse pharmacological properties are attributed. Traditionally, andrographolide was extracted from the leaves, stems and other parts of the plant. Leaves have the highest andrographolide content (2-3%) in comparison with the other plant parts. Adventitious root culture of leaf explants of A. paniculata was studied using different strength MS medium supplemented by different concentrations of auxins and a combination of NAA + kinetin for growth and andrographolide production. Among the different auxin treatments in adventitious root culture, only NAA was able to induce adventitious roots. Adventitious roots grown in modified strength MS medium showed the highest root growth (26.7 +/- 1.52), as well as the highest amount of andrographolide (133.3 +/- 1.5 mg/g DW) as compared with roots grown in half- and full-strength MS medium. Growth kinetics showed maximum biomass production after five weeks of culture in different strength MS liquid medium. The produced andrographolide content was 3.5 - 5.5 folds higher than that of the natural plant, depending on the medium strength.

  7. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Song; Hao Wu; Xuanchun Piao; Zhenhao Yin; Chengri Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of β-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, ...

  8. Optimization of adventitious root culture for production of biomass and secondary metabolites in Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-11-01

    Adventitious root cultures of Prunella vulgaris L. were established in shaking flask system for the production of biomass and secondary metabolites. Adventitious root cultures were induced from callus cultures obtained from leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 1.0 mg l(-1)) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.5 mg l(-1)). Thereafter, 0.49 g inoculum was transferred to liquid MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.5-2.0 mg l(-1)). Growth kinetics of adventitious roots was recorded with an interval of 7 days for 49 days period. Highest biomass accumulation (2.13 g/l) was observed in liquid medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA after 21 days of inoculation. However, other concentrations of NAA also showed similar accumulation pattern but the biomass gradually decreases after 49 days of inoculation. Adventitious roots were collected and dried for investigation of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activities. Higher TPC (0.995 GAE mg/g-DRB) and TFC (6.615 RE mg/g-DRB) were observed in 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA treated cultures. In contrast, higher antioxidant activity (83.53 %) was observed 1.5 mg l(-1) NAA treated cultures. These results are helpful in up scaling of root cultures into bioreactor for secondary metabolites production.

  9. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  10. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Swapnil M.; Chandanshive, Vishal V.; Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy

  11. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Swapnil M. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Chandanshive, Vishal V. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Govindwar, Sanjay P., E-mail: spg_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy.

  12. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-05

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the gene expression profile that specifically responds to IBA during adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan; Zhou, Yuan

    2016-01-12

    Auxin plays a critical role in inducing adventitious rooting in many plants. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is the most widely employed auxin for adventitious rooting. However, the molecular mechanisms by which auxin regulate the process of adventitious rooting are less well known. The RNA-Seq data analysis indicated that IBA treatment greatly increased the amount of clean reads and the amount of expressed unigenes by 24.29 % and 27.42 % and by 4.3 % and 5.04 % at two time points, respectively, and significantly increased the numbers of unigenes numbered with RPKM = 10-100 and RPKM = 500-1000 by 13.04 % and 3.12 % and by 24.66 % and 108.2 % at two time points, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the enrichment of down-regulated GOs was 2.87-fold higher than that of up-regulated GOs at stage 1, suggesting that IBA significantly down-regulated gene expression at 6 h. The GO functional category indicated that IBA significantly up- or down-regulated processes associated with auxin signaling, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis, photosynthesis, oxidoreductase activity and extracellular region, secondary cell wall biogenesis, and the cell wall during the development process. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment indicated that ribosome biogenesis, plant hormone signal transduction, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis, ribosome, cutin, flavonoid biosynthesis, and phenylalanine metabolism were the pathways most highly regulated by IBA. A total of 6369 differentially expressed (2-fold change > 2) unigenes (DEGs) with 3693 (58 %) that were up-regulated and 2676 (42 %) down-regulated, 5433 unigenes with 2208 (40.6 %) that were up-regulated and 3225 (59.4 %) down-regulated, and 7664 unigenes with 3187 (41.6 %) that were up-regulated and 4477 (58.4 %) down-regulated were detected at stage 1

  14. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  17. Methane-rich water induces cucumber adventitious rooting through heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and Ca(2+) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yihua; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ren; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-03-01

    Methane-rich water triggered adventitious rooting by regulating heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and calcium pathways in cucumber explants. Heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide (HO1/CO) and calcium (Ca(2+)) were reported as the downstream signals in auxin-induced cucumber adventitious root (AR) formation. Here, we observed that application of methane-rich water (MRW; 80% saturation) obviously induced AR formation in IAA-depleted cucumber explants. To address the universality, we checked adventitious rooting in soybean and mung bean explants, and found that MRW (50 and 10% saturation, respectively) exhibited the similar inducing results. To further determine if the HO1/CO system participated in MRW-induced adventitious rooting, MRW, HO1 inducer hemin, its activity inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), and its catalytic by-products CO, bilirubin, and Fe(2+) were used to detect their effects on cucumber adventitious rooting in IAA-depleted explants. Subsequent results showed that MRW-induced adventitious rooting was blocked by ZnPP and further reversed by 20% saturation CO aqueous solution. However, the other two by-products of HO1, bilirubin and Fe(2+), failed to induce AR formation. Above responses were consistent with the MRW-induced increases of HO1 transcript and corresponding protein level. Further molecular evidence indicted that expression of marker genes, including auxin signaling-related genes and cell cycle regulatory genes, were modulated by MRW alone but blocked by the cotreatment with ZnPP, the latter of which could be significantly rescued by the addition of CO. By using the Ca(2+)-channel blocker and Ca(2+) chelator, the involvement of Ca(2+) pathway in MRW-induced adventitious rooting was also suggested. Together, our results indicate that MRW might serve as a stimulator of adventitious rooting, which was partially mediated by HO1/CO and Ca(2+) pathways.

  18. Nitrogen remobilisation facilitates adventitious root formation on reversible dark-induced carbohydrate depletion in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Zerche, Siegfried; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how ...

  19. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvemen...

  20. A specific role of iron in promoting meristematic cell division during adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilo, Alexander; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Melzer, Michael; Rutten, Twan; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-10

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins. Fe-localization studies revealed an enhanced allocation of Fe to the nuclei of meristematic cells in AR initials. NH4+ supply promoted AR formation to a lesser extent, most likely by favoring the availability of Fe. We conclude that Fe acts locally by promoting cell division in the meristematic cells of AR primordia. These results highlight a specific biological function of Fe in AR development and point to an unexploited importance of Fe for the vegetative propagation of plants from cuttings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Development and growth of plantlets of Pinus contorta regenerated from adventitious buds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flygh, G.; Groenroos, R.; Arnold, S. von [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Hoegberg, K.A. [The Association for Forest Tree Breeding, Svaloev (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Before micropropagation techniques can be applied to a particular species, it is crucial to optimize the method and to determine how the micropropagated plants grow in the field. Adventitious shoots developed on embryos of Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. after a 2 h pulse treatment with 250 {mu}M N6-benzyladenine. The time to first subculture after the pulse treatment influenced the yield of adventitious shoots. On average, 68% of the adventitious shoots had developed roots 12 weeks after treatment with 1.25 mM indole-3-butyric acid for 6 h. The auxin treatment stimulated early rooting (i.e. within 6 weeks) but had no effect on late rooting (i.e. after 6 weeks). The size of the plantlets was of importance for the survival when potted. All plantlets with a distinct stem elongated during the first growth period while some without did not. The relative height growth rate of plantlets was similar to that of seedlings. In the field the increase of height was similar for plantlets and seedlings. Plagiotropy was higher for the plantlets than for the seedlings (35 and 10% respectively). We concluded that most plantlets of P. contorta elongate normally and have a similar gross morphology to seedlings 23 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1, plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R and base of cutting (OeAUX1B were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution.

  3. Spectral lights trigger biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Muhammad; Sania, Bibi; Hafsa, Bibi; Kumari, Sana; Khan, Haji; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Akbar, Fazal; Ahmad, Naveed; Ali, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Nisar

    2018-05-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is the most important therapeutic plant species and has been accepted as such worldwide. It has a tendency to accumulate steviol glycosides, which are 300 times sweeter than marketable sugar. Recently, diabetic patients commonly use this plant as a sugar substitute for sweet taste. In the present study, the effects of different spectral lights were investigated on biomass accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures of S. rebaudiana. For callus development, leaf explants were excised from seed-derived plantlets and inoculated on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 2.0mg/l) and 6-benzyladenine (BA, 2.0mg/l), while 0.5mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was used for adventitious root culture. Adventitious root cultures were exposed to different spectral lights (blue, green, violet, red and yellow) for a 30-day period. White light was used as control. The growth kinetics was studied for 30days with 3-day intervals. In this study, the violet light showed the maximum accumulation of fresh biomass (2.495g/flask) as compared to control (1.63g/flask), while red light showed growth inhibition (1.025g/flask) as compared to control. The blue light enhanced the highest accumulation of phenolic content (TPC; 6.56mg GAE/g DW), total phenolic production (TPP; 101mg/flask) as compared to control (5.44mg GAE/g DW; 82.2mg GAE/g DW), and exhibited a strong correlation with dry biomass. Blue light also improved the accumulation of total flavonoid content (TFC; 4.33mg RE/g DW) and total flavonoid production (TFP; 65mg/flask) as compared to control. The violet light showed the highest DPPH inhibition (79.72%), while the lowest antioxidant activity was observed for control roots (73.81%). Hence, we concluded that the application of spectral lights is an auspicious strategy for the enhancement of the required antioxidant secondary metabolites in

  4. Translocation of 14C in adventitiously rooting Calluna vulgaris on peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seasonal variation in translocation of 14 C-labelled assimilates showed that 14 C-translocation within woody tissue was mainly limited to the phytomass produced during the last eight years. Independent of overgrowth of basal stem segments or decumbent sections by Sphagnum, or of subsequent adventitious rooting, the allocation followed a negative exponential from the assimilating units down the plant, and reached negligible values in 8-yr-old wood. Translocation to fine roots was however, mainly restricted to the shallow roots. Already at ca. 10 cm depth, the fine roots contained only about 5% of the concentration in the fine roots in the surface. During spring and autumn translocation to below ground parts dominated. During summer the main translocation was within the above ground green shoots and flowers. Here most of the allocated 14 C was irreversibly bound. There were only weak indications of accumulation of moblie 14 C-compounds in the woody parts near the soil surface. (author)

  5. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. “Galega Vulgar”—Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousa, Diana; M. Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar ”Galega vulgar”. The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars. PMID:29462998

  6. Induction and establishment of adventitious and hairy root cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... vitro root culture has become an alternative method for the production of valuable ... and NAA 0.1-1.0 mg·L-1 alone or combinations of growth regulators,. IAA (0.5 mg·L-1) + NAA ... Data were analyzed by analy- sis of variance ...

  7. Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kollárová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA, while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation.

  8. Triterpene and Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Metabolic Profiling of Hairy Roots, Adventitious Roots, and Seedling Roots of Astragalus membranaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Ji; Thwe, Aye Aye; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2015-10-14

    Astragalus membranaceus is an important traditional Chinese herb with various medical applications. Astragalosides (ASTs), calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) are the primary metabolic components in A. membranaceus roots. The dried roots of A. membranaceus have various medicinal properties. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of genes related to the biosynthetic pathways of ASTs, calycosin, and CG to investigate the differences between seedling roots (SRs), adventitious roots (ARs), and hairy roots (HRs) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR study revealed that the transcription level of genes involved in the AST biosynthetic pathway was lowest in ARs and showed similar patterns in HRs and SRs. Moreover, most genes involved in the synthesis of calycosin and CG exhibited the highest expression levels in SRs. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the expression level of the genes correlated with the content of ASTs, calycosin, and CG in the three different types of roots. ASTs were the most abundant in SRs. CG accumulation was greater than calycosin accumulation in ARs and HRs, whereas the opposite was true in SRs. Additionally, 40 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) documented the differences among SRs, ARs, and HRs. PCA comparatively differentiated among the three samples. The results of PCA showed that HRs were distinct from ARs and SRs on the basis of the dominant amounts of sugars and clusters derived from closely similar biochemical pathways. Also, ARs had a higher concentration of phenylalanine, a precursor for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, as well as CG. TCA cycle intermediates levels including succinic acid and citric acid indicated a higher amount in SRs than in the others.

  9. A comprehensive phylogeny of auxin homeostasis genes involved in adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sánchez-García

    Full Text Available Understanding the functional basis of auxin homeostasis requires knowledge about auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and auxin catabolism genes, which is not always directly available despite the recent whole-genome sequencing of many plant species. Through sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analyses on a selection of 11 plant species with high-quality genome annotation, we identified the putative gene homologs involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin catabolism and auxin transport pathways in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. To deepen our knowledge of the regulatory events underlying auxin-mediated adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings, we used RNA-sequencing data to confirm the expression profiles of some auxin homeostasis genes during the rooting of two carnation cultivars with different rooting behaviors. We also confirmed the presence of several auxin-related metabolites in the stem cutting tissues. Our findings offer a comprehensive overview of auxin homeostasis genes in carnation and provide a solid foundation for further experiments investigating the role of auxin homeostasis in the regulation of adventitious root formation in carnation.

  10. [Effects of elicitors on growth of adventitious roots and contents of secondary metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Lei; Lei, Jiamin; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effects of the extract of fungal elicitor, AgNO3, MeJA and yeast on the growth and content of secondary metabolites of adventitious roots in Tripterygium wilfordii. The above elicitors were supplemented to the medium, the growth and the content of secondary metabolites were measured. When the medium was supplemented with the elicitor Glomerella cingulata or Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, the content of triptolide was increased by 2.24 and 1.93-fold, the alkaloids content was increased by 2.02 and 2.07-fold, respectively. The optimal concentration of G. cingulata was 50 μg/mL for accumulation of triptolide, alkaloids and for the growth of adventitious roots. AgNO3 inhibited the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of the alkaloids, whereas it (at 25 μmol/L) increased the accumulation of triptolide by 1.71-fold compared to the control. The growth of adventitious roots, the contents of triptolide and alkaloids were increased 1.04, 1.64 and 2.12-folds, respectively when MeJA was at 50 μmol/L. When the concentration of yeast reached 2 g/L, the content of triptolide increased 1.48-folds. This research demonstrated that supplementation of AgNO3 and yeast enhanced the biosynthesis of triptolide in adventitious roots and the synergism of G. cingulata and MeJA could promote the biosynthesis of both triptolide and alkaloids.

  11. Nitrogen remobilisation facilitates adventitious root formation on reversible dark-induced carbohydrate depletion in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerche, Siegfried; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-10-10

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (N t ), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated N t contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings. Enhanced N t contents of unrooted cuttings resulted in elevated total free amino acid levels and in particular glutamate (glu) and glutamine (gln) in leaf and basal stem. N-allocation to mobile N-pools increased whereas the allocation to insoluble protein-N declined. A dark exposure of cuttings conserved initial N t and nitrate-N, while it reduced insoluble protein-N and increased soluble protein, amino- and amide-N. The increase of amino acids mainly comprised asparagine (asn), aspartate (asp) and arginine (arg) in the leaves, with distinct tissue specific responses to an elevated N supply. Dark exposure induced an early transient rise of asp followed by a temporary increase of glu. A strong positive N effect of high N t contents of cuttings on AR formation after 384 h was observed. Root meristematic cells developed at 72 h with a negligible difference for two N t levels. After 168 h, an enhanced N t accelerated AR formation and gave rise to first obvious fully developed roots while only meristems were formed with a low N t . However, dark exposure for 168 h promoted AR formation particularly in cuttings with a low N t to such an extent so that the benefit of the enhanced N t was almost compensated. Combined dark exposure and low N t of

  12. Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 in β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Li, Meiyue; Huang, Liqin; Shen, Wenbiao; Ren, Yong

    2012-09-01

    Our previous results showed that β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (CDH) exhibited a vital protective role against cadmium-induced oxidative damage and toxicity in alfalfa seedling roots by the regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression. In this report, we further test whether CDH exhibited the hormonal-like response. The application of CDH and an inducer of HO-1, hemin, were able to induce the up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 gene (CsHO1) expression and thereafter the promotion of adventitious rooting in cucumber explants. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) blocked the above responses triggered by CDH, and the inhibitory effects were reversed further when 30% saturation of CO aqueous solution was added together. Further, molecular evidence showed that CDH triggered the increases of the HO-1-mediated target genes responsible for adventitious rooting, including one DnaJ-like gene (CsDNAJ-1) and two calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes (CsCDPK1 and CsCDPK5), and were inhibited by ZnPP and reversed by CO. The calcium (Ca2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the Ca2+ channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) not only compromised the induction of adventitious rooting induced by CDH but also decreased the transcripts of above three target genes. However, the application of ascorbic acid (AsA), a well-known antioxidant in plants, failed to exhibit similar inducible effect on adventitious root formation. In short, above results illustrated that the response of CDH in the induction of cucumber adventitious rooting might be through HO-1-dependent mechanism and calcium signaling. Physiological, pharmacological and molecular evidence showed that β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (CDH) was able to induce cucumber adventitious rooting through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-dependent mechanism and calcium signaling.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    Full Text Available In plants, salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR and hypertensive response (HR. SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  14. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  15. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g -1 ). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: → Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. → Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. → [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  16. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  17. Amide-conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and adventitious root formation in mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcini, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate further the relationship between amide-conjugated auxin and adventitious root formation. Indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAA-aspartate) was positively identified as the predominant conjugate isolated from mung bean cuttings after the cuttings has been treated with 10 -3 M IAA. In cuttings treated with [1- 14 C]IAA immediately after excision (0 hr), the percent of extractable 14 C in IAA-aspartate in the hypocotyl sharply increased until 36 hr, then steadily declined. [ 14 C]IAA was completely metabolized between 12 and 24 hr. The rooting activities of IAA-L-aspartate, IAA-L-alanine, and IAA-glycine were determined at various stages of root formation; some cuttings were pretreated with 10 -3 M IAA at 0 hr. Pretreated cuttings that were treated with IAA-glycine at 12, 24, 36 hr exhibited the greatest consistency between replications, the greatest number of long roots, and the longest roots. The conjugates did not stimulate rooting as effectively as IAA, yet like IAA, generally enhanced rooting the greatest when applied before the first cell division (24 hr)

  18. Isolation, characterization and expression analysis of the BABY BOOM (BBM) gene from Larix kaempferi × L. olgensis during adventitious rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui-Peng; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hua; Zhang, Shou-Gong

    2014-11-10

    The full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of the BABY BOOM (BBM) gene, designated LkBBM, were isolated from Larix kaempferi × Larix olgensis. The 3324 bp cDNA was cloned and its open reading frame (ORF) consists of 2370 nucleotides. The deduced 789 amino acid protein contains two AP2 domains and a BBM specific motif. Four conserved motifs between BBM and PLT were identified, which may be conducive to the similar function of BBM and PLT. The three dimensional (3D) structure of LkBBM was predicted and β-sheets in the AP2-R2 domain of LkBBM might recognize the specific base pairs in the major groove. Analysis of the LkBBM gene structure indicates that the gene has eight introns and nine exons. In the 5'-flanking promoter region of LkBBM, many important potential cis-acting elements were identified, such as the TATABOX5 element (a functional TATA element), ROOTMOTIFTAPOX1 element (element of root specificity), AUXREPSIAA4 element (element involved in auxin responsiveness and gene expression in root meristem), MYB1AT element (element involved in MYB recognition), ARR1AT element (element involved in cytokinin responsiveness), GARE1OSREP1 element (element involved in gibberellin responsiveness) and PYRIMIDINEBOXHVEPB1 element (element involved in abscisic acid responsiveness), which all suggested that the expression of LkBBM is highly regulated. Compared with gene expression levels in the stem, stem tip and leaf, LkBBM shows a specific expression in the root, which indicates that LkBBM plays a key role in regulating the development and growth of root in larch. In the processing of larch adventitious root formation, LkBBM started to express on the eighth day after rooting treatment and its transcript level increased continuously afterwards. According to the gene characteristics, LkBBM is proposed as a molecular marker for root primordia of larch, and the initial period of LkBBM expression may be the formation period of root primordia in the processing of adventitious

  19. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the cate...

  20. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  1. Effects of light regime and IBA concentration on adventitious rooting of an eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander P. Hoffman; Joshua P. Adams; Andrew Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) has received a substantial amount of interest from invitro studies within the past decade. The ability to efficiently multiply the stock of established clones such as clone 110412 is a valuable asset for forest endeavors. However, a common problem encountered is initiating adventitious rooting in new micropropagation protocols....

  2. Proliferation and ajmalicine biosynthesis of Catharanthus roseus (L). G. Don adventitious roots in self-built temporary immersion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Vo Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Minh; Thien, Huynh Tri; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) is a medicinal plant containing about 130 types of alkaloids that have important pharmacological effects. Ajmalicine in periwinkle root is an antihypertensive drug used in treatment of high blood pressure. Adventitious roots obtained from periwinkle leaves of in vitro shoots grew well in quarter-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l IBA and 20 g/l sucrose. Dark condition was more suitable for root growth than light. However, callus formation also took place in addition to the growth of adventitious roots. Temporary immersion system was applied in the culture of adventitious roots in order to reduce the callus growth rate formed in shake flask cultures. The highest growth index of roots was achieved using the system with 5-min immersion every 45 min (1.676 ± 0.041). The roots cultured in this system grew well without callus formation. Ajmalicine content was highest in the roots cultured with 5-min immersion every 180 min (950 μg/g dry weight).

  3. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic profiling provides molecular insights into hydrogen peroxide-induced adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Leng, Yan; Shi, Rui-Fang

    2017-02-17

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has been known to function as a signalling molecule involved in the modulation of various physiological processes in plants. H 2 O 2 has been shown to act as a promoter during adventitious root formation in hypocotyl cuttings. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying H 2 O 2 -induced adventitious rooting. RNA-Seq data revealed that H 2 O 2 treatment greatly increased the numbers of clean reads and expressed genes and abundance of gene expression relative to the water treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses indicated that a profound change in gene function occurred in the 6-h H 2 O 2 treatment and that H 2 O 2 mainly enhanced gene expression levels at the 6-h time point but reduced gene expression levels at the 24-h time point compared with the water treatment. In total, 4579 differentially expressed (2-fold change > 2) unigenes (DEGs), of which 78.3% were up-regulated and 21.7% were down-regulated; 3525 DEGs, of which 64.0% were up-regulated and 36.0% were down-regulated; and 7383 DEGs, of which 40.8% were up-regulated and 59.2% were down-regulated were selected in the 6-h, 24-h, and from 6- to 24-h treatments, respectively. The number of DEGs in the 6-h treatment was 29.9% higher than that in the 24-h treatment. The functions of the most highly regulated genes were associated with stress response, cell redox homeostasis and oxidative stress response, cell wall loosening and modification, metabolic processes, and transcription factors (TFs), as well as plant hormone signalling, including auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid pathways. Notably, a large number of genes encoding for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) were significantly up-regulated during H 2 O 2 treatments. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that, during H 2 O 2 treatments

  5. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings

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    Antonio Cano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, “2101–02 MFR” and “2003 R 8”, as well as in the reference cultivar “Master”. We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the “2003 R 8” cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of “2003 R 8”. Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings.

  6. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Albacete, Alfonso; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Justamante, María Salud; Ibáñez, Sergio; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Commercial carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR) formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, "2101-02 MFR" and "2003 R 8", as well as in the reference cultivar "Master". We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the "2003 R 8" cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of "2003 R 8". Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antibacterial activity of Mondia whitei adventitious roots and ex vitro-grown somatic embryogenic-biomass

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    Ponnusamy Baskaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mondia whitei (Hook.f. Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE and antibacterial activities. Adventitious roots derived from 2.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatments and ex vitro-grown plants derived from meta-topolin riboside (mTR and IAA treatments gave the best AChE and antibacterial activities. The in vitro-established M. whitei and ex vitro biomass have comparable ability to function as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and antibacterial agents, and can be used as potent bioresources in traditional medicine

  8. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Sperotto, Raul A; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2010-09-20

    Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs identified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes tested in E. globulus. Based on the AGO1 relative expression

  10. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  11. Plant hormone homeostasis, signaling and function during adventitious root formation in cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF- and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling via ERFs and early

  12. Mini-incubators improve the adventitious rooting performance of Corymbia and Eucalyptus microcuttings according to the environment in which they are conditioned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Gilvano E; Oliveira, Leandro S DE; Konzen, Enéas R; Silva, André L L DA; Costa, Jefferson L

    2017-10-16

    We addressed a major challenge in the in vitro clonal propagation of Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and E. benthamii by using an ex vitro adventitious rooting strategy in a mini-incubator. Mini-incubators were placed in four environments for rooting. A shade house with no fogging system and a greenhouse with no ventilation but with a fogging environment had the best performance in terms of rooting, root growth and survival of microcuttings. Daily recording of the temperature within each mini-incubator in each environment allowed the verification of negative correlations between the maximum average temperature and the survival, adventitious rooting and root growth. The ideal maximum air temperature for the efficient production of clonal plants was 28.4°C (± 5.5°C), and the minimum was 20.3°C (± 6.2°C). E. benthamii was more sensitive to higher temperatures than C. citriodora and E. urophylla. Nevertheless, placing mini-incubators in the shade house with no fogging system resulted in a stable and uniform performance among the three species, with 100.0% survival and 81.4% rooting. Histological sections of the adventitious roots revealed connection with the stem vascular cambium. Therefore, our experimental system demonstrated the potential of mini-incubators coupled with the proper environment to optimize the adventitious rooting performance of microcuttings.

  13. High miR156 Expression Is Required for Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via MxSPL26 Independent of PINs and ARFs in Malus xiaojinensis

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    Xiaozhao Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156, the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J and rejuvenated (Mx-R Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1, PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A trees. However, the expression of SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE26 (SPL26 and some auxin response factor (ARF gene family members were substantially higher in Mx-A than in Mx-R cuttings. The expression of NbRTCS-like but not NbPINs and NbARFs varied with miR156 expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with 35S:MdMIR156a6 or 35S:MIM156 constructs. Overexpressing the miR156-resistant MxrSPL genes in tobacco confirmed the involvement of MxSPL20, MxSPL21&22, and MxSPL26 in adventitious root formation. Together, high expression of miR156 was necessary for auxin-induced adventitious root formation via MxSPL26, but independent of MxPINs and MxARFs expression in M. xiaojinensis leafy cuttings.

  14. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  15. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Weng Li

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77% were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75% and 28,119 (35.62% unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2 during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3% with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles

  16. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

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    Xiaolin Song

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

  17. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) Analysis, Fed-Batch Cultivation Enhances Bioactive Compound Biosynthesis and Immune-Regulative Effect of Adventitious Roots in Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jing; Li, Hongfa; Wu, Xiaolei; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-09-01

    A electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed in order to identify the active composition in Pseudostellaria heterophylla adventitious roots. Pseudostellarin A, C, D, and G were identified from P. heterophylla adventitious roots on the basis of LC-MS(n) analysis. The culture conditions of adventitious roots were optimized, and datasets were subjected to a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in which the growth ratio and some compounds showed a positive correlation with an aeration volume of 0.3 vvm and inoculum density of 0.15 %. Fed-batch cultivation enhanced the contents of total saponin, polysaccharides, and specific oxygen uptaker rate (SOUR). The maximum dry root weight (4.728 g l(-1)) was achieved in the 3/4 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium group. PLS-DA showed that polysaccharides contributed significantly to the clustering of different groups and showed a positive correlation in the MS medium group. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction on the mice induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was applied to compare the immunocompetence effects of adventitious roots (AR) with field native roots (NR) of P. heterophylla. As a result, AR possessed a similar immunoregulation function as NR.

  18. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis Reveals Potential Regulation Networks of IBA-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Apple

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    Chao Lei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock ‘T337’. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of ‘T337’ increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings. To explore the underlying molecular mechanism, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the expression profiles of proteins at a key period of adventitious root induction (three days after IBA treatment. In total, 3355 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were identified. Many DEPs were closely related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein homeostasis, reactive oxygen and nitric oxide signaling, and cell wall remodeling biological processes; as well as the phytohormone signaling, which was the most critical process in response to IBA treatment. Further, RT-qPCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression level of nine genes that are involved in phytohormone signaling and their transcriptional levels were mostly in accordance with the protein patterns. Finally, a putative work model was proposed. Our study establishes a foundation for further research and sheds light on IBA-mediated AR formation in apple as well as other fruit rootstock cuttings.

