Spatial Power Combining Amplifier for Ground and Flight Applications
Velazco, J. E.; Taylor, M.
2016-11-01
Vacuum-tube amplifiers such as klystrons and traveling-wave tubes are the workhorses of high-power microwave radiation generation. At JPL, vacuum tubes are extensively used in ground and flight missions for radar and communications. Vacuum tubes use electron beams as the source of energy to achieve microwave power amplification. Such electron beams operate at high kinetic energies and thus require high voltages to function. In addition, vacuum tubes use compact cavity and waveguide structures that hold very intense radio frequency (RF) fields inside. As the operational frequency is increased, the dimensions of these RF structures become increasingly smaller. As power levels and operational frequencies are increased, the highly intense RF fields inside of the tubes' structures tend to arc and create RF breakdown. In the case of very high-power klystrons, electron interception - also known as body current - can produce thermal runaway of the cavities that could lead to the destruction of the tube. The high voltages needed to power vacuum tubes tend to require complicated and cumbersome power supplies. Consequently, although vacuum tubes provide unmatched high-power microwaves, they tend to arc, suffer from thermal issues, and require failure-prone high-voltage power supplies. In this article, we present a new concept for generating high-power microwaves that we refer to as the Spatial Power Combining Amplifier (SPCA). The SPCA is very compact, requires simpler, lower-voltage power supplies, and uses a unique power-combining scheme wherein power from solid-state amplifiers is coherently combined. It is a two-port amplifier and can be used inline as any conventional two-port amplifier. It can deliver its output power to a coaxial line, a waveguide, a feed, or to any microwave load. A key feature of this new scheme is the use of higher-order-mode microwave structures to spatially divide and combine power. Such higher-order-mode structures have considerably larger cross
Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier
Chapsky, Jacob
2009-01-01
The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noohi, K.; Pedram, M.; Sahraian, F.; Kamali, G. A.
2007-01-01
Atmospheric Science and Meteorological Research Center (ASMERC)Dates of first fall and last spring frosts on the basis of minimum shelter temperature equal or less than 0°C were determined for 12 synoptic stations for period 1986-2000 in Azerbaijan region. The advection frost was determined based on using of synoptic maps and studying of meteorological elements in different hours. In this work, we found that series of first fall and last spring advection and radiation-advection frosts are random and normally distributed. This study shows that on the average advection frosts start from 6 to 40 days later than radiation-advection frosts in fall and ends 2 to 25 days earlier in spring. Potential growing season that is interval between last spring and first fall advection frost is found to be from 5 to 65 days longer than the growing season defined by the interval from last spring to first fall occurrences of minimum temperature equal or less than 0°C. Crop protection against radiation frosts can bring about too much benefit. To assess whether practical protection of some special crops against radiation frosts is done or not, the number of radiation frosts before first advection frost in fall and after last advection frost in spring, were determined
Chaotic advection in the ocean
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshel' , Konstantin V; Prants, Sergei V [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)
2006-11-30
The problem of chaotic advection of passive scalars in the ocean and its topological, dynamical, and fractal properties are considered from the standpoint of the theory of dynamical systems. Analytic and numerical results on Lagrangian transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamic chaotic advection models are described for meandering jet currents, topographical eddies in a barotropic ocean, and a two-layer baroclinic ocean. Laboratory experiments on hydrodynamic flows in rotating tanks as an imitation of geophysical chaotic advection are described. Perspectives of a dynamical system approach in physical oceanography are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Two-level schemes for the advection equation
Vabishchevich, Petr N.
2018-06-01
The advection equation is the basis for mathematical models of continuum mechanics. In the approximate solution of nonstationary problems it is necessary to inherit main properties of the conservatism and monotonicity of the solution. In this paper, the advection equation is written in the symmetric form, where the advection operator is the half-sum of advection operators in conservative (divergent) and non-conservative (characteristic) forms. The advection operator is skew-symmetric. Standard finite element approximations in space are used. The standard explicit two-level scheme for the advection equation is absolutely unstable. New conditionally stable regularized schemes are constructed, on the basis of the general theory of stability (well-posedness) of operator-difference schemes, the stability conditions of the explicit Lax-Wendroff scheme are established. Unconditionally stable and conservative schemes are implicit schemes of the second (Crank-Nicolson scheme) and fourth order. The conditionally stable implicit Lax-Wendroff scheme is constructed. The accuracy of the investigated explicit and implicit two-level schemes for an approximate solution of the advection equation is illustrated by the numerical results of a model two-dimensional problem.
Wang, F.; Vavrus, S. J.
2017-12-01
Horizontal temperature advection plays an especially prominent role in affecting winter climate over continental interiors, where both climatological conditions and extreme weather are strongly regulated by transport of remote air masses. Central North America is one such region, and it experienced a major cold-air outbreak (CAO) a few years ago that some have related to amplified Arctic warming. Despite the known importance of dynamics in shaping the winter climate of this sector and the potential for climate change to modify heat transport, limited attention has been paid to the regional impact of thermal advection. Here, we use a reanalysis product and output from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble to quantify the roles of zonal and meridional temperature advection over the central U. S. during winter, both in the late 20th and 21st centuries. We frame our findings as a "tug of war" between opposing influences of the two advection components and between these dynamical forcings vs. thermodynamic changes under greenhouse warming. For example, Arctic amplification leads to much warmer polar air masses, causing a moderation of cold-air advection into the central U. S., yet the model also simulates a wavier mean circulation and stronger northerly flow during CAOs, favoring lower regional temperatures. We also compare the predominant warming effect of zonal advection and overall cooling effect of meridional temperature advection as an additional tug of war. During both historical and future periods, zonal temperature advection is stronger than meridional advection over the Central U. S. The model simulates a future weakening of both zonal and meridional temperature advection, such that westerly flow provides less warming and northerly flow less cooling. On the most extreme warm days in the past and future, both zonal and meridional temperature advection have positive (warming) contributions. On the most extreme cold days, meridional cold air advection
High-order finite volume advection
Shaw, James
2018-01-01
The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.
Multidimensional flux-limited advection schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuburn, J.
1996-01-01
A general method for building multidimensional shape preserving advection schemes using flux limiters is presented. The method works for advected passive scalars in either compressible or incompressible flow and on arbitrary grids. With a minor modification it can be applied to the equation for fluid density. Schemes using the simplest form of the flux limiter can cause distortion of the advected profile, particularly sideways spreading, depending on the orientation of the flow relative to the grid. This is partly because the simple limiter is too restrictive. However, some straightforward refinements lead to a shape-preserving scheme that gives satisfactory results, with negligible grid-flow angle-dependent distortion
Orbital Advection with Magnetohydrodynamics and Vector Potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyra, Wladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northrige, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge CA 91130 (United States); McNally, Colin P. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Heinemann, Tobias [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Masset, Frédéric, E-mail: wlyra@csun.edu [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)
2017-10-01
Orbital advection is a significant bottleneck in disk simulations, and a particularly tricky one when used in connection with magnetohydrodynamics. We have developed an orbital advection algorithm suitable for the induction equation with magnetic potential. The electromotive force is split into advection and shear terms, and we find that we do not need an advective gauge since solving the orbital advection implicitly precludes the shear term from canceling the advection term. We prove and demonstrate the third order in time accuracy of the scheme. The algorithm is also suited to non-magnetic problems. Benchmarked results of (hydrodynamical) planet–disk interaction and of the magnetorotational instability are reproduced. We include detailed descriptions of the construction and selection of stabilizing dissipations (or high-frequency filters) needed to generate practical results. The scheme is self-consistent, accurate, and elegant in its simplicity, making it particularly efficient for straightforward finite-difference methods. As a result of the work, the algorithm is incorporated in the public version of the Pencil Code, where it can be used by the community.
Orbital Advection with Magnetohydrodynamics and Vector Potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyra, Wladimir; McNally, Colin P.; Heinemann, Tobias; Masset, Frédéric
2017-01-01
Orbital advection is a significant bottleneck in disk simulations, and a particularly tricky one when used in connection with magnetohydrodynamics. We have developed an orbital advection algorithm suitable for the induction equation with magnetic potential. The electromotive force is split into advection and shear terms, and we find that we do not need an advective gauge since solving the orbital advection implicitly precludes the shear term from canceling the advection term. We prove and demonstrate the third order in time accuracy of the scheme. The algorithm is also suited to non-magnetic problems. Benchmarked results of (hydrodynamical) planet–disk interaction and of the magnetorotational instability are reproduced. We include detailed descriptions of the construction and selection of stabilizing dissipations (or high-frequency filters) needed to generate practical results. The scheme is self-consistent, accurate, and elegant in its simplicity, making it particularly efficient for straightforward finite-difference methods. As a result of the work, the algorithm is incorporated in the public version of the Pencil Code, where it can be used by the community.
Anghinolfi, F; Krummenacher, F; Usenko, E; Williams, M C S
2004-01-01
An ultrafast front-end preamplifier-discriminator chip called NINO has been developed for use in the ALICE time-of-flight detector. The chip has eight channels. Each channel is designed with an amplifier with less than 1-ns peaking time, a discriminator with a minimum detection threshold of 10 fC and an output stage. The output pulse has minimum time jitter (less than 25 ps) on the front edge, and the pulsewidth is dependent of the input signal charge. Each channel consumes 27 mW, and the eight channels fit in a 2*4 mm/sup 2/ ASIC processed in IBM 0.25- mu m CMOS technology. (3 refs).
Anghinolfi, F; Krummenacher, F; Usenko, E; Williams, M C S
2004-01-01
An ultra fast front-end preamplifier-discriminator chip NINO has been developed for use in the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector. The chip has 8 channels. Each channel is designed with an amplifier with less than 1 ns peaking time, a discriminator with a minimum detection threshold of 10fC and an output stage. The output pulse has minimum time jitter (less than 25ps) on the front edge, and the pulse width is dependent of the input signal charge. Each channel consumes 27mW, and the 8 channels fit in a 2*4mm/sup 2/ ASIC processed in IBM 0.2 mu m CMOS technology. (3 refs).
Precipitation Sedimentation and Advection in GFS
Sun, R.; Tallapragada, V.
2016-12-01
Zhao and Carr microphysics scheme as implemented in the NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) predicts only the total cloud condensate (cloud water or ice). The precipitation generated in the column fall to the ground instantly. This mean precipitation sedimentation and advection are not considered. As resolution increases the lack of the two physical processes creates problems. The slowly falling precipitation (snow) falls to the wrong surface grid box, which may have led to the observed spotty-precipitation pattern. To solve the problem two prognositic variables, snow and rain, are added. Addition of the two precipitation variable allows their advection. The corresponding sedimentation process are also added. In this study we examine the effect of precipitation advection and sedimentation on the precipitation pattern, associated precipitation skills and clouds.
Low-wave-number statistics of randomly advected passive scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerstein, A.R.; McMurtry, P.A.
1994-01-01
A heuristic analysis of the decay of a passive scalar field subject to statistically steady random advection, predicts two low-wave-number spectral scaling regimes analogous to the similarity states previously identified by Chasnov [Phys. Fluids 6, 1036 (1994)]. Consequences of their predicted coexistence in a single flow are examined. The analysis is limited to the idealized case of narrow band advection. To complement the analysis, and to extend the predictions to physically more realistic advection processes, advection diffusion is simulated using a one-dimensional stochastic model. An experimental test of the predictions is proposed
Statistics of an advected passive scalar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Y.; Kraichnan, R.H.
1993-01-01
An elementary argument shows that non-Gaussian fluctuations in the temperature at a point in space are induced by random advection of a passive temperature field that has a nonlinear mean gradient, whether or not there is molecular diffusion. This is corroborated by exact analysis for the nondiffusive case and by direct numerical simulation for diffusive cases. Eulerian mapping closure gives results close to the simulation data. Non-Gaussian fluctuations of temperature at a point also are induced by a more subtle mechanism that requires both advection and molecular diffusion and is effective even when the statistics are strictly homogeneous. It operates through selectively strong dissipation of regions where intense temperature gradients have been induced by advective straining. This phenomenon is demonstrated by simulations and explored by means of an idealized analytical model
Research on dynamic characteristics of new chaotic-advection fins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong Songtao; Dong Qiwu; Liu Minshan; Zhu Qing
2007-01-01
Analysis and the numerical simulation has confirmed that the flow is of the chaotic advection in the flow channel of the new fin. The chaotic advection results in stronger mixing under low Re, and thus enhances the heat transfer and anti-scaling ability. The new fin provides the beneficial exploration to the concept of chaotic advection which applies to the plate-fin heat exchanger. (authors)
Chaotic advection, diffusion, and reactions in open flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tel, Tamas; Karolyi, Gyoergy; Pentek, Aron; Scheuring, Istvan; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Grebogi, Celso; Kadtke, James
2000-01-01
We review and generalize recent results on advection of particles in open time-periodic hydrodynamical flows. First, the problem of passive advection is considered, and its fractal and chaotic nature is pointed out. Next, we study the effect of weak molecular diffusion or randomness of the flow. Finally, we investigate the influence of passive advection on chemical or biological activity superimposed on open flows. The nondiffusive approach is shown to carry some features of a weak diffusion, due to the finiteness of the reaction range or reaction velocity. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
The role of advection in a two-species competition model
Averill, Isabel; Lou, Yuan
2017-01-01
The effects of weak and strong advection on the dynamics of reaction-diffusion models have long been studied. In contrast, the role of intermediate advection remains poorly understood. For example, concentration phenomena can occur when advection is strong, providing a mechanism for the coexistence of multiple populations, in contrast with the situation of weak advection where coexistence may not be possible. The transition of the dynamics from weak to strong advection is generally difficult to determine. In this work the authors consider a mathematical model of two competing populations in a spatially varying but temporally constant environment, where both species have the same population dynamics but different dispersal strategies: one species adopts random dispersal, while the dispersal strategy for the other species is a combination of random dispersal and advection upward along the resource gradient. For any given diffusion rates the authors consider the bifurcation diagram of positive steady states by u...
Enhanced separation of diffusing particles by chaotic advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref, H.; Jones, S.W.
1989-01-01
Combining the reversibility of advection by a Stokes flow with the irreversibility of diffusion leads to a separation strategy for diffusing substances. This basic idea goes back to Taylor and Heller. It is shown here that the sensitivity of the method can be greatly enhanced by making the advection chaotic. The separation is particularly efficient when the thinnest structures resulting from advection are made comparable in size to a diffusion length. Simple heuristic estimates based on an understanding of chaotic motion and diffusion lead to a certain scaling that is seen in numerical experiments on this separation method
RKC time-stepping for advection-diffusion-reaction problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verwer, J.G.; Sommeijer, B.P.; Hundsdorfer, W.
2004-01-01
The original explicit Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev (RKC) method is a stabilized second-order integration method for pure diffusion problems. Recently, it has been extended in an implicit-explicit manner to also incorporate highly stiff reaction terms. This implicit-explicit RKC method thus treats diffusion terms explicitly and the highly stiff reaction terms implicitly. The current paper deals with the incorporation of advection terms for the explicit method, thus aiming at the implicit-explicit RKC integration of advection-diffusion-reaction equations in a manner that advection and diffusion terms are treated simultaneously and explicitly and the highly stiff reaction terms implicitly
Linking Chaotic Advection with Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes
Mays, D. C.; Freedman, V. L.; White, S. K.; Fang, Y.; Neupauer, R.
2017-12-01
This work investigates the extent to which groundwater flow kinematics drive subsurface biogeochemical processes. In terms of groundwater flow kinematics, we consider chaotic advection, whose essential ingredient is stretching and folding of plumes. Chaotic advection is appealing within the context of groundwater remediation because it has been shown to optimize plume spreading in the laminar flows characteristic of aquifers. In terms of subsurface biogeochemical processes, we consider an existing model for microbially-mediated reduction of relatively mobile uranium(VI) to relatively immobile uranium(IV) following injection of acetate into a floodplain aquifer beneath a former uranium mill in Rifle, Colorado. This model has been implemented in the reactive transport code eSTOMP, the massively parallel version of STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). This presentation will report preliminary numerical simulations in which the hydraulic boundary conditions in the eSTOMP model are manipulated to simulate chaotic advection resulting from engineered injection and extraction of water through a manifold of wells surrounding the plume of injected acetate. This approach provides an avenue to simulate the impact of chaotic advection within the existing framework of the eSTOMP code.
Fontaine, Emmanuelle; Coste, Sébastien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Klein, Céline; Lefort, Hugues; Leclerc, Thomas; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Briche, Frédérique; Jost, Daniel; Maurin, Olga; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a traditional stethoscope versus an electronically amplified one (expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and respiratory sounds during medical transport. It was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized performed study. One traditional stethoscope (Littmann Cardiology III; 3M, St Paul, MN) and 1 electronically amplified stethoscope (Littmann 3200, 3M) were used for our tests. Heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard a medically configured Falcon 50 aircrafts were studied. The quality of auscultation was ranged using a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 to "I hear perfectly"). Data collected were compared using a t-test for paired values. A total of 40 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 4.53 ± 1.91 and 7.18 ± 1.88 for the traditional and amplified stethoscope, respectively (paired t-test: P auscultation was estimated at 3.1 ± 1.95 for a traditional stethoscope and 5.10 ± 2.13 for the amplified one (paired t-test: P < .0001). This study showed that practitioners would be better helped in hearing cardiac and respiratory sounds with an electronically amplified stethoscope than with a traditional one during air medical transport in a medically configured Falcon 50 aircraft. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds
Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.
2009-01-01
SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-12-31
This conference day was jointly organized by the `university group of thermal engineering (GUT)` and the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 7 papers entitled: `energy spectra of a passive scalar undergoing advection by a chaotic flow`; `analysis of chaotic behaviours: from topological characterization to modeling`; `temperature homogeneity by Lagrangian chaos in a direct current flow heat exchanger: numerical approach`; ` thermal instabilities in a mixed convection phenomenon: nonlinear dynamics`; `experimental characterization study of the 3-D Lagrangian chaos by thermal analogy`; `influence of coherent structures on the mixing of a passive scalar`; `evaluation of the performance index of a chaotic advection effect heat exchanger for a wide range of Reynolds numbers`. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-12-31
This conference day was jointly organized by the `university group of thermal engineering (GUT)` and the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 7 papers entitled: `energy spectra of a passive scalar undergoing advection by a chaotic flow`; `analysis of chaotic behaviours: from topological characterization to modeling`; `temperature homogeneity by Lagrangian chaos in a direct current flow heat exchanger: numerical approach`; ` thermal instabilities in a mixed convection phenomenon: nonlinear dynamics`; `experimental characterization study of the 3-D Lagrangian chaos by thermal analogy`; `influence of coherent structures on the mixing of a passive scalar`; `evaluation of the performance index of a chaotic advection effect heat exchanger for a wide range of Reynolds numbers`. (J.S.)
High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme
Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian
2014-11-01
In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).
Hopf bifurcation in a delayed reaction-diffusion-advection population model
Chen, Shanshan; Lou, Yuan; Wei, Junjie
2018-04-01
In this paper, we investigate a reaction-diffusion-advection model with time delay effect. The stability/instability of the spatially nonhomogeneous positive steady state and the associated Hopf bifurcation are investigated when the given parameter of the model is near the principle eigenvalue of an elliptic operator. Our results imply that time delay can make the spatially nonhomogeneous positive steady state unstable for a reaction-diffusion-advection model, and the model can exhibit oscillatory pattern through Hopf bifurcation. The effect of advection on Hopf bifurcation values is also considered, and our results suggest that Hopf bifurcation is more likely to occur when the advection rate increases.
Ancey, Christophe; Bohorquez, Patricio; Heyman, Joris
2016-04-01
The advection-diffusion equation arises quite often in the context of sediment transport, e.g., for describing time and space variations in the particle activity (the solid volume of particles in motion per unit streambed area). Stochastic models can also be used to derive this equation, with the significant advantage that they provide information on the statistical properties of particle activity. Stochastic models are quite useful when sediment transport exhibits large fluctuations (typically at low transport rates), making the measurement of mean values difficult. We develop an approach based on birth-death Markov processes, which involves monitoring the evolution of the number of particles moving within an array of cells of finite length. While the topic has been explored in detail for diffusion-reaction systems, the treatment of advection has received little attention. We show that particle advection produces nonlocal effects, which are more or less significant depending on the cell size and particle velocity. Albeit nonlocal, these effects look like (local) diffusion and add to the intrinsic particle diffusion (dispersal due to velocity fluctuations), with the important consequence that local measurements depend on both the intrinsic properties of particle displacement and the dimensions of the measurement system.
Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation
Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.
Diffusion-advection within dynamic biological gaps driven by structural motion
Asaro, Robert J.; Zhu, Qiang; Lin, Kuanpo
2018-04-01
To study the significance of advection in the transport of solutes, or particles, within thin biological gaps (channels), we examine theoretically the process driven by stochastic fluid flow caused by random thermal structural motion, and we compare it with transport via diffusion. The model geometry chosen resembles the synaptic cleft; this choice is motivated by the cleft's readily modeled structure, which allows for well-defined mechanical and physical features that control the advection process. Our analysis defines a Péclet-like number, AD, that quantifies the ratio of time scales of advection versus diffusion. Another parameter, AM, is also defined by the analysis that quantifies the full potential extent of advection in the absence of diffusion. These parameters provide a clear and compact description of the interplay among the well-defined structural, geometric, and physical properties vis-a ̀-vis the advection versus diffusion process. For example, it is found that AD˜1 /R2 , where R is the cleft diameter and hence diffusion distance. This curious, and perhaps unexpected, result follows from the dependence of structural motion that drives fluid flow on R . AM, on the other hand, is directly related (essentially proportional to) the energetic input into structural motion, and thereby to fluid flow, as well as to the mechanical stiffness of the cleftlike structure. Our model analysis thus provides unambiguous insight into the prospect of competition of advection versus diffusion within biological gaplike structures. The importance of the random, versus a regular, nature of structural motion and of the resulting transient nature of advection under random motion is made clear in our analysis. Further, by quantifying the effects of geometric and physical properties on the competition between advection and diffusion, our results clearly demonstrate the important role that metabolic energy (ATP) plays in this competitive process.
Advection endash diffusion around a curved obstacle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahluwalia, D.S.; Keller, J.B.; Knessl, C.
1998-01-01
Advection and diffusion of a substance around a curved obstacle is analyzed when the advection velocity is large compared to the diffusion velocity, i.e., when the Peclet number is large. Asymptotic expressions for the concentration are obtained by the use of boundary layer theory, matched asymptotic expansions, etc. The results supplement and extend previous ones for straight obstacles. They apply to electrophoresis, the flow of ground water, chromatography, sedimentation, etc. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Christoffer Peder; Bruus, Henrik
2014-01-01
. A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well...... as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction....
The Dirichlet problem of a conformable advection-diffusion equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avci Derya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equations are obtained from a fractional power law for the matter flux. Diffusion processes in special types of porous media which has fractal geometry can be modelled accurately by using these equations. However, the existing nonlocal fractional derivatives seem complicated and also lose some basic properties satisfied by usual derivatives. For these reasons, local fractional calculus has recently been emerged to simplify the complexities of fractional models defined by nonlocal fractional operators. In this work, the conformable, a local, well-behaved and limit-based definition, is used to obtain a local generalized form of advection-diffusion equation. In addition, this study is devoted to give a local generalized description to the combination of diffusive flux governed by Fick’s law and the advection flux associated with the velocity field. As a result, the constitutive conformable advection-diffusion equation can be easily achieved. A Dirichlet problem for conformable advection-diffusion equation is derived by applying fractional Laplace transform with respect to time t and finite sin-Fourier transform with respect to spatial coordinate x. Two illustrative examples are presented to show the behaviours of this new local generalized model. The dependence of the solution on the fractional order of conformable derivative and the changing values of problem parameters are validated using graphics held by MATLcodes.
Emergent structures in reaction-advection-diffusion systems on a sphere
Krause, Andrew L.; Burton, Abigail M.; Fadai, Nabil T.; Van Gorder, Robert A.
2018-04-01
We demonstrate unusual effects due to the addition of advection into a two-species reaction-diffusion system on the sphere. We find that advection introduces emergent behavior due to an interplay of the traditional Turing patterning mechanisms with the compact geometry of the sphere. Unidirectional advection within the Turing space of the reaction-diffusion system causes patterns to be generated at one point of the sphere, and transported to the antipodal point where they are destroyed. We illustrate these effects numerically and deduce conditions for Turing instabilities on local projections to understand the mechanisms behind these behaviors. We compare this behavior to planar advection which is shown to only transport patterns across the domain. Analogous transport results seem to hold for the sphere under azimuthal transport or away from the antipodal points in unidirectional flow regimes.
Cellwise conservative unsplit advection for the volume of fluid method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced......-overlapping donating regions and pre-images with conforming edges to their neighbors, resulting in the conservativeness and the boundedness (liquid volume fraction inside the interval [0, 1]) of the CCU advection scheme. Finally, the update of the liquid volume fractions is computed from the intersections of the pre......-image polygons with the reconstructed interfaces. The CCU scheme is tested on several benchmark tests for the VOF advection, together with the standard piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC). The geometrical errors of the CCU compare favorably with other unsplit VOF-PLIC schemes. Finally, potential...
A generalized advection dispersion equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper examines a possible effect of uncertainties, variability or heterogeneity of any dynamic system when being included in its evolution rule; the notion is illustrated with the advection dispersion equation, which describes the groundwater pollution model. An uncertain derivative is defined; some properties of.
Measuring groundwater transport through lake sediments by advection and diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornett, R.J.; Risto, B.A.; Lee, D.R.
1989-08-01
A method for estimating low rates of groundwater inflow and outflow through the bottom sediments of surface waters was developed and tested. A one-dimensional advection-diffusion model was fitted to measured pore water profiles of two nonreactive solutes, tritiated water and chloride, and the advection rate was calculated by a nonlinear least squares technique. Using 3 H profiles measured 0-0.5 m below the sediment-water interface, rates of groundwater advection into a lake through interbedded sands and gyttja were estimated to be about 1.0 m/year. In midlake locations underlain by soft organic gyttja, rates of advection were much lower (<0.1 m/year). Knowledge of the rate and direction of groundwater flow substantially altered the interpretation of pore water profiles within the sediments and the fluxes of solutes. This technique can be used to estimate flow rates less than 2 m/annum with minimal disturbance, without enclosing the sediments in a container, in a diversity of systems. (author)
Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mills, Brantley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.
Solutes and cells - aspects of advection-diffusion-reaction phenomena in biochips
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vedel, Søren
2012-01-01
the dependencies on density. This shows that the varied single-cell behavior including the overall modulations imposed by density arise as a natural consequence of pseudopod-driven motility in a social context. The final subproject concerns the combined effects of advection, diffusion and reaction of several......Cell’), and the overall title of the project is Solutes and cells — aspects of advection-diffusion-reaction phenomena in biochips. The work has consisted of several projects focusing on theory, and to some extend analysis of experimental data, with advection-diffusion-reaction phenomena of solutes as the recurring theme...... quantitatively interpret the proximal concentration of specific solutes, and integrate this to achieve biological functions. In three specific examples, the author and co-workers have investigated different aspects of the influence of advection, diffusion and reaction on solute distributions, as well...
Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites
Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; et al.
Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the ‘advection velocity’, which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten
2017-01-01
The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....
Analysis of moisture advection during explosive cyclogenesis over North Atlantic Ocean
Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Trigo, Ricardo M.
2013-04-01
The development of a mid-latitude cyclone may strongly be amplified by the presence of a very warm and moist air mass within its warm sector through enhanced latent heat release. In this work, a lagrangian approach is applied to examine the contribution of moisture advection to the deepening of cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean. The warm sector is represented by a 5°x5° longitude/latitude moving box comprising the centre of the cyclone and its south-eastern area is defined for the tracks of different cyclones computed at 6-hourly intervals. Using the lagrangian particle model FLEXPART we evaluated the fresh water flux (E - P) along 2-days back-trajectories of the particles residing on the total column over the defined boxes for case studies occurring during winter months from 1980 to 2000. FLEXPART simulations were performed using one degree resolution and 60 model vertical levels available in ERA40 Reanalyses at 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC for each case. Sensitivity studies on the dimensions of the target area - chosen boxes representing the warm sector -, and on its relative position to the center, were performed. We have applied this methodology to several case studies of independent North Atlantic cyclones with notorious characteristics (e.g. deepening rate, wind speed, surface damages). Results indicate that the moisture transport is particularly relevant in what concerns the fast/explosive development stage of these extratropical cyclones. In particular, the advection of moist air from the subtropics towards the cyclone core is clearly associated with the warm conveyor belt of the cyclone. This methodology can be generalized to a much larger number of mid-latitude cyclones, providing a unique opportunity to analyze the moisture behavior associated with the explosive development. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade
Modeling Effectivity of Atmospheric Advection-Diffusion Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brojewski, R.
1999-01-01
Some methods of solving the advection-diffusion problems useful in the field of atmospheric physics are presented and analyzed in the paper. The most effective one ( from the point of view of computer applications) was chosen. This is the method of problem decomposition with respect to the directions followed by secondary decomposition of the problem with respect to the physical phenomena. Introducing some corrections to the classical numerical methods of solving the problems, a hybrid composed of the finite element method for the advection problems and the implicit method with averaging for the diffusion processes was achieved. This hybrid method and application of the corrections produces a very effective means for solving the problems of substance transportation in atmosphere. (author)
Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.
1997-01-01
Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shashkov, Alexander; Higuchi, Kaz; Chan, Douglas
2007-01-01
During the period of July 8-13, 2002, we collected vertical profiles by aircraft of meteorological variables and atmospheric CO 2 over the OBS (old black spruce) site located in Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. We have used the data from the morning and afternoon flights to calculate the regional daily afternoon CO 2 flux for the days July 8-11. These daily fluxes were then compared to those obtained by the boundary layer budget method and by the eddy covariance measurements on the tower at the OBS site. We identified the importance of changes in the CO 2 concentration by advection to the flux estimates. In addition, we provide arguments to suggest that subseasonal temporal averaging might not, at least in some cases, eliminate advective bias contribution to the flux estimates. Because the advective influence is large and highly directional, even on seasonal and interannual timescales, it is advisable that flux estimates based on CO 2 concentration change at a site contain dynamic description of an air parcel transport history
Study on the ELDRS of bipolar linear operational amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hui; Liu Yanfang; Chen Yu; Bai Hua; Zhang Dong
2011-01-01
Bipolar linear devices laboratory irradiation testing results are significantly different from the actual in flight exposure to the radiation. In this paper the total dose irradiation of operational amplifiers, and analysis upon the total dose response of these bipolar circuits under the different test conditions were investigated in the same experiment. Total dose tests of bipolar linear operational amplifiers show susceptible to dose rate, bias and room temperature annealing during exposure. The critical sensitive parameters of operational amplifier are input bias current, input offset current, input offset voltage, and open loop gain, which exhibits both bias and dose rate dependence. With calculating the change of each electrical parameter (Δpara) for each sample at 300 Gy radiation level, it has been found that ratio of the Δpara at low dose rate to the Δpara at high dose rate exceeds 2.46 times for any of the parameters. So these parts are considered to be ELDRS susceptible. After room temperature annealing, the main parameters have time dependence effect at low dose rate and without time dependent effect at high dose rate. (authors)
ICESat-2 laser Nd:YVO4 amplifier
Sawruk, Nicholas W.; Burns, Patrick M.; Edwards, Ryan E.; Litvinovitch, Viatcheslav; Martin, Nigel; Witt, Greg; Fakhoury, Elias; Iskander, John; Pronko, Mark S.; Troupaki, Elisavet; Bay, Michael M.; He, Charles C.; Wang, Liqin L.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Farrokh, Babak; Salem, Jonathan A.; Baker, Eric
2018-02-01
We report on the cause and corrective actions of three amplifier crystal fractures in the space-qualified laser systems used in NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). The ICESat-2 lasers each contain three end-pumped Nd:YVOO4 amplifier stages. The crystals are clamped between two gold plated copper heat spreaders with an indium foil thermal interface material, and the crystal fractures occurred after multiple years of storage and over a year of operational run-time. The primary contributors are high compressive loading of the NdYVO4 crystals at the beginning of life, a time dependent crystal stress caused by an intermetallic reaction of the gold plating and indium, and slow crack growth resulting in a reduction in crystal strength over time. An updated crystal mounting scheme was designed, analyzed, fabricated and tested. Thee fracture slab failure analysis, finite-element modeling and corrective actions are presented.