  19. Indole-3-butyric acid mediates antioxidative defense systems to promote adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings under cadmium and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Zeng, Xiao-Ying; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Kang, Xiao-Hu

    2018-06-08

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses. Treatment with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly increased the soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. CdCl 2 and mannitol stress each induced differentially significant changes in the activities of antioxidative enzyme and antioxidant levels during adventitious rooting. Notably, both CdCl 2 and mannitol stress strongly reduced the peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and phenols levels. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were enhanced by CdCl 2 but reduced by mannitol. CdCl 2 increased the ascorbate acid (ASA) level, which was decreased by mannitol. Furthermore, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with IBA, IBA counteracted the CdCl 2 - or mannitol-induced increase or decrease in certain antioxidants, MDA, and antioxidative enzymes. These results suggest that Cd and mannitol stress inhibition of adventitious rooting is associated with the regulation of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cells to defense the oxidative stress. Moreover, IBA alleviates the effects of Cd and mannitol stress on the rooting process partially through the regulation of antioxidative defense systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urea derivatives on the move: cytokinin-like activity and adventitious rooting enhancement depend on chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Bertoletti, C

    2009-05-01

    Urea derivatives are synthetic compounds, some of which have proved to be positive regulators of cell division and differentiation. N-phenyl-N'-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)urea (forchlorofenuron, CPPU) and N-phenyl-N'-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (thidiazuron, TDZ), well known urea cytokinin representatives, are extensively used in in vitro plant morphogenesis studies, as they show cytokinin-like activity often exceeding that of adenine compounds. In recent years, renewed interest in structure-activity relationship studies allowed identification of new urea cytokinins and other urea derivatives that specifically enhance adventitious root formation. In this review, we report the research history of urea derivatives, new insights into their biological activity, and recent progress on their mode of action.

  1. A dsRNA-binding protein MdDRB1 associated with miRNA biogenesis modifies adventitious rooting and tree architecture in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Xing-Bin; Feng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Although numerous miRNAs have been already isolated from fruit trees, knowledge about miRNA biogenesis is largely unknown in fruit trees. Double-strand RNA-binding (DRB) protein plays an important role in miRNA processing and maturation; however, its role in the regulation of economically important traits is not clear yet in fruit trees. EST blast and RACE amplification were performed to isolate apple MdDRB1 gene. Following expression analysis, RNA binding and protein interaction assays, MdDRB1 was transformed into apple callus and in vitro tissue cultures to characterize the functions of MdDRB1 in miRNA biogenesis, adventitious rooting, leaf development and tree growth habit. MdDRB1 contained two highly conserved DRB domains. Its transcripts existed in all tissues tested and are induced by hormones. It bound to double-strand RNAs and interacted with AtDCL1 (Dicer-Like 1) and MdDCL1. Chip assay indicated its role in miRNA biogenesis. Transgenic analysis showed that MdDRB1 controls adventitious rooting, leaf curvature and tree architecture by modulating the accumulation of miRNAs and the transcript levels of miRNA target genes. Our results demonstrated that MdDRB1 functions in the miRNA biogenesis in a conserved way and that it is a master regulator in the formation of economically important traits in fruit trees. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Non-destructive digital imaging in poplar allows detailed analysis of adventitious rooting dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Kodrzycki; R.B. Michaels; A.L. Friend; R.S. Zalesny; Ch.P. Mawata; D.W. McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of root formation are difficult to observe directly over time without disturbing the rooting environment. A novel system for a non-destructive, non-invasive root analysis (RootViz FS, Phenotype Screening Corp.) was evaluated for its ability to analyze root formation from cuttings over a 32 day period in three poplar genotypes (DN70, P. Deltoides x...

  3. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb

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    Md. Sanower Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water were considered as control. The cuttings were then inoculated into peat moss in the planting tray and incubated under complete shade for root induction. Water was sprayed on peat moss once daily to moisten it. The results showed that different concentrations of NAA significantly (P≤0.05 affected the rooting characteristics of A. paniculata and 2.5 mM of NAA was found to be more effective to induce rooting in young apical shoot (YAS cuttings compared to other concentrations and old apical shoot (OAS. This study also postulates that adventitious rooting response depends on the juvenility of plant material and concentration of growth regulator. This report describes a technique for adventitious rooting in A. paniculata, which could be feasible to use for commercial scale propagation of this plant.

  4. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Thikra; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Mariani, Celestina

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara. Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  5. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahkami, Amir H.; Melzer, Michael; Ghaffari, Mohammad R.; Pollmann, Stephan; Ghorbani, Majid; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Druege, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To determine the contribution of polar auxin transport (PAT) to auxin accumulation and to adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings, the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was monitored in non-treated cuttings and cuttings treated with the auxin transport blocker naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and was complemented with precise anatomical studies. The temporal course of carbohydrates, amino acids and activities of controlling enzymes was also inves...

  7. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin. PMID

  8. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled

  10. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity.

  11. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Unravels the Existence of Crucial Genes Regulating Primary Metabolism during Adventitious Root Formation in Petunia hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase. PMID:24978694

  12. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  13. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Ahkami

    Full Text Available To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR, a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115 was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  14. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-06-01

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  16. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  17. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sun Lee

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  18. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  19. Anticonvulsant mechanism of saponins fraction from adventitious roots of Ficus religiosa: possible modulation of GABAergic, calcium and sodium channel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damanpreet Singh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In our previous studies, quantified saponins-rich fraction from adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L., Moraceae, showed anticonvulsant effect in acute, as well as chronic mice models of epilepsy. The present study was designed to reveal putative anticonvulsant mechanism of quantified saponins-rich fraction using target specific animal models. The anticonvulsant effect of quantified saponins-rich fraction was initially studied in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol test at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p. doses. Based on the results of initial anticonvulsant testing, different groups of mice were injected with vehicle or quantified saponins-rich fraction (4 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min prior to an injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (100 mg/kg; s.c., bicuculline (5 mg/kg; i.p., strychnine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg; i.p., BAY k-8644 (37.5 µg; i.c.v., veratridine (500 µg/kg; i.p. and the convulsive episodes were studied. Treatment with the extract (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg showed significant protection in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion tests, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quantified saponins-rich fraction at 4 mg/kg dose showed significant increase in latency to clonic convulsions, decrease in seizure severity and increase in average wave amplitude in bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine tests, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. However, SRF treatment failed to abolish N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and strychnine-induced convulsions, indicated by insignificant change in the appearance of turning behavior and onset of tonic extension, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. From the results of present study, it is concluded that quantified saponins-rich fraction suppress maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine-induced convulsions, indicating its GABAergic, Na+ and Ca2+ channel modulatory effects. Further it can be correlated that quantified saponins

  20. Involvement of abscisic acid in regulating antioxidative defense systems and IAA-oxidase activity and improving adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and Cd on antioxidative defense systems and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase during adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. The exogenous ABA significantly enhanced the number and fresh weight of the adventitious roots. CdCl2 strongly inhibited adventitious rooting. Pretreatment with 10 μM ABA clearly alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on rooting. ABA significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) during adventitious rooting. ABA strongly increased IAA-oxidase activity during the induction (0-12 h) and expression (after 48 h) phases and increased the phenols levels. Cd treatment significantly reduced the activities of SOD, APX, POD, and IAA oxidase, as well as GSH level. Cd strongly increased ASA levels. ABA pretreatment counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, e.g., remarkably rescued APX and POD activities, reduced the elevated SOD and CAT activities and ASA levels, and recovered the reduced GSH levels, caused by Cd stress. Thus, the physiological effects of the combination of ABA and Cd treatments were opposite of those obtained with Cd treatment alone, suggesting that ABA involved in the regulation of antioxidative defense systems and the alleviation of wounding- and Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Indole-3-butyric acid promotes adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, L; Veloccia, A; Della Rovere, F; D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2017-07-11

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), control adventitious root (AR) formation in planta. Adventitious roots are also crucial for propagation via cuttings. However, IBA role(s) is/are still far to be elucidated. In Arabidopsis thaliana stem cuttings, 10 μM IBA is more AR-inductive than 10 μM IAA, and, in thin cell layers (TCLs), IBA induces ARs when combined with 0.1 μM kinetin (Kin). It is unknown whether arabidopsis TCLs produce ARs under IBA alone (10 μM) or IAA alone (10 μM), and whether they contain endogenous IAA/IBA at culture onset, possibly interfering with the exogenous IBA/IAA input. Moreover, it is unknown whether an IBA-to-IAA conversion is active in TCLs, and positively affects AR formation, possibly through the activity of the nitric oxide (NO) deriving from the conversion process. Revealed undetectable levels of both auxins at culture onset, showing that arabidopsis TCLs were optimal for investigating AR-formation under the total control of exogenous auxins. The AR-response of TCLs from various ecotypes, transgenic lines and knockout mutants was analyzed under different treatments. It was shown that ARs are better induced by IBA than IAA and IBA + Kin. IBA induced IAA-efflux (PIN1) and IAA-influx (AUX1/LAX3) genes, IAA-influx carriers activities, and expression of ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -alpha1 (ASA1), a gene involved in IAA-biosynthesis. ASA1 and ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -beta1 (ASB1), the other subunit of the same enzyme, positively affected AR-formation in the presence of exogenous IBA, because the AR-response in the TCLs of their mutant wei2wei7 was highly reduced. The AR-response of IBA-treated TCLs from ech2ibr10 mutant, blocked into IBA-to-IAA-conversion, was also strongly reduced. Nitric oxide, an IAA downstream signal and a by-product of IBA-to-IAA conversion, was early detected in IAA- and IBA-treated TCLs, but at higher levels in the latter explants. Altogether, results showed that IBA induced

  2. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The major-effect quantitative trait locus CsARN6.1 encodes an AAA ATPase domain-containing protein that is associated with waterlogging stress tolerance by promoting adventitious root formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress, but its genetic basis is largely unknown. In the present study, with combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based high throughput next-gen whole genome sequencin...

  4. Involvement of alternative oxidase (AOX) in adventitious rooting of Olea europaea L. microshoots is linked to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Macedo, E; Sircar, D; Cardoso, H G; Peixe, A; Arnholdt-Schmitt, B

    2012-09-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed as a functional marker candidate in a number of events involving cell differentiation, including rooting efficiency in semi-hardwood shoot cuttings of olive (Olea europaea L.). To ascertain the general importance of AOX in olive rooting, the auxin-induced rooting process was studied in an in vitro system for microshoot propagation. Inhibition of AOX by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) significantly reduced rooting efficiency. However, the inhibitor failed to exhibit any effect on the preceding calli stage. This makes the system appropriate for distinguishing dedifferentiation and de novo differentiation during root induction. Metabolite analyses of microshoots showed that total phenolics, total flavonoids and lignin contents were significantly reduced upon SHAM treatment. It was concluded that the influence of alternative respiration on root formation was associated to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism. Transcript profiles of two olive AOX genes (OeAOX1a and OeAOX2) were examined during the process of auxin-induced root induction. Both genes displayed stable transcript accumulation in semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis during all experimental stages. In contrary, when the reverse primer for OeAOX2 was designed from the 3'-UTR instead of the ORF, differential transcript accumulation was observed suggesting posttranscriptional regulation of OeAOX2 during metabolic acclimation. This result confirms former observations in olive semi-hardwood shoot cuttings on differential OeAOX2 expression during root induction. It further points to the importance of future studies on the functional role of sequence and length polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR of this gene. The manuscript reports the general importance of AOX in olive adventitious rooting and the association of alternative respiration to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism.

  5. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eSun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa, a herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR, thickening adventitious root (TAR, and the developing tuberous root (DTR. Expression profiling identified a total of 6,974 differentially expressed unigenes during root developmental. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation.

  6. The major-effect quantitative trait locus CsARN6.1 encodes an AAA ATPase domain-containing protein that is associated with waterlogging stress tolerance by promoting adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2018-03-01

    In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (ARs) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole-genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL, ARN6.1, that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that CsARN6.1 is the most possible candidate for ARN6.1 which encodes an AAA ATPase. The increased formation of ARs under waterlogging in Zaoer-N could be attributed to a non-synonymous SNP in the coiled-coil domain region of this gene. CsARN6.1 increases the number of ARs via its ATPase activity. Ectopic expression of CsARN6.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in better rooting ability and lateral root development in transgenic plants. Transgenic cucumber expressing the CsARN6.1 Asp allele from Zaoer-N exhibited a significant increase in number of ARs compared with the wild type expressing the allele from Pepino under waterlogging conditions. Taken together, these data support that the AAA ATPase gene CsARN6.1 has an important role in increasing cucumber AR formation and waterlogging tolerance. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Context-Dependent Development of Lymphoid Stroma from Adult CD34+ Adventitial Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Wendland, Kerstin; Weishaupt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite the key role of primary and secondary lymphoid organ stroma in immunity, our understanding of the heterogeneity and ontogeny of these cells remains limited. Here, we identify a functionally distinct subset of BP3-PDPN+PDGFRβ+/α+CD34+ stromal adventitial cells in both lymph nodes (LNs...

  8. Biochemical changes in barberries during adventitious root formation: the role of indole-3-butyric acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tehranifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenolic compounds and total sugars (TS were investigated during root formation in cuttings of Berberis vulgaris var. asperma (BVA and Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (BTA treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and IBA+H2O2. Rooting was observed on BTA cuttings but not on BVA cuttings. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed higher rooting percentages, number of roots, and root length over the control. Those treated with IBA+H2O2 recorded the lowest peroxidase activity after planting. BTA cuttings treated with IBA+H2O2 showed the highest peroxidase activity at 50 d after planting; BVA cuttings under different treatments showed no significant difference for peroxidase activity at planting time or up to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BTA cuttings in the control treatment was lower than for other treatments during root formation. The cuttings in the IBA and IBA+H2O2 treatments showed increased PPO activity from 0 to 50 d after planting and a slight decrease in PPO activity from 60 to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BVA cuttings was significantly lower than for BTA during root formation. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed the highest phenolic compound content during root formation. The BVA cuttings displayed higher TS than BTA during the initial stage of root formation. A comparison of the anatomical structure of easy-to-root and difficult-to-root cuttings indicated that physical inhibitors did not affect the rooting capacity of BVA.

  9. A review on the molecular mechanism of plants rooting modulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in vegetative propagation of woody or horticul-tural species, and it is a complex process known to be affected by multiple factors. The process of roots development could be divided into three stages: root induction, root initiation, and root protrusion. Phytohormones, especially auxin ...

  10. Analysis of gene expression profiles for cell wall modifying proteins and ACC synthases in soybean cyst nematode colonized roots, adventitious rooting hypocotyls, root tips, flooded roots, and IBA and ACC treatment roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soybean cyst nematode (SCN) co-opts a part or all of one or more innate developmental process in soybean to establish its feeding structure, syncytium, in soybean roots. The syncytium in soybean roots is formed in a predominantly lateral direction within the vascular bundle by ...

  11. Production of the Quinone-Methide Triterpene Maytenin by In Vitro Adventitious Roots of Peritassa campestris (Cambess. A.C.Sm. (Celastraceae and Rapid Detection and Identification by APCI-IT-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antunes Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L−1 IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old. A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin—972.11 μg·g−1 dry weight—was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.

  12. Production of the quinone-methide triterpene maytenin by in vitro adventitious roots of Peritassa campestris (Cambess.) A.C.Sm. (Celastraceae) and rapid detection and identification by APCI-IT-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Tiago Antunes; dos Santos, Vânia A F F M; Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Pina, Edieidia Souza; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Furlan, Maysa

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae) was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L⁻¹ IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old). A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS) were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin--972.11  μ g·g⁻¹ dry weight--was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rovere, F; Fattorini, L; D'Angeli, S; Veloccia, A; Del Duca, S; Cai, G; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they involve fine-tuning by the same proteins, namely SHR

  15. Cytokinin signaling during root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishopp, Anthony; Help, Hanna; Helariutta, Ykä

    2009-01-01

    The cytokinin class of phytohormones regulates division and differentiation of plant cells. They are perceived and signaled by a phosphorelay mechanism similar to those observed in prokaryotes. Research into the components of phosphorelay had previously been marred by genetic redundancy. However, recent studies have addressed this with the creation of high-order mutants. In addition, several new elements regulating cytokinin signaling have been identified. This has uncovered many roles in diverse developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we look at these processes specifically in the context of root development. We focus on the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem, primary and secondary vascular development, lateral root emergence and development, and root nodulation. We believe that the root is an ideal organ with which to investigate cytokinin signaling in a wider context.

  16. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  17. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  18. Mutant induction through adventitious buds of Kohleria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parliman, B.J.; Stushnoff, C.

    1979-01-01

    Freshly cut leaves of Kohleria eriantha and K. x 'Longwood' were exposed in a wide range of gamma irradiation doses and allowed to root and form adventitious buds. K. Eriantha could not be successfully propagated from leaf half cuttings. 'Longwood' produced a small number of adventitious plantlets as compared to other Gesneriads. Colchicine treatments reduced leaf half survival in 'Longwood' by more than 50%. Leaf halves exposed to low and moderate doses of gamma irradiation showed increased overall plantlet production compared to nonirradiated leaf halves. (Auth.)

  19. Developmental role of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes during adventitious rooting of Juglans regia L. microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheniany, Monireh; Ganjeali, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase play important role in the phenylpropanoid pathway, which produces many biologically important secondary metabolites participating in normal plant development. Flavonol quercetin is the main representant of these compounds that has been identified in numerous Juglans spp. In this survey, the developmental expression patterns of PAL and C4H genes during in vitro rooting of two walnut cultivars 'Sunland' and 'Howard' was examined by RT-PCR. To understand the potential role in rooting, the changing pattern of endogenous content of quercetin was also analyzed by HPLC. The 'Sunland' with better capacity to root had more quercetin content during the "inductive phase" of rooting than 'Howard'. In each cultivar, the level of PAL transcripts showed the same behavior with the changing patterns of quercetin during root formation of microshoots. The positive correlation between the changes of quercetin and PAL-mRNA indicated that PAL gene may have an immediate effect on flavonoid pathway metabolites including quercetin. Although the behavioral change of C4H expression was similar in both cultivars during root formation (with significantly more level for 'Howard'), it was not coincide with the changes of quercerin concentrations. Our results showed that C4H function is important for the normal development, but its transcriptional regulation does not correlate with quercetin as an efficient phenolic compound for walnut rhizogenesis.

  20. Development of root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2004-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic filamentous structure composed of at least actin and microtubule networks. Actin and microtubules are no different structurally from their animal and fungal counterparts. However, the strategies of cell differentiation and development in plants require this network to

  1. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Callusing and root induction in air layering was evaluated aiming at evolution of procedure for mass clonal propagation of mature ortets of five tropical broadleaf species differing in their potential for adventitious root formation in shoot cuttings as: Anogiessus latifolia < Boswellia serrata < Dalbergia latifolia < Gmelina arborea < Dalbergia sissoo. Two experiments were conducted in rainy season during consecutive years; without application of growth regulators in the first year and with growth regulators (T1 - water, T2- 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid, T3-100 ppm thiamine-HCl and T4 -combination of T2 + T3 in the next year. Air layered branches were detached from the trees to record percentage of alive airlayers, callusing and rooting (% as well as root number and root length. Response to air layering was found to be highly variable in five tree species but appeared to be feasible procedure for clonal propagation of mature ortets of B. serrata and D. sissoo with 100% (in auxin + thiamine treatment and 83.3% (in auxin treatment success, respectively. Maximum callusing (% was found in D. latifolia while no callusing was observed in D. sissoo, which is most easy-to-root among all five species. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers as significant negative correlation of callusing (% and adventitious root formation was recorded in air layers of five tropical broadleaved tree species. Application of exogenous auxin alone or in combination with thiamine circumvents callusing to ensure direct development of roots for successful air layering.

  2. ROOT Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Canal, P; Rademakers, Fons; Goto, Masaharu; Canal, Philippe; Brun, Rene

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present our plans for future developments. The additons and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templated and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, we intend to continue the development of PROOF and...

  3. IAA oxidase activity in relation to adventitious root formation on stem cuttings of some forest tree species. [Salix tetrasperma, Populus Robusta, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, M.P.; Nanda, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    In rooting tests with stem cuttings, IAA oxidase activity was found to be very high in Salix tetrasperma and Populus 'Robusta' both of which rooted profusely, less in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis which rooted but weakly and insignificant in Eucalyptus citriodora, which did not root at all. Proteins extracted from the stem cuttings of E. citriodora inhibited IAA oxidase activity, and also root formation on hypocotyl cuttings of Phaseolus mungo.

  4. Number, Position, Diameter and Initial Direction of Growth of Primary Roots in Musa

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMPTE, FRANCOIS; VAUCELLE, AURELIEN; PAGES, LOIC; OZIER‐LAFONTAINE, HARRY

    2002-01-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each ro...

  5. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  6. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Natal Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento

  7. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  8. Clonal variation in lateral and basal rooting of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny Jr.; J.A. Zalesny

    2011-01-01

    Successful establishment and productivity of Populus depends upon adventitious rooting from: 1) lateral roots that develop from either preformed or induced primordia and 2) basal roots that differentiate from callus at the base of the cutting in response to wounding. Information is needed for phytotechnologies about the degree to which ...

  9. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  10. Adventitious bud regeneration from the stigma of Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmas isolated from flower buds of 'Nakielska' variety of Sinapis alba were used to develop a micropropagation method suitable for breeding of new cultivars. The origin of adventitious bud regeneration was studied on MS medium, under stimulation by bezylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 2,4-D - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Histological analysis showed the structure of Sinapis stigma (composed from four types of tissue: papillae, transmitting tissue, parenchyma and vascular bundles and revealed that numerous meristematic centers developed from parenchyma cells in close vicinity of vascular bundles. Buds very quickly appeared on the surface of initial explants and later formed multiplantlets that were easily rooted in the soil.

  11. Adventitious rooting of auxin-treated Lavandula dentata cuttings Enraizamento adventício de estacas de Lavandula dentata tratadas com auxina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lavandula species may be propagated by seeds. However, plants will present expressive variation both in size and essential oil content. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA is a growth regulator which efficiently stimulates rooting and the objective of this research was to observe the influence of different IBA concentrations on rooting of L. dentata cuttings. Herbaceous cuttings with approximately 10cm in length and around 1/3 of leaf retention had their bases submerged into 0 (control, 500, 1.000, 2.000 or 3.000mg dm-3 of IBA diluted in de-ionized water for 30 seconds and placed in polystyrene foam trays filled with commercial substrate and kept under intermittent mist system. Averages of root number, length of the longest root, fresh and dry root weight, and percentage of rooted cuttings were evaluated after 60 days. There was no significant difference between treatments for the length of root, fresh and dry root weight. The percentage of rooted cuttings increased with IBA concentrations. A quadratic regression was obtained to root number. The 2.000mg dm-3 dose increased the percentage of rooted cuttings and the mean root number per cutting. L. dentata cuttings are easy to root.Espécies de Lavandula podem ser propagadas por sementes. Entretanto, as plantas apresentarão elevada variabilidade em tamanho e em produção de óleo essencial. O ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB é um regulador de crescimento que eficientemente estimula o enraizamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar a influência de diferentes concentrações de AIB no enraizamento de estacas de L. dentata. Estacas herbáceas com aproximadamente 10cm de comprimento e 1/3 de retenção foliar tiveram suas bases submersas em 0 (controle, 500, 1.000, 2.000 ou 3.000mg dm-3 de AIB diluído em água deionizada por 30 segundos e colocadas em bandejas de isopor contendo substrato comercial sob sistema de nebulização intermitente. As médias de número de raízes, comprimento da raiz mais

  12. In vitro propagation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) through adventitious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Balady, Sids 40 and VFG 180 (3 - 1) as well as a garlic wild type through adventitious shoot organogenesis. Shoot and root apices were subjected to eight callus induction treatments. A combination of 1 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BA + 5 mg L-1 ...

  13. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  14. A simple method suitable to study de novo root organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of -glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.

  15. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  16. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The...

  17. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions

  18. MAIL1 is essential for development of the primary root but not of anchor roots

    OpenAIRE

    Ühlken, Christine; Hoth, Stefan; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein, which has a crucial function during root development. We have recently described loss of function mutants for MAIL1, in which the organization and function of the primary root meristem is lost soon after germination. Moreover cell differentiation is impaired resulting in primary root growth arrest soon after emergence. Here we show that mail1 mutants form several anchor roots from the hypocotyl to root junction. These anchor root...

  19. MAIL1 is essential for development of the primary root but not of anchor roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ühlken, Christine; Hoth, Stefan; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein, which has a crucial function during root development. We have recently described loss of function mutants for MAIL1, in which the organization and function of the primary root meristem is lost soon after germination. Moreover cell differentiation is impaired resulting in primary root growth arrest soon after emergence. Here we show that mail1 mutants form several anchor roots from the hypocotyl to root junction. These anchor roots show similar defects in the organization of the stem cell niche as the primary root. In contrast, differentiation processes are not impaired and thus anchor roots seem to be able to compensate for the loss of primary root function. Our data show that MAIL1 is essential for specification of cell fate in the primary root but not in anchor roots.

  20. Effect of cutting medium temperatures on rooting process and root primordium differentiation of hardwood cuttings of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia cutting medium temperatures of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, W.X.; Jine, Q.; Zhong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to examine the effect of heat treatment on the rooting and root development of hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia, cuttings of 1-year-old stems were taken from 3-year-old mother trees and treated with IBA solution (1000 mg/L) for 6 h, with water was as a control. Treated cuttings were rooted in heated or unheated nursery beds. Samples were collected on day ten after planting, and then for every five days. The bases of the cuttings were embedded in paraffin and sectioned before being examined under a microscope to determine whether there had been any morphological changes. We found no root primordia in the tissues of the hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia before cutting. In the heated bed, adventitious roots originated from callus tissue and the junction between the pith rays and cortical parenchyma cells, and in the unheated bed, adventitious roots originated only from callus tissue. The rooting process involved callus formation, adventitious root formation and elongation; rooting occurred 5-7 days earlier in the heated cuttings than in the unheated ones, and rooting rates were significantly higher in the former 30 days and 50 days after cutting; the minimum effective accumulated temperatures for these three stages were 109.25 degree C, 211.68 degree C and 301.38 degree C, respectively. Our results revealed that heating the soil can promote adventitious root formation, speed up the rooting rate, and cut the propagation period of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia. (author)

  1. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  2. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  3. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  4. Variations of adventitious bud plants initiated from cutting scales of irradiated lily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kezhong; Zhao Xiangyun; Huang Shanwu; Lu Changxun; Zhang Qixiang

    2003-01-01

    Adventitious bud plants were initiated from cutting scales of irradiated lilies. During adventitious bud plants growth and development, variation was observed on their petals, stamens, pistils and leaves. Stamens gave birth to the highest mutation rate and the most diverse variation, such as no pollen male sterility type, pollen abortion male sterility type, stamen collapse male sterility type and partial male sterility type, etc. Different male sterility types were found among the three lilies. Considering mutation rate of adventitious bud plants, 1-2 Gy was suitable dose for 'Pollyana' and 1-3 Gy was proper to Lilium regale and 'Romano'

  5. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  6. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  8. Root Formation in Ethylene-Insensitive Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David G.; Gubrium, Erika K.; Barrett, James E.; Nell, Terril A.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more belowground root mass but fewer aboveground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated taproots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli. PMID:10482660

  9. In vitro propagation of Cymbidium goeringii Reichenbach fil. through direct adventitious shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Yong; Kang, Kyung Won; Kim, Doo Hwan; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyladenine (BA), and thidiazuron (TDZ) on direct rhizome induction and shoot formation from rhizome explants of Cymbidium goeringii was explored. Rhizome segments obtained from in vitro seed cultures of C. goeringii were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 µM 2,4-D and 1, 2, 4, or 8 µM BA or TDZ alone or in combination with 20 µM 2,4-D. The explants developed only rhizomes on MS medium with or without 2,4-D. The highest percent of rhizome formation (100%) was obtained on MS medium incorporated with 20 μM of 2,4-D. The morphology and number of rhizomes varied with the level of 2,4-D in the medium. Direct adventitious shoot formation was achieved on medium incorporated with BA or TDZ. The adventitious shoots produced per explant significantly increased with the supplementation of 2,4-D to cytokinin-containing medium. The highest mean of 21.8 ± 1.8 shoot buds per rhizome segment was obtained in medium fortified with 20 μM 2,4-D and 2 μM TDZ. The greatest percent of root induction (100%) and the mean of 5.3 ± 1.1 roots per shoot were achieved on ½ MS medium incorporated with 2 μM of α-naphthaleneacetic acid. About 97% of the in vitro-produced plantlets acclimatized in the greenhouse. An efficient in vitro propagation protocol was thus developed for C. goeringii using rhizome explants.

  10. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Logachov, Anton A; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-07-01

    In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

  11. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  12. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025

  13. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  14. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) w...

  15. Avoiding transport bottlenecks in an expanding root system: xylem vessel development in fibrous and pioneer roots under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Byczyk, Julia; Eissenstat, David M; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zadworny, Marcin

    2012-09-01

    Root systems develop to effectively absorb water and nutrients and to rapidly transport these materials to the transpiring shoot. In woody plants, roots can be born with different functions: fibrous roots are primarily used for water and nutrient absorption, whereas pioneer roots have a greater role in transport. Because pioneer roots extend rapidly in the soil and typically quickly produce fibrous roots, they need to develop transport capacity rapidly so as to avoid becoming a bottleneck to the absorbed water of the developing fibrous roots and, as we hypothesized, immediately activate a specific type of autophagy at a precise time of their development. Using microscopy techniques, we monitored xylem development in Populus trichocarpa roots in the first 7 d after emergence under field conditions. Newly formed pioneer roots contained more primary xylem poles and had larger diameter tracheary elements than fibrous roots. While xylogenesis started later in pioneer roots than in fibrous, it was completed at the same time, resulting in functional vessels on the third to fourth day following root emergence. Programmed cell death was responsible for creating the water conducting capacity of xylem. Although the early xylogenesis processes were similar in fibrous and pioneer roots, secondary vascular development proceeded much more rapidly in pioneer roots. Compared to fibrous roots, rapid development of transport capacity in pioneer roots is not primarily caused by accelerated xylogenesis but by larger and more numerous tracheary elements and by rapid initiation of secondary growth.

  16. Decreased adventitial neovascularization after intracoronary irradiation in swine: a time course study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollum, Marc; Cottin, Yves; Chan, Rosanna C.; Kim, Han Soo; Bhargava, Balram; Vodovotz, Yoram; Waksman, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Background: Intracoronary radiation (IR) suppresses the formation of neointima after arterial injury in swine, through mechanisms incompletely understood. Neointimal development appears related to expansion of adventitial microvessels; we therefore examined the hypothesis that IR inhibits neointima formation through an anti-angiogenic effect. Methods and Results: Juvenile swine were treated with either 0 or 15 Gy 192 Ir (γ-source) and euthanized 3, 7, or 14 days later or treated with 18 Gy 90 Y (β-source) and euthanized after 14 days. Adventitial area (AA), intimal area (IA), IA corrected for medial fracture length, and adventitial vessel area were assessed in both injured and uninjured segments by computer-aided histomorphometry on Verhoeff-Von Giesson stained sections. Adventitial vessel count (AVC) was enumerated visually on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and confirmed by anti-factor VIII-associated antigen immunostaining for endothelial cells. AA and IA were reduced in injured arteries subjected to IR as compared to controls. The AVC was significantly lower in injured irradiated arterial segments as well as all uninjured segments as compared with injured control segments. In the injured and irradiated arteries, the AVC remained unchanged at 3, 7, and 14 days. The injured segments of arteries treated with IR demonstrated a significantly lower adventitial microvessel density (AVC/AA) as compared to the injured control segments. Comparison of γ- and β-irradiation at 14 days did not show any differences for vessel parameters and measurements of adventitial microvessels. IA and AVC were correlated positively (R 2 = 0.63, α = 0.79, p < 0.01). Conclusion: IR induced an early and sustained anti-angiogenic effect between 3 and 14 days. The relation between IA and AVC may indicate an antiproliferative effect associated with an anti-angiogenic effect independent of the type of radiation. CONDENSED ABSTRACT Intracoronary radiation suppresses neointima

  17. Using Upland Rice Root Traits to Identify N Use Efficient Genotypes for Limited Soil Nutrient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traore, K.; Traore, O. [INERA / Station de Farakoba, Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); Bado, V. B. [Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Saint Louis (Senegal)

    2013-11-15

    Crop production in the Sahelian countries of Africa is limited by many factors. The most important are low potential yields of local varieties, low inherent soil fertility and low applications of external inputs (organic and mineral fertilizers). A field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2008 with the objective to develop and validate screening protocols for plant traits that enhance N acquisition and utilization in upland rice grown in low N soils of two hundred (200) upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes from WAB, NERICA, CNA, CNAX, IRAT and IR lines. An experiment in small pots was carried out in a greenhouse of Farakoba research center. The pots were filled with a sandy soil and upland rice genotypes were grown during three weeks, harvested and studied for their root characteristics (seminal root length, adventitious root number, lateral root length and number and roots hair density). The small pot method was reliable for root trait characterisation at the seedling stage. A large variability among genotypes was exhibited for the root characteristics. The variability was larger within the NERICA and WAB lines compared to the other lines. The length of the seminal roots varied from 10 to 40 cm, the lateral root number ranged between 3 and 15 and the number of adventitious roots varied between 2 and 7. The selected root traits can be used to identify high nutrients and water use efficient genotypes. (author)

  18. Asymmetry in development (mineralisation of permanent mandibular canine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the teeth is closely associated with the proper and unobstructed physical and psychological development of the child. Aim. To determine the existence of asymmetry in the development of the roots of the lower permanent canine teeth in different age groups of children of both sexes. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 523 ortopantomograms (253 boys and 270 girls of orthodontic patients aged 6 to 14 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš. We analyzed the development of asymmetry in the lower permanent canine root, using the method of Gleiser and Hunt, or the modification by Tijanić (1981. Results. It was found that asymmetry in the development of the root in both sexes of the lower canine teeth was present in 20 patients (3.82%, 10 boys (3.95% and 10 girls (3.70%. The difference is in the range of one stage. Asymmetric development of the roots of the lower incisors in girls and boys usually present in the 7th and 8th stages (60% in girls and in 50% in boys. In 90% of girls in developing asymmetry the root of the lower canine is present in a single stage, and in 10% of girls it presents within three stages. Asymmetric development of the root of the lower canine is the most common in the 7th and 8th stages of development (55%. Conclusion. Asymmetric root development of permanent lower canines was found in 3.82% of patients. More than half of respondents (55% had asymmetrical canine root development stage in half and three quarters of the total root length. The results of this study indicate that the canine is the tooth with very little variations in its development.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial

  20. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Si, Yanfang; Wu, Chen; Sun, Lu; Ma, Yudong; Ge, Aili; Li, Baomin

    2012-10-17

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to imitate inflammatory conditions. In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial infection contributes to the pathological process of

  1. Diversification of Root Hair Development Genes in Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Shi, Xinhui; Wang, Wenjia; Ryu, Kook Hui; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-07-01

    The molecular genetic program for root hair development has been studied intensively in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). To understand the extent to which this program might operate in other plants, we conducted a large-scale comparative analysis of root hair development genes from diverse vascular plants, including eudicots, monocots, and a lycophyte. Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, we discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. Interestingly, we also discovered preferential diversification in the structure and expression of root hair development genes, relative to other root hair- and root-expressed genes, among these species. These differences enabled the definition of sets of genes and gene functions that were acquired or lost in specific lineages during vascular plant evolution. In particular, we found substantial divergence in the structure and expression of genes used for root hair patterning, suggesting that the Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory mechanism is not shared by other species. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive view of gene expression in a single plant cell type across multiple species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Development and implementation of custom root-cause systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.

    1990-01-01

    Almost anyone investigating an operating problem can expect their management and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ask them if they have really uncovered the root cause of the event. This paper outlines a proven method to develop a custom system to identify and analyze the root causes of events. The method has led to the successful implementation of root-cause analysis systems at the Savannah River Plant and at Philadelphia Electric's Peach Bottom and Limerick nuclear generating stations. The methods are currently being used by System Improvements to develop a root-cause system to be used by the NRC to identify human performance problems at utilities. This paper also outlines the common problems that may be encountered when implementing a root-cause program

  3. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  4. Cystic adventitial degeneration: ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, J; Widmer, M K; Gretener, S; Do, D D; Willenberg, T; Daliri, A; Baumgartner, I

    2009-11-01

    Cystic adventitial degeneration is a rare non-atherosclerotic cause of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, mainly seen in young men without other evidence of vascular disease. Diagnosis will be established by clinical findings and by ultrasound or angiography and can be treated by excision or enucleation of the affected arterial segment or by percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration. However, the etiology of adventitial cysts remains unknown. We report a case of cystic adventitial degeneration showing a connection between the joint capsule and the adventitial cyst, supporting the theory that cystic adventitial degeneration may represent ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

  5. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse inductive cues is limited. Here, we show that WOX11 contributes to root system plasticity. When seedlings are grown vertically on medium, WOX11 is not expressed in LR founder cells. During AR initiation, WOX11 is expressed in AR founder cells and activates LBD16 LBD16 also functions in LR formation and is activated in that context by ARF7 / 19 and not by WOX11 This indicates that divergent initial processes that lead to ARs and LRs may converge on a similar mechanism for primordium development. Furthermore, we demonstrated that when plants are grown in soil or upon wounding on medium, the primary root is able to produce both WOX11 -mediated and non- WOX11 -mediated roots. The discovery of WOX11 -mediated root-derived roots reveals a previously uncharacterized pathway that confers plasticity during the generation of root system architecture in response to different inductive cues. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Arabidopsis root development by nitrate availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Forde, B G

    2000-01-01

    When the root systems of many plant species are exposed to a localized source of nitrate (NO3- they respond by proliferating their lateral roots to colonize the nutrient-rich zone. This study reviews recent work with Arabidopsis thaliana in which molecular genetic approaches are being used to try to understand the physiological and genetic basis for this response. These studies have led to the conclusion that there are two distinct pathways by which NO3- modulates root branching in Arabidopsis. On the one hand, meristematic activity in lateral root tips is stimulated by direct contact with an enriched source of NO3- (the localized stimulatory effect). On the other, a critical stage in the development of the lateral root (just after its emergence from the primary root) is highly susceptible to inhibition by a systemic signal that is related to the amount of NO3- absorbed by the plant (the systemic inhibitory effect). Evidence has been obtained that the localized stimulatory effect is a direct effect of the NO3- ion itself rather than a nutritional effect. A NO3(-)-inducible MADS-box gene (ANR1) has been identified which encodes a component of the signal transduction pathway linking the external NO3- supply to the increased rate of lateral root elongation. Experiments using auxin-resistant mutants have provided evidence for an overlap between the auxin and NO3- response pathways in the control of lateral root elongation. The systemic inhibitory effect, which does not affect lateral root initiation but delays the activation of the lateral root meristem, appears to be positively correlated with the N status of the plant and is postulated to involve a phloem-mediated signal from the shoot.

  8. Number, position, diameter and initial direction of growth of primary roots in Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Francois; Vaucelle, Aurelien; Pages, Loic; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2002-07-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each root at a given time could be deduced from its position. Root diameter at emergence was related to the position of the roots on the corm, with younger roots being thicker than older ones. However, root diameters were not constant along a given root, but instead decreased with the distance to the base; roots appear to be conical in their basal and apical parts. Root growth directions at emergence were variable, but a high proportion of the primary roots emerged with a low angle to the horizontal. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these initial trajectories are conserved during root development. Results presented in this study are in good agreement with those reported for other monocotyledons such as maize and rice. They give quantitative information that will facilitate the development of models of root system architecture in banana.

  9. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  10. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  11. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  12. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  13. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S) were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs) were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  14. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Min Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6 Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms-monocots and eudicots-despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development.

  15. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of traditional and new developed root sealers against pathogens related root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Shin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Bacterial infection is closely associated with the failure of endodontic treatment, and use of endodontic sealer with antimicrobial activity and biological compatibility is necessary for the success of root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the antibacterial effect of two calcium silicate-based root canal sealers (Endoseal and EndoSequence BC sealer as recent development sealers and with three conventional root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex, and Tubli-Seal, before or after setting, on Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: The sealers were soaked in phosphate buffered saline to elute its compositions after and before setting, and the elutes were performed the antimicrobial assay. Also, X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out to compare compositions of two calcium silicate-based sealers. Results: The conventional root canal sealers have strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, P. endodontalis and P. gingivalis. Endoseal sealer showed antibacterial activity against not only the Gram-negative bacteria, but also against the Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis. However, Endosequence BC sealer exhibited a weak antibacterial effect on all bacteria in this study. X-ray fluorescence analysis exhibited that Endoseal contained more types and more amount of the oxide compound known to have strong antimicrobial activity such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, NiO, and SO2 than Endoseqeunce BC. Conclusion: Endoseal, which contains various types of oxide compounds, seems to be a suitable sealer for preventing bacterial infection in both treated and untreated root canals. Keywords: Root canal sealer, Antimicrobial activity, Oxide compound, E. faecalis

  16. Recent developments of the ROOT mathematical and statistical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneta, L; Antcheva, I; Brun, R

    2008-01-01

    Advanced mathematical and statistical computational methods are required by the LHC experiments to analyzed their data. These methods are provided by the Math work package of the ROOT project. An overview of the recent developments of this work package is presented by describing the restructuring of the core mathematical library in a coherent set of C++ classes and interfaces. The achieved improvements, in terms of performances and quality, of numerical methods present in ROOT are shown as well. New developments in the fitting and minimization packages are reviewed. A new graphics interface has been developed to drive the fitting process and new classes are being introduced to extend the fitting functionality. Furthermore, recent and planned developments of integrating in the ROOT environment new advanced statistical tools required for the analysis of the LHC data are presented

  17. Development of test method for evaluating root resistance of pavement used for roof garden caused by thickening growth of root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Saori; Tanaka, Kyoji [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The growth of roots of plants can damage roof garden components, such as pavements. This paper developed a test method for evaluating the resistance of pavement used in roof gardens to damage from a thickening growth of roots. The study assessed the behaviour of plant roots and evaluated the force of root growth subjected to hypertrophy. A system to measure the enlargement force of roots was designed and used for measurements over a period of 8 months on a cherry blossom of 21 years growth. The enlargement force was approximately 440 N/cm. A mechanical simulated root was designed and used to carry out experimental tests on asphalt pavements. The tests results demonstrated the viability of simulated root for evaluation of root resistances in pavements and various components of roof gardens.

  18. Cell wall heterogeneity in root development of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Somssich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signalling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modelling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes.

  19. Variation of root system characters in collection of semi-dwarf spring barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrot, M.; Zbieszczyk, J.; Maluszynski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The collection of 371 semi-dwarf mutants, derived from 12 spring barley varieties has been used as material for analysis of root system. The mutants have been obtained after mutagenic treatment with N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH), sodium azide (NaN3), gamma-rays and fast neutrons. The following analysis of root system were performed: seminal root growth of 8-day old seedlings, seminal and adventitious root growth of 6-week old plants and dynamics of root growth during first 6 weeks of plant growth. Seminal root length, root number and the length of the first leaf in barley mutants were investigated with the use of paper rollers. Root system analysis of 6-week old plants was performed on genotypes grown in PVC tubes filled with sand, supplemented with 1 mineral salts of MS medium. The following measurements were made: the length of the longest seminal root and the longest adventitious root, the number of adventitious roots and the number of tillers. Analysis of dynamics of root growth during the first six weeks of vegetation was performed at the end of each 7-day growth period in the PVC tubes filled with sand. Great variability in the seminal root length was found in analysed 8-day old seedling population. Almost half of the analysed mutants showed significant root length reduction, but about ten percent of semi-dwarf mutants developed roots with an increased length in comparison to parents. No significant differences were found between analysed mutants and corresponding parent varieties regarding the number of seminal roots. After six weeks of growth, the selected mutants showed differences in the reduction of root length in comparison to the 8-day old seedlings. The results of root growth dynamics indicated that analysed mutants had different patterns in comparison to the parent variety. Differences in the growth dynamics were also observed among the parent varieties. The observed differences in pattern of root growth between mutants and corresponding parents

  20. Development cooperation and addressing ‘root causes’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Angenendt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development has its place in dealing with the roots of displacement but it is not an alternative either to important measures in the realm of foreign policy, trade policy and humanitarian assistance, or to taking responsibility for refugees coming to Europe now.

  1. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  2. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  3. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  4. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types...

  5. Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with significant stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Praveen; Jindal, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery is a rare condition of unknown etiology which usually presents in middle-aged men. We present Doppler and computed tomography angiography findings in a case of cystic adventitial disease with significant obstruction of popliteal artery, with secondary narrowing of popliteal vein

  6. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Yang, Show-Ya; Chen, Ku-Ting; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Zeevaart, Jan A D; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-10-01

    Gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) regulate plant growth by inactivating endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GAs). Two classes of GA2oxs inactivate GAs through 2beta-hydroxylation: a larger class of C(19) GA2oxs and a smaller class of C(20) GA2oxs. In this study, we show that members of the rice (Oryza sativa) GA2ox family are differentially regulated and act in concert or individually to control GA levels during flowering, tillering, and seed germination. Using mutant and transgenic analysis, C(20) GA2oxs were shown to play pleiotropic roles regulating rice growth and architecture. In particular, rice overexpressing these GA2oxs exhibited early and increased tillering and adventitious root growth. GA negatively regulated expression of two transcription factors, O. sativa homeobox 1 and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, which control meristem initiation and axillary bud outgrowth, respectively, and that in turn inhibited tillering. One of three conserved motifs unique to the C(20) GA2oxs (motif III) was found to be important for activity of these GA2oxs. Moreover, C(20) GA2oxs were found to cause less severe GA-defective phenotypes than C(19) GA2oxs. Our studies demonstrate that improvements in plant architecture, such as semidwarfism, increased root systems and higher tiller numbers, could be induced by overexpression of wild-type or modified C(20) GA2oxs.

  7. Development of a new nuclear data library based on ROOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Tae-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new C++ nuclear data library for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF data, which we refer to as TNudy. Main motivation of the development is to provide systematic, powerful and intuitive interfaces and functionalities for browsing, visualizing and manipulating the detailed information embodied in the ENDF. To achieve this aim efficiently, the TNudy project is based on the ROOT system. TNudy is still in the stage of development, and the current status and future plans will be presented.

  8. Effects of light and growth regulators on adventitious bud formation in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, H; Tachikawa, Y; Saitou, T; Harada, H

    1995-07-01

    To clarify that the presence of Ri T-DNA genes are not prerequisite for the light-induced bud formation in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy roots, leaf and root segments of nontransformed horseradish plants were used as explants. Bud formation from nontransformed tissues was observed in hormone-free medium under 16 h daylight conditions, but not under continuous darkness. To investigate the effects of growth regulators on bud formation, leaf and root explants were treated with auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA) and / or cytokinin (6-benzyl-aminopurine; BA). The most effective treatment in the dark to stimulate bud formation was BA at 1 mg·1(-1). These results show that adventitious bud formation in horseradish can be induced by light and growth regulators, and especially cytokinin, may be involved in bud formation, irrespective of whether the tissues were transformed with Ri T-DNA.

  9. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  10. Transcription reprogramming during root nodule development in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Moreau

    Full Text Available Many genes which are associated with root nodule development and activity in the model legume Medicago truncatula have been described. However information on precise stages of activation of these genes and their corresponding transcriptional regulators is often lacking. Whether these regulators are shared with other plant developmental programs also remains an open question. Here detailed microarray analyses have been used to study the transcriptome of root nodules induced by either wild type or mutant strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this way we have defined eight major activation patterns in nodules and identified associated potential regulatory genes. We have shown that transcription reprogramming during consecutive stages of nodule differentiation occurs in four major phases, respectively associated with (i early signalling events and/or bacterial infection; plant cell differentiation that is either (ii independent or (iii dependent on bacteroid differentiation; (iv nitrogen fixation. Differential expression of several genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis was observed in early symbiotic nodule zones, suggesting that cytokinin levels are actively controlled in this region. Taking advantage of databases recently developed for M. truncatula, we identified a small subset of gene expression regulators that were exclusively or predominantly expressed in nodules, whereas most other regulators were also activated under other conditions, and notably in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. We found evidence suggesting the activation of the jasmonate pathway in both wild type and mutant nodules, thus raising questions about the role of jasmonate during nodule development. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of a series of nodule regulator and marker genes at early symbiotic stages in roots and allowed us to distinguish several early stages of gene expression activation or repression.

  11. Analysis of gene expression in the outer cell layers of Arabidopsis roots during lateral root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth-Tello, Luz Marina

    2005-01-01

    Lateral roots are an important means for the plant to increase its absorptive area and the volume of substrate exploited. Lateral roots originate in the pericycle, the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder, and by growing penetrate the overlaying cell layers before emergence. This process is

  12. CLE peptides regulate lateral root development in response to nitrogen nutritional status of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    CLE (CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region (ESR)) peptides control meristem functions in plants. Our recent study highlights the critical role of a peptide-receptor signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in controlling lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CLE1, -3, -4 and -7 are expressed in root pericycle cells in Arabidopsis roots under N-limited growth conditions. Overexpression of these CLE genes inhibits lateral root emergence from the primary root. The inhibitory action of N-responsive CLE peptides on lateral root development requires the function of CLV1 expressed in phloem companion cells in roots, suggesting that downstream signals are transferred through phloem for systemic regulation of root system architecture. An additional mechanism downstream of CLV1 feedback-regulates transcript levels of N-responsive CLE genes in roots for fine-tuning the signal amplitude.

  13. Development and optimization of hairy root culture systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of Withania somnifera was carried out by using three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains (ATCC 15834, R1000 and K599) for hairy root induction. Induction of hairy root was carried out in leaf, petiole and internodal explants. Hairy root induction was successful only in ATCC 15834 and R1000. The highest ...

  14. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  15. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  16. Developments in ROOT I/O and trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R; Frank, M; Kreshuk, A; Rademakers, F; Canal, P; Russo, P; Linev, S

    2008-01-01

    For the last several months the main focus of development in the ROOT I/O package has been code consolidation and performance improvements. We introduced a new pre-fetch mechanism to minimize the number of transactions between client and server, hence reducing the effect of latency on the time it takes to read a file both locally and over wide are network. We will review the implementation and how well it works in different conditions (gain of an order of magnitude for remote file access). We will also briefly describe new utilities, including a faster implementation of TTree cloning (gain of an order of magnitude), a generic mechanism for object references, and a new entry list mechanism tuned both for small and large number of selections. In addition to reducing the coupling with the core module and becoming its owns library (libRIO) (as part of the general restructuring of the ROOT libraries), the I/O package has been enhanced in the area of XML and SQL support, thread safety, schema evolution, tree queries, and many other areas

  17. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  18. Characterizing the effects of brassinosteroids on root development in monocot plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Louise

    . With TILLING, two mutants of selected BR-related genes were identified in a Brachypodium distachyon mutant population. However, compared to the wild type, the mutants did not produce more biomass. The work with BR effects on plant root growth stimulated an interest for roots and root development, which...

  19. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  20. Adventitious agents in viral vaccines: lessons learned from 4 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricciani, John; Sheets, Rebecca; Griffiths, Elwyn; Knezevic, Ivana

    2014-09-01

    Since the earliest days of biological product manufacture, there have been a number of instances where laboratory studies provided evidence for the presence of adventitious agents in a marketed product. Lessons learned from such events can be used to strengthen regulatory preparedness for the future. We have therefore selected four instances where an adventitious agent, or a signal suggesting the presence of an agent, was found in a viral vaccine, and have developed a case study for each. The four cases are: a) SV40 in polio vaccines; b) bacteriophage in measles and polio vaccines; c) reverse transcriptase in measles and mumps vaccines; and d) porcine circovirus and porcine circovirus DNA sequences in rotavirus vaccines. The lessons learned from each event are discussed. Based in part on those experiences, certain scientific principles have been identified by WHO that should be considered in regulatory risk evaluation if an adventitious agent is found in a marketed vaccine in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Zobel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5 of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems.

  2. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling.

  3. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. Scope This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. Conclusions The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling. PMID:23267006

  4. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, E.; Atsmon, D.; Halevy, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  5. Development of a heat exchanger root-cause analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrel, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine a generic methodology for approaching the accurate identification of the root cause of component failure. Root-cause determinations are an everyday challenge to plant personnel, but they are handled with widely differing degrees of success due to the approaches, levels of diagnostic expertise, and documentation. The criterion for success is simple: If the root cause of the failure has truly been determined and corrected, the same causal failure relationship will not be demonstrated again in the future. The approach to root-cause analysis (RCA) element definition was to first selectively choose and constrain a functionally significant component (in this case a component cooling water to service water heat exchanger) that has demonstrated prevalent failures. Then a root cause of failure analysis was performed by a systems engineer on a large number of actual failure scenarios. The analytical process used by the engineer was documented and evaluated to abstract the logic model used to arrive at the root cause. For the case of the heat exchanger, the actual root-cause diagnostic approach is described. A generic methodology for the solution of the root cause of component failure is demonstrable for this general heat exchanger sample

  6. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  7. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  8. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  9. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  10. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  11. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  12. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  13. Failure of root development of human permanent teeth following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Kuroda, Masafumi; Amari, Eiichi; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Complete absence of root formation of the upper incisors, canine and first premolar was reported in a 27-year-old female who had received radiation therapy for a retinal glioma of the right eye at age of 3 years 1 month. Ground and decalcified sections showed no remarkable changes in enamel and dentin of the crowns, but the pulp floor was closed by irregular dentin deposit despite the absence of root formation. The outer surface of the irregular dentin was covered by acellular cementum, and the periodontal membrane was undeveloped. A slight degree of fibrosis was seen in the pulp, but the coronal part of the dentin was lined by odontoblasts. The theory that tooth eruption is caused by the growth of the root is not substantiated by the observation in this case. (author)

  14. The Emerging Role of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling during Lateral Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Concepción; Pallero-Baena, Mercedes; Casimiro, Ilda; De Rybel, Bert; Orman-Ligeza, Beata; Van Isterdael, Gert; Beeckman, Tom; Draye, Xavier; Casero, Pedro; Del Pozo, Juan C

    2014-07-01

    Overall root architecture is the combined result of primary and lateral root growth and is influenced by both intrinsic genetic programs and external signals. One of the main questions for root biologists is how plants control the number of lateral root primordia and their emergence through the main root. We recently identified S-phase kinase-associated protein2 (SKP2B) as a new early marker for lateral root development. Here, we took advantage of its specific expression pattern in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in a cell-sorting and transcriptomic approach to generate a lateral root-specific cell sorting SKP2B data set that represents the endogenous genetic developmental program. We first validated this data set by showing that many of the identified genes have a function during root growth or lateral root development. Importantly, genes encoding peroxidases were highly represented in our data set. Thus, we next focused on this class of enzymes and showed, using genetic and chemical inhibitor studies, that peroxidase activity and reactive oxygen species signaling are specifically required during lateral root emergence but, intriguingly, not for primordium specification itself. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  16. Development of anatomical structure of roots of Phragmites australis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, A.; Votrubová, O.; Čížková, Hana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 153, - (2002), s. 277-287 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.20; GA MŠk VS96145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Casparian bands * exodermis * endodermis * lignin * suberin * root anatomy * Phragmites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  17. Healing with Incomplete Root Development After Forty Months Following: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concept of revascularization has been developed that employs the use of a mixture of antibacterial drugs for disinfection of infected root canals. The clinical and radiographic examinations showed deep coronal caries, immature root, and periapical radiolucency in mandibular second premolar (#35 of a 13-year-old girl. The exam findings suggested revascularization treatment. Revascularization with triantibiotic mix was administered for 2 weeks. Then, a blood clot was created in the canal, over which mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. Coronal sealing was performed with composite resin. After 40 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with a positive response to the pulp test and periapical radiolucency was healed. However, no evidence of root development was observed. In spite of numerous reports of revascularization treatment, no incomplete root development was reported after long-term follow-up. Despite incomplete root development, positive response to the pulp test is controversial.

  18. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-10-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development

  19. Development and evaluation of novel lozenges containing marshmallow root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar

    2013-11-01

    Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.

  20. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  1. Regulation of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by phytohormone-secreting epiphytic methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klikno, Jana; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    In numerous experimental studies, seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have been raised on sterile mineral salt agar. However, under natural conditions, no plant has ever grown in an environment without bacteria. Here, we document that germ-free (gnotobiotic) seedlings, raised on mineral salt agar without sucrose, develop very short root hairs. In the presence of a soil extract that contains naturally occurring microbes, root hair elongation is promoted; this effect can be mimicked by the addition of methylobacteria to germ-free seedlings. Using five different bacterial species (Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Methylobacterium extorquens, Methylobacterium oryzae, Methylobacterium podarium, and Methylobacterium radiotolerans), we show that, over 9 days of seedling development in a light-dark cycle, root development (hair elongation, length of the primary root, branching patterns) is regulated by these epiphytic microbes that occur in the rhizosphere of field-grown plants. In a sterile liquid culture test system, auxin (IAA) inhibited root growth with little effect on hair elongation and significantly stimulated hypocotyl enlargement. Cytokinins (trans-zeatin, kinetin) and ethylene (application of the precursor ACC) likewise exerted an inhibitory effect on root growth but, in contrast to IAA, drastically stimulated root hair elongation. Methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that produce/secrete cytokinins. We conclude that, under real-world conditions (soil), the provision of these phytohormones by methylobacteria (and other epiphytic microbes) regulates root development during seedling establishment.

  2. Developing a method of fabricating microchannels using plant root structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional (3D) microchannels are expected to be applied to a lab-on-a-chip, especially an organ-on-a-chip. There are fine microchannel networks such as blood vessels in a living organ. However, it is difficult to recreate the complicated 3D microchannels of real living structures. Plant roots have a similar structure to blood vessels. They spread radially and three-dimensionally, and become thinner as they branch. In this research, we propose a method of fabricating microchannels using a live plant root as a template to mimic a blood vessel structure. We grew a plant in ceramic slurry instead of soil. The slurry consists of ceramic powder, binder and water, so it plays a similar role to soil consisting of fine particles in water. After growing the plant, the roots inside the slurry were burned and a sintered ceramic body with channel structures was obtained by heating. We used two types of slurry with different composition ratios, and compared the internal channel structures before and after sintering.