Advectional enhancement of eddy diffusivity under parametric disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldobin, Denis S
2010-01-01
Frozen parametric disorder can lead to the appearance of sets of localized convective currents in an otherwise stable (quiescent) fluid layer heated from below. These currents significantly influence the transport of an admixture (or any other passive scalar) along the layer. When the molecular diffusivity of the admixture is small in comparison to the thermal one, which is quite typical in nature, disorder can enhance the effective (eddy) diffusivity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the molecular diffusivity. In this paper, we study the effect of an imposed longitudinal advection on the delocalization of convective currents, both numerically and analytically, and report a subsequent drastic boost of the effective diffusivity for weak advection.
Implementation of two-component advective flow solution in XSPEC
Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Santanu
2014-05-01
Spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates can be explained reasonably well using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two-component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely the Keplerian disc accretion rate and the halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a sub-Keplerian, low-angular-momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disc rate (soft photon source). Though this model has been used earlier to manually fit data of several black hole candidates quite satisfactorily, for the first time, we made it user friendly by implementing it into XSPEC software of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/NASA. This enables any user to extract physical parameters of the accretion flows, such as two accretion rates, the shock location, the shock strength, etc., for any black hole candidate. We provide some examples of fitting a few cases using this model. Most importantly, unlike any other model, we show that TCAF is capable of predicting timing properties from the spectral fits, since in TCAF, a shock is responsible for deciding spectral slopes as well as quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies. L86
How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work
Walker, Simon M.; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.
2014-01-01
Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for
Evolution of passive movement in advective environments: General boundary condition
Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang
2018-03-01
In a previous work [16], Lou et al. studied a Lotka-Volterra competition-diffusion-advection system, where two species are supposed to differ only in their advection rates and the environment is assumed to be spatially homogeneous and closed (no-flux boundary condition), and showed that weaker advective movements are more beneficial for species to win the competition. In this paper, we aim to extend this result to a more general situation, where the environmental heterogeneity is taken into account and the boundary condition at the downstream end becomes very flexible including the standard Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin type conditions as special cases. Our main approaches are to exclude the existence of co-existence (positive) steady state and to provide a clear picture on the stability of semi-trivial steady states, where we introduced new ideas and techniques to overcome the emerging difficulties. Based on these two aspects and the theory of abstract competitive systems, we achieve a complete understanding on the global dynamics.
A simple model for local scale sensible and latent heat advection contributions to snowmelt
Harder, Phillip; Pomeroy, John W.; Helgason, Warren D.
2018-01-01
Local-scale advection of energy from warm snow-free surfaces to cold snow-covered surfaces is an important component of the energy balance during snowcover depletion. Unfortunately, this process is difficult to quantify in one-dimensional snowmelt models. This manuscript proposes a simple sensible and latent heat advection model for snowmelt situations that can be readily coupled to one-dimensional energy balance snowmelt models. An existing advection parameterization was coupled to a concept...
Chaotic advection near a three-vortex collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leoncini, X.; Kuznetsov, L.; Zaslavsky, G. M.
2001-01-01
Dynamical and statistical properties of tracer advection are studied in a family of flows produced by three point-vortices of different signs. Tracer dynamics is analyzed by numerical construction of Poincare sections, and is found to be strongly chaotic: advection pattern in the region around the center of vorticity is dominated by a well developed stochastic sea, which grows as the vortex system's initial conditions are set closer to those leading to the collapse of the vortices; at the same time, the islands of regular motion around vortices, known as vortex cores, shrink. An estimation of the core's radii from the minimum distance of vortex approach to each other is obtained. Tracer transport was found to be anomalous: for all of the three numerically investigated cases, the variance of the tracer distribution grows faster than a linear function of time, corresponding to a superdiffusive regime. The transport exponent varies with time decades, implying the presence of multi-fractal transport features. Yet, its value is never too far from 3/2, indicating some kind of universality. Statistics of Poincare recurrences is non-Poissonian: distributions have long power-law tails. The anomalous properties of tracer statistics are the result of the complex structure of the advection phase space, in particular, of strong stickiness on the boundaries between the regions of chaotic and regular motion. The role of the different phase space structures involved in this phenomenon is analyzed. Based on this analysis, a kinetic description is constructed, which takes into account different time and space scalings by using a fractional equation
Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram
2008-01-01
To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;
Advection models of longitudinal dispersion in rivers
Kranenburg, C.
1996-01-01
A derivation is presented of a general cross-section averaged model of longitudinal dispersion, which is based on the notion of the advection of tracer particles. Particle displacement length and particle travel time are conceived as stochastic variables, and a joint probability density function is
Conservative and bounded volume-of-fluid advection on unstructured grids
Ivey, Christopher B.; Moin, Parviz
2017-12-01
This paper presents a novel Eulerian-Lagrangian piecewise-linear interface calculation (PLIC) volume-of-fluid (VOF) advection method, which is three-dimensional, unsplit, and discretely conservative and bounded. The approach is developed with reference to a collocated node-based finite-volume two-phase flow solver that utilizes the median-dual mesh constructed from non-convex polyhedra. The proposed advection algorithm satisfies conservation and boundedness of the liquid volume fraction irrespective of the underlying flux polyhedron geometry, which differs from contemporary unsplit VOF schemes that prescribe topologically complicated flux polyhedron geometries in efforts to satisfy conservation. Instead of prescribing complicated flux-polyhedron geometries, which are prone to topological failures, our VOF advection scheme, the non-intersecting flux polyhedron advection (NIFPA) method, builds the flux polyhedron iteratively such that its intersection with neighboring flux polyhedra, and any other unavailable volume, is empty and its total volume matches the calculated flux volume. During each iteration, a candidate nominal flux polyhedron is extruded using an iteration dependent scalar. The candidate is subsequently intersected with the volume guaranteed available to it at the time of the flux calculation to generate the candidate flux polyhedron. The difference in the volume of the candidate flux polyhedron and the actual flux volume is used to calculate extrusion during the next iteration. The choice in nominal flux polyhedron impacts the cost and accuracy of the scheme; however, it does not impact the methods underlying conservation and boundedness. As such, various robust nominal flux polyhedron are proposed and tested using canonical periodic kinematic test cases: Zalesak's disk and two- and three-dimensional deformation. The tests are conducted on the median duals of a quadrilateral and triangular primal mesh, in two-dimensions, and on the median duals of a
Anomalous scaling of a passive vector advected by the Navier-Stokes velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurcisinova, E; Jurcisin, M; Remecky, R
2009-01-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator-product expansion, the model of a passive vector field (a weak magnetic field in the framework of the kinematic MHD) advected by the velocity field which is governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with the Gaussian random stirring force δ-correlated in time and with the correlator proportional to k 4-d-2ε is investigated to the first order in ε (one-loop approximation). It is shown that the single-time correlation functions of the advected vector field have anomalous scaling behavior and the corresponding exponents are calculated in the isotropic case, as well as in the case with the presence of large-scale anisotropy. The hierarchy of the anisotropic critical dimensions is briefly discussed and the persistence of the anisotropy inside the inertial range is demonstrated on the behavior of the skewness and hyperskewness (dimensionless ratios of correlation functions) as functions of the Reynolds number Re. It is shown that even though the present model of a passive vector field advected by the realistic velocity field is mathematically more complicated than, on one hand, the corresponding models of a passive vector field advected by 'synthetic' Gaussian velocity fields and, on the other hand, than the corresponding model of a passive scalar quantity advected by the velocity field driven by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, the final one-loop approximate asymptotic scaling behavior of the single-time correlation or structure functions of the advected fields of all models are defined by the same anomalous dimensions (up to normalization)
Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...
Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...
A computational method for sharp interface advection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roenby, Johan; Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-01-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volu...
A novel finite volume discretization method for advection-diffusion systems on stretched meshes
Merrick, D. G.; Malan, A. G.; van Rooyen, J. A.
2018-06-01
This work is concerned with spatial advection and diffusion discretization technology within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this context, a novel method is proposed, which is dubbed the Enhanced Taylor Advection-Diffusion (ETAD) scheme. The model equation employed for design of the scheme is the scalar advection-diffusion equation, the industrial application being incompressible laminar and turbulent flow. Developed to be implementable into finite volume codes, ETAD places specific emphasis on improving accuracy on stretched structured and unstructured meshes while considering both advection and diffusion aspects in a holistic manner. A vertex-centered structured and unstructured finite volume scheme is used, and only data available on either side of the volume face is employed. This includes the addition of a so-called mesh stretching metric. Additionally, non-linear blending with the existing NVSF scheme was performed in the interest of robustness and stability, particularly on equispaced meshes. The developed scheme is assessed in terms of accuracy - this is done analytically and numerically, via comparison to upwind methods which include the popular QUICK and CUI techniques. Numerical tests involved the 1D scalar advection-diffusion equation, a 2D lid driven cavity and turbulent flow case. Significant improvements in accuracy were achieved, with L2 error reductions of up to 75%.
First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems
2014-03-01
accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iter - ations. 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Hyperbolic...however, we employ the Gauss - Seidel (GS) relaxation, which is also an O(N) method for the discretization arising from hyperbolic advection-diffusion system...advection-diffusion scheme. The linear dependency of the iterations on Table 1: Boundary layer problem ( Convergence criteria: Residuals < 10−8.) log10Re
Advection and Taylor-Aris dispersion in rivulet flow
Al Mukahal, F. H. H.; Duffy, B. R.; Wilson, S. K.
2017-11-01
Motivated by the need for a better understanding of the transport of solutes in microfluidic flows with free surfaces, the advection and dispersion of a passive solute in steady unidirectional flow of a thin uniform rivulet on an inclined planar substrate driven by gravity and/or a uniform longitudinal surface shear stress are analysed. Firstly, we describe the short-time advection of both an initially semi-infinite and an initially finite slug of solute of uniform concentration. Secondly, we describe the long-time Taylor-Aris dispersion of an initially finite slug of solute. In particular, we obtain the general expression for the effective diffusivity for Taylor-Aris dispersion in such a rivulet, and discuss in detail its different interpretations in the special case of a rivulet on a vertical substrate.
Keeports, David
2006-12-01
By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.
From the advective-acoustic instability to the asymmetric explosions of Core Collapse Supernovae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galletti, Pascal
2005-01-01
The advective-acoustic cycle is a hydrodynamical mechanism fed by the coupling between advected waves (entropy, vorticity) and an acoustic feedback. Already studied in physics (rumble instability in ramjet, whistling tea kettle), it was introduced in astrophysics in the frame of the instability of the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion flow. In this thesis, we propose this cycle as an explanation for the asymmetry of the explosion of Core Collapse Supernovae. The evaluation of Eigenmodes for the classical accretion above a solid surface (white dwarfs, neutron stars) and the use of a toy-model reveal the importance of the advective-acoustic cycle in such an instable accretion flow. Following these results and the comparison with numerical simulations, a modelization of the flow when the shock stalls during a Core Collapse Supernova, shows that the advective-acoustic cycle is a natural mechanism to explain the non-spherical instability of the shock. The domination of l = 1 modes may be responsible for the observed pulsar kicks. (author) [fr
Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermak, D.L.
1992-07-01
A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments
Spectral and evolutionary analysis of advection-diffusion equations and the shear flow paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thyagaraja, A.; Loureiro, N.; Knight, P.J.
2002-01-01
Advection-diffusion equations occur in a wide variety of fields in many contexts of active and passive transport in fluids and plasmas. The effects of sheared advective flows in the presence of irreversible processes such as diffusion and viscosity are of considerable current interest in tokamak and astrophysical contexts, where they are thought to play a key role in both transport and the dynamical structures characteristic of electromagnetic plasma turbulence. In this paper we investigate the spectral and evolutionary properties of relatively simple, linear, advection-diffusion equations. We apply analytical approaches based on standard Green's function methods to obtain insight into the nature of the spectra when the advective and diffusive effects occur separately and in combination. In particular, the physically interesting limit of small (but finite) diffusion is studied in detail. The analytical work is extended and supplemented by numerical techniques involving a direct solution of the eigenvalue problem as well as evolutionary studies of the initial value problem using a parallel code, CADENCE. The three approaches are complementary and entirely consistent with each other when appropriate comparison is made. They reveal different aspects of the properties of the advection-diffusion equation, such as the ability of sheared flows to generate a direct cascade to high wave numbers transverse to the advection and the consequent enhancement of even small amounts of diffusivity. The invariance properties of the spectra in the low diffusivity limit and the ability of highly sheared, jet-like flows to 'confine' transport to low shear regions are demonstrated. The implications of these properties in a wider context are discussed and set in perspective. (author)
Distinguishing advective and powered motion in self-propelled colloids
Byun, Young-Moo; Lammert, Paul E.; Hong, Yiying; Sen, Ayusman; Crespi, Vincent H.
2017-11-01
Self-powered motion in catalytic colloidal particles provides a compelling example of active matter, i.e. systems that engage in single-particle and collective behavior far from equilibrium. The long-time, long-distance behavior of such systems is of particular interest, since it connects their individual micro-scale behavior to macro-scale phenomena. In such analyses, it is important to distinguish motion due to subtle advective effects—which also has long time scales and length scales—from long-timescale phenomena that derive from intrinsically powered motion. Here, we develop a methodology to analyze the statistical properties of the translational and rotational motions of powered colloids to distinguish, for example, active chemotaxis from passive advection by bulk flow.
Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
2006-07-01
We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.
Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric actuators for UAV flight control
Vos, R.; Barrett, R.; Krakers, L.; Van Tooren, M.
2006-01-01
This paper presents the use of a new class of flight control actuators employing Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric elements in morphing wing Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The new actuator relieson axial compression to amplify deflections and control forces simultaneously. Two
Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yavneh, I. [Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Venner, C.H. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Brandt, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
1996-12-31
The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.
Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraichnan, R.H. [Robert H. Kraichnan, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)
1995-12-31
Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.
The effect of coherent stirring on the advection?condensation of water vapour
Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques
2017-01-01
Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. Key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. In order to investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls the moisture...
Auto-Zero Differential Amplifier
Quilligan, Gerard T. (Inventor); Aslam, Shahid (Inventor)
2017-01-01
An autozero amplifier may include a window comparator network to monitor an output offset of a differential amplifier. The autozero amplifier may also include an integrator to receive a signal from a latched window comparator network, and send an adjustment signal back to the differential amplifier to reduce an offset of the differential amplifier.
Chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefevre, A.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Saatdjian, E.
2003-01-01
The heat transfer rate from a solid boundary to a highly viscous fluid can be enhanced significantly by a phenomenon which is called chaotic advection or Lagrangian turbulence. Although the flow is laminar and dominated by viscous forces, some fluid particle trajectories are chaotic due either to a suitable boundary displacement protocol or to a change in geometry. As in turbulent flow, the heat transfer rate enhancement between the boundary and the fluid is intimately linked to the mixing of fluid in the system. Chaotic advection in real Stokes flows, i.e. flows governed by viscous forces and that can be constructed experimentally, is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is made on recent new results on 3-D time-periodic open flows which are particularly important in industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gjesdal, Thor
1997-12-31
This thesis discusses the development and application of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of fluid flows, in particular the flow of incompressible fluids. The emphasis is on practical aspects of algorithm development and on application of the methods either to linear scalar model equations or to the non-linear incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The first part deals with cell centred multigrid methods and linear correction scheme and presents papers on (1) generalization of the method to arbitrary sized grids for diffusion problems, (2) low order method for advection-diffusion problems, (3) attempt to extend the basic method to advection-diffusion problems, (4) Fourier smoothing analysis of multicolour relaxation schemes, and (5) analysis of high-order discretizations for advection terms. The second part discusses a multigrid based on pressure correction methods, non-linear full approximation scheme, and papers on (1) systematic comparison of the performance of different pressure correction smoothers and some other algorithmic variants, low to moderate Reynolds numbers, and (2) systematic study of implementation strategies for high order advection schemes, high-Re flow. An appendix contains Fortran 90 data structures for multigrid development. 160 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.
Probability and Cumulative Density Function Methods for the Stochastic Advection-Reaction Equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barajas-Solano, David A.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2018-01-01
We present a cumulative density function (CDF) method for the probabilistic analysis of $d$-dimensional advection-dominated reactive transport in heterogeneous media. We employ a probabilistic approach in which epistemic uncertainty on the spatial heterogeneity of Darcy-scale transport coefficients is modeled in terms of random fields with given correlation structures. Our proposed CDF method employs a modified Large-Eddy-Diffusivity (LED) approach to close and localize the nonlocal equations governing the one-point PDF and CDF of the concentration field, resulting in a $(d + 1)$ dimensional PDE. Compared to the classsical LED localization, the proposed modified LED localization explicitly accounts for the mean-field advective dynamics over the phase space of the PDF and CDF. To illustrate the accuracy of the proposed closure, we apply our CDF method to one-dimensional single-species reactive transport with uncertain, heterogeneous advection velocities and reaction rates modeled as random fields.
Diffusion of a passive scalar with random advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molyneux, J.E.; Witten, A.J.
1980-01-01
To investigate the instantaneous release of a passive additive into a flow, we assume that the concentration of the additive is governed by the one-dimensional advective diffusion equation in which the advecting flow velocity is a given time-dependent stochastic process. We determine both the one- and two-space-time point probability distributions of the random concentration field. This problem, or more elaborate variations of it, is a rather idealized model for a variety of environmentally important flow situations, for example, the accidental or planned release of a contaminant into a river by a power station, and, as such, it has been investigated by a number of authors. Previous treatments, however, have concentrated on deriving information about the statistical moments of the concentration. Although such information is important, it may be inadequate for accessing the true effects of a flow additive on the environment. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility of obtaining a more complete statistical description
Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, self-similar solutions of resistive advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) in the presence of a pure azimuthal magnetic field are investigated. The mechanism of energy dissipation is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow.
Theory of advection-driven long range biotic transport
We propose a simple mechanistic model to examine the effects of advective flow on the spread of fungal diseases spread by wind-blown spores. The model is defined by a set of two coupled non-linear partial differential equations for spore densities. One equation describes the long-distance advectiv...
Portable musical instrument amplifier
Christian, David E.
1990-07-24
The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mcebisi Mkhwanazi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL is one of the remote sensing (RS models that are increasingly being used to determine evapotranspiration (ET. SEBAL is a widely used model, mainly due to the fact that it requires minimum weather data, and also no prior knowledge of surface characteristics is needed. However, it has been observed that it underestimates ET under advective conditions due to its disregard of advection as another source of energy available for evaporation. A modified SEBAL model was therefore developed in this study. An advection component, which is absent in the original SEBAL, was introduced such that the energy available for evapotranspiration was a sum of net radiation and advected heat energy. The improved SEBAL model was termed SEBAL-Advection or SEBAL-A. An important aspect of the improved model is the estimation of advected energy using minimal weather data. While other RS models would require hourly weather data to be able to account for advection (e.g., METRIC, SEBAL-A only requires daily averages of limited weather data, making it appropriate even in areas where weather data at short time steps may not be available. In this study, firstly, the original SEBAL model was evaluated under advective and non-advective conditions near Rocky Ford in southeastern Colorado, a semi-arid area where afternoon advection is common occurrence. The SEBAL model was found to incur large errors when there was advection (which was indicated by higher wind speed and warm and dry air. SEBAL-A was then developed and validated in the same area under standard surface conditions, which were described as healthy alfalfa with height of 40–60 cm, without water-stress. ET values estimated using the original and modified SEBAL were compared to large weighing lysimeter-measured ET values. When the SEBAL ET was compared to SEBAL-A ET values, the latter showed improved performance, with the ET Mean Bias Error (MBE reduced from −17
Low-noise detector and amplifier design for 100 ns direct detection CO{sub 2} LIDAR receiver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cafferty, M.M.; Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Fuller, K.
1997-06-01
The development and test results of a prototype detector/amplifier design for a background limited, pulsed 100 ns, 10--100 kHz repetition rate LIDAR/DIAL receiver system are presented. Design objectives include near-matched filter detection of received pulse amplitude and round trip time-of-flight, and the elimination of excess correlated detector/amplifier noise for optimal pulse averaging. A novel pole-zero cancellation amplifier, coupled with a state-of-the-art SBRC (Santa Barbara Research Center) infrared detector was implemented to meet design objectives. The pole-zero cancellation amplifier utilizes a tunable, pseudo-matched filter technique to match the width of the laser pulse to the shaping time of the filter for optimal SNR performance. Low frequency correlated noise, (l/f and drift noise) is rejected through a second order high gain feedback loop. The amplifier also employs an active detector bias stage minimizing detector drift. Experimental results will be provided that demonstrate near-background limited, 100 ns pulse detection performance given a 8.5--11.5 {micro}m (300 K B.B.) radiant background, with the total noise floor spectrally white for optimal pulse averaging efficiency.
Anomalous transport regimes in a stochastic advection-diffusion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dranikov, I.L.; Kondratenko, P.S.; Matveev, L.V.
2004-01-01
A general solution to the stochastic advection-diffusion problem is obtained for a fractal medium with long-range correlated spatial fluctuations. A particular transport regime is determined by two basic parameters: the exponent 2h of power-law decay of the two-point velocity correlation function and the mean advection velocity u. The values of these parameters corresponding to anomalous diffusion are determined, and anomalous behavior of the tracer distribution is analyzed for various combinations of u and h. The tracer concentration is shown to decrease exponentially at large distances, whereas power-law decay is predicted by fractional differential equations. Equations that describe the essential characteristics of the solution are written in terms of coupled space-time fractional differential operators. The analysis relies on a diagrammatic technique and makes use of scale-invariant properties of the medium
Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram
2011-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a
Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram
2007-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou, C.
2002-01-01
An advection-diffusion model has been set up to describe normal grain growth. In this model grains are divided into different groups according to their topological classes (number of sides of a grain). Topological transformations are modelled by advective and diffusive flows governed by advective and diffusive coefficients respectively, which are assumed to be proportional to topological classes. The ordinary differential equations governing self-similar time-independent grain size distribution can be derived analytically from continuity equations. It is proved that the time-independent distributions obtained by solving the ordinary differential equations have the same form as the time-dependent distributions obtained by solving the continuity equations. The advection-diffusion model is extended to describe the stagnation of normal grain growth in thin films. Grain boundary grooving prevents grain boundaries from moving, and the correlation between neighbouring grains accelerates the stagnation of normal grain growth. After introducing grain boundary grooving and the correlation between neighbouring grains into the model, the grain size distribution is close to a lognormal distribution, which is usually found in experiments. A vertex computer simulation of normal grain growth has also been carried out to make a cross comparison with the advection-diffusion model. The result from the simulation did not verify the assumption that the advective and diffusive coefficients are proportional to topological classes. Instead, we have observed that topological transformations usually occur on certain topological classes. This suggests that the advection-diffusion model can be improved by making a more realistic assumption on topological transformations. (author)
Mixing enhancement and transport reduction in chaotic advection
Benzekri , Tounsia; Chandre , Cristel; Leoncini , Xavier; Lima , Ricardo; Vittot , Michel
2005-01-01
We present a method for reducing chaotic transport in a model of chaotic advection due to time-periodic forcing of an oscillating vortex chain. We show that by a suitable modification of this forcing, the modified model combines two effects: enhancement of mixing within the rolls and suppression of chaotic transport along the channel.
Advection-dominated Inflow/Outflows from Evaporating Accretion Disks.
Turolla; Dullemond
2000-03-01
In this Letter we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) fed by the evaporation of a Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk (SSD). In our picture, the ADAF fills the central cavity evacuated by the SSD and extends beyond the transition radius into a coronal region. We find that, because of global angular momentum conservation, a significant fraction of the hot gas flows away from the black hole, forming a transsonic wind, unless the injection rate depends only weakly on radius (if r2sigma&d2;~r-xi, xiBernoulli number of the inflowing gas is negative if the transition radius is less, similar100 Schwarzschild radii, so matter falling into the hole is gravitationally bound. The ratio of inflowing to outflowing mass is approximately 1/2, so in these solutions the accretion rate is of the same order as in standard ADAFs and much larger than in advection-dominated inflow/outflow models. The possible relevance of evaporation-fed solutions to accretion flows in black hole X-ray binaries is briefly discussed.
Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny
1994-01-01
A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems....
Advective energy occurring in edge environments may increase tree water use. In humid agricultural landscapes, advection-enhanced transpiration in riparian buffers may provide hydrologic regulation; however, research in humid environments is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine ho...
A computational method for sharp interface advection
Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-01-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face–interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional interface advection problems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The results are very satisfactory in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness and efficiency. The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM® extension and is published as open source. PMID:28018619
A computational method for sharp interface advection.
Roenby, Johan; Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-11-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional interface advection problems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The results are very satisfactory in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness and efficiency. The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM ® extension and is published as open source.
Measuring Advection and Diffusion of Colloids in Shear Flow
Duits, Michael H.G.; Ghosh, Somnath; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther
2015-01-01
An analysis of the dynamics of colloids in shear flow can be challenging because of the superposition of diffusion and advection. We present a method that separates the two motions, starting from the time-dependent particle coordinates. The restriction of the tracking to flow lanes and the
A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing
2008-12-10
The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stine, R.D.; Ross, G.F.; Silvernail, C.
1979-01-01
The overall design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100-kJ Antares laser. In the power amplifier a single, cylindrical, grid-controlle, cold-cathode electron gun is surrounded by 12 large-aperture CO 2 electron-beam sustained laser discharge sectors. Each power amplifier will deliver 18 kJ and the six modules used in Antares will produce the required 100 kJ for delivery to the target. A large-scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines is required to meet the design objectives. Significant component advances required by the power amplifier design are discussed
Some numerical studies of interface advection properties of level set ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
explicit computational elements moving through an Eulerian grid. ... location. The interface is implicitly defined (captured) as the location of the discontinuity in the ... This level set function is advected with the background flow field and thus ...
Amplification factor variable amplifier
Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram
2007-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and
Amplification factor variable amplifier
Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram
2010-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can
CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaulberg, Thomas
1992-01-01
current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 Â¿A (signal-range Â±700Â¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G M; Dasgupta, B; McKenzie, J F; Hu, Q; Zank, G P
2014-01-01
In this paper advected invariants and conservation laws in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gas dynamics are obtained using Lie dragging techniques. There are different classes of invariants that are advected or Lie dragged with the flow. Simple examples are the advection of the entropy S (a 0-form), and the conservation of magnetic flux (an invariant 2-form advected with the flow). The magnetic flux conservation law is equivalent to Faraday's equation. The gauge condition for the magnetic helicity to be advected with the flow is determined. Different variants of the helicity in ideal fluid dynamics and MHD including: fluid helicity, cross helicity and magnetic helicity are investigated. The fluid helicity conservation law and the cross-helicity conservation law in MHD are derived for the case of a barotropic gas. If the magnetic field lies in the constant entropy surface, then the gas pressure can depend on both the entropy and the density. In these cases the conservation laws are local conservation laws. For non-barotropic gases, we obtain nonlocal conservation laws for fluid helicity and cross helicity by using Clebsch variables. These nonlocal conservation laws are the main new results of the paper. Ertel's theorem and potential vorticity, the Hollman invariant, and the Godbillon–Vey invariant for special flows for which the magnetic helicity is zero are also discussed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Weimin
2012-01-01
By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above ∼0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Høiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.
Dostal, Jiri
1993-01-01
This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cook, Perran L. M.; Wenzhofer, Frank; Glud, Ronnie N.
2007-01-01
within the range measured in the chambers. The contribution of advection to solute exchange was highly variable and dependent on sediment topography. Advective processes also had a pronounced influence on the in situ distribution of O-2 within the sediment, with characteristic two-dimensional patterns...... of O-2 distribution across ripples, and also deep subsurface O-2 pools, being observed. Mineralization pathways were predominantly aerobic when benthic mineralization rates were low and advective pore-water flow high as a result of well-developed sediment topography. By contrast, mineralization...... proceeded predominantly through sulfate reduction when benthic mineralization rates were high and advective pore-water flow low as a result of poorly developed topography. Previous studies of benthic mineralization in shallow sandy sediments have generally ignored these dynamics and, hence, have overlooked...
CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier
Kaulberg, Thomas
1992-01-01
A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 Â¿A (signal-r...
A filtering technique for solving the advection equation in two-phase flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devals, C.; Heniche, M.; Bertrand, F.; Tanguy, P.A.; Hayes, R.E.
2004-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop a numerical strategy for the simulation of two-phase flow in the context of chemical engineering applications. The finite element method has been chosen because of its flexibility to deal with complex geometries. One of the key points of two-phase flow simulation is to determine precisely the position of the interface between the two phases, which is an unknown of the problem. In this case, the interface can be tracked by the advection of the so-called color function. It is well known that the solution of the advection equation by most numerical schemes, including the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, may exhibit spurious oscillations. This work proposes an approach to filter out these oscillations by means of a change of variable that is efficient for both steady state and transient cases. First, the filtering technique will be presented in detail. Then, it will be applied to two-dimensional benchmark problems, namely, the advection skew to the mesh and the Zalesak's problems. (author)
Downwind evolution of transpiration by two irrigated crops under conditions of local advection
McAneney, K. J.; Brunet, Y.; Itier, B.
1994-09-01
Previous measurements of water loss from small-dish evaporimeters mounted at the height of irrigated crops grown under conditions of extreme local advection in the Sudan are reexamined. From these evaporimeter measurements, it is possible to calculate fractional changes in the saturation deficit. Relationships between canopy conductance and saturation deficit are briefly reviewed and introduced into the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate transpiration rates as a function of distance downwind of the boundary between the upwind desert and the irrigated crop. In contradiction to most theoretical predictions, these new calculations show rates of transpiration to undergo only modest changes with increasing fetch. This occurs because of the feedback interaction between saturation deficit and stomatal conductance. This result is in good accord with a recent study suggesting that a dry-moist boundary transition may be best modelled as a simple step change in surface fluxes and further that the advective enhancement of evaporation may have been overestimated by many advection models. Larger effects are expected on dry matter yields because of the direct influence of saturation deficit on the yield-transpiration ratio.