  3. Production of aventitious root of eurycoma longifolia jack using air-lift bioreactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nazirah Wan Ali; Siti Sarah Abd Wahab; Zakaria Seman; Muhammad Ruzaini Abdul Wahab; Mohamad Rozi Mohamed Yasin; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Rusli Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    In Malaysia the Eurycoma longifolia is better known as a Tongkat Ali, where it has great local demand as a health tonic. Observation after 3 months revealed that modified MS medium (1/2 Nitrate) supplemented with IBA at 5.0 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L (5% sucrose) was found to be the best formulation for adventitious root induction. The data obtained showed that 70% (10 + 2 adventitious root per explants) of the explants cultured formed the adventitious root in both treatments. Other treatments tested within the range (1.0- 10.0 mg/L) produced less than four adventitious roots per explant. Meanwhile, in the treatment using IAA, the highest formation of root was recorded in 7.0 mg/L with the number of root produced was 3 + 1 per explant. Apart from that, observation after 2 months revealed that 4 + 1 adventitious root per explant was observed in the treatment using 4 mg/L NAA. The chemical profiling studies was carried out by focusing on the production of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in callus derived from different explants, namely leaf, petiole, rachis and root. The R f value spots of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one (obtained from the TLC) analysis showed a yellowish green in colour when observed under UV light at 366 nm. Based on the intensity and size of the spots on the chromatogram, it was detected that concentration of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in root-derived callus was generally higher as compared to other calluses. Therefore, adventitious root culture can be an attractive as it is highly differentiated and can cause stable and extensive production of secondary metabolites. (Author)

  4. The interaction between glucose and cytokinin signaling in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Sunita; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2017-05-04

    Cytokinin (CK) and glucose (GLC) control several common responses in plants. There is an extensive overlap between CK and GLC signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis. Physiologically, both GLC and CK could regulate root length in light. CK interacts with GLC via HXK1 dependent pathway for root length control. Wild-type (WT) roots cannot elongate in the GLC free medium while CK-receptor mutant ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 (ahk4) and type B ARR triple mutant ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1, 10,11 (arr1, 10,11) roots could elongate even in the absence of GLC as compared with the WT. The root hair initiation was also found defective in CK signaling mutants ahk4, arr1,10,11 and arr3,4,5,6,8,9 on increasing GLC concentration (up to 3%); and lesser number of root hairs were visible even at 5% GLC as compared with the WT. Out of 941 BAP regulated genes, 103 (11%) genes were involved in root growth and development. Out of these 103 genes, 60 (58%) genes were also regulated by GLC. GLC could regulate 5736 genes, which include 327 (6%) genes involved in root growth and development. Out of these 327 genes, 60 (18%) genes were also regulated by BAP. Both GLC and CK signaling cannot alter root length in light in auxin signaling mutant AUXIN RESPONSE3/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (axr3/iaa17) suggesting that they may involve auxin signaling component as a nodal point. Therefore CK- and GLC- signaling are involved in controlling different aspects of root growth and development such as root length, with auxin signaling components working as downstream target.

  5. Root development of permanent lateral incisor in cleft lip and palate children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarlal Deepti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the root development of lateral incisor on the cleft side with the root development of its contralateral tooth in cleft lip and palate children. Setting: Cleft lip and palate wing, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A sample of 96 orthopantamograms of patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate was selected, regardless of sex and race. Main Outcome Measure: Orthopantamograms were analyzed for root development of lateral incisor on the cleft and noncleft side. Associated anomalies like hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, malformed lateral incisors and root development of canine, if present, were recorded. Findings and Conclusions: Root development of permanent lateral incisor was delayed on the cleft side compared to the noncleft side. There was a statistically significant relationship between levels of root development of lateral incisors on the cleft side within the different study groups ( P < 0.05. Incidence of hypodontia increased in proportion to cleft severity. Frequency of missing second premolars, supernumerary teeth and malformed lateral incisors increased in cleft lip and palate patients. Root development of canine showed a slight delay on the cleft side when compared to the canine on the noncleft side.

  6. OsORC3 is required for lateral root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jing; Hao, Xi; Liu, Huili; Shi, Jianghua; Wu, Yunrong; Wu, Zhongchang; Chen, Mingxiu; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

    2013-04-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a pivotal element in DNA replication, heterochromatin assembly, checkpoint regulation and chromosome assembly. Although the functions of the ORC have been determined in yeast and model animals, they remain largely unknown in the plant kingdom. In this study, Oryza sativa Origin Recognition Complex subunit 3 (OsORC3) was cloned using map-based cloning procedures, and functionally characterized using a rice (Oryza sativa) orc3 mutant. The mutant showed a temperature-dependent defect in lateral root (LR) development. Map-based cloning showed that a G→A mutation in the 9th exon of OsORC3 was responsible for the mutant phenotype. OsORC3 was strongly expressed in regions of active cell proliferation, including the primary root tip, stem base, lateral root primordium, emerged lateral root primordium, lateral root tip, young shoot, anther and ovary. OsORC3 knockdown plants lacked lateral roots and had a dwarf phenotype. The root meristematic zone of ORC3 knockdown plants exhibited increased cell death and reduced vital activity compared to the wild-type. CYCB1;1::GUS activity and methylene blue staining showed that lateral root primordia initiated normally in the orc3 mutant, but stopped growing before formation of the stele and ground tissue. Our results indicate that OsORC3 plays a crucial role in the emergence of lateral root primordia. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The effect of root temperature on the uptake and metabolism of anions by the root system of Zea mays L. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobrada, M.; Mistrik, I.; Kolek, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of root temperature upon the uptake of 35 S-sulfate by intact 21 days old maize roots was discussed. The plant roots grown at 20 degC were cooled in steps down to 15 degC or 5 degC. The rate of 35 S uptake was studied both in the whole root system and separately in the individual roots (primary seminal root, seminal adventitious roots and nodal roots). Differences were ascertained at lower uptakes by various root samples from resistant and nonresistant maize cultivars. (author)

  8. Growth and root development of four mangrove seedlings under varying salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Keliat, D. A.; Lubis, M. U.; Manalu, N. B.; Syuhada, A.; Wati, R.; Yunasfi

    2018-03-01

    This present study describes four mangrove seedlings namely Bruguiera cylindrica, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, and Rhizophora apiculata in response to salinity with particular emphasis to root development. The seedlings of four mangroves were grown for 5 months in 0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% salt concentration. Salinity significantly decreased the growth (diameter and plant height) of all mangrove seedlings. Root developments were observed from the tap and lateral root. The number, length and diameter of both roots-typed of B. cylindrica, B. sexangula and C. tagal seedlings significantly decreased with increasing salt concentration with optimum development at 0.5% salinity. By contrast, the number, length, and diameter of tap root of R. apiculata seedlings were significantly enhanced by salt with maximal stimulation at 0.5%, and this increase was attenuated by increasing salinity. On the other hand, lateral root development of R. apiculata significantly thrived up to 1.5% salinity then decreasing with the increasing salinity. The different response of root development suggested valuable information for mangrove rehabilitation in North Sumatra and their adaption to withstand salt stress.

  9. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  10. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J; Santos, S; César, C; Silva, P; Sá, M; Silveira, F; Nunes, E

    2008-08-01

    To report the induction of apical root development by calcium hydroxide in teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency. A 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the clinic complaining of an intense pain and oedema on the anterior facial region, compatible with an acute dentoalveolar abscess. There was a previous history of dental trauma; only tooth 11 was negative to pulp sensitivity tests. Radiographically, tooth 11 exhibited incomplete root formation, characterized by a wide root canal, thin and fragile dentinal walls, and an extensive, divergent foraminal opening associated with an apical radiolucency. The first appointment focused on urgent local and systemic treatment. Apexification treatment commenced at the second session after 7 days, by means of chemo-mechanical debridement throughout the entire root canal, using K-files and irrigation with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Subsequently, a calcium hydroxide paste was applied and changed four times over 8 months, when radiographic examination revealed complete closure of the foraminal opening, resulting in resolution of the periapical radiolucency and associated with 5 mm of additional root development. The root canal was filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. A 3-year follow-up revealed normal periapical tissues and the absence of symptoms. * In young patients, dental trauma may cause pulp necrosis and arrest of root formation. * Under certain circumstances, chemo-mechanical debridement, including the use of a calcium hydroxide paste, is a valid alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate and or surgery for root-end closure. * In teeth with incompletely formed roots associated with periapical lesions, calcium hydroxide can induce periapical repair through the closure of the foramen and apical root development.

  11. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Corpas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO, is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants.

  12. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  13. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  14. Arabidopsis pdr2 reveals a phosphate-sensitive checkpoint in root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticconi, Carla A; Delatorre, Carla A; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Abel, Steffen

    2004-03-01

    Plants have evolved complex strategies to maintain phosphate (Pi) homeostasis and to maximize Pi acquisition when the macronutrient is limiting. Adjustment of root system architecture via changes in meristem initiation and activity is integral to the acclimation process. However, the mechanisms that monitor external Pi status and interpret the nutritional signal remain to be elucidated. Here, we present evidence that the Pi deficiency response, pdr2, mutation disrupts local Pi sensing. The sensitivity and amplitude of metabolic Pi-starvation responses, such as Pi-responsive gene expression or accumulation of anthocyanins and starch, are enhanced in pdr2 seedlings. However, the most conspicuous alteration of pdr2 is a conditional short-root phenotype that is specific for Pi deficiency and caused by selective inhibition of root cell division followed by cell death below a threshold concentration of about 0.1 mm external Pi. Measurements of general Pi uptake and of total phosphorus (P) in root tips exclude a defect in high-affinity Pi acquisition. Rescue of root meristem activity in Pi-starved pdr2 by phosphite (Phi), a non-metabolizable Pi analog, and divided-root experiments suggest that pdr2 disrupts sensing of low external Pi availability. Thus, PDR2 is proposed to function at a Pi-sensitive checkpoint in root development, which monitors environmental Pi status, maintains and fine-tunes meristematic activity, and finally adjusts root system architecture to maximize Pi acquisition.

  15. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  16. Root Development of Transplanted Cotton and Simulation of Soil Water Movement under Different Irrigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat and cotton are the main crops grown on the North China Plain (NCP. Cotton is often transplanted after the winter wheat harvest to solve the competition for cultivated land between winter wheat and cotton, and to ensure that both crops can be harvested on the NCP. However, the root system of transplanted cotton is distorted due to the restrictions of the seedling aperture disk before transplanting. Therefore, the investigation of the deformed root distribution and water uptake in transplanted cotton is essential for simulating soil water movement under different irrigation methods. Thus, a field experiment and a simulation study were conducted during 2013–2015 to explore the deformed roots of transplanted cotton and soil water movement using border irrigation (BI and surface drip irrigation (SDI. The results showed that SDI was conducive to root growth in the shallow root zone (0–30 cm, and that BI was conducive to root growth in the deeper root zone (below 30 cm. SDI is well suited for producing the optimal soil water distribution pattern for the deformed root system of transplanted cotton, and the root system was more developed under SDI than under BI. Comparisons between experimental data and model simulations showed that the HYDRUS-2D model described the soil water content (SWC under different irrigation methods well, with root mean square errors (RMSEs of 0.023 and 0.029 cm3 cm−3 and model efficiencies (EFs of 0.68 and 0.59 for BI and SDI, respectively. Our findings will be very useful for designing an optimal irrigation plan for BI and SDI in transplanted cotton fields, and for promoting the wider use of this planting pattern for cotton transplantation.

  17. CEP genes regulate root and shoot development in response to environmental cues and are specific to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The manifestation of repetitive developmental programmes during plant growth can be adjusted in response to various environmental cues. During root development, this means being able to precisely control root growth and lateral root development. Small signalling peptides have been found to play roles in many aspects of root development. One member of the CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE) gene family has been shown to arrest root growth. Here we report that CEP genes are widespread among seed plants but are not present in land plants that lack true branching roots or root vasculature. We have identified 10 additional CEP genes in Arabidopsis. Expression analysis revealed that CEP genes are regulated by environmental cues such as nitrogen limitation, increased salt levels, increased osmotic strength, and increased CO2 levels in both roots and shoots. Analysis of synthetic CEP variants showed that both peptide sequence and modifications of key amino acids affect CEP biological activity. Analysis of several CEP over-expression lines revealed distinct roles for CEP genes in root and shoot development. A cep3 knockout mutant showed increased root and shoot growth under a range of abiotic stress, nutrient, and light conditions. We demonstrate that CEPs are negative regulators of root development, slowing primary root growth and reducing lateral root formation. We propose that CEPs are negative regulators that mediate environmental influences on plant development.

  18. Primisulfuron herbicide-resistant tobacco plants: mutant selection in vitro by adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, C.T.; DiMaio, J.J.; Jayne, S.M.; Middlesteadt, L.A.; Negrotto, D.V.; Thompson-Taylor, H.; Montoya, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the rapid and direct selection of herbicide-resistant mutant plants. The procedure uses adventitious shoot formation from suitable explants, such as leaf discs, on a shoot-inducing culture medium containing a toxic herbicide concentration. Resistant green shoots were thus isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf explants cultured on medium containing 100 μg 1−1 primisulfuron, a new sulfonylurea herbicide. Resistant shoots were recovered from both haploid and diploid explants after UV mutagenesis, as well as without mutagenic treatment. Three mutant plants of separate origin were further analyzed biochemically and genetically. Their acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzyme activity was less inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides than that of unselected, sensitive wild type plants. The extent of inhibition of the AHAS enzyme among the three mutants was different for different sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides suggesting different sites were affected by each mutation. Herbicide tolerance was scored for germinating seedling populations and was found to be inherited as a single dominant nuclear gene. Adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs was used to determine the cross tolerance of mutant plants to various herbicidal AHAS inhibitors. The usefulness of this rapid and direct scheme for mutant selection based on adventitious shoot formation or embryogenesis is discussed. (author)

  19. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Concepción Laffitte

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used like explant in all experiments. The best re-sult was reached with MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. Was de-monstrated that for the leaves with more multiplication subculture number and taken from lower part of shoot (older; the morfogenetic potential falls significantly (p60% and the largest number of shoot per regenerating leaf (>3 were obtained with several wounds carried out in f orm of jabs to the central nerve of leaves. This regeneration protocol constitutes an important tool that can be applied for future studies of genetic transformation in this species. Key words: Tissue culture, leaf explants, growth regulators, organogenesis, guava

  20. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  1. Phenotype change and migration of adventitial fibroblasts during postangioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Zhang Jiaxing; He Nengshu; Si Tongguo; Fan Hailun; Ge Xihong; Xu Rui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To verify fibroblasts translocation from adventitia into neointima by labeling adventitia cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) after angioplasty, and to explore the relationship of adventitial fibroblast with restenosis. Methods: Vascular restenosis model was created by injured intima of common carotid artery (CCA) of mouse with guide wire, adventitial fibroblasts were labeled with BrDU, and dynamic distribution of myofibroblasts in adventitia, media and neoitima was observed at different times (3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d) by means of single/double-label immunohistochemistry, light microscope, electronic microscope and image analysis system. Results: 1.Immunohistochemistry: More adventitial fibroblasts combined with BrDU could be found in adventitia on the 3rd day of postangioplasty, and the number of this kind of cells reached the peak on 7th day, and at the same time fibroblasts changed their phenotypes and became myofibroblasts, which produced α-actin and extracellular matrix (ECM). On 14th day, the number of the positive cells decreased in adventitia, increased in media and neointima associated with intima thickening; on 28th day, while the number of fibroblasts labeled by BrDU returned to the basic-line in adventitia, media and intima, nevertheless, intima thickening and vascular stenosis and intimal ELM precipitation were still present. There were significant differences in the number of fibroblasts labeled with BrDU located in three layers of artery (P<0.05). 2. Electronic microscope: After angioplasty, the plasm of fibroblasts became rich, mitochondrious and increase of Golgi apparatus; and the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulums rose with more secretory granules, together with a great amount of collagen synthesized forming the microfilaments; on days of 7th and 14th, the wide pseudopodia of myofibroblasts could be found extending into the windows on the external elastic lamina (ELL) and the internal elastic lamina (ILL); and showing the tendency

  2. Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2018-01-01

    Root system formation to a great extent depends on lateral root (LR) formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LRs are initiated within a parent root in pericycle that is an external tissue of the stele. LR initiation takes place in a strictly acropetal pattern, whereas posterior lateral root primordium (LRP) formation is asynchronous. In this chapter, we focus on methods of genetic and phenotypic analysis of LR initiation, LRP morphogenesis, and LR emergence in Arabidopsis. We provide details on how to make cleared root preparations and how to identify the LRP stages. We also pay attention to the categorization of the LRP developmental stages and their variations and to the normalization of the number of LRs and LRPs formed, per length of the primary root, and per number of cells produced within a root. Hormonal misbalances and mutations affect LRP morphogenesis significantly, and the evaluation of LRP abnormalities is addressed as well. Finally, we deal with various molecular markers that can be used for genetic and phenotypic analyses of LR development.

  3. Solute transport and extraction by a single root in unsaturated soils: model development and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Sung, Kijune; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Drew, Malcolm C

    2004-09-01

    A contaminant transport model was developed to simulate the fate and transport of organic compounds such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), using the single-root system. Onions were planted for this system with 50-ml plastic tubes. Mass in the soil, soil solution, root and leaf was monitored using {sup 14}C-TNT. Model parameters were acquired from the experiments in the single-root system and were used to simulate total TNT concentration in soil, providing the average concentrations in the rhizosphere and bulk soil as well as root and leaf compartments. Because the existing RCF (root concentration factor) and TSCF (transpiration stream concentration factor) equations based on log K{sub ow} (octanol-water partition coefficient) were not correlated to TNT uptake, a new term, root uptake rate (R{sub ur}), and a new T{sub scf} equation, based on the experimental data, were introduced in the proposed model. The results from both modeling and experimental studies showed higher concentrations of TNT in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, because mass transported from the surrounding soil into the rhizosphere was higher than that by root uptake.

  4. Developing a tool for assessing competency in root cause analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Varkey, Prathibha

    2009-01-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is a tool for identifying the key cause(s) contributing to a sentinel event or near miss. Although training in RCA is gaining popularity in medical education, there is no published literature on valid or reliable methods for assessing competency in the same. A tool for assessing competency in RCA was pilot tested as part of an eight-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination that was conducted at the completion of a three-week quality improvement (QI) curriculum for the Mayo Clinic Preventive Medicine and Endocrinology fellowship programs. As part of the curriculum, fellows completed a QI project to enhance physician communication of the diagnosis and treatment plan at the end of a patient visit. They had a didactic session on RCA, followed by process mapping of the information flow at the project clinic, after which fellows conducted an actual RCA using the Ishikawa fishbone diagram. For the RCA competency assessment, fellows performed an RCA regarding a scenario describing an adverse medication event and provided possible solutions to prevent such errors in the future. All faculty strongly agreed or agreed that they were able to accurately assess competency in RCA using the tool. Interrater reliability for the global competency rating and checklist scoring were 0.96 and 0.85, respectively. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.76. Six of eight of the fellows found the difficulty level of the test to be optimal. Assessment methods must accompany education programs to ensure that graduates are competent in QI methodologies and are able to apply them effectively in the workplace. The RCA assessment tool was found to be a valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable method for assessing competency in RCA. Further research is needed to examine its predictive validity and generalizability.

  5. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  6. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  7. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of gamma probe technique for monitoring rooting pattern of pearl millet under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittal, K.P.R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    For the root distribution studies, methods are not available to measure the growth in situ and in toto under field conditions without destroying the plants. A non-destructive method was developed for measuring the gamma activity in root using a probe that was administered through the stem. Five isotopes viz. 86 Rb, 134 Cs, 59 Fe, 65 Zn and 54 Mn tested, were found to represent almost similar rooting pattern for pearl millet from flowering to harvesting stages. Among these isotopes 59 Fe was found to be suitable for field use. This method also enabled to successfully monitor the root activity over time and avoided the sampling errors. Since laboratory processing of samples was eliminated, the process of measurement was hastened. (author)

  9. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces.

  10. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. A comparative histologic study on furcal perforation repair with Root MTA and Pro Root MTA in fully developed teeth in dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The goal of endodontics is to seal the root canal system from the orifice to apical constriction completely and tridimensionally.Hence perforations during root canal therapy, because of caries or resorptions must be sealed and obturated with ideal materials. The aim of this study was to histologically compare two kinds of mineral trioxide aggregate Root MTA and Pro Root MTA for furcal perforation repair in developed teeth in dog. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty teeth consisting of second, third and fourth mandibular premolars of five German shepherd dogs were selected. Twenty-four teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (6 teeth each. One pair of Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups studied in one month and the other in three months intervals. Positive and negative control groups was each contained three teeth. In positive control group, perforations were not treated and negative control group contained intact teeth. In experimental groups perforations repaired after one week exposure to oral cavity with Root MTA or Pro Root MTA. After time intervals animals were subjected to vital perfusion and 6 m histologic sections were prepared. Inflammation and hard tissue formation were ranked by Cox criteria. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square statistical tests with P0.05. Conclusion: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate is an adequate material for furcal perforation repair in dog’s teeth. Root MTA could be a good substitute for Pro Root MTA considering the lower cost and similar characteristics.

  12. The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries--in education, personal autonomy, and more--explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold certain cultural views that lead to gender inequality? This article discusses several mechanisms through which, as countries grow, gender gaps narrow. I argue that while much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the process of development, society-specific factors are also at play...

  13. Novel MtCEP1 peptides produced in vivo differentially regulate root development in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Binos, Steve; Truong, Thy T; Imin, Nijat; Mariani, Michael; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Small, post-translationally modified and secreted peptides regulate diverse plant developmental processes. Due to low natural abundance, it is difficult to isolate and identify these peptides. Using an improved peptide isolation protocol and Orbitrap mass spectrometry, nine 15-amino-acid CEP peptides were identified that corresponded to the two domains encoded by Medicago truncatula CEP1 (MtCEP1). Novel arabinosylated and hydroxylated peptides were identified in root cultures overexpressing MtCEP1. The five most abundant CEP peptides were hydroxylated and these species were detected also in low amounts in vector control samples. Synthetic peptides with different hydroxylation patterns differentially affected root development. Notably, the domain 1 peptide hydroxylated at Pro4 and Pro11 (D1:HyP4,11) imparted the strongest inhibition of lateral root emergence when grown with 5mM KNO3 and stimulated the highest increase in nodule number when grown with 0mM KNO3. Inhibition of lateral root emergence by D1:HyP4,11 was not alleviated by removing peptide exposure. In contrast, the domain 2 peptide hydroxylated at Pro11 (D2:HyP11) increased stage III-IV lateral root primordium numbers by 6-fold (P emerge. Auxin addition at levels which stimulated lateral root formation in wild-type plants had little or no ameliorating effect on CEP peptide-mediated inhibition of lateral root formation or emergence. Both peptides increased and altered the root staining pattern of the auxin-responsive reporter GH3:GUS suggesting CEPs alter auxin sensitivity or distribution. The results showed that CEP primary sequence and post-translational modifications influence peptide activities and the improved isolation procedure effectively and reproducibly identifies and characterises CEPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Role of Translocted Signals in Regulating Root Development and Nutrient Uptake in Legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C. A. [School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Uptake of nutrients is achieved through the expression and activity of specific carrier/transporter mechanisms localized in the root system and distributed as a consequence of the development of the architecture of the system. Both root system development and the nutrient transport mechanisms are responsive to environmental factors that include nutrient supply and availability, water supply, salinity, soil acidity and compaction together with a wide range of biotic stresses. The response to each may be regulated at the molecular level by both local and systemic signals. These signals include the classical plant growth regulators but also low molecular weight compounds such as sugars and amino acids as well as macromolecules, including peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. Among the latter, recent research has shown that small RNA species and especially small interfering RNAs (siRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA) are potent and effective regulators of gene expression which, in the context of root development as well as nutrient uptake, have central and critical roles. Systemic (translocated) signals that specifically regulate root development and function are less well defined but analyses of phloem exudate in species of lupin (Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius) and species of Brassica and cucurbits have demonstrated that a wide range of macromolecules, including miRNAs, are present and potentially translocated from source organs (principally leaves) to sinks (shoot apical meristems, developing fruits and seeds, roots and nodules). While specific signaling roles for many of these macromolecules are yet to be discovered there are some that have been documented and their regulatory activity in organ development and functioning, as well as in nutrition, confirmed. The following article provides an up to date review and presents the results of recent research using lupin with emphasis on the analysis of small RNAs and their likely role(s) in regulation of root development and

  15. Development of root morphology traits of the Czech lucerne varieties in chernozem over a three year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hakl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The root system of plants is generally in relation to important agronomic and ecological characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in root morphology development of Czech lucerne varieties under chernozem soil conditions. In spring 2007, a field experiment with ten Czech lucerne varieties was established with a regular space of 125 mm between the rows. During the 2008–2010 period, the plants were sampled every autumn after the last cut in five blocks per each variety; the size of the sampling area was 50 × 50 cm and average depth of sampling was 0.25 m. All varieties provided similar trend in root morphology development but some differences could be detected in the rate of this development. From all evaluated root traits, these differences were connected mainly with tap-root diameter, intensity of root branching and lateral root number. Advisable varieties should provide higher density of plant together with higher root diameter and branching which is resulted to higher root weight per m2 and consequently to higher stand productivity. The root-branched plants achieved a significantly higher tap-root diameter of 10.7 mm in comparison with unbranched-root plants with 7.1 mm. Except of plant age, the stand density and tap-root diameter could be considered as a parameter to drive lucerne root morphology development. Within a year, the increase of tap-root diameter was connected with increase of root branching at root-branched plants whilst decrease of plant density caused the beginning of the process of root branching at tap-rooted plants. The range of root traits influenced themselves so their joint presentation is advisable. It must be remembered that soil conditions are a factor which strongly modified the root morphology traits; therefore, these results must be completed with other experiments under various soil conditions. The knowledge of root morphology traits could contribute to the assessment of

  16. Association between third mandibular molar impaction and degree of root development in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren Rødsgaard; Andreasen, Jens O; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2013-01-01

    of the mandibular third molar region from 132 subjects (71 male and 61 female) from 15 to 20 years of age. Based on the films, 264 lower third molars were classified into an eruption and an impaction group. Root development was recorded according to a quantitative method described by Haavikko (1970......: Delayed mandibular third molar root development is associated with impaction. Radiographs taken at age 15 may predict the risk of impaction and thereby guide decision making for the orthodontist or the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.......Abstract Objective: To compare the root development and the growth rate of the mandibular third molar (M3 inf) in individuals where the M3 inf erupted vs individuals exhibiting M3 inf impaction. Materials and Methods: Serial standardized intraoral radiographs (Eggen technique) were taken annually...

  17. Radiomimetic effect of cisplatin on cucumber root development: the relationship between cell division and cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrovsky, J. G. [Division of Experimental Biology, Center for Biological Research (CIB), PO Box 128, La Paz, BCS 23000 (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    Cisplatin [DDP, cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II)], a strong cytostatic and antineoplastic agent, was tested on seedlings of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. for its general effect on root development and its particular effects on root cell division and cell growth. DDP was characterized as a radiomimetic compound since both DDP (1·3 × 10{sup -5} M) and γ-irradiation (2·5-10 kGy) drastically and irreversibly stopped development of embryonic lateral root primordia (LRPs) in the radicle by inhibiting both mitotic activity and cell growth. In 20% of the LRPs of DDP-treated roots, cells did not divide at all. Dividing cells completed no more than two cell cycles. These effects were specific because when DDP was available to the roots only at the onset of cell division, cell proliferation and cell growth were similar to that produced by constant incubation. Neither DDP nor γ-irradiation affected non-meristematic cell elongation. It was concluded that cell growth of meristematic cells is closely related to cell division. However, non-meristematic cell growth is independent of DNA damage. This suggests DDP as a tool to reveal these autonomous processes in plants development and to detect tissue compartments in mature plant embryos which contain potentially non-meristematic cells. (author)

  18. Effect of root temperature on the uptake and metabolism of anions by the root system of Zea mays L. I. Uptake of sulphate by resistant and non-resistant plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holobrada, M; Mistrik, I; Kolek, J [Institute of Experimental Biology and Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of root temperature upon the uptake of /sup 35/S-sulfate by intact 21 days old maize roots was discussed. The plant roots grown at 20 degC were cooled in steps down to 15 degC or 5 degC. The rate of /sup 35/S uptake was studied both in the whole root system and separately in the individual roots (primary seminal root, seminal adventitious roots and nodal roots). Differences were ascertained at lower uptakes by various root samples from resistant and nonresistant maize cultivars.

  19. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  20. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits.

  1. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... the explants from seedling of different development stages (0 to 10 d) were ... Key words: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), cotyledon, growth regulator, ... After the mature seeds coats were removed by a forceps, the seeds.

  2. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eAkhter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp alone at application rate of 20 % (v/v, and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips or green waste biochar (GWB, made from garden waste residues at application rate of 3 % (v/v, and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest under in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi.

  3. Risk Mitigation in Preventing Adventitious Agent Contamination of Mammalian Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Masaru; Kiss, Robert

    2017-11-14

    Industrial-scale mammalian cell culture processes have been contaminated by viruses during the culturing phase. Although the historical frequency of such events has been quite low, the impact of contamination can be significant for the manufacturing company and for the supply of the product to patients. This chapter discusses sources of adventitious agent contamination risk in a cell culture process, provides a semiquantitative assessment of such risks, and describes potential process barriers that can be used to reduce contamination risk. High-temperature, short-time (HTST) heat treatment is recommended as the process barrier of choice, when compatible with the process. A case study assessing the compatibility of HTST heat treatment with a cell culture medium is presented, and lessons learned are shared from our experiences over many years of developing and implementing virus barriers in mammalian cell culture processes. Graphical Abstract.

  4. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on in vitro rooting capacity of shoots in pear clones (Pyrus communis L.) of different ploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation. In this study, intense efforts have been made for improvement of rooting procedures for triploid, tetraploid, and mixploid clones of the pear cultivar, 'Fertility', obtained by in vitro colchicine treatment. An efficient roo...

  5. Pedogenesis and root development in a complex geomorphologic setting of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe, Anita; Thers, Mie

    2007-01-01

    Studies of pedogenesis in basaltic soils within the cool, temperate zone were fairly limited. This study looked at pedogenesis and root development in Norðradalur of the Faroe Islands. To a large extent, soil physical and chemical characteristics were determined by sedimentological rather than pe...

  6. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (Padventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  7. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress.

  8. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  9. Ethylene-Induced Inhibition of Root Growth Requires Abscisic Acid Function in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development. PMID:25330236

  10. The effects of Vexar® seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M.; Anthony, R. Michael; Krupa, Heather W.; Evans, James

    1997-01-01

    The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexar® tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and growth. Undamaged seedlings exhibited greater growth, reflecting the importance of non-lethal gopher damage as a deterrent to tree growth. Protected seedlings with similar damage history as unprotected seedlings had greater root depth than unprotected seedlings, although unprotected seedlings with no above-ground damage generally had the greatest root weight. In general, the percent of seedlings with root deformities was greater for the unprotected seedlings than for the Vexar-protectd seedlings, although this could be largely due to the greater care required to plant protected seedlings. Acute deformities were more common for unprotected seedlings, whereas root deformities with less severe bending were more common for protected seedlings. The incidence of crossed roots was similar for protected and unprotected seedlings on the Deschutes site, where enough occurrences of this deformity permitted analyses. Protected seedlings were similar in root abundance, root distribution, root size and vigor to the unprotected seedlings, with some indication from the Deshutes study site that root distribution was improved with Vexar protection.

  11. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  12. ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) is required for cell production, patterning, and morphogenesis in root development

    OpenAIRE

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl; Shishkova, Svetlana; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1/SDG27), a known regulator of flower development, encodes a H3K4histone methyltransferase that maintains a number of genes in an active state. In this study, the role of ATX1 in root development was evaluated. The loss-of-function mutant atx1-1 was impaired in primary root growth. The data suggest that ATX1 controls root growth by regulating cell cycle duration, cell production, and the transition from cell proliferation in the root apical meristem (RAM)...

  13. Cyclic programmed cell death stimulates hormone signaling and root development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Wei; Band, Leah R.; Kumpf, Robert P.; Rybel, De Bert

    2016-01-01

    The plant root cap, surrounding the very tip of the growing root, perceives and transmits environmental signals to the inner root tissues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, auxin released by the root cap contributes to the regular spacing of lateral organs along the primary root axis. Here, we show that

  14. In vitro propagation of fraser photinia using Azospirillum-mediated root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Larraburu, Ezequiel E

    2013-01-01

    Fraser photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress.) is a woody plant of high ornamental value. The traditional propagation system for photinia is by rooting apical cuttings using highly concentrated auxin treatments. However, photinia micropropagation is an effective alternative to traditional in vivo propagation which is affected by the seasonal supply of cuttings, the long time required to obtain new plants, and the difficulties in rooting some clones.A protocol for in vitro propagation of fraser photinia using the plant growth-promoting ability of some rhizobacteria is described here. Bacterial inoculation is a new tool in micropropagation protocols that improves plant development in in vitro culture. Shoots culture on a medium containing MS macro- and microelements, Gamborg's vitamins (BM), N (6)-benzyladenine (BA, 11.1 μM), and gibberellic acid (1.3 μM) produce well-established explants. Proliferation on BM medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA results in four times the number of shoots per initial shoot that develops monthly. Consequently, there is a continuous supply of plant material since shoot production is independent of season. Azospirillum brasilense inoculation, after 49.2 μM indole-3-butyric acid pulse treatment, stimulates early rooting of photinia shoots and produces significant increase in root fresh and dry weights, root surface area, and shoot fresh and dry weights in comparison with controls. Furthermore, inoculated in vitro photinia plants show anatomical and morphological changes that might lead to better adaptation in ex vitro conditions after transplanting, compared with the control plants.

  15. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  16. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Nitric oxide plays a central role in determining lateral root development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Graziano, Magdalena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that functions in numerous physiological processes in plants, most of them involving cross-talk with traditional phytohormones. Auxin is the main hormone that regulates root system architecture. In this communication we report that NO promotes lateral root (LR) development, an auxin-dependent process. Application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings induced LR emergence and elongation in a dose-dependent manner, while primary root (PR) growth was diminished. The effect is specific for NO since the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) blocked the action of SNP. Depletion of endogenous NO with CPTIO resulted in the complete abolition of LR emergence and a 40% increase in PR length, confirming a physiological role for NO in the regulation of root system growth and development. Detection of endogenous NO by the specific probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) revealed that the NO signal was specifically located in LR primordia during all stages of their development. In another set of experiments, SNP was able to promote LR development in auxin-depleted seedlings treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Moreover, it was found that LR formation induced by the synthetic auxin 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) was prevented by CPTIO in a dose-dependent manner. All together, these results suggest a novel role for NO in the regulation of LR development, probably operating in the auxin signaling transduction pathway.

  18. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  19. The relationship between profiles of plagiogravitropism and morphometry of columella cells during the development of lateral roots of Vigna angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuya, Noriyuki; Sato, Seiichi

    2011-02-01

    There has been no convincing explanation on a mechanism inducing plagiogravitropism of lateral roots. The present work deals with gravitropic features of Vignaangularis lateral roots during the course of their growth and morphometric analysis of root caps, columella cells and amyloplasts. Regardless of the magnitude of deviation of the primary root axis from the gravity vector, the newly emerging lateral roots tended to keep a constant angle to the gravity vector. They modified gravireaction several times during the course of their development: a first horizontal-growth stage when they grow in the cortex of primary roots (stage I), a sloping-down growth stage from their emergence to a length of about 1 mm (stage II), a second horizontal-growth stage from a length of about 1 mm to that of over 4 mm (stage III) and a curving-down stage thereafter (stage IV). The columella cells with amyloplasts large enough to sediment were not fully differentiated in the stage I but the turning point from the stage I to II was associated with the development of amyloplasts which were able to sediment toward the distal part of the cell. Amyloplasts were significantly small in the lateral roots over 10 mm long compared with those in ones 0-10 mm long, suggesting that they rapidly develop immediately after the lateral roots emerge from primary roots and then gradually decrease their size when the lateral roots grow over 10 mm long. This dimensional decrease of amyloplasts may be partially involved in weak gravireaction in the stage III. Evidence was not presented indicating that a switchover from the stage III to IV was connected with the dimension of root caps, the number of columella cells and the development of amyloplasts. Some factors at the molecular level rather than at the cellular and tissue levels are probably dominant to induce the stage IV.

  20. Investigating niche partitioning of ectomycorrhizal fungi in specialized rooting zones of the monodominant leguminous tree Dicymbe corymbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Williams, Gwendolyn C; Aime, M Catherine; Fremier, Alexander K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2017-07-01

    Temperate ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi show segregation whereby some species dominate in organic layers and others favor mineral soils. Weak layering in tropical soils is hypothesized to decrease niche space and therefore reduce the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The Neotropical ECM tree Dicymbe corymbosa forms monodominant stands and has a distinct physiognomy with vertical crown development, adventitious roots and massive root mounds, leading to multi-stemmed trees with spatially segregated rooting environments: aerial litter caches, aerial decayed wood, organic root mounds and mineral soil. We hypothesized that these microhabitats host distinct fungal assemblages and therefore promote diversity. To test our hypothesis, we sampled D. corymbosa ectomycorrhizal root tips from the four microhabitats and analyzed community composition based on pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcode markers. Several dominant fungi were ubiquitous but analyses nonetheless suggested that communities in mineral soil samples were statistically distinct from communities in organic microhabitats. These data indicate that distinctive rooting zones of D. corymbosa contribute to spatial segregation of the fungal community and likely enhance fungal diversity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Enzymatic Activity of the Mycelium Compared with Oospore Development During Infection of Pea Roots by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal...

  2. Checklist of root-sprouters in the Czech flora: mapping the gaps in our knowledge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušková, Alena; Malíková, Lenka; Klimešová, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 337-343 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : adventitious bud * root * hypocotyl Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  3. Poinsettia Growth and Development Response to Container Root Substrate with Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the growth and development of poinsettia ‘Prestige Red’ (Euphorbia pulcherrima grown in a commercial peat-based potting mix (Sunshine Mix #1 amended with biochar at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, or 100% (by volume at four different fertigation regimes: F1: 100 to 200 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N, F2: 200 to 300 mg·L−1 N (control, F3: 300 to 400 mg·L−1 N, or F4: 400 to 500 mg·L−1 N. The experiment was a two-factor factorial design with 10 replications for each combination of biochar by fertigation. As the percentage of biochar increased, root substrate pore space and bulk density increased, while container capacity decreased. Root rot and red bract necrosis only occurred in F4 combined with 100% biochar. Plants grown in 40% biochar had a similar growth and development to those in 0% biochar. Up to 80% biochar, plants exhibited no significant change, except in terms of dry weight, which decreased at higher biochar percentages (60% and 80%. In summary, at a fertigation rate of 100 mg·L−1 N to 400 mg·L−1 N, up to 80% biochar could be used as an amendment to peat-based root substrate with acceptable growth reduction and no changes in quality.

  4. Arabidopsis homolog of trithorax1 (ATX1) is required for cell production, patterning, and morphogenesis in root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl; Shishkova, Svetlana; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis homolog of trithorax1 (ATX1/SDG27), a known regulator of flower development, encodes a H3K4histone methyltransferase that maintains a number of genes in an active state. In this study, the role of ATX1 in root development was evaluated. The loss-of-function mutant atx1-1 was impaired in primary root growth. The data suggest that ATX1 controls root growth by regulating cell cycle duration, cell production, and the transition from cell proliferation in the root apical meristem (RAM) to cell elongation. In atx1-1, the quiescent centre (QC) cells were irregular in shape and more expanded than those of the wild type. This feature, together with the atypical distribution of T-divisions, the presence of oblique divisions, and the abnormal cell patterning in the RAM, suggests a lack of coordination between cell division and cell growth in the mutant. The expression domain of QC-specific markers was expanded both in the primary RAM and in the developing lateral root primordia of atx1-1 plants. These abnormalities were independent of auxin-response gradients. ATX1 was also found to be required for lateral root initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence. The time from lateral root initiation to emergence was significantly extended in the atx1-1 mutant. Overall, these data suggest that ATX1 is involved in the timing of root development, stem cell niche maintenance, and cell patterning during primary and lateral root development. Thus, ATX1 emerges as an important player in root system architecture. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. The influence of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 1. The influence on root development and growth of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study the extent of root and shoot of barley exposed to flooding at various time of flooding. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely the percentage of 86 Rb in the root system, dry weight of root as well as shoot, increase of leaf size, number of leaves and tillers and nitrogen content in leaf tissue. Radioactive 86 Rb-Cl was used in the experiment and injected into the plant 24 hours before harvest. The plants were harvested 2, 6, and 20 days after flooding. From the result obtained, it turned out that flooding conditions apparently reduced root development in the lower part of soil layer, while in the top layer a proper development of root was concentrated. Injury symptoms were mainly observed in the shoot; where leaf yellowing occured and started with the first leaf five days after flooding and subsequently reduced the number of leaves and tillers. (author)

  6. Numerical investigation on effect of aortic root geometry on flow induced structural stresses developed in a bileaflet mechanical heart valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S. S.; Nasif, M. S.; Said, M. A. M.; Kadhim, S. K.

    2017-10-01

    Structural stresses developed in an artificial bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) due to pulsed blood flow may cause valve failure due to yielding. In this paper, von-Mises stresses are computed and compared for BMHV placed in two types of aortic root geometries that are aortic root with axisymmetric sinuses and with axisymmetric bulb, at different physiological blood flow rates. With BMHV placed in an aortic root with axisymmetric sinuses, the von-Mises stresses developed in the valve were found to be up to 47% higher than BMHV placed in aortic root with axisymmetric bulb under similar physiological conditions. High velocity vectors and therefore high von-Mises stresses have been observed for BMHV placed in aortic root with axisymmetric sinuses, that can lead to valve failure.

  7. Adventitious bud development and regeneration in Tillandsia eizii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickens, K.A.; Wolf, J.H.D.; Affolter, J.M.; Wetzstein, H.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The bromeliad Tillandsia eizii is a striking species with large, colorful, and persistent inflorescences that can reach 1m in length. The value of this plant as an ornamental and its importance in cultural and religious activities has led to its overcollection in the wild. Clonal propagation via

  8. Direct regeneration and efficient in vitro root development studies in lentil (lens culinaris medik)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, T.; Majeed, N.; Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Lentil is a self-pollinating annual crop with increasing demand all over the world due to its high protein content and easy digestibility. However, like many other crops lentil too needs improvement for which conventional as well as biotechnological tools are to be employed. This study was aimed at development of tissue culture protocol especially targeting improved root development to ensure their establishment in soil in order to use their potential towards genetic manipulation. Two Pakistani lentil cultivars, Masoor-2002 and Manshera-89 were used to obtain cotyledonary nodes, epicotyl and hypocotyl explants. The explants were cultured on shoot regeneration medium containing different concentration of kinetin, BAP and tyrosine with the addition of GA3, with or without charcoal for shoot development. Masoor-2002, showed the highest frequency of shoot development on MS medium containing 5.5 mg/L tyrosine, 0.25 mg/L kinetin, 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L GA3, using cotyledonary node as explant. The addition of 2 g/L of charcoal in shoot medium resulted in healthier plants, but the number of shoots were reduced. Regarding the effect of age of explants on regeneration frequency, cotyledonary nodes of age 4-6 days had higher regeneration potential. Well-developed shoots were shifted to rooting medium containing different concentration of auxin with or without charcoal. Healthier and more roots were observed on medium containing 4 mg/L IAA with addition of 2 g/L charcoal. Plants were better established (70% survival) in a soil mix containing perlite, vermiculite and peat moss in 1:1:1 ratio. (author)

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  10. Inhibition of primary roots and stimulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by the rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166 is through both auxin-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Park, Hyo-Bee; Lee, Jong Suk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2010-03-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 was previously reported to promote plant growth and induce resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the influence of strain 90-166 on root development was studied in vitro. We observed inhibition of primary root elongation, enhanced lateral root emergence, and early emergence of second order lateral roots after inoculation with strain 90-166 at a certain distance from the root. Using the DR5::GUS transgenic A. thaliana plant and an auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, the altered root development was still elicited by strain 90-166, indicating that this was not a result of changes in plant auxin levels. Intriguingly, indole-3-acetic acid, a major auxin chemical, was only identified just above the detection limit in liquid culture of strain 90-166 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Focusing on bacterial determinants of the root alterations, we found that primary root elongation was inhibited in seedlings treated with cell supernatant (secreted compounds), while lateral root formation was induced in seedlings treated with lysate supernatant (intracellular compounds). Further study revealed that the alteration of root development elicited by strain 90-166 involved the jasmonate, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Collectively, our results suggest that strain 90-166 can contribute to plant root development via multiple signaling pathways.

  11. Influence of development, postharvest handling, and storage conditions on the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas Lam.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals. Significant varietal differences ( p  < .05) in total starch, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose concentrations were registered. The total starch and sucrose content of the roots did not change significantly ( p  < .05) during root development (72.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas the average concentrations of glucose, maltose, and fructose decreased markedly (0.46-0.18%, 0.55-0.28%, and 0.43-0.21%), respectively. Storage led to decrease in total starch content (73-47.7%) and increase in sucrose and glucose concentrations (8.1-11.2% and 0.22-1.57%, respectively). Storage also resulted in reduction in sweetpotato flour pasting viscosities. Curing resulted in increased sucrose and glucose concentrations (9.1-11.2% and 0.45-0.85%, respectively) and marked reduction ( p  < .05) in total starch content (72.9-47.6%). This resulted in low pasting viscosities compared to flour from storage of uncured roots. These findings show that significant changes occur in the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato roots during storage compared to development and present an opportunity for diverse utilization of flours from sweetpotato roots in the food industry.

  12. Characterization of a resident population of adventitial macrophage progenitor cells in postnatal vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Peter J; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Spoon, Daniel B; Chue, Colin D; Hoffman, Scott J; Witt, Tyra A; Delacroix, Sinny; Kleppe, Laurel S; Mueske, Cheryl S; Pan, Shuchong; Gulati, Rajiv; Simari, Robert D

    2014-07-18

    Macrophages regulate blood vessel structure and function in health and disease. The origins of tissue macrophages are diverse, with evidence for local production and circulatory renewal. We identified a vascular adventitial population containing macrophage progenitor cells and investigated their origins and fate. Single-cell disaggregates from adult C57BL/6 mice were prepared from different tissues and tested for their capacity to form hematopoietic colony-forming units. Aorta showed a unique predilection for generating macrophage colony-forming units. Aortic macrophage colony-forming unit progenitors coexpressed stem cell antigen-1 and CD45 and were adventitially located, where they were the predominant source of proliferating cells in the aortic wall. Aortic Sca-1(+)CD45(+) cells were transcriptionally and phenotypically distinct from neighboring cells lacking stem cell antigen-1 or CD45 and contained a proliferative (Ki67(+)) Lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD135(-)CD115(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) subpopulation, consistent with the immunophenotypic profile of macrophage progenitors. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Sca-1(+)CD45(+) adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were not replenished via the circulation from bone marrow or spleen, nor was their prevalence diminished by depletion of monocytes or macrophages by liposomal clodronate treatment or genetic deficiency of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Rather adventitial macrophage progenitor cells were upregulated in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) and LDL-R(-/-) mice, with adventitial transfer experiments demonstrating their durable contribution to macrophage progeny particularly in the adventitia, and to a lesser extent the atheroma, of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. The discovery and characterization of resident vascular adventitial macrophage progenitor cells provides new insight into adventitial biology and its participation in atherosclerosis and provokes consideration of the broader existence of local macrophage

  13. Arteriovenous fistula stenosis in hemodialysis patients is characterized by an increased adventitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Simona; Loverre, Antonia; Cariello, Marica; Divella, Chiara; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto; Pertosa, Giovanni; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis is the major cause of vascular access failure in hemodialysis. Adventitial remodeling has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AVF stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate adventitial fibrosis in stenotic AVF and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Forty-four patients undergoing surgery for AVF creation were examined; ten presented AVF failure, with histological-proven AVF stenosis. In stenotic AVF we observed a significant increase of adventitia extracellular matrix deposition and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)(+) cell numbers; most of these cells were myofibroblast (α-SMA(+)/vimentin(+)). Phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (p-PDGFRβ) was significantly increased within the adventitia of stenotic compared to native AVF, along with a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, two key kinases in PDGFRβ signalling. Myofibroblasts were the main cell type associated with the activation of p-PDGFRβ. At the same time, we observed a significant adventitial vessels rarefaction in stenotic AVF, as demonstrated by a reduced CD34 expression. This event was associated with a marked reduction in the expression of KDR/fetal liver kinase-1, the main vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The degree of adventitial fibrosis was directly correlated with the extent of adventitial α-SMA and inversely associated with adventitial CD34 expression. Finally, we observed an increase in CD34(+)/α-SMA(+) cells within the adventitia of failed AVF. This study suggests that AVF failure is associated with an increased adventitial fibrosis, myofibroblast activation and capillary rarefaction, potentially linked with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In this scenario, our data suggest that PDGF may play a pathogenic role.

  14. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca(2+)] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development.

  15. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat - a review of root and shoot physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    :shoot ratio. Genotypes differ in seminal root anoxia tolerance, but mechanisms remain to be established; ethanol production rates do not explain anoxia tolerance. Root tip survival is short-term, and thereafter, seminal root re-growth upon re-aeration is limited. Genotypes differ in adventitious root numbers....... Although photosynthesis declines, sugars typically accumulate in shoots of waterlogged plants. Mn or Fe toxicity might occur in shoots of wheat on strongly acidic soils, but probably not more widely. Future breeding for waterlogging tolerance should focus on root internal aeration and better N...

  16. Early development and gravitropic response of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomarc'h, S; Léran, S; Auzon-Cape, M; Perrine-Walker, F; Lucas, M; Laplaze, L

    2012-06-05

    Root system architecture plays an important role in determining nutrient and water acquisition and is modulated by endogenous and environmental factors, resulting in considerable developmental plasticity. The orientation of primary root growth in response to gravity (gravitropism) has been studied extensively, but little is known about the behaviour of lateral roots in response to this signal. Here, we analysed the response of lateral roots to gravity and, consistently with previous observations, we showed that gravitropism was acquired slowly after emergence. Using a lateral root induction system, we studied the kinetics for the appearance of statoliths, phloem connections and auxin transporter gene expression patterns. We found that statoliths could not be detected until 1 day after emergence, whereas the gravitropic curvature of the lateral root started earlier. Auxin transporters modulate auxin distribution in primary root gravitropism. We found differences regarding PIN3 and AUX1 expression patterns between the lateral root and the primary root apices. Especially PIN3, which is involved in primary root gravitropism, was not expressed in the lateral root columella. Our work revealed new developmental transitions occurring in lateral roots after emergence, and auxin transporter expression patterns that might explain the specific response of lateral roots to gravity.

  17. Penetration and post-infection development of root-knot nematodes in watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Gómez, M.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.

    2017-07-01

    Meloidogyne javanica has showed less reproductive success than M. incognita in watermelon genotypes. This study was conducted to elucidate the low reproduction of M. javanica in watermelon. The post-infection development of M. javanica in watermelon ‘Sugar Baby’ was determined at progressively higher initial population (Pi) levels at two time points during the life cycle. Plants were inoculated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The increase in Pi was correlated with the penetration rates (R2= 0.603, p<0.001) and total numbers of nematodes in the root (R2 =0.963, p< 0.001) but there was no correlation between the Pi and the reproduction factor (eggs/plant/Pi). The population in the roots at 26 days post-inoculation (dpi) consisted primarily of third-stage juveniles (J3) with a small presence of J2 and fourth stages, and egg-laying females. The dominance of the J3, when egg-laying females are expected, point to the malfunction of the feeding sites that failed to support nematode development beyond the J3 stage. The similarities in egg-laying females at 26 and 60 dpi imply the disruption of the life cycle. Watermelon compensated for M. javanica parasitism by increasing vine length (19% to 33%) and dry top weight (40%) in comparison with the non-inoculated plants. The area under the vine length progress curve was significantly larger as the Pi progressively increased (R²=0.417, p<0.001). Physiological variation was detected between the M. incognita populations. M. arenaria had less ability to invade watermelon roots than did M. incognita and M. javanica.

  18. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  19. Early development and gravitropic response of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Guyomarc'h, S.; Leran, S.; Auzon-Cape, M.; Perrine-Walker, F.; Lucas, Mikaël; Laplaze, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture plays an important role in determining nutrient and water acquisition and is modulated by endogenous and environmental factors, resulting in considerable developmental plasticity. The orientation of primary root growth in response to gravity (gravitropism) has been studied extensively, but little is known about the behaviour of lateral roots in response to this signal. Here, we analysed the response of lateral roots to gravity and, consistently with previous observati...

  20. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...

  1. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N. Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N.; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60–80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17–20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95–105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300–3...

  2. Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

    2010-11-01

    Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species.

  3. Development Policy in Thailand: From Top-down to Grass Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Yutthaphonphinit, Phattaraphon; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Top-down industrial development strategies initially dominated the developing world after the second World War but were eventually found to produce inequitable economic growth. For a decade or more, governments and international development agencies have embraced the idea of participatory grass roots development as a potential solution. Here we review Thailand's experience with development strategies and we examine the current focus on participatory approaches. Thai government planning agencies have adopted "people centred development" and a "sufficiency economy", particularly emphasised since the disruptions caused by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. They aim to address the inequitable sharing of the benefits of decades of rapid growth that was particularly unfair for the rural poor. Thai policies aim to decentralise power to the local level, allowing civil society and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) more of a voice in national decision making and promoting sustainable farming practices aimed at enriching rural communities. An example of this change in Thai government policy is the Community Worker Accreditation Scheme which is aiming to develop human resources at the local level by training community based leaders and supporting networks of community organisations. This enables autonomous local development projects led by trained and accredited individuals and groups. The political tensions notable in Thailand at present are part of this modern transition driven by conflicting models of top-down (industrial) development and the bottom-up (participatory) development ideals described above. Once resolved, Thailand will have few obstacles to moving to a new economic level.

  4. The function of root-systems in mineral nutrition of watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-Aquaticum (L) Hayek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbus, I.P.; Robinson, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of 'adventitious' and 'basal' root systems of watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L) Hayek) to absorb mineral nutrients from surrounding media is demonstrated using radioisotopes 32 P, 86 Rb and 59 Fe. Controlled experiments on single whole plants cultured in a dual-medium-apparatus, indicate that both root systems have a capacity for nutrient absorption. Analysis of axillary shoots formed during a seven day experimental period show that a greater proportion of phosphate and potassium, gained from the ambient media, was absorbed by the adventitious root system, although there was a greater mass of basal root tissue. Extensive translocation of nutrients to actively growing plant organs occurs from absorption sites on both root systems

  5. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  6. Histological features, starch accumulation and sprouting in the early root development of Jacaranda ulei (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO R.D. DA SILVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant species occurring in the savanna region of the Cerrado biome in Brazil present typical morphological and physiological adaptations to a dry climate with seasonal occurrence of wildfires. In this study, the histological features of the root system, the main sites of synthesis and storage of starch and the initial phases of the bud development were characterized in Jacaranda ulei. The anatomical features observed in the root system of J. ulei are related to the needs of the species to survive in the Cerrado. The histochemical analyses demonstrated high synthesis of glucose and glycoprotein after the third day of in vitro culture, in the proximal cells of the cortical parenchyma of the exoderm. Meristematic primordia were observed in the ninth day and the beginning of the meristem formation was observed after 21 days of in vitro culture. Jacaranda ulei displays morphological, anatomical and storage features typical from resprouter species. However, it may be vulnerable to unsustainable exploitation. Considering the importance of this species for local people, more studies regarding its therapeutic properties should be performed, including the planning of appropriate programs for the species management and the production of selected clones through in vitro micropropagation.

  7. Development of a novel AMX-loaded PLGA/zein microsphere for root canal disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, F F O [Capes Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Cx. Postal 365, BrasIlia DF 70359-970 (Brazil); Luzardo-Alvarez, A; Blanco-Mendez, J [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Perez-Estevez, A; Seoane-Prado, R, E-mail: franciscofabio.oliveira@rai.usc.e [Departament of Microbiology and Parasitology, Medical School, University of Santiago de Compostela, R/de San Francisco, s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop polymeric biodegradable microspheres (MSs) of poly(d-l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and zein capable of delivering amoxicillin (AMX) at significant levels for root canal disinfection. PLGA/zein MSs were prepared using a spray-drying technique. The systems were characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, drug loading and in vitro release. Drug levels were reached to be effective during the intracanal dressing in between visits during the endodontic treatment. In vitro release studies were carried out to understand the release profile of the MSs. Antimicrobial activity of AMX was performed by antibiograms. Enterococcus faecalis was the bacteria selected due to its prevalence in endodontic failure. Drug microencapsulation yielded MSs with spherical morphology and an average particle size of between 5 and 38 {mu}m. Different drug-release patterns were obtained among the formulations. Release features related to the MSs were strongly dependent on drug nature as it was demonstrated by using a hydrophobic drug (indomethacin). Finally, AMX-loaded MSs were efficient against E faecalis as demonstrated by the antibiogram results. In conclusion, PLGA/zein MSs prepared by spray drying may be a useful drug delivery system for root canal disinfection.