Space-Time Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation with Caputo Derivative
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Francisco Gómez Aguilar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An alternative construction for the space-time fractional diffusion-advection equation for the sedimentation phenomena is presented. The order of the derivative is considered as 0<β, γ≤1 for the space and time domain, respectively. The fractional derivative of Caputo type is considered. In the spatial case we obtain the fractional solution for the underdamped, undamped, and overdamped case. In the temporal case we show that the concentration has amplitude which exhibits an algebraic decay at asymptotically large times and also shows numerical simulations where both derivatives are taken in simultaneous form. In order that the equation preserves the physical units of the system two auxiliary parameters σx and σt are introduced characterizing the existence of fractional space and time components, respectively. A physical relation between these parameters is reported and the solutions in space-time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function depending on the parameters β and γ. The generalization of the fractional diffusion-advection equation in space-time exhibits anomalous behavior.
Simplified design of IC amplifiers
Lenk, John
1996-01-01
Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif
AN EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION
Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. Such characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. A generalization of characteri...
A volume of fluid method based on multidimensional advection and spline interface reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, J.; Hernandez, J.; Gomez, P.; Faura, F.
2004-01-01
A new volume of fluid method for tracking two-dimensional interfaces is presented. The method involves a multidimensional advection algorithm based on the use of edge-matched flux polygons to integrate the volume fraction evolution equation, and a spline-based reconstruction algorithm. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are analyzed using different tests, and the results are compared with those obtained recently by other authors. Despite its simplicity, the proposed method represents a significant improvement, and compares favorably with other volume of fluid methods as regards the accuracy and efficiency of both the advection and reconstruction steps
A model for the calculation of dispersion, advection and deposition of polluants in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doron, E.
1981-08-01
A numerical model for the prediction of atmospheric pollutants concentrations as a function of time and location is described. The model includes effects of dispersion, advection and deposition of the pollutant. Topographic influences are included through the introduction of a terrain following vertical coordinate. The wind field, needed for the calculation of the advection, is obtained from a time series of objective analysis of actual wind measurements. A unique feature of the model is the use of the logarithm of the concentration as the predicted variable. For a concentration distribution close to Gaussian, the distribution of this variable is close to parabolic. Thus, a polynomial of low order can be fitted to the distribution and then used for the calculation of derivatives of the advection and diffusion terms with great accuracy. The fitting method used was the cubic splines method. Initial experiments with the method included tests of the interpolation methods, which were found to be very accurate, and a few dispersion and advection experiments designed for an initial check of the influence of vertical wind shear, topography and changes of wind speed and direction with time. The results of these experiments show that the model has a marked advantage over the Gaussian model but its use requires more advanced computing facilities. (author)
A SIMPLE TOY MODEL OF THE ADVECTIVE-ACOUSTIC INSTABILITY. I. PERTURBATIVE APPROACH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foglizzo, T.
2009-01-01
Some general properties of the advective-acoustic instability are described and understood using a toy model, which is simple enough to allow for analytical estimates of the eigenfrequencies. The essential ingredients of this model, in the unperturbed regime, are a stationary shock and a subsonic region of deceleration. For the sake of analytical simplicity, the two-dimensional unperturbed flow is parallel and the deceleration is produced adiabatically by an external potential. The instability mechanism is determined unambiguously as the consequence of a cycle between advected and acoustic perturbations. The purely acoustic cycle, considered alone, is proven to be stable in this flow. Its contribution to the instability can be either constructive or destructive. A frequency cutoff is associated with the advection time through the region of deceleration. This cutoff frequency explains why the instability favors eigenmodes with a low frequency and a large horizontal wavelength. The relation between the instability occurring in this highly simplified toy model and the properties of standing accretion shock instability observed in the numerical simulations of stellar core collapse is discussed. This simple setup is proposed as a benchmark test to evaluate the accuracy, in the linear regime, of numerical simulations involving this instability. We illustrate such benchmark simulations in a companion paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taohua Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional advection-dispersion equations, as generalizations of classical integer-order advection-dispersion equations, are used to model the transport of passive tracers carried by fluid flow in a porous medium. In this paper, we develop an implicit finite difference method for fractional advection-dispersion equations with fractional derivative boundary conditions. First-order consistency, solvability, unconditional stability, and first-order convergence of the method are proven. Then, we present a fast iterative method for the implicit finite difference scheme, which only requires storage of O(K and computational cost of O(KlogK. Traditionally, the Gaussian elimination method requires storage of O(K2 and computational cost of O(K3. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of the method are checked with a numerical example.
Millimeter-wave power amplifiers
du Preez, Jaco
2017-01-01
This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.
Advective Removal of Intraparticle Uranium from Contaminated Vadose Zone Sediments, Hanford, USA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilton, Eugene S.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Liu, Chongxuan; Moore, D. A.; Zachara, John M.
2008-01-01
A column study on U contaminated vadose zone sediments from the Hanford Site, WA, was performed in order to aid the development of a model for predicting U(VI) release rates under a dynamic flow regime and for variable geochemical conditions. The sediments of interest are adjacent to and below tank BX-102, part of the BX tank farm that contained high level liquid radioactive waste. Two sediments, with different U(VI) loadings and intraparticle large fracture vs. smaller fracture ratios, were reacted with three different solutions. The primary reservoir for U(VI) appears to be a micron-sized nanocrystalline Na-U-Si phase, possibly Na-boltwoodite, that nucleated and grew on plagioclase grains that line fractures within sand-sized granitic clasts. The solutions were all calcite saturated and in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, where one solution was simply DI-water, the second was a synthetic ground water (SGW) with elevated Na, and the third was the same SGW but with both elevated Na and Si. The latter two solutions were employed, in part, to test the effect of saturation state on U(VI) release. For both sediments and all three electrolytes, there was an initial rapid release of U(VI) to the advecting solution followed by a plateau of low U(VI) concentration. U(VI) effluent concentration increased during subsequent stop flow (SF) events. The electrolytes with elevated Na and Si appreciably depressed U(VI) concentrations relative to DI water. The effluent data for both sediments and all three electrolytes was simulated reasonably well by a three domain model (the advecting fluid, fractures, and matrix) that coupled U(VI) dissolution rates, intraparticle U(VI) diffusion, and interparticle advective transport of U(VI); where key transport and dissolution processes had been parameterized in previous batch studies. For the calcite-saturated DI-water, U(VI) concentrations in the effluent remained far below saturation with respect to Na-boltwoodite and release of U(VI) to
Oscillators and operational amplifiers
Lindberg, Erik
2005-01-01
A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.
Several fluidic tuned AC Amplifiers were designed and tested. Interstage tuning and feedback designs are considered. Good results were obtained...corresponding Q’s as high as 12. Element designs and test results of one, two, and three stage amplifiers are presented. AC Modulated Carrier Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, N V
2006-01-01
Recent progress on the anomalous scaling in models of turbulent heat and mass transport is reviewed with the emphasis on the approach based on the field-theoretic renormalization group (RG) and operator product expansion (OPE). In that approach, the anomalous scaling is established as a consequence of the existence in the corresponding field-theoretic models of an infinite number of 'dangerous' composite fields (operators) with negative critical dimensions, which are identified with the anomalous exponents. This allows one to calculate the exponents in a systematic perturbation expansion, similar to the ε expansion in the theory of critical phenomena. The RG and OPE approach is presented in a self-contained way for the example of a passive scalar field (temperature, concentration of an impurity, etc) advected by a self-similar Gaussian velocity ensemble with vanishing correlation time, the so-called Kraichnan's rapid-change model, where the anomalous exponents are known up to order O(ε 3 ). Effects of anisotropy, compressibility and the correlation time of the velocity field are discussed. Passive advection by non-Gaussian velocity field governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation and passively advected vector (e.g. magnetic) fields are considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Hong-Yu; Gu, Wei-Min
2017-01-01
In the classic picture of standard thin accretion disks, viscous heating is balanced by radiative cooling through the diffusion process, and the radiation-pressure-dominated inner disk suffers convective instability. However, recent simulations have shown that, owing to the magnetic buoyancy, the vertical advection process can significantly contribute to energy transport. In addition, in comparing the simulation results with the local convective stability criterion, no convective instability has been found. In this work, following on from simulations, we revisit the vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated thin disks and include the vertical advection process. Our study indicates a link between the additional energy transport and the convectively stable property. Thus, the vertical advection not only significantly contributes to the energy transport, but it also plays an important role in making the disk convectively stable. Our analyses may help to explain the discrepancy between classic theory and simulations on standard thin disks.
Ancey, C.; Bohorquez, P.; Heyman, J.
2015-12-01
The advection-diffusion equation is one of the most widespread equations in physics. It arises quite often in the context of sediment transport, e.g., for describing time and space variations in the particle activity (the solid volume of particles in motion per unit streambed area). Phenomenological laws are usually sufficient to derive this equation and interpret its terms. Stochastic models can also be used to derive it, with the significant advantage that they provide information on the statistical properties of particle activity. These models are quite useful when sediment transport exhibits large fluctuations (typically at low transport rates), making the measurement of mean values difficult. Among these stochastic models, the most common approach consists of random walk models. For instance, they have been used to model the random displacement of tracers in rivers. Here we explore an alternative approach, which involves monitoring the evolution of the number of particles moving within an array of cells of finite length. Birth-death Markov processes are well suited to this objective. While the topic has been explored in detail for diffusion-reaction systems, the treatment of advection has received no attention. We therefore look into the possibility of deriving the advection-diffusion equation (with a source term) within the framework of birth-death Markov processes. We show that in the continuum limit (when the cell size becomes vanishingly small), we can derive an advection-diffusion equation for particle activity. Yet while this derivation is formally valid in the continuum limit, it runs into difficulty in practical applications involving cells or meshes of finite length. Indeed, within our stochastic framework, particle advection produces nonlocal effects, which are more or less significant depending on the cell size and particle velocity. Albeit nonlocal, these effects look like (local) diffusion and add to the intrinsic particle diffusion (dispersal due
Genomic and proteomic analysis of soybean heritable variations induced by space flight
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Jie; GAO Yong; SUN Ye-qing
2009-01-01
To analyze the biological effects of space environment, the diversity of genomic DNA between the space flight soybean 194(4126) with phenotype of good yield and good fruit quality induced by space flight and the soybean with ground control was studied by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, and the polymorphism of space flight soybean 194(4126) was 3.56%. The differences of protein expression of seeds and leaves between the two kinds of soybeans were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, PDQuest software and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results show that the loss and decrease of protein expression in 194(4126) soybean are subjected to the space fight of seeds, and three special proteins including Dehydrin, MAT1 and ceQORH are identified. It is concluded that the space environment changes the phenotype and geno-type of soybeans due to the space flight of seeds.
A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaulberg, Thomas
1993-01-01
current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...
Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther
We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....
NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers
Leonard, Regis F.
1990-01-01
Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.
HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department
Electrospun amplified fiber optics.
Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario
2015-03-11
All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devol-Brown, I.; Tinseau, E.; Rebischung, F.; De Windt, L.; Bartier, D.; Motellier, S.; Techer, I.
2012-01-01
The Tournemire experimental platform of IRSN in Aveyron is based on a tunnel and several galleries. The tunnel was excavated between 1882 and 1886 through Domerian marls and Toarcian argillites. Its walls were recovered by lime that is yet in contact with the argillites. The program associated to the study of the engineered analogues provided by the Tournemire experimental platform is presented in another paper. In parallel, lab experiments (diffusion and advection) are performed in smaller time (1 year) and space scale to control some parameters and complete engineered analogues results. This paper details the scientific program developed on these diffusion and advection lab samples. The diffusion study was designed to provide better understanding of the phenomena that govern diffusion processes during the transient phase between site and alkaline conditions. The advection study was designed to evaluate the influence of an advective hydraulic regime on the interaction argillite/alkaline fluid in comparison with the diffusive one. In all experiments, pH and concentrations (cations, anions) were monitored in time. Mineralogical and petrographic analyses (XRD, SEM, TEM) of the argillite cores were performed before and after the experiments for characterizing the mineral alterations and their potential role on the alkaline plume migration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.
1984-01-01
This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr
Multiple Scale Reaction-Diffusion-Advection Problems with Moving Fronts
Nefedov, Nikolay
2016-06-01
In this work we discuss the further development of the general scheme of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities to investigate stability and motion of sharp internal layers (fronts) for nonlinear singularly perturbed parabolic equations, which are called in applications reaction-diffusion-advection equations. Our approach is illustrated for some new important cases of initial boundary value problems. We present results on stability and on the motion of the fronts.
A fluidic/pneumatic interface amplifier
Limbert, D. E.; Kegel, T. M.
The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The pressure within the venturi throat region, which is the amplifier output, changes with the flowrate. Non-linear characteristics, due to supersonic flow within the venturi, are altered through the use of feedback to the LPA input. A computer based model, to aid in optimizing the amplifier design, is developed. This model incorporates the effects of shock waves and boundary layers within the venturi. Good correspondence between the model and an experimental prototype is shown.
Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation
D'Ovidio, M.; Garra, R.
2013-01-01
In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.
Advective isotope transport by mixing cell and particle tracking algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezcan, L.; Meric, T.
1999-01-01
The 'mixing cell' algorithm of the environmental isotope data evaluation is integrated with the three dimensional finite difference ground water flow model (MODFLOW) to simulate the advective isotope transport and the approach is compared with the 'particle tracking' algorithm of the MOC3D, that simulates three-dimensional solute transport with the method of characteristics technique
Amplifier for nuclear spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Canner, E.
1996-01-01
The spectroscopy amplifier model AE-020 is designed to adjust suitable the pulses coming from nuclear radiation detectors. Due to is capacity and specifications, the amplifier can be used together with high and medium resolution spectroscopy system
Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Maninder Lal
2015-08-01
A new four wave mixing (FWM) model for an optical network with amplifiers and a comparative analysis among three proposed amplifiers placement techniques have been presented in this paper. The FWM model is validated with the experimental measured data. The novelty of this model is its uniqueness that on direct substitutions of network parameters like length, it works even for unequal inter amplifier separations. The novelty of the analysis done among three schemes is that it presents fair choice of amplifiers placement methods for varied total system length. The appropriateness of these three schemes has been analyzed on the basis of critical system length, critical number of amplifiers and critical bit error rate (10-9) in presence of four wave mixing (FWM) and amplified spontaneous emission noise (ASE). The implementation of analysis done has been given with the help of an example of a regenerative metropolitan area network (MAN). The results suggest that the decreasing fiber section scheme should be avoided for placements of amplifiers and schemes IUFS and EFS shows their importance interchangeably for different set of parameters.
Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.
2002-01-01
-power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...
NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, J.
1996-10-01
Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels
2015-01-01
In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single...
Direct and inverse source problems for a space fractional advection dispersion equation
Aldoghaither, Abeer; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Liu, Da Yan
2016-01-01
In this paper, direct and inverse problems for a space fractional advection dispersion equation on a finite domain are studied. The inverse problem consists in determining the source term from final observations. We first derive the analytic
A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory
Guo, Jiarong
2017-04-01
A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).
Emergent scar lines in chaotic advection of passive directors
Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg A.
2017-12-01
We examine the spatial field of orientations of slender fibers that are advected by a two-dimensional fluid flow. The orientation field of these passive directors are important in a wide range of industrial and geophysical flows. We introduce emergent scar lines as the dominant coherent structures in the orientation field of passive directors in chaotic flows. Previous work has identified the existence of scar lines where the orientation rotates by π over short distances, but the lines that were identified disappeared as time progressed. As a result, earlier work focused on topological singularities in the orientation field, which we find to play a negligible role at long times. We use the standard map as a simple time-periodic two-dimensional flow that produces Lagrangian chaos. This class of flows produces persistent patterns in passive scalar advection and we find that a different kind of persistent pattern develops in the passive director orientation field. We identify the mechanism by which emergent scar lines grow to dominate these patterns at long times in complex flows. Emergent scar lines form where the recent stretching of the fluid element is perpendicular to earlier stretching. Thus these scar lines can be labeled by their age, defined as the time since their stretching reached a maximum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, J. A.
1998-01-01
Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Erbang; Vogt, S.
1986-08-01
During several days in November 1985 an international field experiment took place in the Swiss plateau region near the cities of Aarau, Olten. As indicated by the name of the project SIESTA (SF 6 International Experiments in Stagnant Air) its aim is to obtain knowledge of the general nature of turbulence advection and atmospheric dispersion processes in a cold pool with very low wind speed and undefined wind direction. An outline of the general concept of the project is followed by a more detailed description of a special research activity with Radar tracked tetroons. In the second part of the report it is shown how to determine the horizontal dispersion parameter from the trajectories of the tetroon flights. Two different methods are described and the results of the flights performed during SIESTA are presented. (orig.) [de
Implicit and semi-implicit schemes in the Versatile Advection Code : numerical tests
Tóth, G.; Keppens, R.; Bochev, Mikhail A.
1998-01-01
We describe and evaluate various implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes applied to the numerical simulation of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical problems. The schemes were implemented recently in the software package Versatile Advection Code, which uses modern shock capturing
A Time-of-Flight System for Low Energy Charged Particles
Giordano, Micheal; Sadwick, Krystalyn; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen
2013-10-01
A time-of-flight system has been developed to measure the energy of charged particles in the keV range. Positively charged ions passing through very thin carbon films mounted on grids generate secondary electrons. These electrons are accelerated by a -2000 V grid bias towards a grounded channeltron electron multiplier (CEM) which amplifies the signal. Two CEM detector assemblies are mounted 23.1 cm apart along the path of the ions. An ion generates a start signal by passing through the first CEM and a stop signal by passing through the second. The start and stop signals generate a time-of-flight spectrum via conventional electronics. Higher energy alpha particles from radioactive sources have been used to test the system. This time-of-flight system will be deployed to measure the energies of 15 to 30 keV ions produced by a duoplasmatron ion source that is used to characterize ICF detectors.
Chakraverty, S; Sahoo, B K; Rao, T D; Karunakar, P; Sapra, B K
2018-02-01
Modelling radon transport in the earth crust is a useful tool to investigate the changes in the geo-physical processes prior to earthquake event. Radon transport is modeled generally through the deterministic advection-diffusion equation. However, in order to determine the magnitudes of parameters governing these processes from experimental measurements, it is necessary to investigate the role of uncertainties in these parameters. Present paper investigates this aspect by combining the concept of interval uncertainties in transport parameters such as soil diffusivity, advection velocity etc, occurring in the radon transport equation as applied to soil matrix. The predictions made with interval arithmetic have been compared and discussed with the results of classical deterministic model. The practical applicability of the model is demonstrated through a case study involving radon flux measurements at the soil surface with an accumulator deployed in steady-state mode. It is possible to detect the presence of very low levels of advection processes by applying uncertainty bounds on the variations in the observed concentration data in the accumulator. The results are further discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.
2010-01-01
The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....
Integrated amplifying circuit with MOS transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baylac, B; Merckel, G; Meunier, P
1974-01-25
The invention relates to a feedback-pass-band amplifier with MOS-transistors. The differential stage of conventional amplifiers is changed into an adding state, whereas the differential amplification stages are changed into amplifier inverter stages. All MOS transistors used in that amplifier are of similar configuration and are interdigitized, whereby the operating speed dispersion is reduced. This can be applied to obtaining a measurement channel for proportional chambers.
Linares, C; Carmona, R; Tobías, A; Mirón, I J; Díaz, J
2015-05-01
Approximately, 20 % of particulate and aerosol emissions into the urban atmosphere are of natural origin (including wildfires and Saharan dust). During these natural episodes, PM10 and PM2.5 levels usually exceed World Health Organisation (WHO) health protection thresholds. This study sought to evaluate the possible effect of advections of particulate matter from biomass fuel combustion on daily specific-cause mortality among the general population and the segment aged ≥ 75 years in Madrid. Ecological time-series study in the city of Madrid from January 01, 2004 to December 31, 2009. The dependent variable analysed was daily mortality due to natural (ICD-10:A00-R99), circulatory (ICD-10:I00-I99), and respiratory (ICD-10:J00-J99) causes in the population, both general and aged ≥ 75 years. The following independent and control variables were considered: a) daily mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations; b) maximum daily temperature; c) daily mean O3 and NO2 concentrations; d) advection of particulate matter from biomass combustion ( http://www.calima.ws/ ), using a dichotomous variable and e) linear trend and seasonalities. We conducted a descriptive analysis, performed a test of means and, to ascertain relative risk, fitted a model using autoregressive Poisson regression and stratifying by days with and without biomass advection, in both populations. Of the 2192 days analysed, biomass advection occurred on 56, with mean PM2.5 and PM10 values registering a significant increase during these days. PM10 had a greater impact on organic mortality with advection (RRall ages = 1.035 [1.011-1.060]; RR ≥ 75 years = 1.066 [1.031-1.103]) than did PM2.5 without advection (RRall ages = 1.017 [1.009-1.025]; RR ≥ 75 years = 1.012 [1.003-1.022]). Among specific causes, respiratory-though not circulatory-causes were associated with PM10 on days with advection in ≥ 75 year age group. PM10, rather than PM2.5, were associated with an increase in natural
Waste dissolution with chemical reaction, diffusion and advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chambre, P.L.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.
1987-06-01
This paper extends the mass-transfer analysis to include the effect of advective transport in predicting the steady-state dissolution rate, with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition at the surface of a waste form of arbitrary shape. This new theory provides an analytic means of predicting the ground-water velocities at which dissolution rate in a geologic environment will be governed entirely to the chemical reaction rate. As an illustration, we consider the steady-state potential flow of ground water in porous rock surrounding a spherical waste solid. 3 refs., 2 figs
Rigorous upper bounds for fluid and plasma transport due to passive advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.; Kim, C.B.
1987-07-01
The formulation of variational principles for transport due to passive advection is described. A detailed account of the work has been published elsewhere. In the present paper, the motivations, philosophy, and implications of the method are briefly discussed. 15 refs
Advective loss of overwintering Calanus finmarchicus from the Faroe-Shetland Channel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rullyanto, Arief; Jonasdottir, Sigrun H.; Visser, Andre W.
2015-01-01
, a regionally important secondary producer. Using a high resolution hydrodynamic model, MIKE 3 FM, we simulate the overflow of deep water and estimate the associated loss rate of C. finmarchicus as a function of the water depth strata within which they reside. We estimate a net advective loss from the Norwegian...
Power Amplifiers in CMOS Technology: A contribution to power amplifier theory and techniques
Acar, M.
2011-01-01
In order to meet the demands from the market on cheaper, miniaturized mobile communications devices realization of RF power amplifiers in the mainstream CMOS technology is essential. In general, CMOS Power Amplifiers (PAs) require high voltage to decrease the matching network losses and for high
Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier
Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.
1996-01-01
A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.
An advection-based model to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series.
Scarano, Fulvio; Moore, Peter
A numerical implementation of the advection equation is proposed to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series. The method is based on the principle that velocity fluctuations are transported passively, similar to Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence . In the present work, the advection model is extended to unsteady three-dimensional flows. The main objective of the method is that of lowering the requirement on the PIV repetition rate from the Eulerian frequency toward the Lagrangian one. The local trajectory of the fluid parcel is obtained by forward projection of the instantaneous velocity at the preceding time instant and backward projection from the subsequent time step. The trajectories are approximated by the instantaneous streamlines, which yields accurate results when the amplitude of velocity fluctuations is small with respect to the convective motion. The verification is performed with two experiments conducted at temporal resolutions significantly higher than that dictated by Nyquist criterion. The flow past the trailing edge of a NACA0012 airfoil closely approximates frozen turbulence , where the largest ratio between the Lagrangian and Eulerian temporal scales is expected. An order of magnitude reduction of the needed acquisition frequency is demonstrated by the velocity spectra of super-sampled series. The application to three-dimensional data is made with time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements of a transitional jet. Here, the 3D advection equation is implemented to estimate the fluid trajectories. The reduction in the minimum sampling rate by the use of super-sampling in this case is less, due to the fact that vortices occurring in the jet shear layer are not well approximated by sole advection at large time separation. Both cases reveal that the current requirements for time-resolved PIV experiments can be revised when information is poured from space to time . An additional favorable effect is observed by the analysis in the
VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.
2015-01-01
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.
Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.
2015-01-01
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.
A condensed-mass advection based model for the simulation of liquid polar stratospheric clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Lowe
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We present a condensed-mass advection based model (MADVEC designed to simulate the condensation/evaporation of liquid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC particles. A (Eulerian-in-radius discretization scheme is used, making the model suitable for use in global or mesoscale chemistry and transport models (CTMs. The mass advection equations are solved using an adaption of the weighted average flux (WAF scheme. We validate the numerical scheme using an analytical solution for multicomponent aerosols. The physics of the model are tested using a test case designed by Meilinger et al. (1995. The results from this test corroborate the composition gradients across the size distribution under rapid cooling conditions that were reported in earlier studies.
Transmission characteristics of acoustic amplifier in thermoacoustic engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong
2008-01-01
Thermoacoustic engines are promising in practical applications for the merits of simple configuration, reliable operation and environmentally friendly working gas. An acoustic amplifier can increase the output pressure amplitude of a thermoacoustic engine (TE) and improve the matching between the engine and its load. In order to make full use of an acoustic amplifier, the transmission characteristics are studied based on linear thermoacoustic theory. Computational and experimental results show that the amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier is mainly determined by its geometry parameters and output resistance impedance. The amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier with appropriate length and diameter reaches its maximum when the output resistance impedance is infinite. It is also shown that the acoustic amplifier consumes an amount of acoustic power when amplifying pressure amplitude and the acoustic power consumption increases with amplifying ratio. Furthermore, a novel cascade acoustic amplifier is proposed, which has a much stronger amplifying ability with reduced acoustic power consumption. In experiments, a two-stage cascade acoustic amplifier amplifies the pressure ratio from 1.177 to 1.62 and produces a pressure amplitude of 0.547 MPa with nitrogen of 2.20 MPa as working gas. Good agreements are obtained between the theoretical analysis and experimental results. This research is instructive for comprehensively understanding the mechanism and making full use of the acoustic amplifier
A second order discontinuous Galerkin method for advection on unstructured triangular meshes
Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han
2003-01-01
In this paper the advection of element data which are linearly distributed inside the elements is addressed. Across element boundaries the data are assumed discontinuous. The equations are discretized by the Discontinuous Galerkin method. For stability and accuracy at large step sizes (large values
OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda; Ji Haisheng
2013-01-01
We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size ∼ 4'' × 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 Å) He I 10830 Å and broadband (10 Å) TiO 7057 Å. Since He I 10830 Å triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow (∼2 km s –1 ) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 Å filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.
Rogers, C. W.; Eadie, W. J.; Katz, U.; Kocmond, W. C.
1975-01-01
A two-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the formation of marine advection fog. The model predicts the evolution of potential temperature, horizontal wind, water vapor content, and liquid water content in a vertical cross section of the atmosphere as determined by vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection, as well as radiative cooling and drop sedimentation. The model is designed to simulate the formation, development, or dissipation of advection fog in response to transfer of heat and moisture between the atmosphere and the surface as driven by advection over horizontal discontinuities in the surface temperature. Results from numerical simulations of advection fog formation are discussed with reference to observations of marine fog. A survey of candidate fog or cloud microphysics experiments which might be performed in the low gravity environment of a shuttle-type spacecraft in presented. Recommendations are given for relatively simple experiments which are relevent to fog modification problems.
A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably Stratified Sea Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensson, Nina; Sahlée, Erik; Bergström, Hans
2017-01-01
originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement...... considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered...
Saturation of drift instabilities by ExB advection of resonant electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.
1990-01-01
Saturation of the collisionless and weakly collisional drift instabilities by nonlinear ExB advection of resonant electrons is considered. The nonlinear ExB advection of the resonant electrons around the O points and X points of the potential shuts off the linear phase shift between the electron density and the potential, and hence the linear growth, and produces residual oscillations at the ExB-trapping frequency. Two analytical solutions of a three-mode model of Lee et al. [Phys. Fluids 27, 2652 (1984)], which describes the saturation of drift waves by this mechanism, are found. The first is an exact solution in the form of a steadily propagating wave of constant amplitude, and is relevant when electron pitch-angle scattering is present. The second is an approximate time-dependent analytical solution, obtained using the method of O'Neil [Phys. Fluids 8, 2255 (1965)], and is relevant to the collisionless case. The predictions that follow from this solution for the saturation level and for the amplitude oscillation frequency are in excellent agreement with the direct numerical solutions of the three-mode system
Advection diffusion model for particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oresta, P.; Lippolis, A.; Verzicco, R.; Soldati, A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking are used to precisely investigate the turbulent thermally driven flow and particles dispersion in a closed, slender cylindrical domain. The numerical simulations are carried out for Rayleigh (Ra) and Prandtl numbers (Pr) equal to Ra = 2X10 8 and Pr = 0.7, considering three sets of particles with Stokes numbers, based on Kolmogorov scale, equal to St k 1.3, St k 0.65 and St k = 0.13. This data are used to calculate a priori the drift velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient for the Advection Diffusion model. These quantities are function of the Stokes, Froude, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers only. One dimensional, time dependent, Advection- Diffusion Equation (ADE) is presented to predict particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard flow in the cylindrical domain. This archetype configuration models flow and aerosol dynamics, produced in case of accident in the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a nuclear reactor. ADE results show a good agreement with DNS data for all the sets of particles investigated. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhua Liu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is an essential part of the hydrological cycle and accurately estimating it plays a crucial role in water resource management. Surface energy balance (SEB models are widely used to estimate regional ET with remote sensing. The presence of horizontal advection, however, perturbs the surface energy balance system and contributes to the uncertainty of energy influxes. Thus, it is vital to consider horizontal advection when applying SEB models to estimate ET. This study proposes an innovative and simplified approach, the surface energy balance-advection (SEB-A method, which is based on the energy balance theory and also takes into account the horizontal advection to determine ET by remote sensing. The SEB-A method considers that the actual ET consists of two parts: the local ET that is regulated by the energy balance system and the exotic ET that arises from horizontal advection. To evaluate the SEB-A method, it was applied to the middle region of the Heihe River in China. Instantaneous ET for three days were acquired and assessed with ET measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems. The results demonstrated that the ET estimates had a high accuracy, with a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.713, a mean average error (MAE of 39.3 W/m2 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 54.6 W/m2 between the estimates and corresponding measurements. Percent error was calculated to more rigorously assess the accuracy of these estimates, and it ranged from 0% to 35%, with over 80% of the locations within a 20% error. To better understand the SEB-A method, the relationship between the ET estimates and land use types was analyzed, and the results indicated that the ET estimates had spatial distributions that correlated with vegetation patterns and could well demonstrate the ET differences caused by different land use types. The sensitivity analysis suggested that the SEB-A method requested accurate estimation of the available energy, R n − G
Comparing CO2 storage and advection conditions at night at different carboeuroflux sites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grunwald, TH; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel
2005-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 1 (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : advection * CO2 storage * forest ecosystems Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005
The effect of coherent stirring on the advection-condensation of water vapour
Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques
2017-06-01
Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow.