  8. Development of a novel AMX-loaded PLGA/zein microsphere for root canal disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, F F O; Luzardo-Alvarez, A; Blanco-Mendez, J; Perez-Estevez, A; Seoane-Prado, R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop polymeric biodegradable microspheres (MSs) of poly(d-l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and zein capable of delivering amoxicillin (AMX) at significant levels for root canal disinfection. PLGA/zein MSs were prepared using a spray-drying technique. The systems were characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, drug loading and in vitro release. Drug levels were reached to be effective during the intracanal dressing in between visits during the endodontic treatment. In vitro release studies were carried out to understand the release profile of the MSs. Antimicrobial activity of AMX was performed by antibiograms. Enterococcus faecalis was the bacteria selected due to its prevalence in endodontic failure. Drug microencapsulation yielded MSs with spherical morphology and an average particle size of between 5 and 38 μm. Different drug-release patterns were obtained among the formulations. Release features related to the MSs were strongly dependent on drug nature as it was demonstrated by using a hydrophobic drug (indomethacin). Finally, AMX-loaded MSs were efficient against E faecalis as demonstrated by the antibiogram results. In conclusion, PLGA/zein MSs prepared by spray drying may be a useful drug delivery system for root canal disinfection.

  9. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  10. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasan Thangavel

    Full Text Available Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  11. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  12. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  13. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  14. Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

    2009-09-01

    The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development.

  15. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-09-01

    Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. 'Aerobic rice culture' aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant-water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Root system development, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar ('Takanari') under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> -10 kPa) and mildly dry (> -30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; K(pa)) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72-85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower K(pa) than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψ(leaf) was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while g(s) was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. g(s) was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached -20 kPa. Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψ(leaf). Ψ(leaf) may reduce even if K(pa) is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψ(leaf) would certainly occur in case K(pa) reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting.

  16. Changes in hormonal balance and meristematic activity in primary root tips on the slowly rotating clinostat and their effect on the development of the rapeseed root system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrouf, J; Schoevaert, D; Maldiney, R; Perbal, G

    1999-04-01

    The morphometry of the root system, the meristematic activity and the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin in the primary root tips of rapeseed seedlings were analyzed as functions of time on a slowly rotating clinostat (1 rpm) or in the vertical controls (1 rpm). The fresh weight of the root system was 30% higher throughout the growth period (25 days) in clinorotated seedlings. Morphometric analysis showed that the increase in biomass on the clinostat was due to greater primary root growth, earlier initiation and greater elongation of the secondary roots, which could be observed even in 5-day-old seedlings. However, after 15 days, the growth of the primary root slowed on the clinostat, whereas secondary roots still grew faster in clinorotated plants than in the controls. At this time, the secondary roots began to be initiated closer to the root tip on the clinostat than in the control. Analysis of the meristematic activity and determination of the levels in IAA, ABA and zeatin in the primary root tips demonstrated that after 5 days on the clinostat, the increased length of the primary root could be the consequence of higher meristematic activity and coincided with an increase in both IAA and ABA concentrations. After 15 days on the clinostat, a marked increase in IAA, ABA and zeatin, which probably reached supraoptimal levels, seems to cause a progressive disturbance of the meristematic cells, during a decrease of primary root growth between 15 and 25 days. These modifications in the hormonal balance and the perturbation of the meristematic activity on the clinostat were followed by a loss of apical dominance, which was responsible for the early initiation of secondary roots, the greater elongation of the root system and the emergence of the lateral roots near the tip of the primary root.

  17. Rhizoslides: paper-based growth system for non-destructive, high throughput phenotyping of root development by means of image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marié, Chantal; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Marschall, Daniela; Walter, Achim; Hund, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of root system architecture is currently being attempted for various reasons. Non-destructive, rapid analyses of root system architecture are difficult to perform due to the hidden nature of the root. Hence, improved methods to measure root architecture are necessary to support knowledge-based plant breeding and to analyse root growth responses to environmental changes. Here, we report on the development of a novel method to reveal growth and architecture of maize root systems. The method is based on the cultivation of different root types within several layers of two-dimensional, large (50 × 60 cm) plates (rhizoslides). A central plexiglass screen stabilizes the system and is covered on both sides with germination paper providing water and nutrients for the developing root, followed by a transparent cover foil to prevent the roots from falling dry and to stabilize the system. The embryonic roots grow hidden between a Plexiglas surface and paper, whereas crown roots grow visible between paper and the transparent cover. Long cultivation with good image quality up to 20 days (four fully developed leaves) was enhanced by suppressing fungi with a fungicide. Based on hyperspectral microscopy imaging, the quality of different germination papers was tested and three provided sufficient contrast to distinguish between roots and background (segmentation). Illumination, image acquisition and segmentation were optimised to facilitate efficient root image analysis. Several software packages were evaluated with regard to their precision and the time investment needed to measure root system architecture. The software 'Smart Root' allowed precise evaluation of root development but needed substantial user interference. 'GiaRoots' provided the best segmentation method for batch processing in combination with a good analysis of global root characteristics but overestimated root length due to thinning artefacts. 'WhinRhizo' offered the most rapid

  18. The effect of root canal preparation on the development of dentin cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Rahimi, Saeed; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Paksefat, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Root fracture is not an instant phenomenon but a result of gradual development of tiny craze lines in tooth structure. Recent studies have shown that canal instrumentation has the potential to cause dentinal cracks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the formation of dentinal cracks caused by ProTaper rotary system to hand instrumentation. This in vitro study was carried out using 57 mandible incisor teeth. The teeth were decoronated. The roots were then examined to exclude cracked samples. A standard model for PDL simulation was used. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and one control group (n=19). The teeth in the experimental groups were prepared using hand or ProTaper Universal rotary instrumentation. The teeth in the control group were left unprepared. The teeth were then sectioned horizontally 3 and 6 mm from the apex, and the number of various dentinal defects was recorded using a dental operating microscope. The differences between groups were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. The hand group demonstrated significantly more defects than the control group (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the rotary compared to the control and hand groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regards to fracture (P>0.05). Other defects including internal, external and surface cracks were more frequent in the hand than in the control or rotary groups (P=0.02), but the difference was not significant between the rotary and control groups (P>0.05). Canal preparation, whether hand or rotary, produces structural defects in dentin. The ProTaper rotary system when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, tends to produce fewer cracks and can be considered a safe preparation technique.

  19. Azacytidine and miR156 promote rooting in adult but not in juvenile Arabidopsis tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoumi, Mehdi; Krens, Frans A; Visser, Richard G F; De Klerk, Geert-Jan M

    2017-01-01

    Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR formation and rooting is usually much reduced or even fully inhibited in adult tissues. It has been reported that the phase change is characterized by an increase in DNA-methylation and a decrease in the expression of microRNA156 (miR156). In this paper, we examined the effect of azacytidine (AzaC) and miR156 on AR formation in adult and juvenile Arabidopsis tissues. To identify the ontogenetic state researchers have used flowering or leaf morphology. We have used the rootability which allows - in contrast with both other characteristics- to examine the ontogenetic state at the cellular level. Overexpression of miR156 promoted only the rooting of adult tissues indicating that the phase change-associated loss in tissues' competence to develop ARs is also under the control of miR156. Azacytidine inhibits DNA methylation during DNA replication. Azacytidine treatment also promoted AR formation in nonjuvenile tissues but had no or little effect in juvenile tissues. Its addition during seedling growth (by which all tissues become hypomethylated) or during the rooting treatment (by which only those cells become hypomethylated that are generated after taking the explant) are both effective in the promotion of rooting. An AzaC treatment may be useful in tissue culture for crops that are recalcitrant to root. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Adventitious bud formation from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartrijk, van J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the interactive effects are described of tissue, medium, and other environmental factors on the process of adventitious bud formation in vitro from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. Besides, results are presented of experiments

  1. Clomipramine ameliorates adventitious movements and compulsions in prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasic, J R; Barnett, J Y; Kaplan, D; Sheitman, B B; Aisemberg, P; Lafargue, R T; Kowalik, S; Clark, A; Tsaltas, M O; Young, J G

    1994-07-01

    In an open, nonblind clinical trial, clomipramine reduced adventitious movements and compulsions in five previously medicated prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation. Poorly adapted rating scales, interrater variability, subject heterogeneity, different treatment histories, and environmental stresses confounded the assessment of treatment effects.

  2. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  3. Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsky, L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R

    2001-01-01

    This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be usef...

  4. The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia-Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs, and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we used Wnt1-Cre to conditionally inactivate the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of activation signals from all Notch receptors, in NCCs and their derived cells. Deletion of Rbpj caused the up-regulation of NeuroD1 and precocious neurogenesis in DRG early development but led to an eventual deficit of sensory neurons at later stages, due to reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell death. In addition, gliogenesis was delayed initially, but a near-complete loss of glia was observed finally in Rbpj-deficient DRG. Furthermore, we found P75 and Sox10, which are normally expressed exclusively in neuronal and glial progenitors of the DRG after the NCCs have completed their migration, were co-expressed in many cells of the DRG of Rbpj conditional knock-out mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that Rbpj-mediated canonical Notch signaling inhibits DRG neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulating NeuroD1 expression, and is required for DRG gliogenesis in vivo.

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J

    2012-09-01

    In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.

  6. Nuclear techniques for determining biomass production, evaporation and transpiration, root development and nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.; Kuehn, W.; Kaul, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    From the Institute of Radiation Botany, Hanover, some nuclear methods are presented which could be of assistance to the plant breeders in selecting for positive plant characters. Several methods have been developed for the continuous determination of biomass by means of gamma-absorption measurements in single plants as well as in experimental field plots. The response of plant growth to environmental conditions such as fertilization, irrigation, and day length, dependent on genetic parameters can easily be followed by these techniques. Primarily for the investigation of water vapour movement in soils and between soil and atmosphere under conditions of temperature inversions, a technique has been worked out using 3 H-labelled water and water vapour. The inclusion of plants in this system will allow the determination of water balance under varying environmental conditions. An autoradiographic method has been applied using 86 Rb as trace element mainly for the measurement of root distribution of trees (apple, coffee). Finally, a sequence of analytical steps are described that have been developed and used in Hanover for the selection for protein amount and quality in crop plants. Though not all of these steps include nuclear methods, the application of tracer techniques in this and other screening sequences is an invaluable help for breeders and analysts. (author)

  7. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  8. Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development: Path to Managing Rural Grass-roots Party Organization from the Perspective of Impetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianzhe

    2018-02-01

    Impetus is the most fundamental guarantee for the survival and progress of organization. The rural grass-roots party organization should serve as a battle fortress of party helping realize the purpose of party in the village. Therefore, to strengthen the management of rural party branches, it is imperative to optimize their impetus, stepping on the basic paths: developing and utilizing material force, and digging and stimulating spiritual force for rural grass-roots party organization construction; adhering to the dialectical view on impetus to highlight both material and spiritual motivations.

  9. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration and acclimatisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different potting media were assessed during plantlet acclimatization. The highest percentage of plant survival (83.33%) was on the medium that contained sand and soil (1:1), while maximum root length (4.37 cm) and plant height (7.87 cm) were attained in potting medium that consisted peat moss, perlite and vermiculite ...

  10. Polymorphisms in the AOX2 gene are associated with the rooting ability of olive cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Vahideh; Mousavi, Amir; Razavi, Khadijeh; Cultrera, Nicolò; Alagna, Fiammetta; Mariotti, Roberto; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    Different rooting ability candidate genes were tested on an olive cross progeny. Our results demonstrated that only the AOX2 gene was strongly induced. OeAOX2 was fully characterised and correlated to phenotypical traits. The formation of adventitious roots is a key step in the vegetative propagation of trees crop species, and this ability is under strict genetic control. While numerous studies have been carried out to identify genes controlling adventitious root formation, only a few loci have been characterised. In this work, candidate genes that were putatively involved in rooting ability were identified in olive (Olea europaea L.) by similarity with orthologs identified in other plant species. The mRNA levels of these genes were analysed by real-time PCR during root induction in high- (HR) and low-rooting (LR) individuals. Interestingly, alternative oxidase 2 (AOX2), which was previously reported to be a functional marker for rooting in olive cuttings, showed a strong induction in HR individuals. From the OeAOX2 full-length gene, alleles and effective polymorphisms were distinguished and analysed in the cross progeny, which were segregated based on rooting. The results revealed a possible correlation between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of OeAOX2 gene and rooting ability.

  11. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-03

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry.

  12. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. PMID:29301339

  13. Root-lesion nematodes suppress cabbage aphid population development by reducing aphid daily reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Gera eHol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown that belowground feeding herbivores can affect the performance of aboveground herbivores in different ways. Often the critical life-history parameters underlying the observed performance effects remain unexplored. In order to better understand the cause for the observed effects on aboveground herbivores, these ecological mechanisms must be better understood. In this study we combined empirical experiments with a modelling approach to analyse the effect of two root feeding endoparasitic nematodes with different feeding strategies on the population growth of the aboveground feeding specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae on Brassica nigra. The aim was to test whether emerging differences in life history characteristics (days until reproduction, daily reproduction would be sufficient to explain observed differences in aphid population development on plants with and without two species of nematodes. Aphid numbers were lower on plants with Pratylenchus penetrans in comparison to aphid numbers on plants with Meloidogyne spp. A dedicated experiment showed that aphid daily reproduction was lower on plants with P. penetrans (3.08 offspring per female per day in comparison to both uninfested plants and plants with Meloidogyne spp. (3.50 offspring per female per day. The species-specific reduction of aphid reproduction appeared independent of changes in amino acids, soluble sugars or the glucosinolate sinigrin in the phloem. An individual-based model revealed that relatively small differences in reproduction rate per female were sufficient to yield a similar difference in aphid populations as was found in the empirical experiments.

  14. Nitrate Controls Root Development through Posttranscriptional Regulation of the NRT1.1/NPF6.3 Transporter/Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguyon, Eléonore; Perrine-Walker, Francine; Pervent, Marjorie; Rochette, Juliette; Cuesta, Candela; Benkova, Eva; Martinière, Alexandre; Bach, Lien; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Nacry, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Plants are able to modulate root growth and development to optimize their nitrogen nutrition. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the adaptive root response to nitrate (NO 3 - ) depends on the NRT1.1/NPF6.3 transporter/sensor. NRT1.1 represses emergence of lateral root primordia (LRPs) at low concentration or absence of NO 3 - through its auxin transport activity that lowers auxin accumulation in LR. However, these functional data strongly contrast with the known transcriptional regulation of NRT1.1, which is markedly repressed in LRPs in the absence of NO 3 - To explain this discrepancy, we investigated in detail the spatiotemporal expression pattern of the NRT1.1 protein during LRP development and combined local transcript analysis with the use of transgenic lines expressing tagged NRT1.1 proteins. Our results show that although NO 3 - stimulates NRT1.1 transcription and probably mRNA stability both in primary root tissues and in LRPs, it acts differentially on protein accumulation, depending on the tissues considered with stimulation in cortex and epidermis of the primary root and a strong repression in LRPs and to a lower extent at the primary root tip. This demonstrates that NRT1.1 is strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level by tissue-specific mechanisms. These mechanisms are crucial for controlling the large palette of adaptive responses to NO 3 - mediated by NRT1.1 as they ensure that the protein is present in the proper tissue under the specific conditions where it plays a signaling role in this particular tissue. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots during Development of the Prepenetration Apparatus1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Valeria; Genre, Andrea; Balestrini, Raffaella; Cappellazzo, Gilda; deWit, Pierre J.G.M.; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Information on changes in the plant transcriptome during early interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is still limited since infections are usually not synchronized and plant markers for early stages of colonization are not yet available. A prepenetration apparatus (PPA), organized in epidermal cells during appressorium development, has been reported to be responsible for assembling a trans-cellular tunnel to accommodate the invading fungus. Here, we used PPAs as markers for cell responsiveness to fungal contact to investigate gene expression at this early stage of infection with minimal transcript dilution. PPAs were identified by confocal microscopy in transformed roots of Medicago truncatula expressing green fluorescent protein-HDEL, colonized by the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita. A PPA-targeted suppressive-subtractive cDNA library was built, the cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, and, consequently, 107 putative interaction-specific genes were identified. The expression of a subset of 15 genes, selected by reverse northern dot blot screening, and five additional genes, potentially involved in PPA formation, was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and compared with an infection stage, 48 h after the onset of the PPA. Comparison of the expression profile of G. margarita-inoculated wild type and the mycorrhiza-defective dmi3-1 mutant of M. truncatula revealed that an expansin-like gene, expressed in wild-type epidermis during PPA development, can be regarded as an early host marker for successful mycorrhization. A putative Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly elicited gene, found to be up-regulated in the mutant, suggests novel regulatory roles for the DMI3 protein in the early mycorrhization process. PMID:17468219

  16. Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low-Phe food formulations containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Margaret A; Law, Jessica R; Lücker, Joost; Scaman, Christine H; Kermode, Allison R

    2016-01-15

    Seedling roots of anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement containing corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars as well as to develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam-like spread) to which roots had been added. Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using ten trained judges. Roots of Japanese Striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than those of white and yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree-of-liking) assessments for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the nine-point scale for all hedonic assessments compared with the other treated products. By evaluating low-Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root-containing low-Phe cereal bar was an acceptable 'natural' dietary supplement for PKU-affected individuals. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Arabidopsis mutants lacking asparaginases develop normally but exhibit enhanced root inhibition by exogenous asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ana; Kameka, Alexander; Pajak, Agnieszka; Bruneau, Luanne; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    Asparaginase catalyzes the degradation of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, and is implicated in the catabolism of transported asparagine in sink tissues of higher plants. The Arabidopsis genome includes two genes, ASPGA1 and ASPGB1, belonging to distinct asparaginase subfamilies. Conditions of severe nitrogen limitation resulted in a slight decrease in seed size in wild-type Arabidopsis. However, this response was not observed in a homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant where ASPG genes had been inactivated. Under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, the ASPG mutant had elevated levels of free asparagine in mature seed. This phenotype was observed exclusively under conditions of low illumination, when a low ratio of carbon to nitrogen was translocated to the seed. Mutants deficient in one or both asparaginases were more sensitive than wild-type to inhibition of primary root elongation and root hair emergence by L-asparagine as a single nitrogen source. This enhanced inhibition was associated with increased accumulation of asparagine in the root of the double aspga1-1/-b1-1 mutant. This indicates that inhibition of root growth is likely elicited by asparagine itself or an asparagine-derived metabolite, other than the products of asparaginase, aspartic acid or ammonia. During germination, a fusion between the ASPGA1 promoter and beta-glucuronidase was expressed in endosperm cells starting at the micropylar end. Expression was initially high throughout the root and hypocotyl, but became restricted to the root tip after three days, which may indicate a transition to nitrogen-heterotrophic growth.

  18. Significance of in vitro adventitious bud techniques for mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1982-01-01

    It was investigated whether in vitro propagation techniques are of significance for the production of solid, non-chimeric mutants in mutation breeding programmes of vegetatively propagated crops. Irradiated explants of chrysanthemum, potato, begonia and carnation were used for the production of (adventitious) shoots and plantlets to determine the number and frequency of solid mutants and chimeras respectively. It was demonstrated that by the methods described high numbers of solid, non-chimeric mutants can be obtained and that the percentage of chimeras is comparable to the low figures reported after use of in vivo adventitious bud techniques. Consequently, the micro-propagation techniques seem very promising for the commercial plant breeder of vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  19. Results of Survey Regarding Prevalence of Adventitial Infections in Mice and Rats at Biomedical Research Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, James O; Gaertner, Diane J; Smith, Abigail L

    2017-09-01

    Control of rodent adventitial infections in biomedical research facilities is of extreme importance in assuring both animal welfare and high-quality research results. Sixty-three U.S. institutions participated in a survey reporting the methods used to detect and control these infections and the prevalence of outbreaks from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. These results were then compared with the results of 2 similar surveys published in 1998 and 2008. The results of the current survey demonstrated that the rate of viral outbreaks in mouse colonies was decreasing, particularly in barrier facilities, whereas the prevalence of parasitic outbreaks has remained constant. These results will help our profession focus its efforts in the control of adventitial rodent disease outbreaks to the areas of the greatest needs.

  20. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  1. Development of root-carving industry leads to ecological and environmental degradation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Xi, W.; Anten, N.P.R.; Bi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Root-carving artwork is among the most highly appreciated traditional forms of art in China because of its ornamental and collection value. However, this ancient and highly appreciated art form is in fact currently a major cause of environmental damage. We argue that the state and local forestry

  2. Development of frost tolerance in winter wheat as modulated by differential root and shoot temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R

    Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees

  3. Homeobox gene expression in adult dorsal root ganglia: Is regeneration a recapitulation of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Neurons of the peripheral nervous system are able to regenerate their peripheral axons after injury, leading to complete recovery of sensory and motor function. The sciatic nerve crush model is frequently used to study peripheral nerve regeneration. Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)

  4. Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide. This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm² of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

  5. The Deep Roots of the Fairness Committee in Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Earlier essays in this symposium describe Restorative Justice processes in schools, referred to in our school as a Fairness Committee. Implementing these collaborative, restorative processes does not come without challenges. This essay will explore some of the historical and theoretical roots of the Fairness Committee in Lawrence Kohlberg's work…

  6. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  7. A heterogeneous boron distribution in soil influences the poplar root system architecture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R.; Robinson, B. H.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Poplars are well suited for the phytomanagement of boron (B)-contaminated sites, due to their high transpiration rate and tolerance to elevated soil B concentrations. However, the uptake and the fate of B in poplar stands are not well understood. This information is crucial to improve the design of phytomanagement systems, where the primary role of poplars is to reduce B leaching by reducing the water flux through the contaminated material. Like other trace elements, B occurs heterogeneously in soils. Concentrations can differ up to an order of magnitude within centimetres. These gradients affect plant root growth and thus via preferential flow along the roots water and mass transport in soils to ground and surface waters. Generally there are three possible reactions of plant roots to patches with elevated trace element concentrations in soils: indifference, avoidance, or foraging. While avoidance or indifference might seem to be the most obvious strategies, foraging cannot be excluded a priori, because of the high demand of poplars for B compared to other tree species. We aimed to determine the rooting strategies of poplars in soils where B is either homo- or heterogeneously distributed. We planted 5 cm cuttings of Populus tremula var. Birmensdorf clones in aluminum (Al) containers with internal dimensions of 64 x 67 x 1.2 cm. The soil used was subsoil from northern Switzerland with a naturally low B and organic C concentration. We setup two treatments and a control with three replicates each. We spiked a bigger and a smaller portion of the soil with the same amount of B(OH)3-salt, in order to obtain soil concentrations of 7.5 mg B kg-1 and 20 mg B kg-1. We filled the containers with (a) un-spiked soil, (b) the 7.5 mg B kg-1 soil and (c) heterogeneously. The heterogeneous treatment consisted of one third 20 mg B kg-1 soil and two thirds control soil. We grew the poplars in a small greenhouse over 2 months and from then on in a climate chamber for another 3 months

  8. Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  10. Effect of the culture filtrate of Pseudocercospora fijiensis Morelet on adventitious buds of Musa spp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes R. García

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of bananas tolerant or resistant to the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet is an imperious need since 1991 with its apparition in our country. The effect of the culture filtrate was studied on different strain of the fungus on adventitious buds of the cultivar Grande Naine (AAA (susceptible and Pellipita (ABB (resistant with the objective of determining possible differences between these cultivars the most effective strain and the optimum dilution. Adventitious buds of these cultivars formed in a cultivation medium with high concentrations of 6 BAP were utilized and then they were subcultivated on the selective medium that contained different dilutions of culture filtrate of the strains C-27, C-21, and C-19. It was evaluated at 15 and 30 days the fresh weight increment of the explants and the percentage of growth and mortality, being found differences between the susceptible cultivar and the resistant one with the most concentrated dilutions. The best results of differentiation were obtained with the dilution 1:5 The strains studied showed different effects on the explants. Significant differences were founded when C-21 and C-19 were used, not been so with the C-27. Growth stimulation was observed in both cultivars in the control treatment that contained the components of the fungus culture medium, discarding so any type of toxicity of these substances on the adventitious buds that could disguise the results. key words: Black Sigatoka, in vitro selection, Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, strains, tissue culture

  11. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on adventitious plantlet formation of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) detached leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunee Wongpiyasatid; Peeranuch Jompuk; Katarat Chusreeaeom; Thanya Taychasinpitak

    2007-01-01

    Formation of adventitious plantlets on unrootedly detached leaves of two African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) cultivars, pink and violet flowers, chronically gamma-irradiated in gamma room at The Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Research Center, Kasetsart University was compared. Detached leaves were immediately planted after detachment in plastic trays containing peat moss, 18 leaves per treatment with 3 replications. Three dose rates (rad/h) with 3 doses (rad)/dose rate, were applied to the irradiated samples while the controls were placed outside the gamma room. Three months after irradiation, the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf were recorded. After that, the young plantlets were transferred to the new pots for further observation on plant growth and mutation characters. The results revealed that the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf varied slightly with radiation doses but were not significantly different at different dose rates. Radiosensitivity was noticed to be higher in pink flower cultivar than the violet one. M 1 V 1 plantlets will be followed up for growth and mutation character observations

  12. Responses of root physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato to humic acid urea fertilizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Chen

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA, not only promote the growth of crop roots, they can be combined with nitrogen (N to increase fertilizer use efficiency and yield. However, the effects of HA urea fertilizer (HA-N on root growth and yield of sweet potato has not been widely investigated. Xushu 28 was used as the experimental crop to investigate the effects of HA-N on root morphology, active oxygen metabolism and yield under field conditions. Results showed that nitrogen application alone was not beneficial for root growth and storage root formation during the early growth stage. HA-N significantly increased the dry weight of the root system, promoted differentiation from adventitious root to storage root, and increased the overall root activity, total root length, root diameter, root surface area, as well as root volume. HA-N thus increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and Catalase (CAT as well as increasing the soluble protein content of roots and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA content. HA-N significantly increased both the number of storage roots per plant increased by 14.01%, and the average fresh weight per storage root increased by 13.7%, while the yield was also obviously increased by 29.56%. In this study, HA-N increased yield through a synergistic increase of biological yield and harvest index.

  13. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  14. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Regulation of rice root development by a retrotransposon acting as a microRNA sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jungnam; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2017-08-26

    It is well documented that transposable elements (TEs) can regulate the expression of neighbouring genes. However, their ability to act in trans and influence ectopic loci has been reported rarely. We searched in rice transcriptomes for tissue-specific expression of TEs and found them to be regulated developmentally. They often shared sequence homology with co-expressed genes and contained potential microRNA-binding sites, which suggested possible contributions to gene regulation. In fact, we have identified a retrotransposon that is highly transcribed in roots and whose spliced transcript constitutes a target mimic for miR171. miR171 destabilizes mRNAs encoding the root-specific family of SCARECROW-Like transcription factors. We demonstrate that retrotransposon-derived transcripts act as decoys for miR171, triggering its degradation and thus results in the root-specific accumulation of SCARECROW-Like mRNAs. Such transposon-mediated post-transcriptional control of miR171 levels is conserved in diverse rice species.

  16. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  17. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  18. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  19. RNA-Seq analysis identifies key genes associated with haustorial development in the root hemiparasite Santalum album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santalum album (sandalwood is one of the economically important plant species in the Santalaceae for its production of highly valued perfume oils. Sandalwood is also a hemiparasitic tree that obtains some of its water and simple nutrients by tapping into other plants through haustoria which are highly specialized organs in parasitic angiosperms. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in haustorium development is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and metabolic pathways associated with the development of the S. album haustorium. A total of 56,011 non-redundant contigs with a mean contig size of 618 bp were obtained by de novo assembly of the transcriptome of haustoria and non-haustorial seedling roots. A substantial number of the identified differentially expressed genes were involved in cell wall metabolism and protein metabolism, as well as mitochondrial electron transport functions. Phytohormone-mediated regulation might play an important role during haustorial development. Especially, auxin signaling is likely to be essential for haustorial initiation, and genes related to cytokinin and gibberellin biosynthesis and metabolism are involved in haustorial development. Our results suggest that genes encoding nodulin-like proteins may be important for haustorial morphogenesis in S. album. The obtained sequence data will become a rich resource for future research in this interesting species. This information improves our understanding of haustorium development in root hemiparasitic species and will allow further exploration of the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism.

  20. Characterisation of the oxygen fluxes in the division, elongation and mature zones of Vitis roots: influence of oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano; Boselli, Maurizio

    2002-03-01

    Oxygen fluxes into and from root cells of Vitis rupestris (flooding sensitive), V. riparia (flooding tolerant) and V. vinifera (medium tolerance to flooding) were measured under different levels of O2 availability using a recently developed polarographic O2-selective, vibrating-microelectrode system. The system enables fluxes to be measured with a spatial resolution of 2-3 microm and a temporal resolution of 10 s. No difference in root porosity was found among the genotypes when grown for 30 days in an aerated solution. Under normoxic conditions, O2 influx was characterised by two distinct peaks, one in the division zone and the other in the elongation zone of the roots. This pattern was found in all three species studied, although the fluxes showed a different magnitude. The peak in the elongation zone coincided with maximum relative elemental growth rates. When the energetics of the cell was disturbed by cyanide, both growth and oxygen O2 influxes ceased at the same time. Under hypoxic conditions, V. riparia plants showed a precise strategy directed toward the maintenance of enough O2 for the respiratory needs of mitosis in the apical meristem of the roots. Thus, whereas in the division zone of V. rupestris and V. vinifera, at bulk O2 concentrations of 0.094 mol x m(-3), the O2 influx was reduced by 70.5 and 38.5%, respectively, for V. riparia no variation in the O2 influx was detected down to bulk O2 concentrations of 0.078 mol x m(-3). Moreover, in accordance with the different tolerances of the plants, the Vitis genotypes were found to differ in their radial O2 loss from the adventitious roots when in an O2-free environment. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of response to anoxia in Vitis species with different tolerances to flooding.

  1. Development of a multiplex Q-PCR to detect Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T22 in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivo R; van Rijn, Menno; Zwetsloot, Tom J J; Basmagi, Said; Dirks-Mulder, Anita; van Leeuwen, Willem B; Ravensberg, Willem J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fungal species Trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. To verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with T. harzianum strain T22, a Q-PCR was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. To develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of T. harzianum could be distinguished. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing of the L-aminoacid oxidase gene (aox1) in T. harzianum was applied to determine the mutations differing between various strains isolated from the Trichoderma collection of Koppert Biological Systems. Based on the sequence information obtained, a set of hydrolysis probes was subsequently developed which discriminated T. harzianum T22 strains varying in only a single nucleotide. Probes designed for two strains uniquely recognized the respective strains in Q-PCR with a detection limit of 12,5ng DNA. Titration assays in which T. harzianum DNA from distinct strains was varied further underscored the specificity of the probes. Lastly, fungal DNA extracted from roots of greenhouse cultured tomato plants was analyzed using the probe-based assay. DNA from T. harzianum strain T22 could readily be identified on roots of greenhouse reared tomato plants inoculated with varying concentrations up to one week after treatment with a detection limit of 3e6 colony forming units of T. harzianum T22. We conclude that the Q-PCR method is a reliable and robust method for assessing the presence and quantity of T. harzianum strain T22 in manually inoculated plant material. Our method provides scope for the development of DNA based strain specific identification of additional strains of Trichoderma and other fungal biological control agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative analysis of coronary adventitial T-lymphocytes - an autopsy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Mubarik, A.; Jamal, S.; Naz, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent clinical and histopathologic data suggests that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery plaque instability and subsequent occlusive thrombosis. The intima has received much attention as a site of inflammation, while the adventitia has remained relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of inflammatory activity in the cap and shoulder region of un ruptured, atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and to correlate these findings with distribution of inflammatory cells in adventitia. Methods: The study was carried out in Histopathology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from August 2008 to July 2009. Sixty-seven autopsy cases performed at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan were selected. The cases were divided into study group and control group. Case group (n=35) included those where cause of death was ischemic heart disease. Those coronary arteries were taken as control (n=32) where atherosclerotic changes were found by chance (death without history of ischemic heart disease). Plaques in each group were assessed by light microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Results: The ages of the deceased ranged from 38 to 49 years. Within study group, adventitial lymphocytes exhibited strong correlation with erosion, thrombus formation in culprit plaque (p=0.001). No correlation was found between adventitial T-lymphocytes and erosion of plaque (p=0.700) in control group. In 72% of culprit plaques moderate staining for T-lymphocytes was observed in adventitia as well as intima. In control group, most of the cases contained scattered cells. Few cases of stable plaques revealed lymphocytes as clusters, both in adventitia and in intima. Conclusion: Adventitial inflammation may play a pivotal role for atherosclerotic lesion histology and atheroma instability. With the help of these autopsy findings, we hope to be able to reduce the

  3. Development and degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the absence of the HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Miehe, Michaela; Stolt, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    neurogenesis seemed initially normal. A degeneration of motoneurons and sensory neurons occurred later in development. The mechanism that leads to the dramatic effects on the neural crest derived cell lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), however, has not been examined up to now. Here, we provide...... a detailed analysis of proliferation and apoptosis in the DRG during the time of their generation and lineage segregation (between E 9.5 and E 11.5). We show that both increased apoptosis as well as decreased proliferation of neural crest cells contribute to the observed hypomorphism....

  4. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  5. Development of mouse dorsal root ganglia: an autoradiographic and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, S.N.; Biscoe, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine was used to determine the cell birthdays of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in foetal mice. The peak number of cell birthdays occurred at 11.5 days foetal age in cervical DRGs, and at 12.5 days in lumbar DRGs. The satellite cells were becoming heavily labelled by day 13.5 in lumbar and some hours earlier in cervical regions. A very sharp peak of satellite cell labelling was seen at 13 days in the lumbar region. Evidence for the existence of more than one neuronal cell type is presented. The earliest cells to stop dividing were part of a widely spread distribution which included all the large neurons. The birthdays of the population of small neurons began later and continued for at least 48 h after division of the large cells had ceased. (author)

  6. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers.

  7. The life of phi: the development of phi thickenings in roots of the orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nurul A; Collings, David A

    2015-02-01

    Phi thickenings, bands of secondary wall thickenings that reinforce the primary wall of root cortical cells in a wide range of species, are described for the first time in the epiphytic orchid Miltoniopsis. As with phi thickenings found in other plants, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis contain highly aligned cellulose running along the lengths of the thickenings, and are lignified but not suberized. Using a combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques, thickening development can be categorized into three different stages. Microtubules align lengthwise along the thickening during early and intermediate stages of development, and callose is deposited within the thickening in a pattern similar to the microtubules. These developing thickenings also label with the fluorescently tagged lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). These associations with microtubules and callose, and the WGA labeling, all disappear when the phi thickenings are mature. This pattern of callose and WGA deposition show changes in the thickened cell wall composition and may shed light on the function of phi thickenings in plant roots, a role for which has yet to be established.

  8. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  9. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  10. Development and evaluation of two root caries controlling programmes for home-based frail people older than 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    (i) Initially, to devise and examine the validity of a system for determining lesion activity on root surfaces, and (ii) compare the effectiveness of two preventive programmes in controlling root caries in elderly people using the devised system....

  11. Analysis of Factors Controlling Cell Cycle that Can Be Synchronized Nondestructively During Root Cap Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawes, Martha

    2011-02-04

    Publications and presentations during the final funding period, including progress in defining the substrate specificity, the primary goal of the project, are listed below. Both short-term and long-term responses mediated by PsUGT1 have been characterized in transgenic or mutant pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis with altered expression of PsUGT1. Additional progress includes evaluation of the relationship between control of the cell cycle by PsUGT1 and other glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes that are co-regulated in the legume root cap during the onset of mitosis and differentiation. Transcriptional profiling and multidimensional protein identification technology ('MudPIT') have been used to establish the broader molecular context for the mechanism by which PsUGT1 controls cell cycle in response to environmental signals. A collaborative study with the Norwegian Forest Research Institute (who provided $10,000.00 in supplies and travel funds for collaborator Dr. Toril Eldhuset to travel to Arizona and Dr. H. H. Woo to travel to Norway) made it possible to establish that the inducible root cap system for studying carbohydrate synthesis and solubilization is expressed in gymnosperm as well as angiosperm species. This discovery provides an important tool to amplify the potential applications of the research in defining conserved cell cycle machinery across a very broad range of plant species and habitats. The final work, published during 2009, revealed an additional surprising parallel with mammalian immune responses: The cells whose production is controlled by PsUGT1 appear to function in a manner which is analogous to that of white blood cells, by trapping and killing in an extracellular manner. This may explain why mutation within the coding region of PsUGT1 and its homolog in humans (UGT1) is lethal to plants and animals. The work has been the subject of invited reviews. A postdoctoral fellow, eight undergraduate students, four M.S. students and

  12. The effects of exogenous hormones on rooting process and the activities of key enzymes of Malus hupehensis stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxiang; Fan, Junjun; Tan, Qianqian; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Ting; Cao, Fuliang

    2017-01-01

    Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3). The suitable concentrations of the three exogenous hormones, IAA, NAA and GGR, were 100 mg·L-1, 300 mg·L-1, and 300 mg·L-1, respectively. They shortened the rooting time by 25-47.4% and increased the rooting percentages of cuttings by 0.9-1.3 times, compared with that in the control. The dispersion in S0 stage was 3.6 times of that in the S1 stage after exogenous hormone application. The earlier the third critical point (P3) appeared, the shorter the rooting time and the greater the rooting percentage of the cuttings. During rhizogenesis, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, and PPO) showed an A-shaped trend. However, peak values of enzyme activity appeared at different points, which were 9 d before the P3, P3, and the fourth critical point (P4), respectively. Exogenous hormone treatment reduced the time to reach the peak value by 18 days, although the peak values of the enzymatic activities did not significantly changed. Our results suggested that exogenous hormone treatment mainly acted during the root pre-emergence stage, accelerated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, reduced the rooting time, and consequently promoted root formation. The three kinds of antioxidant enzymes acted on different stages of rooting.

  13. Effect of inoculum density and soil tillage on the development and severity of rhizoctonia root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

    2008-03-01

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause substantial yield losses in direct-seeded cereal crops compared with conventional tillage. To investigate the mechanisms behind this increased disease, soils from tilled or direct-seeded fields were inoculated with Rhizoctonia spp. at population densities from 0.8 to 250 propagules per gram and planted with barley (Hordeum vulgare). The incidence and severity of disease did not differ between soils with different tillage histories. Both R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae stunted plants at high inoculum densities, with the latter causing pre-emergence damping-off. High inoculum densities of both species stimulated early production of crown roots in barley seedlings. Intact soil cores from these same tilled and direct-seeded fields were used to evaluate the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from colonized oat seeds. Growth of R. oryzae was not affected by previous tillage history. However, R. solani AG-8 grew more rapidly through soil from a long-term direct-seeded field compared to tilled soils. The differential response between these two experiments (mixed, homogenized soil versus intact soil) suggests that soil structure plays a major role in the proliferation of R. solani AG-8 through soils with different tillage histories.

  14. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  15. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  16. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  17. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  18. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  19. Consequences of a deficit in vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo for hormone homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Dominguez, Ana; Rolcik, Jakub; Boller, Thomas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B(6) (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) is an essential cofactor of many metabolic enzymes. Plants biosynthesize the vitamin de novo employing two enzymes, pyridoxine synthase1 (PDX1) and PDX2. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), there are two catalytically active paralogs of PDX1 (PDX1.1 and PDX1.3) producing the vitamin at comparable rates. Since single mutants are viable but the pdx1.1 pdx1.3 double mutant is lethal, the corresponding enzymes seem redundant. However, the single mutants exhibit substantial phenotypic differences, particularly at the level of root development, with pdx1.3 being more impaired than pdx1.1. Here, we investigate the differential regulation of PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 by identifying factors involved in their disparate phenotypes. Swapped-promoter experiments clarify the presence of distinct regulatory elements in the upstream regions of both genes. Exogenous sucrose (Suc) triggers impaired ethylene production in both mutants but is more severe in pdx1.3 than in pdx1.1. Interestingly, Suc specifically represses PDX1.1 expression, accounting for the stronger vitamin B6 deficit in pdx1.3 compared with pdx1.1. Surprisingly, Suc enhances auxin levels in pdx1.1, whereas the levels are diminished in pdx1.3. In the case of pdx1.3, the previously reported reduced meristem activity combined with the impaired ethylene and auxin levels manifest the specific root developmental defects. Moreover, it is the deficit in ethylene production and/or signaling that triggers this outcome. On the other hand, we hypothesize that it is the increased auxin content of pdx1.1 that is responsible for the root developmental defects observed therein. We conclude that PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 play partially nonredundant roles and are differentially regulated as manifested in disparate root growth impairment morphologies. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A radiographic study of the mandibular third molar root development in different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversidge, H M; Peariasamy, K; Folayan, M O; Adeniyi, A O; Ngom, P I; Mikami, Y; Shimada, Y; Kuroe, K; Tvete, I F; Kvaal, S I

    2017-12-01

    The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years. The left M3 was staged into Moorrees stages. A probit model was fitted to calculate mean ages for transitions between stages for males and females and each ethnic group separately. The estimated age distributions given each M3 stage was calculated. To assess differences in timing of M3 between ethnic groups, three models were proposed: a separate model for each ethnic group, a joint model and a third model combining some aspects across groups. The best model fit was tested using Bayesian and Akaikes information criteria (BIC and AIC) and log likelihood ratio test. Differences in mean ages of M3 root stages were found between ethnic groups, however all groups showed large standard deviation values. The AIC and log likelihood ratio test indicated that a separate model for each ethnic group was best. Small differences were also noted between timing of M3 between males and females, with the exception of the Malaysian group. These findings suggests that features of a reference data set (wide age range and uniform age distribution) and a Bayesian statistical approach are more important than population specific convenience samples to estimate age of an individual using M3. Some group differences were evident in M3 timing, however, this has some impact on the confidence interval of estimated age in females and little impact in males because of the large variation in age.

  1. Negative Phototropism of Chlorophytum comosum Roots and Their Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Juan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Chlorophytum comosum were grown hydroponically, allowing us to study the performance and mechanism of negative phototropism. The results of this study were as follows. All the adventitious roots and their branch roots bent away from light with a maximum curvature of approximately 88.5°. Blue-violet light prominently induced negative phototropism while red light had no effect. The root cap was the site of photo perception. Roots with shaded or divested root caps exposed to unilateral light showed no negative phototropism, but resumed their original characteristics when the shade was removed or when new root caps grew. The curvature increased when the light intensity ranged 0–110 μmol · m−2 · s−1. The negative phototropism curvature could be promoted by exogenous CaCl2 but was inhibited by exogenous LaCl3; exogenous CaCl2 could reduce the inhibitory effect of LaCl3. Unilateral light induced the horizontal transport of IAA from the irradiated side to the shaded side, resulting in an unequal distribution of IAA in both the sides, leading to negative phototropism. The horizontal transport of IAA was promoted by exogenous Ca2+ but inhibited by exogenous La3+.

  2. A quantitative risk assessment of exposure to adventitious agents in a cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2008-06-19

    A risk-assessment model has demonstrated the ability of a new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process to reduce the level of any adventitious agent to a million-fold below infectious levels. The cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine (OPTAFLU), Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) is produced using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to propagate seasonal viral strains, as an alternative to embryonated chicken-eggs. As only a limited range of mammalian viruses can grow in MDCK cells, similar to embryonated eggs, MDCK cells can act as an effective filter for a wide range of adventitious agents that might be introduced during vaccine production. However, the introduction of an alternative cell substrate (for example, MDCK cells) into a vaccine manufacturing process requires thorough investigations to assess the potential for adventitious agent risk in the final product, in the unlikely event that contamination should occur. The risk assessment takes into account the entire manufacturing process, from initial influenza virus isolation, through to blending of the trivalent subunit vaccine and worst-case residual titres for the final vaccine formulation have been calculated for >20 viruses or virus families. Maximum residual titres for all viruses tested were in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-16) infectious units per vaccine dose. Thus, the new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process can reduce any adventitious agent to a level that is unable to cause infection.

  3. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  4. Development of a 2D laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry mapping procedure for mercury in maize (Zea mays L.) root cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debeljak, Marta [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: elteren@ki.si [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LA-ICP-MS mapping to study the distribution of Hg in plant root cross-sections. •Sorption of LA-generated Hg vapour leads to serious memory effects. •Spot analysis with a delay time of 10 s in between spots alleviates memory effects. •Ablation straight through the sample simplifies calibration. •Hg{sup 2+} does not cross the endodermal root barrier of maize plants. -- Abstract: A LA-ICP-MS method based on a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been developed for mapping of mercury in root cross-sections of maize (Zea mays L.) to investigate the mechanism of mercury uptake from soil and its potential translocation to the edible parts. Conventional rastering was found to be unusable due to sorption of mercury onto the internal parts of the LA device, giving rising to memory effects resulting in serious loss of resolution and inaccurate quantification. Spot analysis on a virtual grid on the surface of the root sections using washout times of 10 s in between spots greatly alleviated problems related to these memory effects. By ablating straight through the root sections on a poly(methyl methacrylate) support the calibration process was simplified as internal standardization and matrix-matching could be circumvented. Mercury-spiked freeze-drying embedding medium, sectioned similarly to the root sections, was used for the preparation of the standards. Standards and root sections were subjected to spot analysis using the following operational parameters: beam diameter, 15 μm; laser fluence, 2.5 J cm{sup −2}; repetition rate, 20 Hz; dwell time, 1 s; acquisition time, 0.1 s. The mercury peaks for standards and roots sections could be consistently integrated for quantification and construction of the 2D mercury maps for the root sections. This approach was successfully used to investigate the mercury distribution in root sections of maize grown in soil spiked to a level of 50 mg kg{sup −1} DW HgCl{sub 2}. It was

  5. Development of a 2D laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry mapping procedure for mercury in maize (Zea mays L.) root cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeljak, Marta; Elteren, Johannes T. van; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LA-ICP-MS mapping to study the distribution of Hg in plant root cross-sections. •Sorption of LA-generated Hg vapour leads to serious memory effects. •Spot analysis with a delay time of 10 s in between spots alleviates memory effects. •Ablation straight through the sample simplifies calibration. •Hg 2+ does not cross the endodermal root barrier of maize plants. -- Abstract: A LA-ICP-MS method based on a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been developed for mapping of mercury in root cross-sections of maize (Zea mays L.) to investigate the mechanism of mercury uptake from soil and its potential translocation to the edible parts. Conventional rastering was found to be unusable due to sorption of mercury onto the internal parts of the LA device, giving rising to memory effects resulting in serious loss of resolution and inaccurate quantification. Spot analysis on a virtual grid on the surface of the root sections using washout times of 10 s in between spots greatly alleviated problems related to these memory effects. By ablating straight through the root sections on a poly(methyl methacrylate) support the calibration process was simplified as internal standardization and matrix-matching could be circumvented. Mercury-spiked freeze-drying embedding medium, sectioned similarly to the root sections, was used for the preparation of the standards. Standards and root sections were subjected to spot analysis using the following operational parameters: beam diameter, 15 μm; laser fluence, 2.5 J cm −2 ; repetition rate, 20 Hz; dwell time, 1 s; acquisition time, 0.1 s. The mercury peaks for standards and roots sections could be consistently integrated for quantification and construction of the 2D mercury maps for the root sections. This approach was successfully used to investigate the mercury distribution in root sections of maize grown in soil spiked to a level of 50 mg kg −1 DW HgCl 2 . It was found that at given

  6. Effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on proliferation and collagen synthesis of rat vascular adventitial fibroblasts induced by angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wendan; Yang, Dongxia; Sun, Xuhong; Liu, Wei; Wang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Man, Xuejing; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    1) examine the effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the proliferation, collagen and cytokine synthesis of vascular adventitial fibroblasts as induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in vitro, and 2) to assess the effects of HSYA on morphological changes and collagen accumulation of vascular adventitia in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. In vitro experiment, vascular adventitial fibroblasts from SD rats were isolated, cultured, and divided into control groups, model groups and HSYA groups. Cell morphology of adventitial fibroblasts was assessed using laser confocal microscopy, while cell proliferation with the MTT assay, and collagen synthesis was determined using hydroxyproline chromatometry. Immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription PCR were used for detecting the expression of TGF-β1, MMP-1, α-SMA and NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. In vivo experiment, vascular adventitia proliferation and collagen synthesis were analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius staining. Our results showed that: 1) in vitro experiment of SD rats, HSYA inhibited proliferative activity and collagen synthesis of adventitial fibroblasts as induced by Ang II, and the inhibitory effects of HSYA on the increased expression of MMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-κB p65 as induced by Ang II were assessed, and 2) in vivo experiment of SHR, histological analysis displayed fewer pathological changes of vascular adventitia in HSYA treatment groups as compared with no HSYA treatment groups, and MMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-κB p65 expression significantly reduced after HSYA treatment (P adventitia components. This study provides experimental evidence demonstrating that HSYA has the capacity to decrease vascular adventitia proliferation and hyperplasia during vascular remodeling.

  7. Political Instability: Its Effects on Financial Development, Its Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Political instability impedes financial development and is a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. Four conventional measures of national political instability — Alesina and Perotti’s (1996) well-known index of instability, a subsequent index derived from Banks’ (2005) work, and two indices of managerial perceptions of nation-by-nation political instability — persistently predict a wide range of national financial development outcomes for recent decades...

  8. Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    We here bring forward strong evidence that political instability impedes financial development, with its variation a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. As such, it needs to be added to the short list of major determinants of financial development. First, structural conditions first postulated by Engerman and Sokoloff (2002) as generating long-term inequality are shown here empirically to be exogenous determinants of political instability. Second, tha...

  9. Differences in structure of adventitious roots in Salix clones with contrasting characteristics of cadmium accumulation and sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, A.; Šottníková, A.; Opatrná, Jana; Greger, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2004), s. 537-545 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:Slovak Grant Agency(SK) 1/0100/03; Stockholm University(SE) COST Action 837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : PLANT-MATERIAL * TOLERANCE * BARRIERS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004

  10. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  11. Development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur-Ghai, J; Kaur, M; Goel, P

    2014-09-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are obligate, sedentary plant endoparasites that are extremely polyphagous in nature and cause severe economic losses in agriculture. Hence, it is essential to control the parasite at an early stage. For any control strategy to be effective, an early and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance. Immunoassays have the inherent advantages of sensitivity and specificity; have the potential to identify and quantify these plant-parasitic nematodes. Hence, in the present studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of M.incognita antigens. First an indirect ELISA was developed for detection and titration of anti-M.incognita antibodies. Results indicated as high as 320 K titre of the antisera. Finally competitive inhibition ELISA was developed employing these anti-M.incognita antibodies for detection of M.incognita antigens. Sensitivity of ELISA was 10 fg. Competitive inhibition ELISA developed in the present studies has the potential of being used as an easy, rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of M.incognita infection.

  12. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reid, D.E.; Heckmann, A.B.; Novák, Ondřej; Kelly, S.; Stougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 2 (2016), s. 1060-1074 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DEPENDENT PROTEIN-KINASE * NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY * SYMBIOTIC ORGAN DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  13. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    . The RUE was positively correlated with an estimated effective rooting depth across cultivars, while DM yield was not. This correlation probably was a result of restrictions on stomatal opening mediated by drought stress and abscisic acid produced in the root system in response to occasional soil drying...

  14. Macrophages activate iNOS signaling in adventitial fibroblasts and contribute to adventitia fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Li, Xiaodong; Sheng, Chengyu; Chen, Xiaohui; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Dingliang; Gao, Pingjin

    2016-12-30

    A large amount of NO is generated through the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway from the vascular adventitia in various vascular diseases. However, it is currently not fully understood how the iNOS signaling pathway is activated. In the present study, this question was addressed in the context of adventitial cellular interactions. A rat model of acute hypertension in the contralateral carotid arteries was established through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery. In this model, activated macrophages were found surrounded by a large quantity of iNOS-expressing adventitial fibroblasts (AFs), suggesting a possible causal relationship between macrophages and iNOS activation of the neighboring AFs. In an in vitro model, a macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 was first activated by LPS treatment. The supernatant was then harvested and applied to treat primary rat AFs. iNOS in AFs was activated robustly by the supernatant treatment but not by LPS itself. Treating AFs with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) also activated iNOS signaling, suggesting that the IL-1β pathway might be a possible mediator. As a consequence of the iNOS activation, total protein nitration and S-nitrosylation significantly increased in those AFs. Additionally, increased deposition of type I and type III collagens was observed in both in vitro and in vivo models. The collagen deposition was partially restored by an iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. These findings highlight the importance of iNOS signaling during vascular inflammation, and advance our understanding of its activation through a cellular interaction perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adventitial fibroblasts induce a distinct proinflammatory/profibrotic macrophage phenotype in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Pugliese, Steven C; Riddle, Suzette R; Poth, Jens M; Anderson, Aimee L; Frid, Maria G; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A; Fini, Mehdi A; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M; Friedman, Jacob E; Eltzschig, Holger K; Sokol, Ronald J; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2014-07-15

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but is also a critical component of pulmonary artery remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Using multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, and primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive pulmonary arteries (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL-6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation, complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, and deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast-driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH, and uncover a cross-talk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL-6-activated STAT3, HIF1α, and C/EBPβ signaling are critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL-6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ or HIF1α or by partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL-6 and absent IL-4/IL-13 signaling. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists

  16. Adventitial Fibroblasts induce a distinct Pro-inflammatory/Pro-fibrotic Macrophage Phenotype in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C.; Pugliese, Steven C.; Riddle, Suzette R.; Poth, Jens M.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Frid, Maria G.; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S.; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but also a critical component of pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Utilizing multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, as well as primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive Pas (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL4/IL13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation while complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, while deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL4/IL13-STAT6 mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH and uncover a crosstalk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL6 activated STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling is critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ, HIF1a or partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL6 and absent IL4/IL13 signaling. PMID:24928992

  17. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona–fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. - Highlights: • RhoGDI2 is identified as a potential filamin A (FLNA)-binding partner. • Phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) interacts with FLNA. • RhoGDI2 phosphorylated (Tyr153) by src kinase does not interact with FLNA. • Mutation of Tyr-153 to Glu of RhoGDI2 does not mimic phosphorylation. • RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) provokes an adventitious interaction with FLNA.

  18. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing [Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA (United States); Berk, Benjamin-Andreas [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Faculty of Biosciences and Pharmacy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P. [Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA (United States); Nakamura, Fumihiko, E-mail: fnakamura@partners.org [Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona–fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. - Highlights: • RhoGDI2 is identified as a potential filamin A (FLNA)-binding partner. • Phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) interacts with FLNA. • RhoGDI2 phosphorylated (Tyr153) by src kinase does not interact with FLNA. • Mutation of Tyr-153 to Glu of RhoGDI2 does not mimic phosphorylation. • RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) provokes an adventitious interaction with FLNA.

  19. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  20. Problems on acceptance of nuclear energy - roots, development, and varieties in different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1988-01-01

    The social situation, the economic conditions, the resources and the political facts have to be analyzed specificly and taken into consideration by improving acceptance for new technologies and especially acceptance for nuclear energy. So it was more the intention of this report to show some deciding factors for direct activities, the elements which have to be recognized, the methods which can be used, and to show how other people, especially students, behave in industrialized and in developing countries. Without a better knowledge it can not be decided precisely which of the presented countries, Japan, the Philippines of the Latin American countries are representative for the situation in Indonesia. Therefore this presentation might be the analytical background for future actions specifically focussed on the Indonesian people which enables it to make a profit of nuclear power as a vigorous energy source for further development and for the industrialization of the country. (orig./DG)

  1. Expressional regulation of CKI1 provides molecular evidence for hormone interplay during Arabidopsis root development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejátko, Jan; Borkovcová, Petra; Pernisová, M.; Souček, Přemysl; Šišková, H.; Dobešová, R.; Palme, K.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 409, - (2005), S27 [2nd International Symposium Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development. 07.07.2005-12.07.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A081; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : CKI1 gene * cytokinin * auxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Upregulation of EMMPRIN (OX47 in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Contributes to the Development of Mechanical Allodynia after Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are widely implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and play an important role in nociception and allodynia. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. However, the role of EMMPRIN in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Western blotting, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence were performed to determine the changes of messenger RNA and protein of EMMPRIN/OX47 and their cellular localization in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG after nerve injury. Paw withdrawal threshold test was examined to evaluate the pain behavior in spinal nerve ligation (SNL model. The lentivirus containing OX47 shRNA was injected into the DRG one day before SNL. The expression level of both mRNA and protein of OX47 was markedly upregulated in ipsilateral DRG after SNL. OX47 was mainly expressed in the extracellular matrix of DRG. Administration of shRNA targeted against OX47 in vivo remarkably attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. In conclusion, peripheral nerve injury induced upregulation of OX47 in the extracellular matrix of DRG. RNA interference against OX47 significantly suppressed the expression of OX47 mRNA and the development of mechanical allodynia. The altered expression of OX47 may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with fast development of aortic root abscess despite relevant antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in which a large abscess was formed in only 4 days, despite specific intravenous antibiotics and only few vague signs of disease progression. Our case seems to be the first to show echocardiographic documentation of how quickly an intracardiac...... abscess can develop despite relevant antibiotics. Clinically, the patient is remarkably unaffected, and thus even small signs of progression should lead to considerations about repeating the diagnostic imaging workup. This case illustrates how aggressive an infection S. aureus endocarditis may be...

  4. Coexisting secondary intraneural and vascular adventitial ganglion cysts of joint origin: a causal rather than a coincidental relationship supporting an articular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinner, Robert J.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Desy, Nicholas M.; Rock, Michael G.; Holdt, Frederik C.; Amrami, Kimberly K.