Final amplifier design and mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.
1991-01-01
The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met
A pulse amplifier for nuclear instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, D.; Cliff, P.
1987-01-01
A Class-A 1 Watt amplifier has been designed and optimized for nanosecond pulses. Spanning .01MHz to 1300Mhz, signal gain is 26dB with gain flatness of 1dB. The amplifier drive +- 10 volts across 500 with 350ps risetime. Each amplifier is housed in a 2-wide NIM
Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight
Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.
2007-02-01
This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.
Advective surface velocity in the north west Pacific derived from NOAA AVHRR images
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Okada, Y.; Sugimori, Y.
Using sequential AVHRR images in November 1983, nearsurface advective velocities are derived in the region Kuroshio south of Japan. For deriving the velocities two methods are used. One is the Method of Cross Correlation (MCC), using image pair...
A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huizenga, J., E-mail: j.huizenga@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Seifert, S. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Schreuder, F. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, H.T. van [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Dendooven, P.; Loehner, H.; Vinke, R. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Schaart, D.R. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)
2012-12-11
Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a 'slow' energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 5 mm LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.
A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huizenga, J.; Seifert, S.; Schreuder, F.; Dam, H.T. van; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Vinke, R.; Schaart, D.R.
2012-01-01
Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a ‘slow’ energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr 3 :Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.
An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten
2003-01-01
In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. The amplifier is constructed in a fully differential topology to maximize noise rejection. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved....... A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai, I.; Hasegawa, K.
1975-01-01
This paper reports on the improvement of frequency characteristics of a logarithmic amplifier with a Paterson transdiode connection. The improvement of the response speed has been achieved by using a phase compensation technique. Small signal response analyses of the logging circuit revealed the effects of a series resistor Rsub(p) and a parallel capacitance Csub(p) on the response of the circuit. The improvement of the frequency characteristics are remarkable at higher current levels. These facts were proved by the practical logarithmic amplifier. (auth.)
Flashlamp excited fluid laser amplified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
The patent describes a laser amplifier with chambers for containing and amplifying an intensifier medium. It serves the need for a large impulse repetition rate and high intensities as required e.g. for laser isotope separation
Design considerations for RF power amplifiers demonstrated through a GSM/EDGE power amplifier module
Baltus, P.G.M.; Bezooijen, van A.; Huijsing, J.H.; Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.
2002-01-01
This paper describes the design considerations for RF power amplifiers in general, including trends in systems, linearity and efficiency, the PA environment, implementation is sues and technology. As an example a triple-band (900/1800/1900MHz) dual mode (GSMIEdge) power amplifier module is described
Dealing with the Quaternion Antipodal Problem for Advecting Fields
2017-12-01
gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or...gradient tensor because nonlinear combinations of the 9 components correspond to physical quantities. For example, the determinant of the deformation...right stretch tensor . The focus of this technical brief is on advection of the rotation. Rotation of an object or a microstructure can be represented
Pal, van der M.; Graaf, van der E.R.; Meijer, de R.J.; Wit, de M.H.; Hendriks, N.A.
2000-01-01
This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building
Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk
2015-01-01
A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...
Honma, K.; Handa, K.; Akinaga, W.; Doi, M.; Matsuzaki, O.
This paper describes the design and the performance of the S-band low noise amplifier and the S-band high power amplifier that have been developed for the Usuda Deep Space Station of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. The S-band low noise amplifier consists of a helium gas-cooled parametric amplifier followed by three-stage FET amplifiers and has a noise temperature of 8 K. The high power amplifier is composed of two 28 kW klystrons, capable of transmitting 40 kW continuously when two klystrons are combined. Both subsystems are operating quite satisfactorily in the tracking of Sakigake and Suisei, the Japanese interplanetary probes for Halley's comet exploration, launched by ISAS in 1985.
Small signal microwave amplifier design
Grosch, Theodore
2000-01-01
This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book
Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images
2015-01-01
on the SuomiNational Polar-Orbiting Partner- ship (S- NPP ) satellite. The GOCI is the world’s first geostationary orbit satellite sensor over the...radiance Lwn at several wave - lengths. These spectral Lwn channels are used to derive several in- water bio-optical properties (Lee, Carder, & Arnone...the same surface flow, it is the inter-product similarities, instead of the differences, that are more likely to stand for the surface advection. If
OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Ji Haisheng [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)
2013-06-01
We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size {approx} 4'' Multiplication-Sign 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 A) He I 10830 A and broadband (10 A) TiO 7057 A. Since He I 10830 A triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 A filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.
Bassett, Richard; Cai, Xiaoming; Chapman, Lee; Heaviside, Clare; Thornes, John E.
2017-10-01
Weather and climate networks traditionally follow rigorous siting guidelines, with individual stations located away from frost hollows, trees or urban areas. However, the diverse nature of the UK landscape suggests that the feasibility of siting stations that are truly representative of regional climate and free from distorting local effects is increasingly difficult. Whilst the urban heat island is a well-studied phenomenon and usually accounted for, the effect of warm urban air advected downwind is rarely considered, particularly at rural stations adjacent to urban areas. Until recently, urban heat advection (UHA) was viewed as an urban boundary-layer process through the formation of an urban plume that rises above the surface as it is advected. However, these dynamic UHA effects are shown to also have an impact on surface observations. Results show a significant difference in temperatures anomalies (p careful interpretation of long-term temperature data taken near small urban areas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Palle
1997-01-01
Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....
DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE
A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...
Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.
1978-01-01
The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)
Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2010-11-02
A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).
Detection of Non-Amplified Genomic DNA
Corradini, Roberto
2012-01-01
This book offers a state-of-the-art overview on non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. The importance of non-amplified DNA sequencing technologies will be also discussed. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specifi...
Is there a role for amplifiers in sexual selection?
Gualla, Filippo; Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio
2008-05-21
The amplifier hypothesis states that selection could favour the evolution of traits in signallers that improve the ability of receivers to extract honest information from other signals or cues. We provide a formal definition of amplifiers based on the receiver's mechanisms of signal perception and we present a game-theoretical model in which males advertise their quality and females use sequential-sampling tactics to choose among prospective mates. The main effect of an amplifier on the female mating strategy is to increase her mating threshold, making the female more selective as the effectiveness of the amplifier increases. The effects of the amplifier on male advertising strategy depends both on the context and on the types of the amplifier involved. We consider two different contexts for the evolution of amplifiers (when the effect of amplifiers is on signals and when it is on cues) and two types of amplifiers (the 'neutral amplifier', when it improves quality assessment without altering male attractiveness, and the 'attractive amplifier', when it improves both quality assessment and male attractiveness). The game-theoretical model provides two main results. First, neutral and attractive amplifiers represent, respectively, a conditional and an unconditional signalling strategy. In fact, at the equilibrium, neutral amplifiers are displayed only by males whose advertising level lays above the female acceptance threshold, whereas attractive amplifiers are displayed by all signalling males, independent of their quality. Second, amplifiers of signals increase the differences in advertising levels between amplifying and not-amplifying males, but they decrease the differences within each group, so that the system converges towards an 'all-or-nothing' signalling strategy. By applying concepts from information theory, we show that the increase in information transfer at the perception level due to the amplifier of signals is contrasted by a decrease in information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pepper, D.W.; Long, P.E.
1978-01-01
The method of moments is used with and without a a width-correction technique to solve the advection of a passive scalar. The method of moments is free of numerical dispersion but suffers from numerical diffusion (damping). In order to assess the effect of the width-correction procedure on reducing numerical diffusion, both versions are used to advect a passive scalar in straight-line and rotational wind fields. Although the width-correction procedure reduces numerical diffusion under some circumstances, the unmodified version of the second-moment procedure is better suited as a general method
An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten
2001-01-01
In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved. A continuous-time offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize impact...... on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR...
Operational amplifiers theory and design
Huijsing, Johan
2017-01-01
This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...
Methods to assess radioisotope migration in cementitious media using radial diffusion and advection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliff, J.; Felipe-Sotero, M.; Evans, N.D.M.; Read, D.; Drury, D.
2012-01-01
One of the primary aims of this project is to understand how a range of isotopes associated with radioactive wastes, move through the cementitious media potentially present in a geological disposal facility (GDF). This paper describes the development of experimental methods that use radial flow from intact cylinders of cementitious material to evaluate the potential for diffusion and advection of relevant isotopes through Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB). The small scale and cost effectiveness of the approach means that multiple experiments can be undertaken encompassing the full range of physical (and chemical) variations. The radial flow experimental method uses small pre-cast cylinders of the matrix under investigation. For diffusion an appropriate concentration of the isotope of interest ( 90 Sr in the present experiments) is introduced into a cavity in the centre of the cylinder, which is then sealed, and placed in a solution previously equilibrated with the matrix. The increase in concentration of the isotope in the external solution is then determined at defined time intervals. For advection 90 Sr is similarly introduced into the central core of the cylinder and then equilibrated water is forced under nitrogen pressure, from the central core to the outside of the cylinder where it is collected in a tray prior to analysis. Both experimental set ups and results have been modelled using conventional numerical solutions and the simulation package GoldSim. Concerning diffusion experiments the modelled data reproduces the observed data effectively with a right diffusivity value of 9*10 -11 m 2 /s. Concerning advection results are more mitigated and need further investigation
Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation
Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2005-01-01
Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render
Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.
Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico
2012-12-01
Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and
Shell model for time-correlated random advection of passive scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Muratore-Ginanneschi, P.
1999-01-01
We study a minimal shell model for the advection of a passive scalar by a Gaussian time-correlated velocity field. The anomalous scaling properties of the white noise limit are studied analytically. The effect of the time correlations are investigated using perturbation theory around the white...... noise limit and nonperturbatively by numerical integration. The time correlation of the velocity field is seen to enhance the intermittency of the passive scalar. [S1063-651X(99)07711-9]....
Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.
2014-01-01
The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω e τ e effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω e τ e as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics
Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann
2012-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....
A system for biasing a differential amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbier, Daniel; Ittel, J.M.; Poujois, Robert
1975-01-01
This invention concerns a system for biasing a differential amplifier. It particularly applies to the integrated differential amplifiers designed with MOS field effect transistors. Variations in the technological parameters may well cause the amplifying transistors to work outside their usual operational area, in other words outside the linear part of the transfer characteristic. To ensure that these transistors function correctly, it is necessary that the value of the voltage difference at the output be equally null. To do this and to centre on the so called 'rest' point of the amplifier transfer charateristic, the condition will be set that the output potentials of each amplifier transistor should have a zero value or a constant value as sum. With this in view, the bias on the source (generally a transistor powered by its grid bias voltage) supplying current to the two amplifying transistors fitted in parallel, is permanently adjusted in a suitable manner [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Humberto Galeano Urueña
2009-05-01
Full Text Available This article describes the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG method as being a stabilisation technique for resolving the diffusion-advection-reaction equation by finite elements. The first part of this article has a short analysis of the importance of this type of differential equation in modelling physical phenomena in multiple fields. A one-dimensional description of the SUPG me- thod is then given to extend this basis to two and three dimensions. The outcome of a strongly advective and a high numerical complexity experiment is presented. The results show how the version of the implemented SUPG technique allowed stabilised approaches in space, even for high Peclet numbers. Additional graphs of the numerical experiments presented here can be downloaded from www.gnum.unal.edu.co.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Binning, Philip John; Postma, Diederik Jan; Russel, T.F.
2007-01-01
Pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine waste rock dumps and soils is limited by the supply of oxygen from the atmosphere. In models, oxygen transport through the subsurface is often assumed to be driven by diffusion. However, oxygen comprises 23.2% by mass of dry air, and when oxygen is consumed at...... parameters; for example, the time to approach steady state depends exponentially on the distance between the soil surface and the subsurface reactive zone. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union....... at depth in the unsaturated zone, a pressure gradient is created between the reactive zone and the ground surface, causing a substantial advective air flow into the subsurface. To determine the balance between advective and diffusive transport, a one-dimensional multicomponent unsaturated zone gas...
Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; May, Cassandra J.; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Davis, Jeremiah J.; DeVanna, Kristen M.; DuFour, Mark R.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mayer, Christine M.; Miner, Jeffery G.; Pangle, Kevin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Zhao, Yingming; Ludsin, Stuart A
2015-01-01
Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.
Klotz, L.; Lemoult, G.; Frontczak, I.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Wesfreid, J. E.
2017-04-01
We present an experimental setup that creates a shear flow with zero mean advection velocity achieved by counterbalancing the nonzero streamwise pressure gradient by moving boundaries, which generates plane Couette-Poiseuille flow. We obtain experimental results in the transitional regime for this flow. Using flow visualization, we characterize the subcritical transition to turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow and show the existence of turbulent spots generated by a permanent perturbation. Due to the zero mean advection velocity of the base profile, these turbulent structures are nearly stationary. We distinguish two regions of the turbulent spot: the active turbulent core, which is characterized by waviness of the streaks similar to traveling waves, and the surrounding region, which includes in addition the weak undisturbed streaks and oblique waves at the laminar-turbulent interface. We also study the dependence of the size of these two regions on Reynolds number. Finally, we show that the traveling waves move in the downstream (Poiseuille) direction.
Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.
2012-12-01
Mantle plumes have been recognized to express themselves on the surface as long wavelength and low amplitude topographic swells. These swells are measured as positive geoid anomalies and include shorter wavelength topographic features such as volcanic edifices and pre-exisitng topography. Advection of the topographic swell is expected as the lithosphere passes over the plume uplift source. The hot spot swell occurs in the landscape as transient signal that is expressed with waxing and waning topography. Waxing topography occurs at the leading edge of the swell and is expressed as an increase in rock uplift that is preserved by rivers and landscapes. Advection of topography predicts a shift in a basin from deposition to incision, an increase in convexity of a transverse river's long profile and a lateral river migration in the direction of advection. The Yellowstone region has a strong positive geoid anomaly and the volcanic signal, which have been interpreted as the longer and shorter wavelength topographic expressions of the hot spot. These expressions of the hot spot developed in a part of North America with a compounded deformation and topographic history. Previous studies of the Yellowstone topographic swell have concentrated on the waning or trailing signal preserved in the Snake River Plain. Our project revisits the classic geomorphology study area in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, which is in leading edge of the swell. Present models identify the swell as having a 400 km in diameter and that it is centered on the Yellowstone caldera. If we assume advection to occur in concert with the caldera eruptive track, the Yellowstone swell has migrated to the northeast at a rate of 3 cm yr-1 and began acting on the Bighorn Basin's landscape between 3 and 2 Ma. The Bighorn Basin has an established history of a basin-wide switch from deposition to incision during the late Pliocene, yet the age control on the erosional evolution of the region is relative. This
Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.
1981-09-01
We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.
Analysis of Return and Forward Links from STARS' Flight Demonstration 1
Gering, James A.
2003-01-01
Space-based Telemetry And Range Safety (STARS) is a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) led proof-of-concept demonstration, which utilizes NASA's space network of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) as a pathway for launch and mission related information streams. Flight Demonstration 1 concluded on July 15,2003 with the seventh flight of a Low Power Transmitter (LPT) a Command and Data Handler (C&DH), a twelve channel GPS receiver and associated power supplies and amplifiers. The equipment flew on NASA's F-I5 aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in California. During this NASA-ASEE Faculty Fellowship, the author participated in the collection and analysis of data from the seven flights comprising Flight Demonstration 1. Specifically, the author examined the forward and return links bit energy E(sub B) (in Watt-seconds) divided by the ambient radio frequency noise N(sub 0) (in Watts / Hertz). E(sub b)/N(sub 0) is commonly thought of as a signal-to-noise parameter, which characterizes a particular received radio frequency (RF) link. Outputs from the data analysis include the construction of time lines for all flights, production of graphs of range safety values for all seven flights, histograms of range safety E(sub b)/N(sub 0) values in five dB increments, calculation of associated averages and standard deviations, production of graphs of range user E(sub b)/N(sub 0) values for the all flights, production of graphs of AGC's and E(sub b)/N(sub 0) estimates for flight 1, recorded onboard, transmitted directly to the launch head and transmitted through TDRS. The data and graphs are being used to draw conclusions related to a lower than expected signal strength seen in the range safety return link.
Universality in passively advected hydrodynamic fields : the case of a passive vector with pressure
Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Toschi, F.
2001-01-01
Universality of statistical properties of passive quantities advected by turbulent velocity fields at changing the passive forcing mechanism is discussed. In particular, we concentrate on the statistical properties of an hydrodynamic system with pressure. We present theoretical arguments and
Comparison of horizontal and vertical advective CO2 fluxes at three forest sites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feigenwinter, C.; Bernhofer, C.; Eichelmann, U.; Heinesch, B.; Hertel, M.; Janouš, Dalibor; Kolle, O.; Lagergren, F.; Lindroth, A.; Minerbi, S.; Moderow, U.; Mölder, M.; Montagnani, L.; Queck, R.; Rebmann, C.; Vestin, P.; Yernaux, M.; Zeri, M.; Ziegler, W.; Aubinet, M.
2008-01-01
Roč. 148, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-24 ISSN 0168-1923 Grant - others:-(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest ecosystems * advection * net ecosystem exchange * carbon balance * ADVEX Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.668, year: 2008
Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems
Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C
2014-04-01
A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.
Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...
Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable
Amador, Jose J.
1995-01-01
Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.
A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Feng; Yabe, Takashi.
1995-07-01
A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author)
Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.
1980-01-01
The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
The ultrafast gain dynamics in an electrically pumped InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot amplifier are measured at room temperature with femtosecond resolution, and compared with results on an InGaAsP bulk amplifier. The role of spectral hole burning and carrier heating in the recovery of the gain...
The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A
2011-01-01
This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within...... this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the leading scientific and industrial European organizations working with vacuum electronics....
A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably Stratified Sea Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nina Svensson
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Streaky structures of narrow (8-9 km high wind belts have been observed from SAR images above the Baltic Sea during stably stratified conditions with offshore winds from the southern parts of Sweden. Case studies using the WRF model and in situ aircraft observations indicate that the streaks originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement with the streaks observed by the SAR images. During evening when the convective conditions over land diminish, the streaky structures over the sea are still seen in the horizontal wind field; however, the vertical component is close to zero. Thus advected feature from a land surface can affect the wind field considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered during spring in coastal regions at high latitudes.
Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.
2014-10-01
The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres Astorga, Romina; Velasco, Hugo; Valladares, Diego L.; Lohaiza, Flavia; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales. Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis - Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, San Luis (Argentina)
2014-07-01
{sup 7}Be is a short-lived environmental radionuclide, produced in the upper atmosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen by cosmic rays. After of the production by the nuclear reaction, {sup 7}Be diffuses through the atmosphere until it attaches to atmospheric aerosols. Subsequently, it is deposited on the earth surface mainly as wet fallout. The main physical processes which transport {sup 7}Be in soil are diffusion and advection by water. Migration parameters and measurements confirm that sorption is the main physical process, which confines {sup 7}Be concentration to soil surface. The literature data show that in soils, {sup 7}Be is concentrated near the surface (0-2 cm) as it is adsorbed onto clay minerals after its deposition on the soil surface and does not penetrate deeper into soils due to its short half-life. The maximum mass activity density of {sup 7}Be is found at the point of input of the radionuclide, i.e. at the surface of the soil column, showing a exponential distribution profile typical of a purely diffusive transport. Many studies applying the advection dispersion models have been reported in the literature in order to modelling the transport of {sup 137}Cs in soils. On them, the models are used to achieve information of the mechanisms that govern the transport, i. e. the model is used to explain the soil profile of radionuclide. The effective dispersion coefficient and the apparent advection velocity of radionuclide in soil are also obtained by fitting the analytical solution of the model equation to measured depth distributions of the radionuclide. In this work, the advective dispersive transport model with linear sorption is used to analyze the vertical migration process of {sup 7}Be in soils of undisturbed or reference sites. The deposition history is approximated by pulse-like input functions and time dependent analytical solution of equation model is obtained. The values of dispersion coefficient and apparent advection velocity obtained
Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longden, L.L.
1976-01-01
When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks
Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators
Fain, V M; Sanders, J H
2013-01-01
Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma
Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Nadir
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.
Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring
Nascimento, Jehan F.; Silva, Marcionilo J.; Coêlho, Isnaldo J. S.; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F.
2012-01-01
We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017
Bandwidth tunable amplifier for recording biopotential signals.
Hwang, Sungkil; Aninakwa, Kofi; Sonkusale, Sameer
2010-01-01
This paper presents a low noise, low power, bandwidth tunable amplifier for bio-potential signal recording applications. By employing depletion-mode pMOS transistor in diode configuration as a tunable sub pA current source to adjust the resistivity of MOS-Bipolar pseudo-resistor, the bandwidth is adjusted without any need for a separate band-pass filter stage. For high CMRR, PSRR and dynamic range, a fully differential structure is used in the design of the amplifier. The amplifier achieves a midband gain of 39.8dB with a tunable high-pass cutoff frequency ranging from 0.1Hz to 300Hz. The amplifier is fabricated in 0.18εm CMOS process and occupies 0.14mm(2) of chip area. A three electrode ECG measurement is performed using the proposed amplifier to show its feasibility for low power, compact wearable ECG monitoring application.
On one model problem for the reaction-diffusion-advection equation
Davydova, M. A.; Zakharova, S. A.; Levashova, N. T.
2017-09-01
The asymptotic behavior of the solution with boundary layers in the time-independent mathematical model of reaction-diffusion-advection arising when describing the distribution of greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer is studied. On the basis of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities, the existence of a boundary-layer solution and its asymptotic Lyapunov stability as a steady-state solution of the corresponding parabolic problem is proven. One of the results of this work is the determination of the local domain of the attraction of a boundary-layer solution.
Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection
Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu
1996-01-01
We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.
BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...
A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhalerao Kaustubh D
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.
Salt dynamics in well-mixed estuaries: importance of advection by tides
Wei, X.; Schramkowski, G.P.; Schuttelaars, H.M.
2016-01-01
Understanding salt dynamics is important to adequately model salt intrusion, baroclinic forcing, and sediment transport. In this paper, the importance of the residual salt transport due to tidal advection in well-mixed tidal estuaries is studied. The water motion is resolved in a consistent way with a width-averaged analytical model, coupled to an advection–diffusion equation describing the salt dynamics. The residual salt balance obtained from the coupled model shows that the seaward salt tr...
Realization of OFCC based Transimpedance Mode Instrumentation Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neeta Pandey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three Operational Floating Current Conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematicThe paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three operational floating current conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematic.
Quantum-Limited Directional Amplifiers with Optomechanics
Malz, Daniel; Tóth, László D.; Bernier, Nathan R.; Feofanov, Alexey K.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Nunnenkamp, Andreas
2018-01-01
Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum-information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators; we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.
Ulfah, S.; Awalludin, S. A.; Wahidin
2018-01-01
Advection-diffusion model is one of the mathematical models, which can be used to understand the distribution of air pollutant in the atmosphere. It uses the 2D advection-diffusion model with time-dependent to simulate air pollution distribution in order to find out whether the pollutants are more concentrated at ground level or near the source of emission under particular atmospheric conditions such as stable, unstable, and neutral conditions. Wind profile, eddy diffusivity, and temperature are considered in the model as parameters. The model is solved by using explicit finite difference method, which is then visualized by a computer program developed using Lazarus programming software. The results show that the atmospheric conditions alone influencing the level of concentration of pollutants is not conclusive as the parameters in the model have their own effect on each atmospheric condition.
Images and Spectra of Time Dependent Two Component Advective Flow in Presence of Outflows
Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri; Garain, Sudip K.
2018-05-01
Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) successfully explains the spectral and temporal properties of outbursting or persistent sources. Images of static TCAF with Compton cloud or CENtrifugal pressure supported Boundary Layer (CENBOL) due to gravitational bending of photons have been studied before. In this paper, we study time dependent images of advective flows around a Schwarzschild black hole which include cooling effects due to Comptonization of soft photons from a Keplerian disks well as the self-consistently produced jets and outflows. We show the overall image of the disk-jet system after convolving with a typical beamwidth. A long exposure image with time dependent system need not show the black hole horizon conspicuously, unless one is looking at a soft state with no jet or the system along the jet axis. Assuming these disk-jet configurations are relevant to radio emitting systems also, our results would be useful to look for event horizons in high accretion rate Supermassive Black Holes in Seyfert galaxies, RL Quasars.
Integrated wide-band low-background amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'yushchenko, I.I.
1980-01-01
Ways of increasing stability and reproduction of characteristics of wide-band integral amplifiers that would to the least extent increase their background noises, are discussed. Considered are some certain flowsheets of integral wide-band amplifiers with low background noise of foreign production which differ from one another by construction of inlet cascades as well as by the applied feedback type. The principal flowsheets of the amplifiers and their main performances are presented. The analysis of the data obtained has revealed that microcircuits made of cascades with a common emitter and local combined feedback are most wide-band among all the considered microcircuits [ru
Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown
2001-01-01
Long-term monthly evapotranspiration estimates from Brutsaert and Strickerâs Advection-Aridity model were compared with independent estimates of evapotranspiration derived from long-term water balances for 139 undisturbed basins across the conterminous United States. On an average annual basis for the period 1962-1988 the original model, which uses a Penman wind...
Advances in high-power rf amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallerico, P.J.
1979-01-01
Several powerful accelerators and storage rings are being considered that will require tens or even hundreds of megawatts of continuous rf power. The economics of such large machines can be dictated by the cost and efficiency of the rf amplifiers. The overall design and performance of such narrow-band amplifiers, operating in the 50- to 1500-MHz region, are being theoretically studied as a function of frequency to determine the optimum rf amplifier output power, gain, efficiency, and dc power requirements. The state of the art for three types of amplifiers (gridded tubes, klystrons, and gyrocons) is considered and the development work necessary to improve each is discussed. The gyrocon is a new device, hence its various embodiments are discussed in detail. The Soviet designs are reviewed and the gyrocon's strengths and weaknesses are compared to other types of microwave amplifiers. The primary advantages of the gyrocon are the very large amount of power available from a single device and the excellent efficiency and stable operation. The klystron however, has much greater gain and is simpler mechanically. At very low frequencies, the small size of the gridded tube makes it the optimum choice for all but the most powerful systems
Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Dennis
of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice......Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... with the low level of acoustical output power and complex amplifier requirements, have limited the commercial success of the technology. Horn or compression drivers are typically favoured, when high acoustic output power is required, this is however at the expense of significant distortion combined...
Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn
2010-01-01
This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei
2011-01-01
A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)
CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Alberti, S.; Chen, C.; Rullier, J.L.; Temkin, R.J.
1993-01-01
Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are required. A 17 GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier experiment and a 17 GHz third harmonic gyro-amplifier experiment are presently underway at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Using the SRL/MIT SNOMAD II introduction accelerator to provide a 380 kV, 180 A, 30 ns flat top electron beam, the gyro-amplifier experiment has produced 5 MW of rf power with over 50 dB of gain at 17 GHz. The gyro-amplifier operates in the TE 31 mode using a third harmonic interaction. Because of its high power output, the gyro-amplifier will be used as the rf source for a photocathode rf electron gun experiment also taking place at MIT. Preliminary gyro-amplifier results are presented, including measurement of rf power, gain versus interaction length, and the far-field pattern. A CARM experiment designed to operate in the TE 11 mode is also discussed
Sedlar, J.
2015-12-01
Atmospheric advection of heat and moisture from lower latitudes to the high-latitude Arctic is a critical component of Earth's energy cycle. Large-scale advective events have been shown to make up a significant portion of the moist static energy budget of the Arctic atmosphere, even though such events are typically infrequent. The transport of heat and moisture over surfaces covered by ice and snow results in dynamic changes to the boundary layer structure, stability and turbulence, as well as to diabatic processes such as cloud distribution, microphysics and subsequent radiative effects. Recent studies have identified advection into the Arctic as a key mechanism for modulating the melt and freeze of snow and sea ice, via modification to all-sky longwave radiation. This paper examines the radiative impact during summer of such Arctic advective events at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), considering also the important role they play for the surface energy budget. Using infrared sounder measurements from the AIRS satellite, the summer frequency of significantly stable and moist advective events from 2003-2014 are characterized; justification of AIRS profiles over the Arctic are made using radiosoundings during a 3-month transect (ACSE) across the Eastern Arctic basin. One such event was observed within the East Siberian Sea in August 2014 during ACSE, providing in situ verification on the robustness and capability of AIRS to monitor advective cases. Results will highlight the important surface warming aspect of stable, moist instrusions. However a paradox emerges as such events also result in a cooling at the TOA evident on monthly mean TOA radiation. Thus such events have a climatic importance over ice and snow covered surfaces across the Arctic. ERA-Interim reanalyses are examined to provide a longer term perspective on the frequency of such events as well as providing capability to estimate meridional fluxes of moist static energy.
Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget
Cuxart, J.; Wrenger, B.; Martinez-Villagrasa, D.; Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M.O.; Jimenez, M.A.; Lothon, M.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dunnermann, J.; Conangla, L.; Garai, A.
2016-01-01
The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point
measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here
we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term
in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated
by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Glud, Ronnie N.
2012-01-01
Porewater flow enhances mineralization rates in organic-poor permeable sands. Here, a series of sediment column experiments were undertaken to assess the potential effect of advective porewater transport on denitrification in permeable carbonate sands collected from Heron Island (Great Barrier Re...
Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors
Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.
The design of high performance weak current integrated amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Guojie; Cao Hui
2005-01-01
A design method of high performance weak current integrated amplifier using ICL7650 operational amplifier is introduced. The operating principle of circuits and the step of improving amplifier's performance are illustrated. Finally, the experimental results are given. The amplifier has programmable measurement range of 10 -9 -10 -12 A, automatic zero-correction, accurate measurement, and good stability. (authors)
Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers - Physics and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther
2004-01-01
This thesis describes the physics and applications of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers based on numerical simulations. These devices possess a number of unique properties compared with other types of semiconductor amplifiers, which should allow enhanced performance of semiconductor...... respects is comparable to those of fiber amplifiers. The possibility of inverting the optically active states to a large degree is essential in order to achieve this performance. Optical signal processing through cross gain modulation and four wave mixing is modeled and described. For both approaches...... and QW devices and to experiments on quantum dot amplifiers. These comparisons outline the qualitative differences between the different types of amplifiers. In all cases focus is put on the physical processes responsible the differences....
Direct and inverse source problems for a space fractional advection dispersion equation
Aldoghaither, Abeer
2016-05-15
In this paper, direct and inverse problems for a space fractional advection dispersion equation on a finite domain are studied. The inverse problem consists in determining the source term from final observations. We first derive the analytic solution to the direct problem which we use to prove the uniqueness and the unstability of the inverse source problem using final measurements. Finally, we illustrate the results with a numerical example.
Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers
Feucht, Dennis
2010-01-01
The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.
Renner, Angelika H. H.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Heywood, Karen J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Watkins, Jon L.; Meredith, Michael P.
2012-05-01
Pathways and rates of ocean flow near the Antarctic Peninsula are strongly affected by frontal features, forcings from the atmosphere and the cryosphere. In the surface mixed layer, the currents advect material from the northwestern Weddell Sea on the eastern side of the Peninsula around the tip of the Peninsula to its western side and into the Scotia Sea, connecting populations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and supporting the ecosystem of the region. Modelling of subsurface drifters using a particle tracking algorithm forced by the velocity fields of a coupled sea ice-ocean model (ORCA025-LIM2) allows analysis of the seasonal and interannual variability of drifter pathways over 43 years. The results show robust and persistent connections from the Weddell Sea both to the west into the Bellingshausen Sea and across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia, reproducing well the observations. The fate of the drifters is sensitive to their deployment location, in addition to other factors. From the shelf of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula, the majority enter the Bransfield Strait and subsequently the Bellingshausen Sea. When originating further offshore over the deeper Weddell Sea, drifters are more likely to cross the South Scotia Ridge and reach South Georgia. However, the wind field east and southeast of Elephant Island, close to the tip of the Peninsula, is crucial for the drifter trajectories and is highly influenced by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Increased advection and short travel times to South Georgia, and reduced advection to the western Antarctic Peninsula can be linked to strong westerlies, a signature of the positive phase of the SAM. The converse is true for the negative phase. Strong westerlies and shifts of ocean fronts near the tip of the Peninsula that are potentially associated with both the SAM and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation restrict the connection from the Weddell Sea to the west, and drifters then predominantly follow the open
High power X-band coaxial amplifier experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, T.J.; Nation, J.A.
1991-01-01
Studies are continuing on the development of X-band coaxial microwave amplifiers as a source for next generation linear colliders. Coaxial amplifiers employ an annular electron beam propagating between inner and outer drift tube conductors, a configuration which allows large increases in beam current over standard pencil beam amplifiers. Large average diameter systems may still be used without mode competition since TM mode cutoff frequencies are controlled by the separation between conductors. A number of amplifier configurations are being studied, all primed by a driven initial cavity which resonates around 9 GHz. Simple theory of coaxial systems and particle-in-cell simulations are presented, as well as initial experimental results using a 420 keV, 7-8 kA, 9 cm diameter annular beam
Wideband multi-element Er-doped fiber amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thipparapu, N K; Jain, S; May-Smith, T C; Sahu, J K
2014-01-01
A multi-element Er-doped fiber amplifier (MEEDFA) is demonstrated in which the gain profile is extended into the S and L bands. Each fiber element of the MEEDFA is found to provide a maximum gain of 37 dB and a noise figure of < 4 dB in the C-band. The gain profile of the amplifier is shifted towards longer wavelength by cascading fiber elements. The novel geometry of the multi-element fiber (MEF) could allow for the development of a broadband amplifier in a split-band configuration. The proposed amplifier can operate in the wavelength band of 1520 to 1595 nm (75 nm), with a minimum gain of 20 dB. (letter)
Analysis of periods with strong and coherent CO2 advection over a forested hill
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zeri, M.; Rebmann, C.; Feigenwinter, Ch.; Sedlák, Pavel
2010-01-01
Roč. 150, č. 5 (2010), s. 674-683 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Forest ecosystems * Advection * Net ecosystem exchange * Carbon balance * ADVEX Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.228, year: 2010
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.
1976-01-01
We investigate the importance of the advection and aberration terms, which are of order V/c, in the comoving-frame transfer equation in spherical geometry. Characteristic trajectories are found which reduce the spatial derivatives to a perfect differential, and a generalization of the numerical procedure developed in the earlier papers of this series that permits the integration of the transfer equation on these characteristics is presented. For cases in which V/cvery-much-less-than1, a perturbation solution is developed which reduces the problem to that solved in the first paper in this series. For velocities of the form V (r) approx.r/subn/(n=0,1,2), it is shown that the magnitude of the effects arising from the advection and aberration terms is about 5V/c relative to the solution with these terms omitted. In stellar winds V/capproximately-less-than0.01; hence we conclude that aberration and advection terms may safely be ignored, and that consideration of the Doppler-shift term alone is adequate in the computation of spectra from such expanding atmospheres
A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier
Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.
2018-01-01
A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.
Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seddik, M.M.
1986-07-01
The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)
Low noise amplifier for ZnS(Ag) scintillation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Do Hoang Cuong
1998-01-01
A new pulse amplifier that can be used with standard photomultiplier tubes coupled with Zn(Ag) scintillation chamber is presented. The amplifier based on an IC operational amplifier LF 356N consists of a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier and pulse shaping circuits for optimization of signal to noise ratio. Temperature instability is ≤ 0.05%/ o C. Dynamic range for linear output signals is equal +7 V. The presented amplifier is used in a measuring head for 0.17 L Lucas chambers developed in Department of Nuclear Instruments and Methods of the INCT in laboratory investigations aimed to develop methods and instruments for measurement of radon concentration in the air. The amplifier can also be employed for measurement of ionizing radiation by means of other scintillators coupled to PM tube. The amplifier is followed by a pulse discriminator with adjustable discrimination level. The amplifier output signal and discriminator output pulses are fed to external devices. (author)
Transpermeance Amplifier Applied to Magnetic Bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jossana Ferreira
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on in the literature. The alternative notion of using transpermeance amplifiers, which approximate the feedback of gap flux rather than current, has been in commercial use in some form for at least thirty years, however is only recently seeing more widespread acceptance as a commercial standard. This study explores how such alternative amplifiers should be modeled and then examines the differences in behavior between AMBs equipped with transconductance and transpermeance amplifiers. The focus of this study is on two aspects. The first is the influence of rotor displacement on AMB force, commonly modeled as a constant negative equivalent mechanical stiffness, and it is shown that either scheme actually leads to a finite bandwidth effect, but that this bandwidth is much lower when transpermeance is employed. The second aspect is the influence of eddy currents. Using a very simple model of eddy currents (a secondary short-circuited coil, it is demonstrated that transpermeance amplifiers can recover significant actuator bandwidth compared with transconductance, but at the cost of needing increased peak current headroom.
Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel
2005-01-01
Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Advection * CO2 storage * Forest ecosystems Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005
A high-power two stage traveling-wave tube amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiffler, D.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L.; Ivers, J.D.; Kerslick, G.S.
1991-01-01
Results are presented on the development of a two stage high-efficiency, high-power 8.76-GHz traveling-wave tube amplifier. The work presented augments previously reported data on a single stage amplifier and presents new data on the operational characteristics of two identical amplifiers operated in series and separated from each other by a sever. Peak powers of 410 MW have been obtained over the complete pulse duration of the device, with a conversion efficiency from the electron beam to microwave energy of 45%. In all operating conditions the severed amplifier showed a ''sideband''-like structure in the frequency spectrum of the microwave radiation. A similar structure was apparent at output powers in excess of 70 MW in the single stage device. The frequencies of the ''sidebands'' are not symmetric with respect to the center frequency. The maximum, single frequency, average output power was 210 MW corresponding to an amplifier efficiency of 24%. Simulation data is also presented that indicates that the short amplifiers used in this work exhibit significant differences in behavior from conventional low-power amplifiers. These include finite length effects on the gain characteristics, which may account for the observed narrow bandwidth of the amplifiers and for the appearance of the sidebands. It is also found that the bunching length for the beam may be a significant fraction of the total amplifier length
Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yao; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2014-10-15
Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.
Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burby, J. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2014-08-05
Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.
Photonic-band-gap gyrotron amplifier with picosecond pulses
Nanni, Emilio A.; Jawla, Sudheer; Lewis, Samantha M.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.
2017-12-01
We report the amplification of 250 GHz pulses as short as 260 ps without observation of pulse broadening using a photonic-band-gap circuit gyrotron traveling-wave-amplifier. The gyrotron amplifier operates with a device gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz. The operational bandwidth of the amplifier can be tuned over 16 GHz by adjusting the operating voltage of the electron beam and the magnetic field. The amplifier uses a 30 cm long photonic-band-gap interaction circuit to confine the desired TE03-like operating mode while suppressing lower order modes which can result in undesired oscillations. The circuit gain is >55 dB for a beam voltage of 23 kV and a current of 700 mA. These results demonstrate the wide bandwidths and a high gain achievable with gyrotron amplifiers. The amplification of picosecond pulses of variable lengths, 260-800 ps, shows good agreement with the theory using the coupled dispersion relation and the gain-spectrum of the amplifier as measured with quasi-CW input pulses.
Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ljusev, P.
2005-12-15
This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and
Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors
Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.
2010-01-01
This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.
Class-D audio amplifiers with negative feedback
Cox, Stephen M.; Candy, B. H.
2006-01-01
There are many different designs for audio amplifiers. Class-D, or switching, amplifiers generate their output signal in the form of a high-frequency square wave of variable duty cycle (ratio of on time to off time). The square-wave nature of the output allows a particularly efficient output stage, with minimal losses. The output is ultimately filtered to remove components of the spectrum above the audio range. Mathematical models are derived here for a variety of related class-D amplifier de...
Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification
Gresham, Christopher A [Albuquerque, NM; Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger P [Tucson, AZ
2008-07-22
A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.
Assessment of the numerical diffusion effect in the advection of a passive tracer in BOLCHEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Isidoro, M.; Tiesi, A.
2005-01-01
The effects of the numerical scheme implemented in the advection equation of BOLCHEM have been quantified with reference to the diffusion of a passive tracer. An equivalent horizontal diffusion coefficient has been measured and is found to be dependent on wind field and resolution
Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier
Kurnit, N.A.
1981-01-27
A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.
Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pržulj Novo
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.
Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC
Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.
2014-10-01
The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.
White, Jeffrey A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Fisher, Travis C.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Black, William S.
2012-01-01
The 2nd-order upwind inviscid flux scheme implemented in the multi-block, structured grid, cell centered, finite volume, high-speed reacting flow code VULCAN has been modified to reduce numerical dissipation. This modification was motivated by the desire to improve the codes ability to perform large eddy simulations. The reduction in dissipation was accomplished through a hybridization of non-dissipative and dissipative discontinuity-capturing advection schemes that reduces numerical dissipation while maintaining the ability to capture shocks. A methodology for constructing hybrid-advection schemes that blends nondissipative fluxes consisting of linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms discretized using 4th-order symmetric operators, with dissipative, 3rd or 4th-order reconstruction based upwind flux schemes was developed and implemented. A series of benchmark problems with increasing spatial and fluid dynamical complexity were utilized to examine the ability of the candidate schemes to resolve and propagate structures typical of turbulent flow, their discontinuity capturing capability and their robustness. A realistic geometry typical of a high-speed propulsion system flowpath was computed using the most promising of the examined schemes and was compared with available experimental data to demonstrate simulation fidelity.
A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)
2010-02-15
A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)
Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers
Bahl, Inder J
2009-01-01
A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read
Design And Construction Of 300W Audio Power Amplifier For Classroom
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shune Lei Aung
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the design and construction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier microphone preamplifier tone preamplifier equalizer line amplifier output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system quasi system and complementary system. Between them the complementary system is used in the construction of 300W audio power amplifier. The Multisim software is utilized for the construction of audio power amplifier.
Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten
2009-01-01
Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....
Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Niels Ole
1976-01-01
Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...... amplifiers with lossless distributed matching elements is presented. Realized amplifiers are in good agreement with the theory. One stage amplifiers with a 1 Â¿m FET in chip form exhibit 5.8 dB of gain in the range 8-12 GHz, while a gain of 4.5 dB from 4-8 GHz has been obtained with a packaged 1 Â¿m FET....
Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.
Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K
2012-02-01
We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.
Pino, D.; Kaikkonen, J.P.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2013-01-01
[1] We investigate the uncertainties in the carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio and inferred surface flux associated with boundary layer processes and advection by using mixed-layer theory. By extending the previous analysis presented by Pino et al. (2012), new analytical expressions are derived to
Digital simulation of an enrichment process for solutions by means of an advection-diffusion chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artucio, G.; Suarez, R.; Uruguay Catholic University)
1995-01-01
An ab-initio digital simulation of the space-time dynamics of the concentration field of a solute in an advection-diffusion chamber is done. Some questions related to the digital simulation of the concentration field using the analytical solution obtained in a previous paper are discussed
Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.
2016-01-01
We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....
Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Liping; Chang Liping
2011-01-01
Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)
Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)
Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi
1995-01-01
Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)
Atlantic Water advection vs. glacier dynamics in northern Spitsbergen since early deglaciation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bartels
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Atlantic Water (AW advection plays an important role in climatic, oceanographic and environmental conditions in the eastern Arctic. Situated along the only deep connection between the Atlantic and the Arctic oceans, the Svalbard Archipelago is an ideal location to reconstruct the past AW advection history and document its linkage with local glacier dynamics, as illustrated in the present study of a 275 cm long sedimentary record from Woodfjorden (northern Spitsbergen; water depth: 171 m spanning the last ∼ 15 500 years. Sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical analyses were used to reconstruct changes in marine environmental conditions, sea ice cover and glacier activity. Data illustrate a partial break-up of the Svalbard–Barents Sea Ice Sheet from Heinrich Stadial 1 onwards (until ∼ 14.6 ka. During the Bølling–Allerød ( ∼ 14.6–12.7 ka, AW penetrated as a bottom water mass into the fjord system and contributed significantly to the destabilization of local glaciers. During the Younger Dryas ( ∼ 12.7–11.7 ka, it intruded into intermediate waters while evidence for a glacier advance is lacking. A short-term deepening of the halocline occurred at the very end of this interval. During the early Holocene ( ∼ 11.7–7.8 ka, mild conditions led to glacier retreat, a reduced sea ice cover and increasing sea surface temperatures, with a brief interruption during the Preboreal Oscillation ( ∼ 11.1–10.8 ka. Due to a ∼ 6000-year gap, the mid-Holocene is not recorded in this sediment core. During the late Holocene ( ∼ 1.8–0.4 ka, a slightly reduced AW inflow and lower sea surface temperatures compared to the early Holocene are reconstructed. Glaciers, which previously retreated to the shallower inner parts of the Woodfjorden system, likely advanced during the late Holocene. In particular, topographic control in concert with the reduced
Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.
2014-01-01
Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)
GaN-based Power amplifiers for microwave applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Julián Moreno-Rubio
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion about the design strategies of different kind of power amplifiers for RF/Microwave appli- cations, such as the tuned load power amplifier, class F, class F-1 and Doherty. Furthermore, it is shown the continuous wave characterization of the amplifiers above mentioned. A comparison between the obtained results, in terms of gain, efficiency and output power is presented.
Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew
2000-01-01
We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America
Implantable neurotechnologies: a review of integrated circuit neural amplifiers.
Ng, Kian Ann; Greenwald, Elliot; Xu, Yong Ping; Thakor, Nitish V
2016-01-01
Neural signal recording is critical in modern day neuroscience research and emerging neural prosthesis programs. Neural recording requires the use of precise, low-noise amplifier systems to acquire and condition the weak neural signals that are transduced through electrode interfaces. Neural amplifiers and amplifier-based systems are available commercially or can be designed in-house and fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) technologies, resulting in very large-scale integration or application-specific integrated circuit solutions. IC-based neural amplifiers are now used to acquire untethered/portable neural recordings, as they meet the requirements of a miniaturized form factor, light weight and low power consumption. Furthermore, such miniaturized and low-power IC neural amplifiers are now being used in emerging implantable neural prosthesis technologies. This review focuses on neural amplifier-based devices and is presented in two interrelated parts. First, neural signal recording is reviewed, and practical challenges are highlighted. Current amplifier designs with increased functionality and performance and without penalties in chip size and power are featured. Second, applications of IC-based neural amplifiers in basic science experiments (e.g., cortical studies using animal models), neural prostheses (e.g., brain/nerve machine interfaces) and treatment of neuronal diseases (e.g., DBS for treatment of epilepsy) are highlighted. The review concludes with future outlooks of this technology and important challenges with regard to neural signal amplification.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wegkamp, Daniel; Krenz, Marcel; Wolf, Martin [Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG, Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Dept. of Physics, Berlin (Germany); Bovensiepen, Uwe [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Dept. of Physics, Duisburg (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Dept. of Physics, Berlin (Germany)
2010-07-01
To study ultrafast dynamics on a femtosecond timescale, laser pulses of comparable and shorter scale are used in this work in combination with 2-photon photoemission. Here, we report the principle, setup, and characterisation of a femtosecond light-source based on a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) and its application in studying the dynamics of Na/Cu(111) following. Laser pulses with duration <20 fs have been generated in the visible spectral range using a 300 kHz regenerative amplifier. In a single color scheme (h{nu}=2.3 eV) the NOPA pulses are used to excite and photoemit hot electrons, which are detected with a time of flight (TOF) spectrometer. With time independent measurements the binding energy of the adsorbate-induced resonance at 2 eV is observed in agreement with. As a function of pump-probe delay a time-dependent binding energy shift of the Na resonance with -2 meV/fs is observed. This shift is explained as a pump-induced movement of the sodium adsorbate away from the surface.
The Nike electron-beam-pumped KrF laser amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sethian, J.D.; Pawley, C.J.; Obenschain, S.P.
1997-01-01
Nike is a recently completed multikilojoule krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. The two final amplifiers of the Nike laser are both electron-beam-pumped systems. This paper describes these two amplifiers, with an emphasis on the pulsed power. The smaller of the two has a 20 x 20 cm aperture, and produces an output laser beam energy in excess of 100 J. This 20 cm Amplifier uses a single 12 kJ Marx generator to inject two 300 kV, 75 kA, 140 ns flat-top electron beams into opposite sides of the laser cell. The larger amplifier in Nike has a 60 x 60 cm aperture, and amplifies the laser beam up to 5 kJ. This 60 cm amplifier has two independent electron beam systems. Each system has a 170 kJ Marx generator that produces a 670 kV, 540 kA, 240 ns flat-top electron beam. Both amplifiers are complete, fully integrated into the laser, meet the Nike system requirements, and are used routinely for laser-target experiments
47 CFR 97.315 - Certification of external RF power amplifiers.
2010-10-01
.... (2) The amplifier was manufactured before April 28, 1978, and has been issued a marketing waiver by... that operator's station. (3) The amplifier is sold to an amateur radio operator or to a dealer, the amplifier is purchased in used condition by a dealer, or the amplifier is sold to an amateur radio operator...
Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe
2010-01-01
Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....
Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers
Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.
1968-01-01
Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lewis, Danielle
2004-01-01
.... To date, there are no suitable methods developed for forecasting advective sea fog at Kunsan, primarily due to a lack of understanding of sea fog formation under various synoptic situations over the Yellow Sea...
Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.
1994-02-01
Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described
Preconditioned iterative methods for space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations
Zhao, Zhi; Jin, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Matthew M.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose practical numerical methods for solving a class of initial-boundary value problems of space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations. First, we propose an implicit method based on two-sided Grünwald formulae and discuss its stability and consistency. Then, we develop the preconditioned generalized minimal residual (preconditioned GMRES) method and preconditioned conjugate gradient normal residual (preconditioned CGNR) method with easily constructed preconditioners. Importantly, because resulting systems are Toeplitz-like, fast Fourier transform can be applied to significantly reduce the computational cost. We perform numerical experiments to demonstrate the efficiency of our preconditioners, even in cases with variable coefficients.
Enriched reproducing kernel particle method for fractional advection-diffusion equation
Ying, Yuping; Lian, Yanping; Tang, Shaoqiang; Liu, Wing Kam
2018-06-01
The reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) has been efficiently applied to problems with large deformations, high gradients and high modal density. In this paper, it is extended to solve a nonlocal problem modeled by a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE), which exhibits a boundary layer with low regularity. We formulate this method on a moving least-square approach. Via the enrichment of fractional-order power functions to the traditional integer-order basis for RKPM, leading terms of the solution to the FADE can be exactly reproduced, which guarantees a good approximation to the boundary layer. Numerical tests are performed to verify the proposed approach.
Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, W. H.
1950-08-24
This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.
Power Amplifier Design for E-band Wireless System Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke
2008-01-01
E-band wireless communications will become important as the microwave backhaul for high-speed data transmission. One of the most critical components is the front-end power amplifier in this system. The paper analyzes different technologies with potential in the E-band frequency range and present...... a power amplifier design satisfying the E-band system specifications. The designed power amplifier achieves a maximum output power of ges 20 dBm with a state-of-the-art power-added efficiency of 15%. The power is realized using InP DHBT technology. To the best of our knowledge it is the highest output...... power and efficiency reported for an InP HBT power amplifier in this frequency range. The predicted power-added efficiency is higher than that of power amplifiers based on SiGe HBT and GaAs pHEMT technologies. The design shows the capabilities of InP DHBT for power amplifier applications...
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, T.
1989-01-01
The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs
Pulse amplifier with high 'common mode rejection'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijlst, P.
1987-01-01
The input signal of a pulse amplifier contains large 'common-mode' signals which have to be suppressed. A transformer, especially constructed for this purpose, is described. It has been tried to optimize the signal to noise ratio of the pulse amplifier by means of noise analysis. (Auth.)
Fast Advection of Magnetic Fields by Hot Electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Nilson, P. M.; Kaluza, M. C.; Dangor, A. E.; Evans, R. G.; Fernandes, P.; Haines, M. G.; Kamperidis, C.; Kingham, R. J.; Ridgers, C. P.; Sherlock, M.; Wei, M. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Notley, M.; Minardi, S.; Tatarakis, M.; Rozmus, W.
2010-01-01
Experiments where a laser-generated proton beam is used to probe the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target are presented. At intensities of 10 15 W cm -2 and under conditions of significant fast electron production and strong heat fluxes, the electron mean-free-path is long compared with the temperature gradient scale length and hence nonlocal transport is important for the dynamics of the magnetic field in the plasma. The hot electron flux transports self-generated magnetic fields away from the focal region through the Nernst effect [A. Nishiguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 262 (1984)] at significantly higher velocities than the fluid velocity. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling shows that the Nernst effect allows advection and self-generation transports magnetic fields at significantly faster than the ion fluid velocity, v N /c s ≅10.
Behavior of MOSFET Amplifier in Radiation Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharshar, K.A.A.; Ashry, M.
2000-01-01
MOSFET type 2 N 3823 characteristics and its application as an amplifier are analyzed including the effects of gamma, electron beam 1.5 MeV 25 m A and neutron flux. The 1-V characteristics, transfer curve, and the frequency response of the amplifier, and the amplification factor(A v 0 are discussed with MOSFET circuit parameters. The drain current and the amplitude of the output signal decrease as the absorbed dose increases. The measured values of the amplified signal are attenuated by 30% and 6% after exposing the MOSFET to gamma radiation and electron beam at the same dose respectively. Also for exposure to 4x10 13 N/cm 3 neutrons decreased the measured value of the amplified signal by 73% of the initial values. The decrease in the gain of the MOSFET is due to the degradation of the transconductance. It is also noticed that percentage of the decrease depends on the type of radiation
Low-noise audio amplifiers and preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langner, G.C.; Sachs, R.D.; Stewart, F.L.
1979-03-01
Two simple, low-noise audio amplifiers and one low-noise preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples were designed, built, and tested. The amplifiers and the preamplifier have different front end designs. One amplifier uses ultralow-noise operational amplifiers; the other amplifier uses a hybrid component. The preamplifier uses ultralow-noise discrete components. The amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs, at maximum gain, are 4.09 nV and 50 nV; the preamplifier's input is 4.05 μV. Their bandwidths are 15 600 Hz, 550 Hz, and 174 kHz, respectively. the amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs were measured from approx. 0 to 100 Hz, whereas the preamplifier's equivalent noise input was measured from approx. 0 to 174 kHz
Free-electron laser system with Raman amplifier outcoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linford, G.J.
1988-05-03
A free-electron laser system is described comprising: a free-electron laser pump beam generator producing a high-power optical output beam in a vacuum environement; a Raman amplifier cell located in the path of the output beam from the pump beam generator; means for generating and introducing a Stokes seed beam into the Raman amplifier cell, a pair of gaseous windows through which the output beam enters and leaves the Raman amplifier cell, each window having a stream of gas moving continuously in a direction generally perpendicular to the beam; and a mirror positioned in the path of the output beam from the Raman amplifier, the mirror functioning to reflect and further direct the output beam, but not the unwanted spectral components.
Modeling and design techniques for RF power amplifiers
Raghavan, Arvind; Laskar, Joy
2008-01-01
The book covers RF power amplifier design, from device and modeling considerations to advanced circuit design architectures and techniques. It focuses on recent developments and advanced topics in this area, including numerous practical designs to back the theoretical considerations. It presents the challenges in designing power amplifiers in silicon and helps the reader improve the efficiency of linear power amplifiers, and design more accurate compact device models, with faster extraction routines, to create cost effective and reliable circuits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Seung Taek
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper propose an optical structure to generate trigger signals for optical coherence tomography (OCT using backward light which is usually disposed. The backward light is called backward amplified stimulated emission generated from semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA when using swept wavelength tunable laser (SWTL. A circulator is applied to block undesirable lights in the SWTL instead of an isolator in common SWTL. The circulator also diverts backward amplified spontaneous lights, which finally bring out trigger signals for a high speed digitizer. The spectra of the forward lights at SOA and the waveform of the backward lights were measured to check the procedure of the trigger formation in the experiment. The results showed that the trigger signals from the proposed SWTL with the circulator was quite usable in OCT.
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
1977-01-01
The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J-F.; Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.
2012-01-01
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1–3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.
2012-12-01
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
High-power piezo drive amplifier for large stack and PFC applications
Clingman, Dan J.; Gamble, Mike
2001-08-01
This paper describes the continuing development of Boeing High Power Piezo Drive Amplifiers. Described is the development and testing of a 1500 Vpp, 8 amp switching amplifier. This amplifier is used to drive a piezo stack driven rotor blade trailing edge flap on a full size helicopter. Also discuss is a switching amplifier designed to drive a Piezo Fiber Composite (PFC) active twist rotor blade. This amplifier was designed to drive the PFC material at 2000 Vpp and 0.5 amps. These amplifiers recycle reactive energy, allowing for a power and weight efficient amplifier design. This work was done in conjunction with the DARPA sponsored Phase II Smart Rotor Blade program and the NASA Langley Research Center sponsored Active Twist Rotor (ATR) blade program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.
1996-01-01
The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release
Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier for THz Frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotiranta, Mikko; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy
tubes and gas lasers, but the ones available are too expensive or large for many applications. This work is related to the European project OPTHER (Optically driven terahertz amplifiers) which aims to realise a compact, powerful and efficient vacuum tube amplifier for the frequency range of 0.3 – 2...
A conservative scheme for 2D and 3D adaptive semi-Lagrangian advection
Behrens, Jörn; Mentrup, Lars
2005-01-01
This article describes a 2D and 3D adaptive and mass conservingsemi-Lagrangian advection scheme for atmospheric transport problems. Fromthe integral form of the conservation law we derive a semi-Lagrangian schemebased on conservation of mass along trajectories. The mapping of mass fromthe old (adaptively refined and possibly different) grid to the upstream controlvolume is performed by a mass packet based scheme, essentially consistingof a sub-grid discretization. We validate the new adaptive...
Introduction to RF power amplifier design and simulation
Eroglu, Abdullah
2015-01-01
Introduction to RF Power Amplifier Design and Simulation fills a gap in the existing literature by providing step-by-step guidance for the design of radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers, from analytical formulation to simulation, implementation, and measurement. Featuring numerous illustrations and examples of real-world engineering applications, this book:Gives an overview of intermodulation and elaborates on the difference between linear and nonlinear amplifiersDescribes the high-frequency model and transient characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistorsDetails activ
Accuracy of spectral and finite difference schemes in 2D advection problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2003-01-01
In this paper we investigate the accuracy of two numerical procedures commonly used to solve 2D advection problems: spectral and finite difference (FD) schemes. These schemes are widely used, simulating, e.g., neutral and plasma flows. FD schemes have long been considered fast, relatively easy...... that the accuracy of FD schemes can be significantly improved if one is careful in choosing an appropriate FD scheme that reflects conservation properties of the nonlinear terms and in setting up the grid in accordance with the problem....
It is well known that the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface are controlled by complex processes including advection, dispersion-diffusion, and chemical reactions. However, the interplay between the physical transport processes and chemical reactions, and their...
Powolny, F; Brunner, S E; Hillemanns, H; Meyer, T; Garutti, E; Williams, M C S; Auffray, E; Shen, W; Goettlich, M; Jarron, P; Schultz-Coulon, H C
2011-01-01
Time of flight (TOF) measurements in positron emission tomography (PET) are very challenging in terms of timing performance, and should ideally achieve less than 100 ps FWHM precision. We present a time-based differential technique to read out silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) which has less than 20 ps FWHM electronic jitter. The novel readout is a fast front end circuit (NINO) based on a first stage differential current mode amplifier with 20 Omega input resistance. Therefore the amplifier inputs are connected differentially to the SiPM's anode and cathode ports. The leading edge of the output signal provides the time information, while the trailing edge provides the energy information. Based on a Monte Carlo photon-generation model, HSPICE simulations were run with a 3 x 3 mm(2) SiPM-model, read out with a differential current amplifier. The results of these simulations are presented here and compared with experimental data obtained with a 3 x 3 x 15 mm(3) LSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. The measured time coi...
Thomas, S. A.; Valett, H.; Webster, J. R.; Mulholland, P. J.; Dahm, C. N.
2001-12-01
Identifying the locations and controls governing solute uptake is a recent area of focus in studies of stream biogeochemistry. We introduce a technique, rising limb analysis (RLA), to estimate areal nitrate uptake in the advective and transient storage (TS) zones of streams. RLA is an inverse approach that combines nutrient spiraling and transient storage modeling to calculate total uptake of reactive solutes and the fraction of uptake occurring within the advective sub-compartment of streams. The contribution of the transient storage zones to solute loss is determined by difference. Twelve-hour coinjections of conservative (Cl-) and reactive (15NO3) tracers were conducted seasonally in several headwater streams among which AS/A ranged from 0.01 - 2.0. TS characteristics were determined using an advection-dispersion model modified to include hydrologic exchange with a transient storage compartment. Whole-system uptake was determined by fitting the longitudinal pattern of NO3 to first-order, exponential decay model. Uptake in the advective sub-compartment was determined by collecting a temporal sequence of samples from a single location beginning with the arrival of the solute front and concluding with the onset of plateau conditions (i.e. the rising limb). Across the rising limb, 15NO3:Cl was regressed against the percentage of water that had resided in the transient storage zone (calculated from the TS modeling). The y-intercept thus provides an estimate of the plateau 15NO3:Cl ratio in the absence of NO3 uptake within the transient storage zone. Algebraic expressions were used to calculate the percentage of NO3 uptake occurring in the advective and transient storage sub-compartments. Application of RLA successfully estimated uptake coefficients for NO3 in the subsurface when the physical dimensions of that habitat were substantial (AS/A > 0.2) and when plateau conditions at the sampling location consisted of waters in which at least 25% had resided in the
Existence of solution for a general fractional advection-dispersion equation
Torres Ledesma, César E.
2018-05-01
In this work, we consider the existence of solution to the following fractional advection-dispersion equation -d/dt ( p {_{-∞}}It^{β }(u'(t)) + q {t}I_{∞}^{β }(u'(t))) + b(t)u = f(t, u(t)),t\\in R where β \\in (0,1) , _{-∞}It^{β } and tI_{∞}^{β } denote left and right Liouville-Weyl fractional integrals of order β respectively, 0continuous functions. Due to the general assumption on the constant p and q, the problem (0.1) does not have a variational structure. Despite that, here we study it performing variational methods, combining with an iterative technique, and give an existence criteria of solution for the problem (0.1) under suitable assumptions.