    2006-01-01

    To introduce the clinical entity of an intraneural ganglion cyst coexisting with a vascular adventitial cyst arising from the same joint. Retrospective review. Two patients presented with predominantly deep peroneal neuropathy due to complex superior tibiofibular joint-related cysts. In addition to having peroneal intraneural ganglion cysts, these patients had vascular adventitial cysts: one involving a capsular arterial branch, the other a capsular vein [as well as a large, recurrent, intramuscular (extraneural) ganglion]. We then reviewed MRIs of 12 other consecutive cases of intraneural ganglia (10 peroneal and 2 tibial) arising from the superior tibiofibular joint that we treated, as well as other reported cases in the literature to determine if there were other (unrecognized) examples supporting the combination of clinical findings and radiographic patterns. Retrospective analysis of MRIs in the two surgically proven cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia with vascular adventitial cyst extension showed a common imaging pattern that we have termed ''the wishbone sign,'' consisting of the connection of the ascending limb of the peroneal intraneural ganglion and the longitudinal limb of the vascular adventitial cyst in the axial plane. Our review suggests that vascular adventitial cyst extension occurs in a large proportion of cases of peroneal intraneural ganglia. A similar growth pattern was noted in a case of a tibial intraneural ganglion. The combination of intraneural and vascular adventitial cysts is understandable given our knowledge of normal and pathologic anatomy of para-articular cysts. The combination of intraneural ganglia and vascular adventitial cysts broadens the spectrum of clinical presentations of these cysts and suggests that cysts and their content can dissect from a joint along neurovascular bundles. These cases provide important evidence to support the articular theory for the pathogenesis of not only neural but vascular adventitial cysts as

  5. Computed tomography scanning can monitor the effects of soil medium on root system development: An example of salt stress in corn

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    Sowmyalakshmi eSubramanian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds and young seedlings often encounter high soluble salt levels in the upmost soil layers, impeding vigorous growth by affecting root establishment. Computed tomography (CT scanning used at low X-ray doses can help study root development in such conditions non-destructively, because plants are allowed to grow throughout the experiment. Using a high-resolution Toshiba XVision CT scanner, we studied corn (Zea mays L. root growth under optimal and salt-stressed conditions in 3D and on a weekly basis over 3 weeks. Two groups of 3 corn plants were grown in the controlled environment of a growth chamber, in mid-sized plastic pots filled with sieved and autoclaved sand. Seedlings were subjected to first CT scanning one week after seed planting. Our main research objectives concerning root systems were: (i to quantify structural complexity from fractal dimensions estimated on skeletal 3-D images built from CT scanning data; (ii to measure growth from volumes and derived relative rates, after isolating primary and secondary roots from the soil medium in CT scanning data; and (iii to assess differences in complexity and growth per week and over Weeks 1–3 for groups of corn plants. Differences between groups were present from Week 1; starting in Week 2 secondary roots were present and could be isolated, which refined the complexity and growth analyses of root systems. Besides expected Week main effects (P < 0.01 or 0.05, Week x Group interaction (P < 0.05 or 0.10 and Group main effects were observed, which is remarkable given the small sample sizes. Graphical, quantitative and statistical analyses of CT scanning data were thus completed at an unprecedented level, and provided new and important insights regarding root system development. Repeated CT scanning is the key to a better understanding of the establishment in the soil medium of crop plants such as corn and the assessment of salt stress effects on developing root systems, in complexity and

  6. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flueckiger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with ≤20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. - Fine root length of Fagus sylvatica and fine root depth in stands of Fagus sylvatica and/or Picea abies were impaired in soils with low base saturation

  7. Cystic Adventitial Disease of Popliteal Artery with Venous Aneurysm of Popliteal Vein: Two-Year Follow-Up after Surgery

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    Koki Takizawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with venous aneurysm of popliteal vein. A 46-year-old woman had sudden-onset intermittent claudication and coldness in her right leg. The right-sided ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI was 1.01, but peripheral arterial pulsation was decreased at knee venting position. Computed tomography revealed simple cystic lesion of the popliteal artery and stenosis of the arterial lumen in this lesion. The patient was treated by complete resection of the cystic adventitial layer of popliteal artery. A venous aneurysm of popliteal vein was revealed by intraoperative echo and was simply ligated. The patient had uneventful postoperative course and no symptoms of relevance during the two years of follow-up.

  8. Endogenous cytokinin profiles and their relationships to between-family differences during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinea cotyledons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuesta, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Ordas, R. J.; Fernandez, B.; Strnad, Miroslav; Doležal, Karel; Rodriguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 18 (2012), s. 1830-1830-1837 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Natural cytokinins * Adventitious shoot organogenesis * Pinus pinea Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  9. Interaction of PLS and PIN and hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis root developmentHormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis

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    Junli eLiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth is a major challenge in developmental biology. The activities of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin depend on cellular context and exhibit either synergistic or antagonistic interactions. Here we use experimentation and network construction to elucidate the role of the interaction of the POLARIS peptide (PLS and the auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins in the crosstalk of three hormones (auxin, ethylene and cytokinin in Arabidopsis root development. In ethylene hypersignalling mutants such as polaris (pls, we show experimentally that expression of both PIN1 and PIN2 significantly increases. This relationship is analysed in the context of the crosstalk between auxin, ethylene and cytokinin: in pls, endogenous auxin, ethylene and cytokinin concentration decreases, approximately remains unchanged and increases, respectively. Experimental data are integrated into a hormonal crosstalk network through combination with information in literature. Network construction reveals that the regulation of both PIN1 and PIN2 is predominantly via ethylene signalling. In addition, it is deduced that the relationship between cytokinin and PIN1 and PIN2 levels implies a regulatory role of cytokinin in addition to its regulation to auxin, ethylene and PLS levels. We discuss how the network of hormones and genes coordinates plant growth by simultaneously regulating the activities of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling pathways.

  10. Lateral Root Development in Potato Is Mediated by Stu-mi164 Regulation of NAC Transcription Factor

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    Li Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The NAC designation is derived from petunia (Petunia hybrida gene NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM and Arabidopsis genes ATAF1/ATAF2 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2, which belongs to the family of plant-specific transcription factors (TFs, and plays important role in plant development processes, such as response to biotic and abiotic stress, and hormone signaling. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs which play versatile and significant role in plant stress response and development via negatively affecting gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Here, we showed that Stu-mi164 had a complementary sequence in the CDS sequence of potato NAC TFs, and that NAC expression exhibited significant differences under osmotic stress. We measured expression levels of the Stu-mi164 target gene StNAC262 between control and PEG-treated plants using real-time PCR, and the results demonstrated that they had inverse relationship. We suggested that Stu-miR164 might drive overexpression of NAC gene under osmotic stress in potato. To confirm the regulation of NAC TFs by Stu-mi164, we developed transgenic plants, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transformation, of the potato cultivars “Gannongshu 2” and “Kexin 3” overexpressing the Stu-mi164 or the TF StNAC262. Real-time PCR analysis of transgenic potato plants under osmotic (PEG stress, showed that potato plants overexpressing Stu-mi164 had reduced expression of StNAC262 and their osmotic resistance decreased. Furthermore, these plants had low number of lateral roots although the same length as the control. Our findings support the regulatory role of Stu-miRNAs in controlling plant response to osmotic stress via StNAC262.

  11. Histopathological Evidence of Adventitial or Medial Injury Is a Strong Predictor of Restenosis During Directional Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Arthur; Ali, Ziad; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Gujja, Karthik; Kapur, Vishal; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Vasquez, Miguel; Zalewski, Adrian; Parides, Micheal; Overbey, Jessica; Wiley, Jose; Krishnan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact on restenosis rates of deep injury to the adventitial layer during directional atherectomy. Between 2007 and 2010, 116 consecutive patients (mean age 69.6 years; 56 men) with symptomatic femoropopliteal stenoses were treated with directional atherectomy at a single center. All patients had claudication and TASC A/B lesions in the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries. Histopathology analysis of atherectomy specimens was performed to identify adventitial injury. Clinical follow-up included physical examination and duplex ultrasound scans at 3, 6, and 12 months in all patients. The primary endpoint was the duplex-documented 1-year rate of restenosis, which was determined by a peak systolic velocity ratio 0.05), lesion length (58.7±12.8 vs 56.2±13.6 mm, p=0.40), or vessel runoff (1.9±0.6 vs 2.0±0.6, p=0.37) between patients with and without adventitial injury, respectively. The overall 1-year incidence of restenosis was 57%, but the rate was significantly higher (patherectomy for femoropopliteal stenosis is strongly related to patency at 1 year. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Association of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum and Inflammation With Coronary Hyperconstriction After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Pigs In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimiya, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Shindo, Tomohiko; Hanawa, Kenichiro; Hasebe, Yuhi; Tsuburaya, Ryuji; Shiroto, Takashi; Takahashi, Jun; Ito, Kenta; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yasuda, Satoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The importance of adventitial inflammation has been implicated for the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. However, the roles of adventitial changes in drug-eluting stent (DES)-induced coronary hyperconstriction remain largely unknown. In the present study, this issue in pigs in vivo with a special reference to adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) formation and Rho-kinase activation, a central mechanism of coronary vasospasm, was examined. Each animal received a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and a biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES), one in the left anterior descending and another in the left circumflex coronary arteries in a randomized manner (n=18). After 1, 3 and 6 months, coronary vasomotion was examined. At 1 month, coronary vasoconstriction to serotonin was significantly enhanced at the SES edges as compared with the BES edges (SES, 52±7% vs. BES, 22±3%, Pmicro-CT showed VV augmentation at the SES site, extending to the proximal and distal edges. Immunostainings demonstrated that VV formation, macrophage infiltration in the adventitia and Rho-kinase expressions/activation were significantly enhanced at the SES edges as compared with the BES edges. The DES with durable polymers enhances VV formation and inflammation in the adventitia, associating with the pathogenesis of DES-induced coronary hyperconstriction through Rho-kinase activation in pigs in vivo.

  13. Adventitial SCA-1+ Progenitor Cell Gene Sequencing Reveals the Mechanisms of Cell Migration in Response to Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kokkinopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial progenitor cells, including SCA-1+ and mesenchymal stem cells, are believed to be important in vascular remodeling. It has been shown that SCA-1+ progenitor cells are involved in neointimal hyperplasia of vein grafts, but little is known concerning their involvement in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis. We employed single-cell sequencing technology on primary adventitial mouse SCA-1+ cells from wild-type and atherosclerotic-prone (ApoE-deficient mice and found that a group of genes controlling cell migration and matrix protein degradation was highly altered. Adventitial progenitors from ApoE-deficient mice displayed an augmented migratory potential both in vitro and in vivo. This increased migratory ability was mimicked by lipid loading to SCA-1+ cells. Furthermore, we show that lipid loading increased miRNA-29b expression and induced sirtuin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels to promote cell migration. These results provide direct evidence that blood cholesterol levels influence vascular progenitor cell function, which could be a potential target cell for treatment of vascular disease.

  14. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  15. Epigenetic control of root and nodule development : the role of plant-specific histone deacetylases and LHP1 in root cell reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, S.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, unlike in animals, most organs develop post embryonically. These organs originate from clusters of undifferentiated dividing cells that form so-called meristems. Differentiated cells can be re-activated to enter the cell cycle and to ultimately give rise to new meristems. These

  16. Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Hua; He, Xiujing; Gao, Jian; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Zhiming; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd), acts as a widespread environmental contaminant, which has shown to adversely affect human health, food safety and ecosystem safety in recent years. However, research on how plant respond to various kinds of heavy metal stress is scarcely reported, especially for understanding of complex molecular regulatory mechanisms and elucidating the gene networks of plant respond to Cd stress. Here, transcriptomic changes during Mo17 and B73 seedlings development responsive to Cd pollution were investigated and comparative RNAseq-based approach in both genotypes were performed. 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) with significant alteration in expression were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the maize seedling development; of those, most of DGEs were found comprised of stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, as well as transcription factors, such as thaumatin-like protein, ZmOPR2 and ZmOPR5. More interestingly, genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found contributed to the regulatory mechanism of Cd sensitivity in both different genotypes. Moreover, 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M12) were identified by consensus co-expression network. These results will expand our understanding of complex molecular mechanism of response and defense to Cd exposure in maize seedling roots. - Highlights: • Transcriptomic changes responsive to Cd pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach. • 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes. • Most of DGEs belong to stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, transcription factors. • 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways. • Genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found

  17. Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hua [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130 (China); Sichuan Tourism College, Chengdu, 610000, Sichuan (China); He, Xiujing [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130 (China); Gao, Jian [Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Key Laboratory of Tumor Immunopathology, Ministry of Education of China, Chongqing (China); Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Zhiming; Shen, Yaou [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130 (China); Pan, Guangtang, E-mail: pangt@sicau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130 (China); Lin, Haijian, E-mail: linhj521@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130 (China)

    2015-09-04

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd), acts as a widespread environmental contaminant, which has shown to adversely affect human health, food safety and ecosystem safety in recent years. However, research on how plant respond to various kinds of heavy metal stress is scarcely reported, especially for understanding of complex molecular regulatory mechanisms and elucidating the gene networks of plant respond to Cd stress. Here, transcriptomic changes during Mo17 and B73 seedlings development responsive to Cd pollution were investigated and comparative RNAseq-based approach in both genotypes were performed. 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) with significant alteration in expression were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the maize seedling development; of those, most of DGEs were found comprised of stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, as well as transcription factors, such as thaumatin-like protein, ZmOPR2 and ZmOPR5. More interestingly, genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found contributed to the regulatory mechanism of Cd sensitivity in both different genotypes. Moreover, 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M12) were identified by consensus co-expression network. These results will expand our understanding of complex molecular mechanism of response and defense to Cd exposure in maize seedling roots. - Highlights: • Transcriptomic changes responsive to Cd pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach. • 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes. • Most of DGEs belong to stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, transcription factors. • 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways. • Genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found.

  18. Cytotoxicity of newly developed pozzolan cement and other root-end filling materials on human periodontal ligament cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minju Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the pozzolan cement and other root-end filling materials using human periodontal ligament cell. Materials and Methods Endocem (Maruchi, white ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, white Angelus MTA (Angelus, and Super EBA (Bosworth Co. were tested after set completely in an incubator at 37℃ for 7 days, Endocem was tested in two ways: 1 immediately after mixing (fresh specimens and 2 after setting completely like other experimental materials. The methods for assessment included light microscopic examination, cell counting and WST-1 assay on human periodontal ligament cell. Results In the results of microscopic examination and cell counting, Super EBA showed significantly lower viable cell than any other groups (p < 0.05. As the results of WST-1 assay, compared with untreated control group, there was no significant cell viability of the Endocem group. However, the fresh mixed Endocem group had significantly less cell viability. The cells exposed to ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA showed the highest viability, whereas the cells exposed to Super EBA displayed the lowest viability (p < 0.05. Conclusions The cytotoxicity of the pozzolan cement (Endocem was comparable with ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA. Considering the difficult manipulation and long setting time of ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA, Endocem can be used as the alternative of retrofilling material.

  19. Overexpression of SoCYP85A1, a Spinach Cytochrome p450 Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Enhances Root Development and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmeng Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play an essential role in plant growth, development, and responses to diverse abiotic stresses. However, previous studies mainly analyzed how exogenous BRs influenced plant physiological reactions to drought stress, therefore, genetic evidences for the endogenous BRs-mediated regulation of plant responses still remain elusive. In this study, a key BRs biosynthetic gene, SoCYP85A1 was cloned from Spinacia oleracea, which has a complete open reading frame of 1,392 bp encoding a 464 amino acid peptide and shares high sequence similarities with CYP85A1 from other plants. The expression of SoCYP85A1 which was higher in leaf compared with root and stem, was induced by treatments of PEG6000, abscisic acid (ABA, low temperature and high salt. Increases in both SoCYP85A1 transcripts and endogenous BRs in transgenic tobacco which resulted in longer primary root and more lateral roots enhanced drought tolerance compared with wild types. The transgenic tobacco accumulated much lower levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA than wild types did, accompanied by significantly higher content of proline and notably enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. Besides, transcriptional expressions of six stress-responsive genes were regulated to higher levels in transgenic lines under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SoCYP85A1 involves in response to drought stress by promoting root development, scavenging ROS, and regulating expressions of stress-responsive genes.

  20. Selection of Common Bean Lines, Recombinant Inbred Lines and Commercial Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus Availability in an Acrisol Soil on the Basis of Root Traits and Grain Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, L. A.; Morales, A. [Instituto de Suelos, MINAG (Cuba); others, and

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for human consumption worldwide and especially in Latin America and Africa, but low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits grain production in these areas. For these reason eighty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of BAT 477 x DOR 364 and twenty commercial bean genotypes were sown in plots in an Acrisol soil with low P availability to evaluate nine root traits and grain yield. The study was carried out in Pinar del Rio province in Cuba between November 2006 and February 2009. The plots received basal fertilization (N and K) and P fertilization between 15 and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} ha{sup -1}. Ten plants were sampled from each plot at R{sub 6} pod fill to evaluate root traits and shoot biomass, and at R{sub 9} physiological maturity to estimate grain yield. The 85 RILs showed great variability for root traits, grain yield and P stress tolerance calculated as relative grain yield. The commercial bean lines also showed large diversity in yield parameters. Principal Component Analysis showed that there were high and significant correlations between root traits (basal root number, primary root depth, adventitious root length and adventitious root number) and grain yield parameters (grain yield at 15 P level and relative grain yields). Adventitious root traits showed the greatest correlation with yield under low P. Promising RILs included 75.1.1, 60.1.1, 38.1.1, 14.1.1 and 38.1.1 and promising commercial bean lines included ICA Pijao, BAT 482, ICA 23, BAT 24 and BAT 832. (author)

  1. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb. is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR, an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR. There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems.

  2. Development of a root cause analysis workstation and application in identification of the causes of reactor scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.N.M.; Danner, M.A.; Modarres, M.; Chung, D.

    1988-01-01

    A natural outgrowth of work performed jointly between the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company and the University of Maryland over the past 5 yr has been a formalized approach to industrial process reliability and risk analysis that utilizes goal trees. Goal-tree analysis is a method by which the success of an industrial process can be described in terms of a set of logically interrelated goals that can be achieved either by the proper functioning of hardware or of humans. The final product is in hierarchical tree format and relates the somewhat ephemeral objectives of the process to the very real and physical success paths that achieve them. Because of the rigor, which, of necessity, must be employed by the analyst during its development, the completed goal tree provides not only a very concise and complete description of the way in which all elements of the process must operate in concert to achieve the objective but also allows an analyst to infer the consequences when certain elements of the process function improperly. In other words, the completed goal tree not only provides a very concise description of the process design basis but can also provide the analyst with a precise cause/consequence description for the process. It is this latter attribute of the tree that has been explored to provide a means for defining an analytical method for improving hardware performance and the foundation for understanding the way that a goal tree could ultimately be used to provide the framework for a root-cause analysis method

  3. The AP2/EREBP gene PUCHI Co-Acts with LBD16/ASL18 and LBD18/ASL20 downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 to regulate lateral root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Na Young; Lee, Han Woo; Kim, Jungmook

    2013-08-01

    The developmental process of lateral root formation consists of priming, initiation, primordium development and the emergence of lateral roots from the primary root. Molecular genetic studies with Arabidopsis have revealed several key transcriptional regulators involved in lateral root development. However, their functional interaction has not been fully characterized yet. Here we utilized a genetic approach to understand some of these interactions, revealing that PUCHI functioning in morphogenesis of early lateral root primordium is regulated downstream of ARF7/ARF19 and acts with LBD16(ASL18)/LBD18(ASL20) to regulate lateral root development. We showed that auxin-responsive expression of PUCHI was significantly reduced in arf7 or arf19 single mutants and completely abolished in arf7 arf19 double mutants. Consistent with this, β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression under the PUCHI promoter in arf7 arf19 was greatly reduced in the lateral root primordium compared with that in the wild type and did not respond to exogenous auxin. Results of GUS expression analyses under the PUCHI, LBD16 or LBD18 promoter in lbd16, lbd18 single and double mutants or puchi demonstrated that PUCHI and LBD16 or LBD18 do not regulate each other's expression. Lateral root phenotypes of double and triple mutants of lbd16, lbd18 and puchi showed that the puchi mutation in lbd16 and lbd18 mutants synergistically decreased the number of emerged lateral roots. These analyses also showed that puchi affected lateral root primordium development of lbd16 or lbd18 additively but differentially. Taken together, these results suggest that PUCHI co-acts with LBD16 and LBD18 to control lateral root primordium development and lateral root emergence.

  4. Bending and Shear Stresses Developed by the Instantaneous Arrest of the Root of a Moving Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Elbridge, Z; Schwartz, Edward B; Houbolt, John C

    1945-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has been made of the behavior of a cantilever beam in transverse motion when its root is suddenly brought to rest. Equations are given for determining the stresses, the deflections, and the accelerations that arise in the beam as a result of the impact. The theoretical equations, which have been confirmed experimentally, reveal that, at a given percentage of the distance from root to tip, the bending stresses for a particular mode are independent of the length of the beam, whereas the shear stresses vary inversely with the length.

  5. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii modulates the expression of WRKY transcription factors in syncytia to favour its development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin.

  7. Compound Synthesis or Growth and Development of Roots/Stomata Regulate Plant Drought Tolerance or Water Use Efficiency/Water Uptake Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2018-04-11

    Water is crucial to plant growth and development because it serves as a medium for all cellular functions. Thus, the improvement of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency is important in modern agriculture. In this review, we mainly focus on new genetic factors for ameliorating drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency of plants and explore the involvement of these genetic factors in the regulation of improving plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency, which is a result of altered stomata density and improving root systems (primary root length, hair root growth, and lateral root number) and enhanced production of osmotic protectants, which is caused by transcription factors, proteinases, and phosphatases and protein kinases. These results will help guide the synthesis of a model for predicting how the signals of genetic and environmental stress are integrated at a few genetic determinants to control the establishment of either water use efficiency or water uptake efficiency. Collectively, these insights into the molecular mechanism underpinning the control of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency may aid future breeding or design strategies to increase crop yield.

  8. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  9. Vertical migration of nematodes and soil-borne fungi to developing roots of Ammophila arenaria (L.) link after sand accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij van der Goes, P.C.E.M.; Peters, B.A.M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ammophila arenaria benefits from regular burial of windblown beach sand as it allows escape from soilborne pathogens (nematodes and fungi). The present study was done to obtain more insight into the timing and order of migration of the soil organisms towards the newly formed roots. Accordingly,

  10. Increasing Risk of Disturbed Root Development in Permanent Teeth in Childhood Cancer Survivors Undergoing Cancer Treatment at Older Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Kamata, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Morita, Daisuke; Saito, Shoji; Sakashita, Kazuo; Shiohara, Masaaki; Kurita, Hiroshi; Koike, Kenichi; Nakazawa, Yozo

    2017-04-01

    Structural anomalies of teeth are observed at high rates in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Several therapeutic exposures have been shown to be associated with dental developmental disturbances. This study was conducted to analyze the risk factors for dental developmental abnormality (DDA) and investigate the association between age at the time of cancer treatment and DDA in CCS. Fifty-six CCS were enrolled. Orthopantomography and dental examination were performed in all the patients. We evaluated the prevalence of DDA and analyzed the risk factors for each type of DDA. DDAs were observed in 46.4% of CCS, including hypodontia in 9 (16.1%), abnormal roots in nine (16.1%), enamel defects/hypoplasia in 6 (10.7%), and microdontia in 12 (21.4%) patients. The number of patients with abnormal roots was significantly higher in the group treated with stem cell transplantation or at an age older than 4 years. We observed that the formation period of abnormal teeth coincided with the treatment period in the majority of CCS with DDA. Particularly regarding the root abnormality, treatment at elder age may be a risk factor for root developmental disturbances. Risk evaluation, appropriate follow-up, and early detection of dental issues are required for all CCS.

  11. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  12. Contribution of fine tree roots to the silicon cycle in a temperate forest ecosystem developed on three soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Calvaruso, Christophe; Kirchen, Gil; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Cochet, Carine

    2018-04-01

    The role of forest vegetation in the silicon (Si) cycle has been widely examined. However, to date, little is known about the specific role of fine roots. The main objective of our study was to assess the influence of fine roots on the Si cycle in a temperate forest in north-eastern France. Silicon pools and fluxes in vegetal solid and solution phases were quantified within each ecosystem compartment, i.e. in the atmosphere, above-ground and below-ground tree tissues, forest floor and different soil layers, on three plots, each with different soil types, i.e. Dystric Cambisol (DC), Eutric Cambisol (EC) and Rendzic Leptosol (RL). In this study, we took advantage of a natural soil gradient, from shallow calcic soil to deep moderately acidic soil, with similar climates, atmospheric depositions, species compositions and management. Soil solutions were measured monthly for 4 years to study the seasonal dynamics of Si fluxes. A budget of dissolved Si (DSi) was also determined for the forest floor and soil layers. Our study highlighted the major role of fine roots in the Si cycle in forest ecosystems for all soil types. Due to the abundance of fine roots mainly in the superficial soil layers, their high Si concentration (equivalent to that of leaves and 2 orders higher than that of coarse roots) and their rapid turnover rate (approximately 1 year), the mean annual Si fluxes in fine roots in the three plots were 68 and 110 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the RL and the DC, respectively. The turnover rates of fine roots and leaves were approximately 71 and 28 % of the total Si taken up by trees each year, demonstrating the importance of biological recycling in the Si cycle in forests. Less than 1 % of the Si taken up by trees each year accumulated in the perennial tissues. This study also demonstrated the influence of soil type on the concentration of Si in the annual tissues and therefore on the Si fluxes in forests. The concentrations of Si in leaves and fine roots were approximately 1

  13. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nasriah Zaini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL−1 (r2 = 0.997 with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules. Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.

  14. Biomass Accumulation, Photosynthetic Traits and Root Development of Cotton as Affected by Irrigation and Nitrogen-Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkui Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of soil water and nitrogen (N are factors which cause a substantial reduction in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. yield, especially in an arid environment. Suitable management decisions like irrigation method and nitrogen fertilization are the key yield improvement technologies in cotton production systems. Therefore, we hypothesized that optimal water-N supply can increase cotton plant biomass accumulation by maintaining leaf photosynthetic capacity and improving root growth. An outdoor polyvinyl chloride (PVC tube study was conducted to investigate the effects of two water-N application depths, i.e., 20 cm (H20 or 40 cm (H40 from soil surface and four water-N combinations [deficit irrigation (W55 and no N (N0 (W55N0, W55 and moderate N (N1 (W55N1, moderate irrigation (W75 and N0 (W75N0, W75N1] on the roots growth, leaf photosynthetic traits and dry mass accumulation of cotton crops. H20W55N1 combination increased total dry mass production by 29–82% and reproductive organs biomass by 47–101% compared with other counterparts. Root protective enzyme and nitrate reductase (NR activity, potential quantum yield of photosystem (PS II (Fv/Fm, PSII quantum yield in the light [Y(II] and electron transport rate of PSII were significantly higher in H20W55N1 prior to 82 days after emergence. Root NR activity and protective enzyme were significantly correlated with chlorophyll, Fv/Fm, Y(II and stomatal conductance. Hence, shallow irrigation (20 cm with moderate irrigation and N-fertilization application could increase cotton root NR activity and protective enzyme leading to enhance light capture and photochemical energy conversion of PSII before the full flowering stage. This enhanced photoassimilate to reproductive organs.

  15. Changes in the level of [14C]indole-3-acetic acid and [14C]indoleacetylaspartic acid during root formation in mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcini, J.G.; Heuser, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the levels of [ 14 C]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and [ 14 C]indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) were examined during adventitious root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilcz. Berken) stem cuttings. IAAsp was identified by GC-MS as the primary conjugate in IAA-treated cuttings. During root formation in IAA-treated cuttings, the level of [ 14 C]IAAsp increased rapidly the first day and then declined; [ 14 C]IAA was rapidly metabolized and not detected after 12 hours

  16. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  17. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  18. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  19. Development of Plastic Gear for Power Transmission : Abnormal Wear on the Tooth Root and Tooth Fracture near Pitch Point

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Kenichi; Tsukamoto, Naohisa; Nishida, Noriteru; Shi, Jiasun

    1986-01-01

    Plastic gears have many excellent characteristics which are locking in metallic gears, such as corrosion resistance, self-lubrication, quiet running, and so forth. The meshing behavior of plastic gears is very different from that of metallic gears. Therefore, the life estimation is very difficult for plastic gears. In this paper, generating and growing mechanisms of abnormal wear which appears fatally near the root of plastic tooth are analyzed, and then it is clarified that tooth fractures w...

  20. Light and decapitation effects on in vitro rooting in maize root segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, F W; Pilet, P E

    1985-10-01

    The effects of white light and decapitation on the initiation and subsequent emergence and elongation of lateral roots of apical maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 11) root segments have been examined. The formation of lateral root primordium was inhibited by the white light. This inhibition did not depend upon the presence of the primary root tip. However, root decapitation induced a shift of the site of appearance of the most apical primordium towards the root apex, and a strong disturbance of the distribution pattern of primordium volumes along the root axis. White light had a significant effect neither on the distribution pattern of primordium volumes, nor on the period of primordium development (time interval required for the smallest detectable primordia to grow out as secondary roots). Thus, considering the rooting initiation and emergence, the light effect was restricted to the initiation phase only. Moreover, white light reduced lateral root elongation as well as primary root growth.

  1. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Hong, Mo-Na [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Chen, Qi-Zhi [Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Han, Wei-Qing, E-mail: whan020@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Gao, Ping-Jin, E-mail: gaopingjin@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to