Distributed CMOS Bidirectional Amplifiers Broadbanding and Linearization Techniques
El-Khatib, Ziad; Mahmoud, Samy A
2012-01-01
This book describes methods to design distributed amplifiers useful for performing circuit functions such as duplexing, paraphrase amplification, phase shifting power splitting and power combiner applications. A CMOS bidirectional distributed amplifier is presented that combines for the first time device-level with circuit-level linearization, suppressing the third-order intermodulation distortion. It is implemented in 0.13μm RF CMOS technology for use in highly linear, low-cost UWB Radio-over-Fiber communication systems. Describes CMOS distributed amplifiers for optoelectronic applications such as Radio-over-Fiber systems, base station transceivers and picocells; Presents most recent techniques for linearization of CMOS distributed amplifiers; Includes coverage of CMOS I-V transconductors, as well as CMOS on-chip inductor integration and modeling; Includes circuit applications for UWB Radio-over-Fiber networks.
Resistor-less charge sensitive amplifier for semiconductor detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pelczar, K., E-mail: krzysztof.pelczar@doctoral.uj.edu.pl; Panas, K.; Zuzel, G.
2016-11-01
A new concept of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier without a high-value resistor in the feedback loop is presented. Basic spectroscopic parameters of the amplifier coupled to a coaxial High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) are discussed. The amplifier signal input is realized with an n-channel J-FET transistor. The feedback capacitor is discharged continuously by the second, forward biased n-channel J-FET, driven by an RC low–pass filter. Both the analog—with a standard spectroscopy amplifier and a multi-channel analyzer—and the digital—by applying a Flash Analog to Digital Converter—signal readouts were tested. The achieved resolution in the analog and the digital readouts was 0.17% and 0.21%, respectively, at the Full Width at Half Maximum of the registered {sup 60}Co 1332.5 keV gamma line.
Effect of advection on variations in zooplankton at a single location near Cabo Nazca, Peru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, S L; Brink, K H; Santander, H; Cowles, T J; Huyer, A
1980-04-01
Temporal variations in the biomass and species composition of zooplankton at a single midshelf station in an upwelling area off Peru can be explained to a large extent by onshore-offshore advection in the upper 20 m of the water column. During periods of strong or sustained near-surface onshore flow, peaks in biomass of zooplankton were observed at midshelf and typically oceanic species of copepod were collected. In periods of offshore flow at the surface, a copepod capable of migrating into oxygen-depleted layers deeper than 30 m was collected. A simple translocation model of advection applied to the cross-shelf distribution of Paracalanus parvus suggests that the fluctuations in P. pavus observed in the midshelf time-series were closely related to onshore-offshore flow in the upper 20 m. Fluctuations in abundance of the numerically dominant copepod, Acartia tonsa, were apparently affected by near surface flow also. The population age-structure suggests that A. tonsa was growing at maximal rates, due in part to its positive feeding response to the dinoflagellate/diatom assemblage of phytoplankton.
Ghosh, Shubhrangshu
2017-09-01
The correlated and coupled dynamics of accretion and outflow around black holes (BHs) are essentially governed by the fundamental laws of conservation as outflow extracts matter, momentum and energy from the accretion region. Here we analyze a robust form of 2.5-dimensional viscous, resistive, advective magnetized accretion-outflow coupling in BH systems. We solve the complete set of coupled MHD conservation equations self-consistently, through invoking a generalized polynomial expansion in two dimensions. We perform a critical analysis of the accretion-outflow region and provide a complete quasi-analytical family of solutions for advective flows. We obtain the physically plausible outflow solutions at high turbulent viscosity parameter α (≳ 0.3), and at a reduced scale-height, as magnetic stresses compress or squeeze the flow region. We found that the value of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B P is enhanced with the increase of the geometrical thickness of the accretion flow. On the other hand, differential magnetic torque (-{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z) increases with the increase in \\dot{M}. {\\bar{B}}{{P}}, -{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z as well as the plasma beta β P get strongly augmented with the increase in the value of α, enhancing the transport of vertical flux outwards. Our solutions indicate that magnetocentrifugal acceleration plausibly plays a dominant role in effusing out plasma from the radial accretion flow in a moderately advective paradigm which is more centrifugally dominated. However in a strongly advective paradigm it is likely that the thermal pressure gradient would play a more contributory role in the vertical transport of plasma.
Rotation stability of high speed neutron time-of-flight mechanical chopper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habib, N.; Adib, M.
1998-01-01
A modified rotation stabilization system has been designed to maintain the stability of a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) mechanical chopper rates from 460 rpm to 16000 rpm. The main principle of the system is based on comparing the chopper's rotation period with the preselected one from a quartz timer. The result of comparison is used to control the current driver of the chopper's motor. A 600 Hz three phase generator controlled by a magnetic amplifier was used as a current driver. The stability of the chopper's rotation rate at 16000 rpm was 0.02%. An improved method precise time scale calibration of the TOF spectrometer is applied
Gyrocon: a deflection-modulated, high-power microwave amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallerico, P.J.
1977-10-01
A large-signal, relativistic theory of the electron-field interaction in a new class of microwave amplifiers is presented and applied to the analysis of a high-power, 450-MHz amplifier for accelerator applications. The analysis indicates that electronic efficiencies in excess of 90 percent are obtainable and that overall efficiencies of 90 percent are possible. The amplifier is unique in several respects; the electron velocity is perpendicular to the circuit energy flow, the device uses a fast-wave circuit, and the electron beam is deflection modulated
Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe
Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.
2002-01-01
In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guilet, Jerome; Foglizzo, Thierry
2010-01-01
The effect of a magnetic field on the linear phase of the advective-acoustic instability is investigated as a first step toward a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of the stationary accretion shock instability taking place during stellar core collapse. We study a toy model where the flow behind a planar stationary accretion shock is adiabatically decelerated by an external potential. Two magnetic field geometries are considered: parallel or perpendicular to the shock. The entropy-vorticity wave, which is simply advected in the unmagnetized limit, separates into five different waves: the entropy perturbations are advected, while the vorticity can propagate along the field lines through two Alfven waves and two slow magnetosonic waves. The two cycles existing in the unmagnetized limit, advective-acoustic and purely acoustic, are replaced by up to six distinct MHD cycles. The phase differences among the cycles play an important role in determining the total cycle efficiency and hence the growth rate. Oscillations in the growth rate as a function of the magnetic field strength are due to this varying phase shift. A vertical magnetic field hardly affects the cycle efficiency in the regime of super-Alfvenic accretion that is considered. In contrast, we find that a horizontal magnetic field strongly increases the efficiencies of the vorticity cycles that bend the field lines, resulting in a significant increase of the growth rate if the different cycles are in phase. These magnetic effects are significant for large-scale modes if the Alfven velocity is a sizable fraction of the flow velocity.
External Peltier Cooler For Low-Noise Amplifier
Soper, Terry A.
1990-01-01
Inexpensive Peltier-effect cooling module made of few commercially available parts used to reduce thermal noise in microwave amplifier. Retrofitted to almost any microwave low-noise amplifier or receiver preamplifier used in communication, telemetry, or radar. Includes copper or aluminum cold plate held tightly against unit to be cooled by strap-type worm-gear clamps.
Magnetized advective accretion flows: formation of magnetic barriers in magnetically arrested discs
Mondal, Tushar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2018-05-01
We discuss the importance of large-scale strong magnetic field in the removal of angular momentum outward, as well as the possible origin of different kinds of magnetic barrier in advective, geometrically thick, sub-Keplerian accretion flows around black holes. The origin of this large-scale strong magnetic field near the event horizon is due to the advection of the magnetic flux by the accreting gas from the environment, say, the interstellar medium or a companion star, because of flux freezing. In this simplest vertically averaged, 1.5-dimensional disc model, we choose the maximum upper limit of the magnetic field, which the disc around a black hole can sustain. In this so called magnetically arrested disc model, the accreting gas either decelerates or faces the magnetic barrier near the event horizon by the accumulated magnetic field depending on the geometry. The magnetic barrier may knock the matter to infinity. We suggest that these types of flow are the building block to produce jets and outflows in the accreting system. We also find that in some cases, when matter is trying to go back to infinity after knocking the barrier, matter is prevented being escaped by the cumulative action of strong gravity and the magnetic tension, hence by another barrier. In this way, magnetic field can lock the matter in between these two barriers and it might be a possible explanation for the formation of episodic jet.
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker UBC#116 linked to Fusarium crown and root rot resistance gene (Frl) into a co-dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for marker-assisted selection of tomato.
Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others
2012-12-11
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther
2003-01-01
The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...
Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....
Manhattan equation for the operational amplifier
Mishonov, Todor M.; Danchev, Victor I.; Petkov, Emil G.; Gourev, Vassil N.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Varonov, Albert M.
2018-01-01
A differential equation relating the voltage at the output of an operational amplifier $U_0$ and the difference between the input voltages ($U_{+}$ and $U_{-}$) has been derived. The crossover frequency $f_0$ is a parameter in this operational amplifier master equation. The formulas derived as a consequence of this equation find applications in thousands of specifications for electronic devices but as far as we know, the equation has never been published. Actually, the master equation of oper...
Integrated circuit amplifiers for multi-electrode intracortical recording.
Jochum, Thomas; Denison, Timothy; Wolf, Patrick
2009-02-01
Significant progress has been made in systems that interpret the electrical signals of the brain in order to control an actuator. One version of these systems senses neuronal extracellular action potentials with an array of up to 100 miniature probes inserted into the cortex. The impedance of each probe is high, so environmental electrical noise is readily coupled to the neuronal signal. To minimize this noise, an amplifier is placed close to each probe. Thus, the need has arisen for many amplifiers to be placed near the cortex. Commercially available integrated circuits do not satisfy the area, power and noise requirements of this application, so researchers have designed custom integrated-circuit amplifiers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the neural amplifiers described in publications prior to 2008. Methods to achieve high input impedance, low noise and a large time-constant high-pass filter are reviewed. A tutorial on the biological, electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that influence amplifier design is provided. Areas for additional research, including sub-nanoampere electrolysis and chronic cortical heating, are discussed. Unresolved design concerns, including teraohm circuitry, electrical overstress and component failure, are identified.
Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidkjær, Jens
2008-01-01
An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....
Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sarman
1997-04-01
Full Text Available The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.
Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers
R. Sarman; R. Prokop; T. Dostal
1997-01-01
The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.
Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers
Danson John; Plett Calvin; Tait Niall
2006-01-01
A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA) at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB no...
Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willingale, L; Thomas, A G R; Nilson, P M; Kaluza, M C; Dangor, A E; Evans, R G; Fernandes, P; Haines, M G; Kamperidis, C; Kingham, R J; Ridgers, C P; Sherlock, M; Wei, M S; Najmudin, Z; Krushelnick, K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Notley, M; Minardi, S; Rozmus, W; Tatarakis, M
2011-01-01
A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10 15 W cm −2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v N /c s ≈ 10.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.
1995-01-01
In a high gain free electron laser amplifier based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) the spontaneous radiation generated by an electron beam near the undulator entrance is amplified many orders of magnitude along the undulator. The transverse coherence properties of the amplified radiation depends on both the amplification process and the coherence of the seed radiation (the undulator radiation generated in the first gain length or so). The evolution of the transverse coherence in the amplification process is studied based on the solution of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations including higher order transverse modes. The coherence of the seed radiation is determined by the number of coherent modes in the phase space area of the undulator radiation. We discuss the criterion of transverse coherence and identify governing parameters over a broad range of parameters. In particular we re-examine the well known emittance criterion for the undulator radiation, which states that full transverse coherence is guaranteed if the rms emittance is smaller than the wavelength divided by 4π. It is found that this criterion is modified for SASE because of the different optimization conditions required for the electron beam. Our analysis is a generalization of the previous study by Yu and Krinsky for the case of vanishing emittance with parallel electron beam. Understanding the transverse coherence of SASE is important for the X-ray free electron laser projects now under consideration at SLAC and DESY
Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.
Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J
2015-01-01
This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pulsed hydrogen fluoride laser oscillator-amplifier experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schott, G.L.
1975-01-01
Pulsed HF chemical laser oscillator energies were scaled from millijoules to several kilojoules over the period 1970-1974, reaching approximately 10 J with SF 6 and transverse discharges, and using electron-beam initiation and elemental F 2 above 1000J. This demonstrated scalability to large energy with acceptable electrical efficiency is only one prerequisite for application of this gas laser in fusion; equally important matters are achievement of focusable, approximately 1 ns pulses, couplable to light-element targets, all from an affordable system. Exploratory MOPA experiments are reported which address control of HF laser beam focusability and pulse duration, using SF 6 -based experimental oscillator--amplifier sequences and Pockels' cell switching. Simultaneous multiline lasing with 2.6 less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 3.1 μm and high specific gain and energy density are particularly important factors encountered with HF, where amplifier pumping and lasing occur in a substantially cw temporal relationship, even in less than 100 ns bursts. Time-resolved SF 6 --HI oscillator spectra contain 27 simultaneous lines from six vibrational bands. An apertured, SF 6 -hydrocarbon pin-discharge oscillator generates approximately 10 mJ of TEM 00 radiation, which is amplified to approximately 1 J in approximately 150 ns by a TEA amplifier and p []opagated tens of meters. A three-stage system coupling these elements through an approximately 1 ns electrooptic gate to a greater than 10 J, e-beam energized amplifier is under development. (auth)
Tremblin, P.; Chabrier, G.; Mayne, N. J.; Amundsen, D. S.; Baraffe, I.; Debras, F.; Drummond, B.; Manners, J.; Fromang, S.
2017-01-01
The anomalously large radii of strongly irradiated exoplanets have remained a major puzzle in astronomy. Based on a two-dimensional steady-state atmospheric circulation model, the validity of which is assessed by comparison to three-dimensional calculations, we reveal a new mechanism, namely the advection of the potential temperature due to mass and longitudinal momentum conservation, a process occurring in the Earth's atmosphere or oceans. In the deep atmosphere, the vanishing heating flux forces the atmospheric structure to converge to a hotter adiabat than the one obtained with 1D calculations, implying a larger radius for the planet. Not only do the calculations reproduce the observed radius of HD 209458b, but also reproduce the observed correlation between radius inflation and irradiation for transiting planets. Vertical advection of potential temperature induced by non-uniform atmospheric heating thus provides a robust mechanism to explain the inflated radii of irradiated hot Jupiters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tremblin, P.; Chabrier, G.; Mayne, N. J.; Baraffe, I.; Debras, F.; Drummond, B.; Manners, J.; Amundsen, D. S.; Fromang, S.
2017-01-01
The anomalously large radii of strongly irradiated exoplanets have remained a major puzzle in astronomy. Based on a two-dimensional steady-state atmospheric circulation model, the validity of which is assessed by comparison to three-dimensional calculations, we reveal a new mechanism, namely the advection of the potential temperature due to mass and longitudinal momentum conservation, a process occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere or oceans. In the deep atmosphere, the vanishing heating flux forces the atmospheric structure to converge to a hotter adiabat than the one obtained with 1D calculations, implying a larger radius for the planet. Not only do the calculations reproduce the observed radius of HD 209458b, but also reproduce the observed correlation between radius inflation and irradiation for transiting planets. Vertical advection of potential temperature induced by non-uniform atmospheric heating thus provides a robust mechanism to explain the inflated radii of irradiated hot Jupiters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tremblin, P. [Maison de la Simulation, CEA-CNRS-INRIA-UPS-UVSQ, USR 3441, CEA Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Chabrier, G.; Mayne, N. J.; Baraffe, I.; Debras, F.; Drummond, B.; Manners, J. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Amundsen, D. S. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Fromang, S., E-mail: pascal.tremblin@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris 7, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2017-05-20
The anomalously large radii of strongly irradiated exoplanets have remained a major puzzle in astronomy. Based on a two-dimensional steady-state atmospheric circulation model, the validity of which is assessed by comparison to three-dimensional calculations, we reveal a new mechanism, namely the advection of the potential temperature due to mass and longitudinal momentum conservation, a process occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere or oceans. In the deep atmosphere, the vanishing heating flux forces the atmospheric structure to converge to a hotter adiabat than the one obtained with 1D calculations, implying a larger radius for the planet. Not only do the calculations reproduce the observed radius of HD 209458b, but also reproduce the observed correlation between radius inflation and irradiation for transiting planets. Vertical advection of potential temperature induced by non-uniform atmospheric heating thus provides a robust mechanism to explain the inflated radii of irradiated hot Jupiters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola R.; Bernasconi, G.; Bertolotti, Angel
1995-01-01
A multicomponent solution is considered in advective diffusion chambers between two half-permeable barriers. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the concentration fields in the chamber. A new enrichment process is proposed and assessed using a digital simulation of space-time dynamics, based on the analytical solution of the model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barzilov, A.P.; Gulevich, A.V.; Kukharchuk, O.F.
2000-01-01
The technical problem of long-life fission product and minor actinide incineration and production of plutonium fuel in the prospective nuclear systems will arise at significant scales of nuclear power industry development. Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by extemal neutron sources (energy amplifiers) are considered as incinerators of toxicity of complete nuclear industry. In the frames of this concept, the subcritical reactor part consisting of two coupled blanket regions (inner fast neutron spectrum core and outer thermal core) driven by extemal neutron source is discussed. Two types of source are studied: spallation target and 14-MeV fusion bum of micropellets. Liquid metal Pb-Bi is considered as target material and coolant of inner fast core. Thermal core is a heavy-water subcritical reactor of the Candu-type. The fast core is protected from thermal neutrons influence with the boron shield. All reactor technologies used in this concept are tested during years of operation and commercially available. Thus, the cascade energy amplifiers have a set of advantages in comparison with traditional concepts: in energy production, in transmutation efficiency, and in economics. (authors)
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
1999-01-01
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
TOFPET 2: A high-performance circuit for PET time-of-flight
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Francesco, Agostino, E-mail: agodifra@lip.pt [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bugalho, Ricardo [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal); Oliveira, Luis [CTS-UNINOVA, DEE FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Rolo, Manuel [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Silva, Jose C.; Varela, Joao [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal)
2016-07-11
We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with (320 pF) capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75 (39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4 (8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.
Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)
2011-11-30
A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 Multiplication-Sign 25 mm and a {approx}40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 {mu}s. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass {approx}3.2, the linear gain {approx}0.031 cm{sup -1} with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm{sup -3}. The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4{lambda} ({lambda} = 0.63 {mu}m is the probing radiation wavelength).
Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I
2011-01-01
A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 × 25 mm and a ∼40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 μs. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass ∼3.2, the linear gain ∼0.031 cm -1 with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm -3 . The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4λ (λ = 0.63 μm is the probing radiation wavelength).
GAME EDUKASI PERAKITAN AMPLIFIER BERBASIS ANDROID UNTUK USER UMUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fundhi Fanju Hafili
2015-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Seiring dengan perkembangan dan kebutuhan teknologi saat ini pembelajaran elektro dapat dibuat menjadi lebih praktis dan menarik di ponsel berbasis android Mempelajari elektronika juga memerlukan usaha-usaha nyata yang ber-kesinambungan dan mengarah kepada tumbuhnya kesadaran untuk menjadikan elektronika sebagai perkembangan teknologi. Dengan adanya metode game, merupakan salah satu metode belajar merakit amplifier yang disusun secara praktis dan sistematis sehingga memudahkan setiap orang untuk belajar maupun mengajarkan merancang amplifier. Sementara itu metode pembelajaran yang ada saat ini yaitu melalui buku maupun dengan cara bertatap muka langsung dengan tentor dirasa masih kurang efektif. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut maka penulis membuat game edukasi elektro merancang amplifier, karena mudah dipahami dan memudahkan para calon teknisi elektro dalam belajar merancang amplifier. Perancangan ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan metode Research and Development adalah metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut. Dengan aplikasi ini diharapkan dapat membantu para pengguna yang ingin belajar merakit amplifier berbasis android. . Kata kunci: elektro, game, research and development.
InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz
Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard
2009-01-01
Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.
Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.
1991-01-01
With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail
Effects of entanglement in an ideal optical amplifier
Franson, J. D.; Brewster, R. A.
2018-04-01
In an ideal linear amplifier, the output signal is linearly related to the input signal with an additive noise that is independent of the input. The decoherence of a quantum-mechanical state as a result of optical amplification is usually assumed to be due to the addition of quantum noise. Here we show that entanglement between the input signal and the amplifying medium can produce an exponentially-large amount of decoherence in an ideal optical amplifier even when the gain is arbitrarily close to unity and the added noise is negligible. These effects occur for macroscopic superposition states, where even a small amount of gain can leave a significant amount of which-path information in the environment. Our results show that the usual input/output relation of a linear amplifier does not provide a complete description of the output state when post-selection is used.
Mode-locking in advection-reaction-diffusion systems: An invariant manifold perspective
Locke, Rory A.; Mahoney, John R.; Mitchell, Kevin A.
2018-01-01
Fronts propagating in two-dimensional advection-reaction-diffusion systems exhibit a rich topological structure. When the underlying fluid flow is periodic in space and time, the reaction front can lock to the driving frequency. We explain this mode-locking phenomenon using the so-called burning invariant manifolds (BIMs). In fact, the mode-locked profile is delineated by a BIM attached to a relative periodic orbit (RPO) of the front element dynamics. Changes in the type (and loss) of mode-locking can be understood in terms of local and global bifurcations of the RPOs and their BIMs. We illustrate these concepts numerically using a chain of alternating vortices in a channel geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, T.J.R.; Hulbert, G.M.; Franca, L.P.
1988-10-01
Galerkin/least-squares finite element methods are presented for advective-diffusive equations. Galerkin/least-squares represents a conceptual simplification of SUPG, and is in fact applicable to a wide variety of other problem types. A convergence analysis and error estimates are presented. (author) [pt
Coyle, D. Barry
1991-01-01
In the design of space qualifiable laser systems for ranging and altimetry, such as NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS), the transmitter must be kept small, powerful yet efficient, and must consist of as few components as possible. A novel preamplifier design is examined which requires no external beam steering optics, yielding a compact component with simple alignment procedures. The gains achieved are comparable to multipass zigzag amplifiers using two or more sets of external optics for extra passes through the amplifying medium.
Coyle, D. B.
1991-01-01
In the design of space-qualifiable laser systems for ranging and altimetry, such as NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS), the transmitter must be kept small, powerful yet efficient, and must consist of as few components as possible. A novel preamplifier design is examined which requires no external beam steering optics, yielding a compact component with simple alignment procedures. The gains achieved are comparable to multipass zigzag amplifiers using two or more sets of external optics for extra passes through the amplifying medium.
32 CFR 245.12 - Amplifying instructions.
2010-07-01
... flights, agricultural and forest fire flights, border patrol flights, and other essential civil air... Defense Sector (NEADS) Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Minneapolis, New York, Indianapolis, Kansas City...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aulisa, Eugenio; Manservisi, Sandro; Scardovelli, Ruben
2003-01-01
In this work we present a new mixed markers and volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm for the reconstruction and advection of interfaces in the two-dimensional space. The interface is described by using both the volume fraction function C, as in VOF methods, and surface markers, which locate the interface within the computational cells. The C field and the markers are advected by following the streamlines. New markers are determined by computing the intersections of the advected interface with the grid lines, then other markers are added inside each cut cell to conserve the volume fraction C. A smooth motion of the interface is obtained, typical of the marker approach, with a good volume conservation, as in standard VOF methods. In this article we consider a few typical two-dimensional tests and compare the results of the mixed algorithm with those obtained with VOF methods. Translations, rotations and vortex tests are performed showing that many problems of the VOF technique can be solved and a good accuracy in the geometrical motion and mass conservation can be achieved
A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R.; Moscone, C.G.
1997-11-01
A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results
A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moscone, C.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)
1997-11-01
A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.
Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser
Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.
1992-01-01
The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.
Ultrafast Dynamics of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poel, Mike van der; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2007-01-01
We report on a series of experiments on the dynamical properties of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. We show how the amplifier responds to one or several ultrafast (170 fs) pulses in rapid succession and our results demonstrate applicability and ultimate limitations to application...
Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.
2005-07-01
Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)
Design and development of digital seismic amplifier recorder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samsidar, Siti Alaa; Afuar, Waldy; Handayani, Gunawan, E-mail: gunawanhandayani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ITB (Indonesia)
2015-04-16
A digital seismic recording is a recording technique of seismic data in digital systems. This method is more convenient because it is more accurate than other methods of seismic recorders. To improve the quality of the results of seismic measurements, the signal needs to be amplified to obtain better subsurface images. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of measurement by amplifying the input signal. We use seismic sensors/geophones with a frequency of 4.5 Hz. The signal is amplified by means of 12 units of non-inverting amplifier. The non-inverting amplifier using IC 741 with the resistor values 1KΩ and 1MΩ. The amplification results were 1,000 times. The results of signal amplification converted into digital by using the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Quantitative analysis in this study was performed using the software Lab VIEW 8.6. The Lab VIEW 8.6 program was used to control the ADC. The results of qualitative analysis showed that the seismic conditioning can produce a large output, so that the data obtained is better than conventional data. This application can be used for geophysical methods that have low input voltage such as microtremor application.
Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design
Nelson, J C C
1995-01-01
This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu
Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...
Compact solid state radio frequency amplifiers in kW regime for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RF amplifier; solid state amplifier; power combiner and divider; .... was designed using planar and coaxial transmission line baluns with minimum lumped variable ..... Cripps S C 1999 RF power amplifiers for wireless communication. Norwood: ...
Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.
1986-01-01
A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.
1996-01-01
Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)
PHEMT Distributed Power Amplifier Adopting Broadband Impedance Transformer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Narendra, K.; Limiti, E.; Paoloni, C.
2013-01-01
A non-uniform drain line distributed power amplifier (DPA) employing a broadband impedance transformer is presented. The DPA is based on GaAs PHEMT technology. The impedance transformer employs asymmetric coupled lines and transforms a low output impedance of the amplifier to a standard 50 Ω...
Development and energization of IOT based RF amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandal, A.; Som, S.; Raj, P.R.; Manna, S.K.; Ghosh, S.; Seth, S.; Thakurta, S.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.; Panda, U.S.
2013-01-01
A 704 MHz IOT based CW RF amplifier has been developed in VECC. It can also be used with proper tuning to power cavity modules operating at 650 MHz in high energy high intensity proton linear accelerator proposed to be built for ADSS/SNS programme in India and Project-X at Fermilab, USA. This IOT based amplifier provides up to 60 kW continuous wave RF power at 700 MHz. It required various power supplies, LCW cooling and forced air cooling for its operation. The auxiliary power supplies like Grid, Filament and Ion-pump, are floated and mounted on an isolated frame, i.e., HV deck. The mains inputs are electrically isolated by means of isolation transformer. Also, a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based interlocks along with high voltage collector power supply has been designed and developed for the safe operation of the RF amplifier. This paper discusses about various developments and energization of the IOT based RF amplifier with high power dummy load. (author)
Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes
Doroz, P.; Duk, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Borecki, M.
2016-09-01
Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, G.M. de; Leitao, M. de M.V.B.R.
2000-01-01
The objective of this study was to analyze the consequences in the evapotranspiration estimates (ET) during the growing cycle of a peanut crop due to the errors committed in the determination of the radiation balance (Rn), as well as those caused by the advective effects. This research was conducted at the Experimental Station of CODEVASF in an irrigated perimeter located in the city of Rodelas, BA, during the period of September to December of 1996. The results showed that errors of the order of 2.2 MJ m -2 d -1 in the calculation of Rn, and consequently in the estimate of ET, can occur depending on the time considered for the daily total of Rn. It was verified that the surrounding areas of the experimental field, as well as the areas of exposed soil within the field, contributed significantly to the generation of local advection of sensible heat, which resulted in the increase of the evapotranspiration [pt
Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.
2015-05-01
The most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Two distinct varieties of WRF exist. The one we are interested is the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we optimize a meridional (north-south direction) advection subroutine for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Advection is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. It advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.2x.
Spatial chirp in Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wenkai; Lu Jun; Li Yanyan; Guo Xiaoyang; Wu Fenxiang; Yu Linpeng; Wang Pengfei; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin
2017-01-01
The spatial chirp generated in the Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier is numerically investigated based on the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Frantz–Nodvik equations. The simulation indicates that the spatial chirp is induced by the spatially inhomogeneous gain, and it can be almost eliminated by utilization of proper beam profiles and spot sizes of the signal and pump pulses, for example, the pump pulse has a top-hatted beam profile and the signal pulse has a super-Gaussian beam profile with a relatively larger spot size. In this way, a clear understanding of spatial chirp mechanisms in the Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier is proposed, therefore we can effectively almost eliminate the spatial chirp and improve the beam quality of a high-power Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplifier system. (paper)
An automated test facility for neutronic amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beattie, W.J.
1997-01-01
Neutronic amplifiers are used at the Chalk River Laboratory in applications such as neutron flux monitoring and reactor control systems. Routine preventive maintenance of control and safety systems included annual calibration and characterization of the neutronic amplifiers. An investigation into the traditional methods of annual routine maintenance of amplifiers concluded that frequency and phase response measurements in particular were labour intensive and subject to non-repeatable errors. A decision was made to upgrade testing methods and facilities by using programmable test equipment under the control of a computer. In order to verify the results of the routine measurements, expressions for the transfer functions were derived from the circuit diagrams. Frequency and phase responses were then calculated and plotted thus providing a bench-mark to which the test results can be compared. (author)
New advection schemes for free surface flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavan, Sara
2016-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to build higher order and less diffusive schemes for pollutant transport in shallow water flows or 3D free surface flows. We want robust schemes which respect the main mathematical properties of the advection equation with relatively low numerical diffusion and apply them to environmental industrial applications. Two techniques are tested in this work: a classical finite volume method and a residual distribution technique combined with a finite element method. For both methods we propose a decoupled approach since it is the most advantageous in terms of accuracy and CPU time. Concerning the first technique, a vertex-centred finite volume method is used to solve the augmented shallow water system where the numerical flux is computed through an Harten-Lax-Van Leer-Contact Riemann solver. Starting from this solution, a decoupled approach is formulated and is preferred since it allows to compute with a larger time step the advection of a tracer. This idea was inspired by Audusse, E. and Bristeau, M.O. [13]. The Monotonic Upwind Scheme for Conservation Law, combined with the decoupled approach, is then used for the second order extension in space. The wetting and drying problem is also analysed and a possible solution is presented. In the second case, the shallow water system is entirely solved using the finite element technique and the residual distribution method is applied to the solution of the tracer equation, focusing on the case of time-dependent problems. However, for consistency reasons the resolution of the continuity equation must be considered in the numerical discretization of the tracer. In order to get second order schemes for unsteady cases a predictor-corrector scheme is used in this work. A first order but less diffusive version of the predictor-corrector scheme is also introduced. Moreover, we also present a new locally semi-implicit version of the residual distribution method which, in addition to good properties in
Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drozd S. S.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.
Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon
2014-01-01
Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)
Pulse GaAs field transistor amplifier with subnanosecond time transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidnev, A.N.
1987-01-01
Pulse amplifier on fast field effect GaAs transistors with Schottky barrier is described. The amplifier contains four cascades, the first three of which are made on combined transistors on the common-drain circuit. The last cascade is made on high-power field effect GaAs transistor for coordination with 50 ohm load. The amplifier operates within the range of input signals from 0.5 up to 100 mV with repetition frequency up to 16 Hz, The gain of the amplifier is ≅ 20 dB. The setting time at output pulses amplitude up to 1 V constitutes ∼ 0.2 ns
TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier
Laurent Guiraud
1997-01-01
Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.
Designing and development of a synchronous analogic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De la Hoz, E.; Ortiz, A.
1989-01-01
A large number of electronic systems used in the measurement and analysis of weak signals involve a ''lock-in'' amplifier, because it provides an effective method for the recovery of signals buried below a considerable high level of noise. The use of the ''lock-in'' amplifier in our institutions is very limited due to the high expense and the lack of warranties for its maintenance. The purpose of the present work is to design and build a low cost ''lock-in'' amplifier using components available in the local market. Its optimization has allowed us to increase the sensitivity and linearity of the systems, making it very versatile for dedicated applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, S.; Fleck, J.; Anderson, F.; Windham-Myers, L.
2014-01-01
The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flow rates and tracer concentrations at wetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactor model solutions, a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these non-ideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a flux model, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemical mechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition, our understanding of
On the unlimited gain of a nonlinear parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav
2014-01-01
The present paper is concerned with analysis of the response of a nonlinear parametric amplifier in abroad range of system parameters, particularly beyond resonance. Such analysis is of particular interestfor micro- and nanosystems, since many small-scale parametric amplifiers exhibit a distinctly...... nonlinearbehavior when amplitude of their response is sufficiently large. The modified method of direct separa-tion of motions is employed to study the considered system. As the result it is obtained that steady-stateamplitude of the nonlinear parametric amplifier response can reach large values in the case...... of arbitrarilysmall amplitude of external excitation, so that the amplifier gain tends to infinity. Very large amplifiergain can be achieved in a broad range of system parameters, in particular when the amplitude of para-metric excitation is comparatively small. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that very...
Rare-Earth Doped Photonic Crystal Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Kristian G.
2005-01-01
In this thesis, a theoretical and numerical study of the use of rare-earthdoped photonic crystal fibres as optical amplifiers and lasers, has been performed. Photonic crystal fibres or microstructured optical fibres is a new kind of optical fibre in which the cladding region typically consist....... Their novel properties allow for design of optical fibre amplifiers and fibre lasers with superior performance, compared to solutions based on conventional fibres. The primary applications considered are high efficiency fibre amplifiers based on index guiding photonic crystal fibres, and cladding pumped....... The thesis also presents the basic properties of optical amplification, and describes the numerical model developed to model the behaviour of lasers and amplifiers based on photonic crystal fibres. The developed numerical tools are then used to investigate specific applications of photonic crystal fibres...
BET bromodomain inhibition of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.
Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Bergthold, Guillaume; Nguyen, Brian; Schubert, Simone; Gholamin, Sharareh; Tang, Yujie; Bolin, Sara; Schumacher, Steven E; Zeid, Rhamy; Masoud, Sabran; Yu, Furong; Vue, Nujsaubnusi; Gibson, William J; Paolella, Brenton R; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Cheshier, Samuel H; Qi, Jun; Liu, Kun-Wei; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Weiss, William A; Swartling, Fredrik J; Kieran, Mark W; Bradner, James E; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cho, Yoon-Jae
2014-02-15
MYC-amplified medulloblastomas are highly lethal tumors. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) bromodomain inhibition has recently been shown to suppress MYC-associated transcriptional activity in other cancers. The compound JQ1 inhibits BET bromodomain-containing proteins, including BRD4. Here, we investigate BET bromodomain targeting for the treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma. We evaluated the effects of genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of BET bromodomains on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in established and newly generated patient- and genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM)-derived medulloblastoma cell lines and xenografts that harbored amplifications of MYC or MYCN. We also assessed the effect of JQ1 on MYC expression and global MYC-associated transcriptional activity. We assessed the in vivo efficacy of JQ1 in orthotopic xenografts established in immunocompromised mice. Treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma cells with JQ1 decreased cell viability associated with arrest at G1 and apoptosis. We observed downregulation of MYC expression and confirmed the inhibition of MYC-associated transcriptional targets. The exogenous expression of MYC from a retroviral promoter reduced the effect of JQ1 on cell viability, suggesting that attenuated levels of MYC contribute to the functional effects of JQ1. JQ1 significantly prolonged the survival of orthotopic xenograft models of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma (P < 0.001). Xenografts harvested from mice after five doses of JQ1 had reduced the expression of MYC mRNA and a reduced proliferative index. JQ1 suppresses MYC expression and MYC-associated transcriptional activity in medulloblastomas, resulting in an overall decrease in medulloblastoma cell viability. These preclinical findings highlight the promise of BET bromodomain inhibitors as novel agents for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma. ©2013 AACR
Investigation of switching frequency variations in self-oscillating class D amplifiers
Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2009-01-01
Class D audio amplifiers have gained significant influence in sound reproduction due to their high efficiency. One of the most commonly used control methods in class D amplifiers is known as self-oscillation. An parameter of key interest in self-oscillating class D amplifiers is the switching frequency, which can be directly related to the performance of the amplifier. This paper will clearify the myth of the switching frequency through investigation of its dependency on modulation index and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frederic; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Girault, Frederic; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath
2011-01-01
Temporal variation of radon-222 concentration was studied at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located on the Main Central Thrust zone in Central Nepal. This site is characterized by several carbon dioxide discharges having maximum fluxes larger than 10 kg m -2 d -1 . Radon concentration was monitored with autonomous Barasol TM probes between January 2008 and November 2009 in two small natural cavities with high CO 2 concentration and at six locations in the soil: four points having a high flux, and two background reference points. At the reference points, dominated by radon diffusion, radon concentration was stable from January to May, with mean values of 22 ± 6.9 and 37 ± 5.5 kBq m -3 , but was affected by a large increase, of about a factor of 2 and 1.6, respectively, during the monsoon season from June to September. At the points dominated by CO 2 advection, by contrast, radon concentration showed higher mean values 39.0 ± 2.6 to 78 ± 1.4 kBq m -3 , remarkably stable throughout the year with small long-term variation, including a possible modulation of period around 6 months. A significant difference between the diffusion dominated reference points and the advection-dominated points also emerged when studying the diurnal S 1 and semi-diurnal S 2 periodic components. At the advection-dominated points, radon concentration did not exhibit S 1 or S 2 components. At the reference points, however, the S 2 component, associated with barometric tide, could be identified during the dry season, but only when the probe was installed at shallow depth. The S 1 component, associated with thermal and possibly barometric diurnal forcing, was systematically observed, especially during monsoon season. The remarkable short-term and long-term temporal stability of the radon concentration at the advection-dominated points, which suggests a strong pressure source at depth, may be an important asset to detect possible temporal variations associated with the seismic cycle. - Graphical
Vandieken, Verona; Sabelhaus, Lara; Engelhardt, Tim
2017-01-01
Sandy surface sediments of tidal flats exhibit high microbial activity due to the fast and deep-reaching transport of oxygen and nutrients by porewater advection. On the other hand during low tide, limited transport results in nutrient and oxygen depletion concomitant to the accumulation of microbial metabolites. This study represents the first attempt to use flow-through reactors to investigate virus production, virus transport and the impact of tides and season in permeable sediments. The reactors were filled with intertidal sands of two sites (North beach site and backbarrier sand flat of Spiekeroog island in the German Wadden Sea) to best simulate advective porewater transport through the sediments. Virus and cell release along with oxygen consumption were measured in the effluents of reactors during continuous flow of water through the sediments as well as in tidal simulation experiments where alternating cycles with and without water flow (each for 6 h) were operated. The results showed net rates of virus production (0.3-13.2 × 10 6 viruses cm -3 h -1 ) and prokaryotic cell production (0.3-10.0 × 10 5 cells cm -3 h -1 ) as well as oxygen consumption rates (56-737 μmol l -1 h -1 ) to be linearly correlated reflecting differences in activity, season and location of the sediments. Calculations show that total virus turnover was fast with 2 to 4 days, whereas virus-mediated cell turnover was calculated to range between 5-13 or 33-91 days depending on the assumed burst sizes (number of viruses released upon cell lysis) of 14 or 100 viruses, respectively. During the experiments, the homogenized sediments in the reactors became vertically structured with decreasing microbial activities and increasing impact of viruses on prokaryotic mortality with depth. Tidal simulation clearly showed a strong accumulation of viruses and cells in the top sections of the reactors when the flow was halted indicating a consistently high virus production during low tide. In
Model of pulse extraction from a copper laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boley, C.D.; Warner, B.E.
1997-03-01
A computational model of pulse propagation through a copper laser amplifier has been developed. The model contains a system of 1-D (in the axial direction), time-dependent equations for the laser intensity and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), coupled to rate equations for the atomic levels. Detailed calculations are presented for a high-power amplifier at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The extracted power agrees with experiment near saturation. At lower input power the calculation overestimates experiment, probably because of increased ASE effects. 6 refs., 6 figs
Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro
2005-01-01
Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....
Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System
Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.
2003-01-01
The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data
Ripple compensation for a class-D amplifier
Cox, Stephen M.; du Toit Mouton, Hendrik
2015-01-01
This paper presents the first detailed mathematical analysis of the ripple compensation technique for reducing audio distortion in a class-D amplifier with negative feedback. The amplifier converts a relatively low-frequency audio signal to a high-frequency train of rectangular pulses whose widths are slowly modulated according to the audio signal (pulse-width modulation, PWM). Distortion manifests itself through unwanted audio-frequency harmonics that arise in the output due to nonlinearitie...
Progress on the gyrocon deflection-modulated amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallerico, P.J.
1982-01-01
The gyrocon is a high-power deflection-modulated amplifier that can have excellent spatial bunching and, hence, high dc-to-rf conversion efficiency. A program to design and build a prototype amplifier at 450 MHz is discussed. Peak powers of 150 kW and conversion efficiencies of 23% have been measured; the testing program is being pursued to improve this performance. Some possible mechanisms for the difference between the experimental and calculated performance are discussed
A high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Goldstein, J.C.
1997-01-01
The Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL) is a new FEL approach aimed at achieving the highest optical power from a compact rf-linac FEL. The key idea is to feed back a small fraction ( 5 in single pass) wiggler to enable the FEL to reach saturation in a few passes. This paper summarizes the design of a high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL and describes the first experimental demonstration of the RAFEL concept
Stone, Hally B.; Banas, Neil S.; MacCready, Parker
2018-01-01
The Northern California Current System experiences highly variable seasonal upwelling in addition to larger basin-scale variability, both of which can significantly affect its water chemistry. Salinity and temperature fields from a 7 year ROMS hindcast model of this region (43°N-50°N), along with extensive particle tracking, were used to study interannual variability in water properties over both the upper slope and the midshelf bottom. Variation in slope water properties was an order of magnitude smaller than on the shelf. Furthermore, the primary relationship between temperature and salinity anomalies in midshelf bottom water consisted of variation in density (cold/salty versus warm/fresh), nearly orthogonal to the anomalies along density levels (cold/fresh versus warm/salty) observed on the upper slope. These midshelf anomalies were well-explained (R2 = 0.6) by the combination of interannual variability in local and remote alongshore wind stress, and depth of the California Undercurrent (CUC) core. Lagrangian analysis of upper slope and midshelf bottom water shows that both are affected simultaneously by large-scale alongcoast advection of water through the northern and southern boundaries. The amplitude of anomalies in bottom oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the shelf associated with upwelling variability are larger than those associated with typical variation in alongcoast advection, and are comparable to observed anomalies in this region. However, a large northern intrusion event in 2004 illustrates that particular, large-scale alongcoast advection anomalies can be just as effective as upwelling variability in changing shelf water properties on the interannual scale.
Radiation hardening techniques for rare-earth based optical fibers and amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Vivona, Marilena; Prudenzano, Luciano Mescia F.; Laurent, Arnaud; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Pinsard, Emmanuel; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Cannas, Marco; Boscaino, Roberto
2012-01-01
Er/Yb doped fibers and amplifiers have been shown to be very radiation sensitive, limiting their integration in space. We present an approach including successive hardening techniques to enhance their radiation tolerance. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by comparing the radiation responses of optical amplifiers made with same lengths of different rare-earth doped fibers and exposed to gamma-rays. Previous studies indicated that such amplifiers suffered significant degradation for doses exceeding 10 krad. Applying our techniques significantly enhances the amplifier radiation resistance, resulting in a very limited degradation up to 50 krad. Our optimization techniques concern the fiber composition, some possible pre-treatments and the interest of simulation tools used to harden by design the amplifiers. We showed that adding cerium inside the fiber phospho-silicate-based core strongly decreases the fiber radiation sensitivity compared to the standard fiber. For both fibers, a pre-treatment with hydrogen permits to enhance again the fiber resistance. Furthermore, simulations tools can also be used to improve the tolerance of the fiber amplifier by helping identifying the best amplifier configuration for operation in the radiative environment. (authors)
Effects of gamma radiation on commercial operational amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claro, Luiz H.; Santos, Jose A. dos
2009-01-01
The operational amplifiers are widely used in nuclear instrumentation. Their applications span the signal conditioning circuits, analog instrumentation, amplifiers, converters, oscillators and others. If an operational amplifier is used to work in a radiation environment, the device suffers degradation in its performance leading to the bad work in the systems. Some of these devices are designed as rad-hard components and therefore the effects of radiation damage are minimized, however its main disadvantage is the high cost and difficult to find in the market. As an alternative one can use the conventional electronic components available in the market and named COTS (Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf) but they must be tested under a radiation environment. In this work the effect of the radiation damage is studied in two typical operational amplifiers. Some electric parameters of these devices were measured for different gamma radiation doses and they were working at different input signal frequencies. A 60 Co isotopic radiation source was used and the results show that there is a certain degradation of the device depending on the radiation absorbed dose. (author)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
AnilKumar, N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.
The vertical advection-diffusion model proposed by Craig has been applied to the study of CO sub(2) and O sub(2) profiles in Central Arabian Sea. Distributions of total CO Sub(2) and O sub(2) are explained better by expressions involving exponential...
Bandwidth limitations in current mode and voltage mode integrated feedback amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik
1995-01-01
loop bandwidth remains constant for a feedback amplifier. The constant-bandwidth relations of such amplifier designs are reviewed in this paper and they are combined with the constraints imposed by technology when the feedback amplifier is to be designed in an integrated technology. From this analysis...
Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danson John
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB noise figure. MEMS switches are used to implement a variable matching network that allows the PA to realize up to 37% PAE improvement at low input powers.
Electronically Tunable Transimpedance Instrumentation Amplifier Based on OTRA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajeshwari Pandey
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA is the most suitable analog building block (ABB for transimpedance type signal processing due to its very nature of current input and voltage output. In this paper, OTRA-based transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is presented. It provides high differential gain and bandwidth, which is independent of gain. It also offers high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR. The amplifier gain can be controlled electronically by implementing resistors using MOS transistors operating in linear region. The circuit can be made fully integrated. The proposed circuit is insensitive to parasitic input capacitances and input resistances due to the internally grounded input terminals of OTRA. Theoretical analysis is verified through PSPICE simulations and experimentation.
Bias-Voltage Stabilizer for HVHF Amplifiers in VHF Pulse-Echo Measurement Systems.
Choi, Hojong; Park, Chulwoo; Kim, Jungsuk; Jung, Hayong
2017-10-23
The impact of high-voltage-high-frequency (HVHF) amplifiers on echo-signal quality is greater with very-high-frequency (VHF, ≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers than with low-frequency (LF, ≤15 MHz) ultrasound transducers. Hence, the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier must be stabilized to ensure stable echo-signal amplitudes. We propose a bias-voltage stabilizer circuit to maintain stable DC voltages over a wide input range, thus reducing the harmonic-distortion components of the echo signals in VHF pulse-echo measurement systems. To confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we measured and compared the deviations in the gain of the HVHF amplifier with and without a bias-voltage stabilizer. Between -13 and 26 dBm, the measured gain deviations of a HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer are less than that of an amplifier without a bias-voltage stabilizer. In order to confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we compared the pulse-echo responses of the amplifiers, which are typically used for the evaluation of transducers or electronic components used in pulse-echo measurement systems. From the responses, we observed that the amplitudes of the echo signals of a VHF transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer were higher than those of the transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier alone. The second, third, and fourth harmonic-distortion components of the HVHF amplifier with the bias-voltage stabilizer were also lower than those of the HVHF amplifier alone. Hence, the proposed scheme is a promising method for stabilizing the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier, and improving the echo-signal quality of VHF transducers.
Microwave amplifier and active circuit design using the real frequency technique
Jarry, Pierre
2016-01-01
This book focuses on the authors' Real Frequency Technique (RFT) and its application to a wide variety of multi-stage microwave amplifiers and active filters, and passive equalizers for radar pulse shaping and antenna return loss applications. The first two chapters review the fundamentals of microwave amplifier design and provide a description of the RFT. Each subsequent chapter introduces a new type of amplifier or circuit design, reviews its design problems, and explains how the RFT can be adapted to solve these problems. The authors take a practical approach by summarizing the design steps and giving numerous examples of amplifier realizations and measured responses. Provides a complete description of the RFT as it is first used to design multistage lumped amplifiers using a progressive optimization of the equalizers, leading to a small umber of parameters to optimize simultaneously Presents modifications to the RFT to design trans-impedance microwave amplifiers that are used for photodiodes acti...
Advection and dispersion of bed load tracers
Lajeunesse, Eric; Devauchelle, Olivier; James, François
2018-05-01
We use the erosion-deposition model introduced by Charru et al. (2004) to numerically simulate the evolution of a plume of bed load tracers entrained by a steady flow. In this model, the propagation of the plume results from the stochastic exchange of particles between the bed and the bed load layer. We find a transition between two asymptotic regimes. The tracers, initially at rest, are gradually set into motion by the flow. During this entrainment regime, the plume is strongly skewed in the direction of propagation and continuously accelerates while spreading nonlinearly. With time, the skewness of the plume eventually reaches a maximum value before decreasing. This marks the transition to an advection-diffusion regime in which the plume becomes increasingly symmetrical, spreads linearly, and advances at constant velocity. We analytically derive the expressions of the position, the variance, and the skewness of the plume and investigate their asymptotic regimes. Our model assumes steady state. In the field, however, bed load transport is intermittent. We show that the asymptotic regimes become insensitive to this intermittency when expressed in terms of the distance traveled by the plume. If this finding applies to the field, it might provide an estimate for the average bed load transport rate.
Signal, T. Leigh; Gander, Philippa H.; van den Berg, Margo J.; Graeber, R. Curtis
2013-01-01
Study Objectives: To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Design: Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Setting: Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Participants: Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. Conclusions: This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated. Citation: Signal TL; Gander PH; van den Berg MJ; Graeber RC. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety. SLEEP 2013;36(1):109–115. PMID:23288977
Investigation of switching frequency variations in self-oscillating class D amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard
2009-01-01
Class D audio amplifiers have gained significant influence in sound reproduction due to their high efficiency. One of the most commonly used control methods in class D amplifiers is known as self-oscillation. An parameter of key interest in self-oscillating class D amplifiers is the switching fre...
Empirical multichannel power consumption model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; de Paiva, Getulio E. R.; Argentato, Marcio Colazza
2015-01-01
In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified simu......-users, it is relevant to study channel number dependent power consumption for devising EDFA power efficient control and design.......In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified...... simultaneously contributes significantly, up to 48%, to the total power consumption due to the circuitry used for controlling the EDFA. As the number of simultaneous amplified WDM channels in high capacity long and medium reach transmission links reflects closely traffic patterns generated by end...
Tayebi, A.; Shekari, Y.; Heydari, M. H.
2017-07-01
Several physical phenomena such as transformation of pollutants, energy, particles and many others can be described by the well-known convection-diffusion equation which is a combination of the diffusion and advection equations. In this paper, this equation is generalized with the concept of variable-order fractional derivatives. The generalized equation is called variable-order time fractional advection-diffusion equation (V-OTFA-DE). An accurate and robust meshless method based on the moving least squares (MLS) approximation and the finite difference scheme is proposed for its numerical solution on two-dimensional (2-D) arbitrary domains. In the time domain, the finite difference technique with a θ-weighted scheme and in the space domain, the MLS approximation are employed to obtain appropriate semi-discrete solutions. Since the newly developed method is a meshless approach, it does not require any background mesh structure to obtain semi-discrete solutions of the problem under consideration, and the numerical solutions are constructed entirely based on a set of scattered nodes. The proposed method is validated in solving three different examples including two benchmark problems and an applied problem of pollutant distribution in the atmosphere. In all such cases, the obtained results show that the proposed method is very accurate and robust. Moreover, a remarkable property so-called positive scheme for the proposed method is observed in solving concentration transport phenomena.
Analysis and evaluation of the power amplifier device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Y. K.; Ryu, J. W. [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)
2011-11-15
We developed a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) type fiber amplifier for the separation of the Ca-48 isotope by using a fiber laser. The ytterbium (Yb)-doped end-capped rod-type photonic crystal fiber (PCF) was used as a gain medium of MOPA amplifier. The PCFs used in our experiments were a 56-cm and an 81-cm rod-type end-capped Yb-doped double-clad PM fibers 'DC-285/100-PM-Yb-Rod', with a 100-{mu}m core (NA 0.02) and a 285-{mu}m cladding (NA 0.6) fabricated by NKT Photonics. The mode field diameter (MFD) of the rod-type PCF was 75-{mu}m, and an absorption efficiency of 30 dB/m at 976 nm and a low NA 0.02 helped to sustain the excellent lasing beam quality. We obtained an output power of 112 W at a pump power of 380 W with a repetition rate of 150 kHz. The measured pulse width was 13 ns at 150 kHz, 1056 nm. The laser beam quality shows a single mode amplification characteristics with a beam quality factor values of M2 are 2 -3. The PCF launching efficiency reached a maximum value of 86.7% with an average efficiencies of above 80%. At a pump power of 250 W and seed power input of 4 W, the CW PCF amplifier was found to generate average output powers of 138 W, 110 W, and 82 W at 1056-nm, 1070-nm, and 1089-nm wavelengths, respectively. The amplified PCF output beam had a line width of 70 MHz full width at half maximum (FWHM). These PCF amplified beams had good beam qualities with M2values of less than 1.8 at all three wavelengths. The gain saturation seed input power in the 81-cm PCF was found to be {approx}6 W at 1056 nm. The temperature of the PCF core reached over 230 .deg. C at the pumping section of the PCF. The temperatures of the end-cap heads on both the pumping and the output end-cap sides were 81.4 .deg. C and 35.7 .deg. C, respectively. The PCF amplifier maintained good polarization mode characteristics with an average DOP of over 87%. The slight decrease in the DOP oat output powers over 170 W output power may have been caused by a
Development of microwave amplifier based on gallium nitride semiconductor structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, D.Yi.; Prokopenko, O.V.; Tsvyirko, Yu.A.; Pavlov, Yi.L.
2014-01-01
Microwave properties of microwave amplifier based on gallium nitride (GN) semiconductor structures has been calculated numerically. We proposed the method of numerical calculation of device. This method is accurately sets the value of its characteristics depending on the elements that are used in design of amplifier. It is shown that the device based on GN HEMT-transistors could have amplification factor about 50 dB, while its sizes are 27x18x5.5 mm 3 . Also was provided the absolute stability an amplifier in the whole operating frequency range. It is quite important when using this type of amplifiers in different conditions of exploitation and various fields of use the radioelectronic equipment
New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-03-18
The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.
Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo J; Graeber, R Curtis
2013-01-01
To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). N/A. Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated.
Directional amplifier in an optomechanical system with optical gain
Jiang, Cheng; Song, L. N.; Li, Yong
2018-05-01
Directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal devices in both classical and quantum information processing. Here we propose a scheme for realizing a directional amplifier between optical and microwave fields based on an optomechanical system with optical gain, where an active optical cavity and two passive microwave cavities are coupled to a common mechanical resonator via radiation pressure. The two passive cavities are coupled via hopping interaction to facilitate the directional amplification between the active and passive cavities. We obtain the condition of achieving optical directional amplification and find that the direction of amplification can be controlled by the phase differences between the effective optomechanical couplings. The effects of the gain rate of the active cavity and the effective coupling strengths on the maximum gain of the amplifier are discussed. We show that the noise added to this amplifier can be greatly suppressed in the large cooperativity limit.
Deep UV light generation by a fiber/bulk hybrid amplifier at 199 nm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urata, Yoshiharu; Shinozaki, Tatsuya; Wada, Yoshio; Kaneda, Yushi; Wada, Satoshi; Imai, Shinichi
2009-01-01
A high-pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) pulsed light source in the deep ultraviolet region has been realized by a multiple wavelength conversion technique using a hybrid fiber/bulk amplifier system. Output of 199 nm with a power of 50 mW was achieved at 2.4 MHz PRF. The 1 μm amplifier consisted of a Yb-doped fiber amplifier and a Nd-doped YVO4 amplifier. A 1.5 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier was employed as the other fundamental source. The amplifiers exhibited good amplification properties in pulse energy, polarization extinction ratio, and spectrum for nonlinear wavelength conversion
Park, A. J.; Chan, M. A.
2006-12-01
Abundant iron oxide concretions occurring in Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah and those discovered at Meridiani Planum, Mars share many common observable physical traits such as their spheriodal shapes, occurrence, and distribution patterns in sediments. Terrestrial concretions are products of interaction between oxygen-rich aquifer water and basin-derived reducing (iron-rich) water. Water-rock interaction simulations show that diffusion of oxygen and iron supplied by slow-moving water is a reasonable mechanism for producing observed concretion patterns. In short, southern Utah iron oxide concretions are results of Liesegang-type diffusive infiltration reactions in sediments. We propose that the formation of blueberry hematite concretions in Mars sediments followed a similar diagenetic mechanism where iron was derived from the alteration of volcanic substrate and oxygen was provided by the early Martian atmosphere. Although the terrestrial analog differs in the original host rock composition, both the terrestrial and Mars iron-oxide precipitation mechanisms utilize iron and oxygen interactions in sedimentary host rock with diffusive infiltration of solutes from two opposite sources. For the terrestrial model, slow advection of iron-rich water is an important factor that allowed pervasive and in places massive precipitation of iron-oxide concretions. In Mars, evaporative flux of water at the top of the sediment column may have produced a slow advective mass-transfer mechanism that provided a steady source and the right quantity of iron. The similarities of the terrestrial and Martian systems are demonstrated using a water-rock interaction simulator Sym.8, initially in one-dimensional systems. Boundary conditions such as oxygen content of water, partial pressure of oxygen, and supply rate of iron were varied. The results demonstrate the importance of slow advection of water and diffusive processes for producing diagenetic iron oxide concretions.
A high performance electrometer amplifier of hybrid design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.V.; Nazare, C.K.
1979-01-01
A high performance, reliable, electrometer amplifier of hybrid design for low current measurements in mass spectrometers has been developed. The short term instability with a 5 x 10 11 ohms input resistor is less than 1 x 10sup(-15) Amp. The drift is better than 1 mV/hour. The design steps are illustrated with a typical amplifier performance details. (auth.)
Embedded control system for high power RF amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Jain, Akhilesh; Hannurkar, P.R.
2011-01-01
RF power devices are usually very sensitive to overheat and reflected RF power; hence a protective interlock system is required to be embedded with high power solid state RF amplifiers. The solid state RF amplifiers have salient features of graceful degradation and very low mean time to repair (MTTR). In order to exploit these features in favour of lowest system downtime, a real-time control system is embedded with high power RF amplifiers. The control system is developed with the features of monitoring, measurement and network publishing of various parameters, historical data logging, alarm generation, displaying data to the operator and tripping the system in case of any interlock failure. This paper discusses the design philosophy, features, functions and implementation details of the embedded control system. (author)
A second-order class-D audio amplifier
Cox, Stephen M.; Tan, M.T.; Yu, J.
2011-01-01
Class-D audio amplifiers are particularly efficient, and this efficiency has led to their ubiquity in a wide range of modern electronic appliances. Their output takes the form of a high-frequency square wave whose duty cycle (ratio of on-time to off-time) is modulated at low frequency according to the audio signal. A mathematical model is developed here for a second-order class-D amplifier design (i.e., containing one second-order integrator) with negative feedback. We derive exact expression...
Modeling Distortion Effects in Class-D Amplifier Filter Inductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knott, Arnold; Stegenborg-Andersen, Tore; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2010-01-01
Distortion is generally accepted as a quantifier to judge the quality of audio power amplifiers. In switchmode power amplifiers various mechanisms influence this performance measure. After giving an overview of those, this paper focuses on the particular effect of the nonlinearity of the output f...
Switching-mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Direct Energy Conversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2005-01-01
has been replaced with a high frequency AC link. When compared to the conventional Class D amplifiers with a separate DC power supply, the proposed single conversion stage amplifier provides simple and compact solution with better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to reduced...
Comparison of finite-difference and variational solutions to advection-diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.E.; Washington, K.E.
1984-01-01
Two numerical solution methods are developed for 1-D time-dependent advection-diffusion problems on infinite and finite domains. Numerical solutions are compared with analytical results for constant coefficients and various boundary conditions. A finite-difference spectrum method is solved exactly in time for periodic boundary conditions by a matrix operator method and exhibits excellent accuracy compared with other methods, especially at late times, where it is also computationally more efficient. Finite-system solutions are determined from a conservational variational principle with cubic spatial trial functions and solved in time by a matrix operator method. Comparisons of problems with few nodes show excellent agreement with analytical solutions and exhibit the necessity of implementing Lagrangian conservational constraints for physically-correct solutions. (author)
Coulombic interactions during advection-dominated transport of ions in porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Stolze, Lucien; Rolle, Massimo
2017-01-01
bench-scale experiments and numerical simulations. The investigation aims at quantifying the key role of small-scale electrostatic interactions in flow-through systems, especially when advection is the dominant mass-transfer process. Considering dilute solutions of strong electrolytes (e.g., MgCl2......Solute transport of charged species in porous media is significantly affected by the electrochemical migration term resulting from the charge-induced interactions among dissolved ions and with solid surfaces. Therefore, the characterization of such Coulombic interactions and their effect...... on multicomponent ionic transport is of critical importance for assessing the fate of charged solutes in porous media. In this work we present a detailed investigation of the electrochemical effects during conservative multicomponent ionic transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous domains by means of laboratory...
Amplifying mirrors with saturated gain without and with a resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skettrup, Torben
2007-01-01
An investigation of amplifying mirrors with a view to their use in resonator structures has been performed. Both non-saturated and saturated amplifying mirrors are demonstrated. It was found that relatively high values of gain (typical 5-10 times) can be obtained even when saturation is taken...... into account. Several resonator structures containing from two up to four mirrors, some including beamsplitters, are investigated. It was found that the gain to a first approximation depends only on the ratio between the pumping power and the input power on the amplifying mirror. It was also found...... that the configuration with four mirrors is well suited as an amplifier device working as an optical transistor since high values of gain up to 40 times could be obtained....
Development of high sensitivity transimpedance amplifier module for self powered neutron detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, T.K.; Tamboli, P.K.; Antony, J.; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.; Pramanik, M.
2010-01-01
This paper describes design and development of a Transimpedance Amplifier for amplification of very low current from in core Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND). Measurement of neutron flux is very important for operation, control and protection of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). SPND is used to measure Reactor incore flux/power. Based on sensitivity of emitter material used in SPND, pitch length and neutron flux (power level); the current output from SPND varies from few pA to few μA. The described amplifier is suitable to use for this current range. The amplifier provides a very high gain using a resistive T network feedback topology. The amplifier is designed in two stages using ultra low bias current FET OPAMPs. Design of Transimpedance amplifier is carefully done to include ultra low input bias current, low offset voltage and noise. The amplifier has in built test facility for calibration and on line test facility for measurement of insulation resistance (IR). The amplifier module has on board isolated DC-DC converter circuit complying MIL/STD/461C/D which generate isolated +/-15V and +12V supply to provide parameter to parameter ground isolation and independence among each module/signal.The output from the amplifier is 0V to 6V for 0 to 150%FP. The design is simulated in computer and amplifier used at TAPS-3 was modified as per new design and has been tested at TAPS-3 site. The amplifier performed satisfactorily. The results showed that the IR measurement technique adopted in the design can tolerate lower IR of SPND in existing design. (author)
Transimpedance Amplifier for MEMS SAW Oscillator in 1.4GHz
Kamarudin, N.; Karim, J.; Hussin, H.
2018-03-01
This work is to design a transimpedance amplifier for MEMS SAW resonator to achieve low power consumption at desired frequency. A transimpedance amplifier is designed and characterized for MEMS SAW resonator in 0.18μm CMOS process. The transimpedance amplifier achieves gain is 31 dBΩ at 176°. The power consume by oscillator is 0.6mW at VDD 1.8V while phase noise at -133.97dBc/Hz at 10kHz.
C.A.D for broad-band multistage microwave transimpedance amplifier.
Olomo Ngongo, A.; Perennec, A.; Soares, R.; Jarry, P.
1992-01-01
In high data rate optical-fiber, it is necessary to employ an ultra broad-band transimpedance amplifier. In this paper, we present a technique for the design of a transimpedance amplifiers. It can be applied as well to the design of interstage equalizers for microwave transimpedance amplifiers. In the version described in this paper, the optimisation process is applied to the transimpedance gain and noise which is adjusted. Based on the load charge matching technique, a sequential procedure t...
Efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Efficiency of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers for genotype fingerprinting and genetic diversity studies in canola ( ) ... The number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from 8 to 21, with the size of amplicons ranging from 162 to 3154 bp.
W. J. Massman
2006-01-01
Advective flows within soils and snowpacks caused by pressure fluctuations at the upper surface of either medium can significantly influence the exchange rate of many trace gases from the underlying substrate to the atmosphere. Given the importance of many of these trace gases in understanding biogeochemical cycling and global change, it is crucial to quantify (as much...
Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power-added Efficiency
2017-03-01
QPSK LTE waveform, the ACPR1improved by ~10 dBc at average output power of 23 dBm, without digital pre-distortion. Keywords: GaN, linear amplifiers...wideband amplifier, OIP3, LTE Introduction RF communications with spectral efficiency utilizes complex modulation schemes that require amplifier...wideband amplifiers remain. In this paper, we report on the measured CW performance of a multi-octave (100 MHz ‒ 8 GHz) GaN MMIC NDPA fabricated with
Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heaney, M.B.
1990-11-01
The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 x 10 17 in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO 3 crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies
Kordilla, Jannes; Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2014-12-14
We propose a novel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization of the fully coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Navier-Stokes (LLNS) and stochastic advection-diffusion equations. The accuracy of the SPH solution of the LLNS equations is demonstrated by comparing the scaling of velocity variance and the self-diffusion coefficient with kinetic temperature and particle mass obtained from the SPH simulations and analytical solutions. The spatial covariance of pressure and velocity fluctuations is found to be in a good agreement with theoretical models. To validate the accuracy of the SPH method for coupled LLNS and advection-diffusion equations, we simulate the interface between two miscible fluids. We study formation of the so-called "giant fluctuations" of the front between light and heavy fluids with and without gravity, where the light fluid lies on the top of the heavy fluid. We find that the power spectra of the simulated concentration field are in good agreement with the experiments and analytical solutions. In the absence of gravity, the power spectra decay as the power -4 of the wavenumber-except for small wavenumbers that diverge from this power law behavior due to the effect of finite domain size. Gravity suppresses the fluctuations, resulting in much weaker dependence of the power spectra on the wavenumber. Finally, the model is used to study the effect of thermal fluctuation on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable dynamics of the front between a heavy fluid overlaying a light fluid. The front dynamics is shown to agree well with the analytical solutions.
Design of a transimpedance amplifier for a bio-optical fiber sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pola, L.; Camasa, J.; Gomez B, J.
2012-01-01
In this work we present a fairly detailed model for a photodiode coupled to an operational amplifier in the trans impedance circuit configuration, for the applications in Biotechnology. An optical signal of the fiber optic biosensor is detected by a photodiode and its photocurrent generated is introduced in the trans impedance amplifier. The proposed design uses a photodiode in photovoltaic mode, and its photocurrent is coupled to an amplifier with positive output. Finally, the trans impedance amplifier presents reliable design characteristics such as accuracy, stability, low noise, and the ability to measure photocurrent from 1nA to 100μA. (Author)
Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2012-01-01
The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....
Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning
Verpoorten, Dominique
2012-01-01
Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.
A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.
Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu
2014-08-01
A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.
Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.
2004-01-01
This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...
47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.815 External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power...
Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny
2008-01-01
In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....
Design and performance of the main amplifier system for the National Ignition Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beullier, J; Erlandson, A; Grebot, E; Guenet, J; Guenet, M; Horvath, J; Jancaitis, K; Larson, D; Lawson, J; LeTouze, G; Maille, X; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mengue, T; Moor, E; Payne, S; Pedrotti, L; Rotter, M; Seznec, S; Sutton, S; Zapata, L.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the design and performance of flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass. Brewster-angle slab amplifiers intended to be deployed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To verify performance, we tested a full-size, three-slab-long, NIF prototype amplifier, which we believe to be the largest flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass amplifier ever assembled. Like the NIF amplifier design, this prototype amplifier had eight 40-cm-square apertures combined in a four-aperture-high by two-aperture-wide matrix. Specially-shaped reflectors, anti-reflective coatings on the blastshields, and preionized flashlamps were used to increase storage efficiency. Cooling gas was flowed over the flashlamps to remove waste pump heat and to accelerate thermal wavefront recovery. The prototype gain results are consistent with model predictions and provide high confidence in the final engineering design of the NIF amplifiers. Although the dimensions, internal positions, and shapes of the components in the NIF amplifiers will be slightly different from the prototype, these differences are small and should produce only slight differences in amplifier performance
Advective-diffusive transport of D2O in unsaturated media under evaporation condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao
2003-01-01
Advective-diffusive transport of HTO in unsaturated media was investigated empirically using deuterated water (D 2 O) and columns filled with glass beads. The tortuosity factor was evaluated by numerical model calculations corresponding to first experiment for diffusion under no-evaporation condition. Temporal variations in depth profiles of D 2 O concentrations in the columns were observed by second experiment, which considers the transferring and spreading of D 2 O by pore-water flow caused by evaporation. Measurements and model calculations indicated that diffusion was about two times more efficient than dispersion for D 2 O spreading process under this evaporation condition. (author)
The determination of an unknown source for a space fractional advection dispersion equation
Aldoghaither, Abeer
2014-09-01
In this paper, we are interested in the estimation of the source term for a space fractional advection dispersion equation using concentration and flux measurements at final time. An example of application is the identification of contamination source in groundwater transport. We propose to use the socalled modulating functions method which has been introduced for parameters estimation. This method allows to transfer the estimation problem into solving a system of algebraic equations. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed method. Finally, a comparison between a Tikhonov-based optimization method and the modulating functions approach is presented.
A Computational Realization of a Semi-Lagrangian Method for Solving the Advection Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Efremov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A parallel implementation of a method of the semi-Lagrangian type for the advection equation on a hybrid architecture computation system is discussed. The difference scheme with variable stencil is constructed on the base of an integral equality between the neighboring time levels. The proposed approach allows one to avoid the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy restriction on the relation between time step and mesh size. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical experiments. Performance of a sequential algorithm and several parallel implementations with the OpenMP and CUDA technologies in the C language has been studied.
History dependence in insect flight decisions during odor tracking.
Pang, Rich; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Fairhall, Adrienne
2018-02-01
Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants. While it is known that mean odor-triggered flight responses are dominated by upwind turns, individual responses are highly variable. We asked whether deviations from mean responses depended on specific features of odor encounters, and found that odor-triggered turns were slightly but significantly modulated by two features of odor encounters. First, encounters with higher concentrations triggered stronger upwind turns. Second, encounters occurring later in a sequence triggered weaker upwind turns. To contextualize the latter history dependence theoretically, we examined trajectories simulated from three normative tracking strategies. We found that neither a purely reactive strategy nor a strategy in which the tracker learned the plume centerline over time captured the observed history dependence. In contrast, "infotaxis", in which flight decisions maximized expected information gain about source location, exhibited a history dependence aligned in sign with the data, though much larger in magnitude. These findings suggest that while true plume tracking is dominated by a reactive odor response it might also involve a history-dependent modulation of responses consistent with the accumulation of information about a source over multi-encounter timescales. This suggests that short-term memory processes modulating decision sequences may play a role in
Detection of weak optical signals with a laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlovskii, A. V.
2006-01-01
Detection of weak and extremely weak light signals amplified by linear and four-wave mixing laser amplifiers is analyzed. Photoelectron distributions are found for different input photon statistics over a wide range of gain. Signal-to-noise ratios are calculated and analyzed for preamplification schemes using linear and four-wave mixing amplifiers. Calculations show that the high signal-to-noise ratio (much higher than unity), ensuring reliable detection of weak input signals, can be attained only with a four-wave mixing preamplification scheme. Qualitative dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio on the quantum statistical properties of both signal and idler waves is demonstrated
Cryogenic transimpedance amplifier for micromechanical capacitive sensors.
Antonio, D; Pastoriza, H; Julián, P; Mandolesi, P
2008-08-01
We developed a cryogenic transimpedance amplifier that works at a broad range of temperatures, from room temperature down to 4 K. The device was realized with a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1.5 mum process. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, open-loop gain, input referred noise current, and power consumption are presented as a function of temperature. The transimpedance amplifier has been successfully applied to sense the motion of a polysilicon micromechanical oscillator at low temperatures. The whole device is intended to serve as a magnetometer for microscopic superconducting samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, G.F.
1994-01-01
This note shows how uncertainties in nearfield and farfield ground water velocities affect the inventory that migrates from a geologic nuclear waste repository within the classical advection-dispersion approach and manifest themselves through both the finite variances and covariances in the activities of transported nuclides and in the apparent scale dependence of the host rock's dispersivity. Included is a demonstration of these effects for an actinide chain released from used CANDU fuel buried in a hypothetical repository. (Author)
Low Loss Nanostructured Polymers for Chip-scale Waveguide Amplifiers.
Chen, George F R; Zhao, Xinyu; Sun, Yang; He, Chaobin; Tan, Mei Chee; Tan, Dawn T H
2017-06-13
On-chip waveguide amplifiers offer higher gain in small device sizes and better integration with photonic devices than the commonly available fiber amplifiers. However, on-chip amplifiers have yet to make its way into the mainstream due to the limited availability of materials with ideal light guiding and amplification properties. A low-loss nanostructured on-chip channel polymeric waveguide amplifier was designed, characterized, fabricated and its gain experimentally measured at telecommunication wavelength. The active polymeric waveguide core comprises of NaYF 4 :Yb,Er,Ce core-shell nanocrystals dispersed within a SU8 polymer, where the nanoparticle interfacial characteristics were tailored using hydrolyzed polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) to improve particle dispersion. Both the enhanced IR emission intensity from our nanocrystals using a tri-dopant scheme and the reduced scattering losses from our excellent particle dispersion at a high solid loading of 6.0 vol% contributed to the outstanding optical performance of our polymeric waveguide. We achieved one of the highest reported gain of 6.6 dB/cm using a relatively low coupled pump power of 80 mW. These polymeric waveguide amplifiers offer greater promise for integrated optical circuits due to their processability and integration advantages which will play a key role in the emerging areas of flexible communication and optoelectronic devices.
Two-section semiconductor optical amplifier used as an efficient channel dropping node
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Carsten; Storkfelt, Niels; Durhuus, T.
1992-01-01
High responsivity in a two-section semiconductor optical amplifier/detector, serving as a channel dropping mode is described. A simple receiver constructed using a 50 Ω amplifier with a sensitivity of -30.2 dBm at 140 Mb/s is demonstrated......High responsivity in a two-section semiconductor optical amplifier/detector, serving as a channel dropping mode is described. A simple receiver constructed using a 50 Ω amplifier with a sensitivity of -30.2 dBm at 140 Mb/s is demonstrated...
Diode-pumped laser amplifiers: application to 0.946 {mu}m Nd:YAG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnes, Norman P [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Axenson, Theresa J [Science and Technology Corporation, 10 Basil Sawyer Drive, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Jr, Donald J Reichle [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Walsh, Brian M [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)
2003-03-14
A diode-pumped laser amplifier model is derived from first principles and applied to a Nd:YAG amplifier operating on the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transition at 0.946 {mu}m. The effects of amplified spontaneous emission are included in the model and the addition of this effect is shown to produce better agreement with the data. The amplifier model includes effects of the transverse and longitudinal variation of the pump beam, transverse and longitudinal variation of the probe beam, and multiple passes of the probe beam. Experimental results obtained with a quasi four-level Nd:YAG amplifier operating at 0.946 {mu}m are used to validate the model. The amplifier was evaluated as a function of the pump energy, the probe energy, the probe beam radius, the pulse repetition frequency and the temperature. For all of the experimental conditions, the experimental results and the model agree.
High efficiency class-I audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshand; Feng Yong; Hong Zhiliang; Liu Yang
2012-01-01
A high efficiency class-I linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented. Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop. A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply. Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply. A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity. A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power. The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively. The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load. Unlike switching amplifiers, the class-I amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI. The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-I amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barth, Andrea; Lang, Annika
2012-01-01
In this paper, the strong approximation of a stochastic partial differential equation, whose differential operator is of advection-diffusion type and which is driven by a multiplicative, infinite dimensional, càdlàg, square integrable martingale, is presented. A finite dimensional projection of the infinite dimensional equation, for example a Galerkin projection, with nonequidistant time stepping is used. Error estimates for the discretized equation are derived in L 2 and almost sure senses. Besides space and time discretizations, noise approximations are also provided, where the Milstein double stochastic integral is approximated in such a way that the overall complexity is not increased compared to an Euler–Maruyama approximation. Finally, simulations complete the paper.
van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Rhebergen, Sander
2011-01-01
The hp-Multigrid as Smoother algorithm (hp-MGS) for the solution of higher order accurate space-(time) discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of advection dominated flows is presented. This algorithm combines p-multigrid with h-multigrid at all p-levels, where the h-multigrid acts as smoother in the
Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael
2012-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....
KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.
Gower, M C
1982-09-01
We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.
... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...
Prototype disc amplifier for Iskra-6 facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigorovich, S.V.; Eroshenko, V.F.; Krotov, V.A.; Demidov, V.L.; Kalinin, N.V.; Kurunov, R.F.; Smirnov, V.G.; Fomin, V.M.
2006-01-01
Eight-channel disk amplifiers of the ISKRA-6 facility are made up of sections. An amplifier section consists of eight active elements (2*4) made of KGSS-0180/35-grade neodymium phosphate glass 400*690*40 mm in size located in frames at the Brewster angle. Twenty flash-lamps are arranged in one amplifier module. The flash-lamps have an inter electrode distance of 1600 mm, the tube is 40 mm in inner diameter. The results of numerical investigations into the dynamics of high-current pulse radiation discharge are presented. The investigations were carried out by the 1-dimensional RMHD-model. This model takes into account the transient processes in the electric circuit and the physical processes in the discharge plasma: ionization, Joule heating, thermal conductivity, radiation transfer and plasma motion caused by the non-uniformity of energy introduction into the discharge in case of a non-uniform initial ionization of gas in the pumping lamp. The experimental results of spectral measurements and light efficiency of the flash-lamps depending on specific power and value of energy contribution are presented
Mehdinejadiani, Behrouz
2017-08-01
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox. The results indicated that, in general, the Bees Algorithm much more accurately appraised the sFADE parameters in comparison with Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN, especially in the heterogeneous soil and for α values near to 1 in the numerical study. Also, the results obtained from Bees Algorithm were more reliable than those from Genetic Algorithm. The Bees Algorithm showed the relative similar performances for all cases, while the Genetic Algorithm and the LSQNONLIN yielded different performances for various cases. The performance of LSQNONLIN strongly depends on the initial guess values so that, compared to the Genetic Algorithm, it can more accurately estimate the sFADE parameters by taking into consideration the suitable initial guess values. To sum up, the Bees Algorithm was found to be very simple, robust and accurate approach to estimate the transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehdinejadiani, Behrouz
2017-08-01
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox. The results indicated that, in general, the Bees Algorithm much more accurately appraised the sFADE parameters in comparison with Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN, especially in the heterogeneous soil and for α values near to 1 in the numerical study. Also, the results obtained from Bees Algorithm were more reliable than those from Genetic Algorithm. The Bees Algorithm showed the relative similar performances for all cases, while the Genetic Algorithm and the LSQNONLIN yielded different performances for various cases. The performance of LSQNONLIN strongly depends on the initial guess values so that, compared to the Genetic Algorithm, it can more accurately estimate the sFADE parameters by taking into consideration the suitable initial guess values. To sum up, the Bees Algorithm was found to be very simple, robust and accurate approach to estimate the transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation.
Influence of mode competition on beam quality of fiber amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Qi-Rong; Yan Ping; Sun Jun-Yi; Chen Xiao; Ren Hai-Cui; Gong Ma-Li
2014-01-01
Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the mode competition on the output beam quality of fiber amplifiers are presented. Rate equations and modal decomposition method are used in the theoretical model. In the experiment, the output beam-quality factor of a fiber amplifier, which is based on a Yb-doped double-clad large mode area fiber as a function of the seed beam quality and the pump power of the amplifier, is measured. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard
2012-01-01
a method to minimize this phenomenon by improving the integrity of the various power distribution systems of the amplifier. The method is then applied to an amplifier built for this investigation. The results show that the crosstalk is suppressed with 30 dB, but is not entirely eliminated......The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...
Research on disk amplifiers as polarizer of electro-optical switch
Zheng Kui Xing; Feng Bin; Zheng Jian; Dong Yun; Peng Zhi Tao; Lu Jing Ping; Jing Feng; Wei Xiao Feng
2002-01-01
It benefits to decrease the engineering cost and to debase the technical crisis by the polarizer composed of amplifier Nd sup 3 sup + : glass slabs located with the Brewster angle in large scale multi-passes laser facility. The relationships of the isolation efficiency with the numbers of slab, the growth of the amplifier and the switch efficiency of Pockels cell are calculated theoretically. The experimental results indicated that the output energy ratio of this Pockels cell-amplifier isolation system is 1 : 8 while Pockels cell is on and off
Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.
2017-12-01
The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.
Bachand, P.A.M.; S. Bachand,; Fleck, Jacob A.; Anderson, Frank E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie
2014-01-01
The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flowrates and tracer concentrations atwetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactormodel solutions, a continuous flowstirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these nonideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a fluxmodel, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemicalmechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition,our understanding of internal
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.
A Review of High Voltage Drive Amplifiers for Capacitive Actuators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2012-01-01
This paper gives an overview of the high voltage amplifiers, which are used to drive capacitive actuators. The amplifiers for both piezoelectric and DEAP (dielectric electroactive polymer) actuator are discussed. The suitable topologies for driving capacitive actuators are illustrated in detail...
Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.
1985-01-01
KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences
A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunholt, Hans
2007-01-01
filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in the circuit. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding...
A Transimpedance Amplifier for Remotely Located Quartz Tuning Forks
Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csathy, Gabor
2012-01-01
The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinrichsen, K
1982-01-01
A very simple Lagrangian finite difference scheme has been developed to calculate the time dependent advection of air pollutants. It is mass conserving and avoids numerical pseudo-diffusion. No condition of numerical stability is required. The Eulerian grid used for the diffusion part of the pollutant transport equation remains unchanged. There are no restrictions on temporally and spatially variable emission rates, production and destruction processes, wind velocity, diffusion coefficients, roughness parameters or inversion heights. The only exception is that the wind field should not be too far from being homogeneous in the horizontal direction (test of D. W. Pepper and P. E. Long, 1978, J. appl. Met. 17, 228-233). Steady state solutions are nearly identical with corresponding analytical solutions. The propagation of a pollutant cloud is simulated more realistically as compared with the advection treatment of E. Runca and F. Sardei (1975, Atmospheric Environment 9, 69-80) and M. Dunst (1980, Z. Met. 30, 47-59). The course of a diffusion experiment is modelled to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Because of its simplicity, the method is especially suited for use in license processes, for control, and for calculating health risks in relation to industrial and power plant accidents with the goal of organizing efficient protection or evacuation.
Liao, C M; Liang, H M
2000-05-01
Two models for evaluating the contents and advection of manure moisture on odor causing volatile organic compounds (VOC-odor) volatilization from stored swine manure were studied for their ability to predict the volatilization rate (indoor air concentration) and cumulative exposure dose: a MJ-I model and a MJ-II model. Both models simulating depletion of source contaminant via volatilization and degradation based on an analytical model adapted from the behavior assessment model of Jury et al. In the MJ-I model, manure moisture movement was negligible, whereas in the MJ-II model, time-dependent indoor air concentrations was a function of constant manure moisture contents and steady-state moisture advection. Predicted indoor air concentrations and inhaled doses for the study VOC-odors of p-cresol, toluene, and p-xylene varied by up to two to three orders of magnitude depending on the manure moisture conditions. The sensitivity analysis of both models suggests that when manure moisture movement exists, simply MJ-I model is inherently not sufficient to represent a more generally volatilization process, which can even become stringent as moisture content increases. The conclusion illustrates how one needs to include a wide variety of manure moisture values in order to fully assess the complex volatilization mechanisms that are present in a real situation.
High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M
2010-01-01
We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit
Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold
2014-01-01
Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....
Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.
2014-10-01
The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.
Tapered amplifier laser with frequency-shifted feedback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bayerle, S. Tzanova, P. Vlaar, B. Pasquiou, F. Schreck
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We present a frequency-shifted feedback (FSF laser based on a tapered amplifier. The laser operates as a coherent broadband source with up to 370GHz spectral width and 2.3us coherence time. If the FSF laser is seeded by a continuous-wave laser a frequency comb spanning the output spectrum appears in addition to the broadband emission. The laser has an output power of 280mW and a center wavelength of 780nm. The ease and flexibility of use of tapered amplifiers makes our FSF laser attractive for a wide range of applications, especially in metrology.
A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu Zhangming; Liu Lianxi; Yang Yintang [Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Lei Han, E-mail: zmyh@263.ne [Xi' an Power-Rail Micro Co., Ltd, Xi' an 710075 (China)
2009-02-15
Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 mum CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 muA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 x 1.52 mm{sup 2}. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.
A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhangming; Liu Lianxi; Yang Yintang; Lei Han
2009-01-01
Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 x 1.52 mm 2 . With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.
A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier
Zhangming, Zhu; Lianxi, Liu; Yintang, Yang; Han, Lei
2009-02-01
Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 × 1.52 mm2. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.
W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank
2006-01-01
Meadow and forest CO2 amounts sampled beneath an approximately meter deep (steady state) snowpack at a subalpine site in southern Rocky Mountains of Wyoming are observed to vary by nearly 200 ppm over periods ranging from 4 to 15 days. This work employs the model of periodic, pressure-induced, advective transport in permeable media developed in...
Development of 650 MHz solid state RF amplifier for proton accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Alok; Tiwari, Ashish; Rao, Nageswar; Sekar, Vasanthi; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Gupta, P.D.
2011-01-01
Design and development of 30 kW high powers RF source at 650 MHz, using solid RF state technology, has been initiated at RRCAT. The indigenous technology development efforts will be useful for the proposed high power proton accelerators for SNS/ADS applications. In this 650 MHz amplifier scheme, 30 kW CW RF power will be generated using modular combination of 8 kW amplifier units. Necessary studies were carried out for device selection, choice of amplifier architecture and design of high power combiners and dividers. Presently RF amplifier delivering 250 W at 650 MHz has been fabricated and tested. Towards development of high power RF components, design and engineering prototyping of 16-port power combiner, directional coupler and RF dummy loads has been completed. The basic 8 kW amplifier unit is designed to provide power gain of 50 dB, bandwidth of 20 MHz and spurious response below 30 dB from fundamental signal. Based on the results of circuit simulation studies and engineering prototyping of amplifier module, two RF transistor viz. MRF3450 and MRF 61K were selected as solid state active devices. Impedance matching network in amplifier module is designed using balanced push pull configuration with transmission line BALUN. Due to high circulating current near drain side, metal clad RF capacitors were selected which helps in avoiding hot spot from output transmission path, ensuring continuous operation at rated RF power without damage to RF board. 350 W circulator is used to protect the RF devices from reflected power. Based on the prototype design and measured performance, one of these RF transistors will be selected to be used as workhorse for all amplifier modules. Two amplifier modules are mounted on water cooled copper heat-sink ensuring proper operating temperature for reliable and safe operation of amplifier. Also real time control system and data logger has been developed to provide DAQ and controls in each rack. For power combining and power measurement
A low noise charge sensitive amplifier for use in vacuum photo diode readout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephenson, R.
1982-08-01
The amplifier described consists of a charge sensitive pre-amplifier optimised for low noise with low values of input shunt capacitance, and a shaping amplifier providing both differentiation and integration. Amplifier gain is adjustable up to a maximum of approximately 100 μV/electron with a rise time of 2 μS to the peak of the output voltage, and with an open circuit input noise level of 150 electrons RMS. (author)
A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5
Gaunholt, Hans
2007-01-01
A design method is presented for the design of all pole lowpass active-RC filters applying operational amplifiers. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: omegat/s where omegat is the unity gain frequency. The design method is used for the design of a fifth order Butterworth filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in th...
Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2005-01-01
Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating...
A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques
van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria
1998-01-01
Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in
Low-power, enhanced-gain adaptive-biasing-based Operational Transconductance Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moradi, Farshad
A symmetrical PMOS OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) is used to build an advanced rail-to-rail amplifier with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption. By using the adaptive biasing circuit for two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be achieved, reducing power...
A real-time control system architecture for industrial power amplifiers
Qureshi, F.; Spinu, V.; Wijnands, C.G.E.; Lazar, M.
2013-01-01
Power amplifiers are a highly important component in a range of industrial applications, such as, servo-drives, magnetic resonance imaging, energy systems, and audio. The control system for power amplifiers should satisfy a range of requirements, e.g., offset free tracking, stability margins, and
Combined Yb/Nd driver for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.
Michailovas, Kirilas; Baltuska, Andrius; Pugzlys, Audrius; Smilgevicius, Valerijus; Michailovas, Andrejus; Zaukevicius, Audrius; Danilevicius, Rokas; Frankinas, Saulius; Rusteika, Nerijus
2016-09-19
We report on the developed front-end/pump system for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. The system is based on a dual output fiber oscillator/power amplifier which seeds and assures all-optical synchronization of femtosecond Yb and picosecond Nd laser amplifiers operating at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. At the central wavelength of 1030 nm, the fiber oscillator generates partially stretched 4 ps pulses with the spectrum supporting a scaling currently is prevented by limited dimensions of the diffraction gratings, which, because of the fast progress in MLD grating manufacturing technologies is only a temporary obstacle.
Design and Fabrication of a 1 THz Backward Wave Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brunetti, Francesca
2011-01-01
, to get a level of output power to enable applications at these frequencies. The OPTHER (Optically driven THz amplifier) project, funded by the European Community, is on the road to realize the first 1 THz vacuum tube amplifier. Technology at the state of the art has been used for the realization...... of the parts with dimensions supporting THz frequencies. A backward wave amplifier configuration is chosen to make the parts realizable. A carbon nanotube cold cathode has been considered for electron generation. A thermionic micro electron gun is designed to test the tube. A novel slow-wave structure (SWS...
Crozier, J. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Yang, K.
2017-12-01
Ice sheet surface topography reflects a complicated combination of processes that act directly upon the surface and that are products of ice advection. Using recently-available high resolution ice velocity, imagery, ice surface elevation, and bedrock elevation data sets, we seek to determine the domain of significance of two important processes - thermal fluvial incision and transfer of bedrock topography through the ice sheet - on controlling surface topography in the ablation zone. Evaluating such controls is important for understanding how melting of the GIS surface during the melt season may be directly imprinted in topography through supraglacial drainage networks, and indirectly imprinted through its contribution to basal sliding that affects bedrock transfer. We use methods developed by (Karlstrom and Yang, 2016) to identify supraglacial stream networks on the GIS, and use high resolution surface digital elevation models as well as gridded ice velocity and melt rate models to quantify surface processes. We implement a numerically efficient Fourier domain bedrock transfer function (Gudmundsson, 2003) to predict surface topography due to ice advection over bedrock topography obtained from radar. Despite a number of simplifying assumptions, the bedrock transfer function predicts the observed ice sheet surface in most regions of the GIS with ˜90% accuracy, regardless of the presence or absence of supraglacial drainage networks. This supports the hypothesis that bedrock is the most significant driver of ice surface topography on wavelengths similar to ice thickness. Ice surface topographic asymmetry on the GIS is common, with slopes in the direction of ice flow steeper than those faced opposite to ice flow, consistent with bedrock transfer theory. At smaller wavelengths, topography consistent with fluvial erosion by surface hydrologic features is evident. We quantify the effect of ice advection versus fluvial thermal erosion on supraglacial longitudinal stream
1-MHz high power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier
Hu, Zhong-Qi; Yang, Pei-Long; Teng, Hao; Zhu, Jiang-Feng; Wei, Zhi-Yi
2018-01-01
A practical femtosecond polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber amplifier enabling 153 fs transform-limited pulse duration with 32 μJ pulse energy at 1 MHz repetition rate corresponding to a peak power of 0.21 GW is demonstrated. The laser system based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique is seeded by a dispersion managed, nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) mode-locked oscillator with spectrum bandwidth of 31 nm at 1040 nm and amplified by three fiber pre-amplifying stages and a rod type fiber main amplifying stage. The laser works with beam quality of M2 of 1.3 and power stability of 0.63% (root mean square, RMS) over 24 hours will be stable sources for industrial micromachining, medical therapy and scientific research.